Analysis on Orwell’s “Animal Farm”


Analysis on Orwell’s Animal Farm

All group articles on Orwell’s Animal Farm should be posted on the comment section below this post. Make sure you include the list of your group members and student register number on the bottom of your article.

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To those interested in Animal Farm analysis, please visit There’s no equality without educational equity: A lesson from “Animal Farm”. You can also read some other interesting fiction analyses: (1) In the time of oppression, nobody can keep uninvolved: The Theme of “The Quiet American”; (2) A Close Friend or Humanity? In “The Third Man”, Greene Chooses the Latter’ (3)  I hunt men, therefore I am: An Invitation to Explore Humans’ Tendency to Kill Humans for Sport in “The Most Dangerous Game”

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  1. GROUP :
    1. Jessica Talentia (11 121 500 39)
    2. Yulia Lestari Tarihoran (11 121 500 41)
    3. Belinda Silvia Montoya (11 121 500 48)
    4. Hardianti Aprilianing Tias (11 121 500 49)

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF
    GEORGE ORWELL’S “ANIMAL FARM”

    Introduction
    As we know that fiction is the form of any work that deals with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary and theoritical, invented by the author. Although the fiction describes a major branch of literary work, it may also refer to thearitrical, cinematic, or musical work. Fiction contrast with non fiction, which deals exclusively with factual events, descriptions, observations, etc. Because of that, many fictions is the events that imagery and hard to understand. Fiction is the implicit desire that is written by the author. There are 7 kinds of fiction, first until seventh namely, mystery, science fiction, fantasy, romance, general/realistic fiction, historical fiction, adventure, and fairy tales.
    Novel is the one of fiction production that using the imagination of author. Further, Novel is a fictitious prose naraative of book length, typically representing character and action with some degree of realism. One of the novel title with “Animal Farm” that is included to science fiction. This paper has goal to analyze the charactheristics of the charatcther in George Orwell’s novel, so that the reader more understand the plot, theme, and setting of this novel. The second goal is to asses our group work’s final test assignment from Literature II by Mr. Parlindungan Pardede.
    This paper is concluded in the academic writing as the Literature in general. We discuss about the main character. Hopefully, this paper of an analysis of characterization of George Orwell’s Animal Farm will be useful for the readers.

    ANALYSIS
    A. Synopsis of Animal Farm
    The story takes place on a farm somewhere in England. The name of this farm was Manor Farm. Mr. Jones is the owner of the ‘Manor Farm’, he is often drunk and treats his animals badly. One night Major, a wise old boar, calls out for all animals to come to the big barn. He tells the others animal a vision of freedom and Animalism, and how their live would be improved, and a hope for a better life by making a revolution. Three days later Major dies, but the animals keep his vision in mind. One day Mr. Jones comes home late and drunk and forgets to feed the animals. At this time the rebelion occured, the animals brake down the doors and feed themeselves. Jones control them slowly but the animals are stronger and chase him off the farm. Finally, Mr. Jones has to leave his house and farm. “Manor Farm” was changed to “Animal Farm”. Now the farm belong to the animals. There are seven commandments of Animalism were painted on the barn wall. Here they are :

    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.

    The pigs are the most clever than the others animals. Therefore, they do the thinking part, the organization, on the farm. Snowball and Napoleon were the leaders of rebelion. All the animals together go to the fields to do the harvest. Each Sunday there is a meeting in the barn and the solutions for the problems are decided by voting. Everytimes Snowball makes a suggestion for anything at the Sundays meeting, Napoleon is against it. Snowball has the idea to build a windmill to produce electricity for the other animals for a better live. Napoleon disagrees and commands his dogs to attack Snowball. Since Snowball’s going, Napoleon forbidds the Sunday meeting and decides all problems by himself. Napoleon even decides to let the windmill built, and says that it was his idea although he had stolen it from Snowball. By the helping of Squealer, a pig has propanganda expert and his nine vicious dogs that has been trained by Napoleon to be his personal bodyguards, Napoleon become a single authoritarian leader in this farm. The dogs are like a security guard and every time any animal doesn’t agree with the pigs, it is warned by the dogs.
    Any one againts Napoleon’s decisions bravely such as : the deletion of Sundays meeting, the changes of seven commandments that have been agreed together, the privileges of group of the pigs, although trading with human will be punished and executed. His infinite power is making him selected as a president after he changes Animal Farm into a republic. A week later some humans come to the farm to celebrate a feast with the pigs of the celebration the change of name Animal Farm back into Manor Farm.

    B. The characters analysis:

    1. Snowball
    Snowball is a pig, he is one of the leaders of the rebellion. he is the animal most clearly attuned to old Major’s thinking, and he devotes himself to bettering the animals in intellectual, moral, and physical ways. He is also a Napoleon’s rival and original head of the farm after Jones’ overthrow. He brings literacy to the farm so that the animals can better grasp the principles of Animalism by reading the Seven Commandments he paints on the barn wall. He also reduces the Commandments to a single precept (“Four legs good, two legs bad”) so that even the least intelligent animals can understand the farm’s new philosophy. The “thinker” of the rebellion, Snowball shows a great understanding of strategy during the Battle of the Cowshed, and while his various committees may fail, the fact that he attempts to form them reveals the degree to which he wants to better the animals’ lives. After drawing complicated plans for the construction of a windmill, he is chased off of the farm forever by Napoleon’s dogs and thereafter used as a scapegoat for the animals’ troubles. Snowball is highly intelligent and persuasive, a brilliant orator, and is always dreaming ways and means of improving life on the farm.

    2. Boxer
    He is the type of guy who is not really intelligent. His two mottos are ‘I will work harder’ and ‘Napoleon is always right’. For him that seems to be enough to solve all the problems.
    Boxer worries about the farm, but he’s not smart enough to figure things out on his own. Instead of thinking for himself, he decides to be loyal no matter what—to follow the Party (as in, Communist Party) line. Like, after Snowball is sent into exile, Boxer tries to think things over for himself, but all he can come up with is, “If Comrade Napoleon says it, it must be right,” and he takes up a new personal motto: “Napoleon is always right” (5.22).
    Because the other animals admire Boxer’s work ethic, follow his lead. When Napoleon begins executing other animals, Boxer can only say, “I would not have believed that such things could happen on our farm. It must be due to some fault in ourselves. The solution, as I see it, is to work harder” (7.28). When the going gets tough, Boxer… falls back on simple mottos. He has no other option.
    By the end of the novel, Boxer has worked so hard for the Rebellion that he’s worked himself to death. He’s so weak from starvation and trying to rebuild the windmill that he’s useless. The pigs send him off to be slaughter, and he’s too weak to fight back.

    3. Napoleon

    Napoleon is the main antagonist in George Orwell’s fictional story Animal Farm. In this story, Napoleon was a pig burly, not much to say, fierce and try all means to get what he wants: “Napoleon was a large, rather fierce –looking Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on the farm, not much of a talker, but with a reputation for getting his own way.” (Orwell, 1995, p. 12)Napoleon emerged from the animal in the early meetings of the new state. Although initially not affect the appearance of the struggle for revolution, but it turns out he was planning and preparing the force to become an authoritarian ruler and self-centered. Napoleon is cowardly, shrewd, calculating, and selfish.
    While he fully supports the revolution against Mr. Jones, he cares more about his own power than he does about the ideals of the revolution. His selfishness leads him to build a totalitarian government based on terror and lies that gives him more power over the other animals than Mr. Jones ever had. The many crimes he commits against his own comrades range from seizing nine puppies to “educate” them as his band of killer guard dogs to forcing confessions from innocent animals and then having them killed before all the animals’ eyes. By saying education at an early age is more important than anything, Napoleon trick them and Napoleon was prepared to achieve its goal of becoming the leader of the ruling. “He said that education of the young was more important than anything …. (Orwell, 1995, p. 30). After having sufficient strength and her confrontation with Snowball mounting, Napoleon expel Snowball out of Animal Farm (Orwell, 1995, pp. 45-46).
    Napoleon’s greatest crime is his complete transformation into Jones — although Napoleon is a much harsher and stern master than the reader is led to believe Jones ever was. By the end of the novel, Napoleon is sleeping in Jones’ bed, eating from Jones’ plate, drinking alcohol, wearing a derby hat, walking on two legs, trading with humans, and sharing a toast with Mr. Pilkington. This is contrary to “THE SEVEN COMMANDMENTS (Orwell, 1995, pp. 20-21).
    His final act of propaganda — changing the Seventh Commandment to “ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL / BUT SOME ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS” — reflects his unchallenged belief that he belongs in complete control of the farm. His restoration of the name Manor Farm shows just how much Napoleon has wholly disregarded the words of old Major.

    4. Squaler:

    Squaler is a pig who is called “a brilliant talker”. when he was arguing some difficult point he had a way of skipping from side to side and whisking his tail which was somehow very persuasive. He’s the one-pig PR outfit of Napoleon’s regime, with a quick mind, nimble tongue, and absolutely no morals whatsoever. Squealer makes his debut appearance when he justifies the fact that the pigs have hoarded milk and apples for themselves. He claims that these foods “contain substances absolutely necessary to the well-being of the pig. We pigs are brainworkers”.
    Under Napoleon’s rule, Squealer acts as the liaison to the other animals. He lies to them, rewriting history and reading them encouraging, but false, statistics. Squealer is especially good at playing on the animals’ ignorance and gullibility. He represents the propaganda machine of a totalitarian government.

    5. Old Major

    Old Major is the first major character described by George Orwell in Animal Farm. This “purebred” of pigs is a kind, grandfatherly philosopher of change. According to Christopher Hitchens: “the persons of Lenin and Marx are combined into one, or, it might even be truer to say, there is no Lenin-pig at all”. Old mayor appears only at the beginning of the story. Major dies while provoking the animals into rebelling. Though his portrayal of Old Major is largely positive, Orwell does include a few small ironies that allow the reader to question the venerable pig’s motives. For instance, in the midst of his long litany of complaints about how the animals have been treated by human beings, Old Major is forced to concede that his own life has been long, full, and free from the terrors he has vividly sketched for his rapt audience. He seems to have claimed a false brotherhood with the other animals in order to garner their support for his vision.

    Conclusion

    The novel Animal Farm by George Orwell is the one of the georgeus novel that giving the moral lesson in political at that time. Orwell shows it through the characters of this novel as clear as the moral lesson. There are Napoleon, Snowball, Old Major, Squaler, Boxer, Mr. Jones and the solders, Mr. Pilkington, and Mr. Fredrick. In the other hand, Orwell have his own way to tell the moral value, humor, that acceptable to the reader who read this. And through these characters, Orwell gives the diction that describes the situation at that time with the meaningful moral value. Through “comrades’, “voted on both sides”, etc, Orwell tells to the reader with the right diction. As the author in this paper, I think this novel have many allusion which is looked from the moral value to political in Rusian.

  2. “animal farm is not simply a story of animal uprising ;rather it is a criticism of how greed for power and material comfort can lead to the corruption of ideals.”

    discuss the above statement critically
    you may use some of the follwing points:
    rebellion of animals
    establishment of new order
    etc
    in an essay about 400 words

  3. Morning Sir,
    Introduction
    Orwell came up with the setting for his novel after seeing a young boy whipping a carthorse. As he writes in his Preface, “It struck me that if only such animals became aware of their strength we should have no power over them, and that men exploit animals in much the same way as the rich exploit the proletariat “What Orwell did was to take his understanding of the Russian Revolution and the rise of Stalinism and to condense it onto a rural farm in England.

    Yet the image that initially captured Orwell’s imagination – the boy whipping the carthorse – shows that it was something about the cruelty of man to beast that drew him to the farm. Animal Farm (which is initially called Manor Farm) is not a calm, pastoral place; it is a place of brutality and injustice.

    In general, the farm allows Orwell’s allegory to work out pretty smoothly. The different animals come to represent different members of the proletariat (working class) or the Russian communist regime, and Mr. Jones represents the old Russian Tsar Nicholas II. The Windmill project stands in for Stalin’s Five-Year-Plans, and his goals to jump-start Russian technology and industry. the point is that Orwell picked the setting of the farm because it would work well as an allegory.
    That said, the farm is not just a veil behind which lies communist Russia. Though the story is allegorical, one can’t simply pull back the images of Animal Farm and find the Stalinist state to which it alludes. Orwell gives the novel its own coherence, and the setting, like the book itself, can stand on its own. Details like “the birds jumped on to their perches, the animals settled down in the straw, and the whole farm was asleep in a moment” serve little allegorical purpose. Their goal is to make sure that the setting itself has a sense of completeness, if not of realism.

    One last question: why is Animal Farm an English farm? We’ve noted in other sections that Orwell was not just criticizing Stalinism. He was criticizing the myth of Stalinism that had spread to the West, a myth believed by intelligent people even though it was paper-thin. The “myth” that Orwell attacks in Animal Farm didn’t just exist in Russia. It was believed by many Englishman, and it was a myth, as Orwell saw it, which needed correcting.

    Napoleon
    From the very beginning of the novella, Napoleon emerges as an utterly corrupt opportunist. Though always present at the early meetings of the new state, Napoleon never makes a single contribution to the revolution—not to the formulation of its ideology, not to the bloody struggle that it necessitates, not to the new society’s initial attempts to establish itself. He never shows interest in the strength of Animal Farm itself, only in the strength of his power over it. Thus, the only project he undertakes with enthusiasm is the training of a litter of puppies. He doesn’t educate them for their own good or for the good of all, however, but rather for his own good: they become his own private army or secret police, a violent means by which he imposes his will on others.
    Although he is most directly modeled on the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, Napoleon represents, in a more general sense, the political tyrants that have emerged throughout human history and with particular frequency during the twentieth century. His namesake is not any communist leader but the early-eighteenth-century French general Napoleon, who betrayed the democratic principles on which he rode to power, arguably becoming as great a despot as the aristocrats whom he supplanted. It is a testament to Orwell’s acute political intelligence and to the universality of his fable that Napoleon can easily stand for any of the great dictators and political schemers in world history, even those who arose after Animal Farm was written. In the behavior of Napoleon and his henchmen, one can detect the lying and bullying tactics of totalitarian leaders such as Josip Tito, Mao Tse-tung, Pol Pot, Augusto Pinochet, and Slobodan Milosevic treated in sharply critical terms.
    Snowball
    Orwell’s stint in a Trotskyist battalion in the Spanish Civil War—during which he first began plans for a critique of totalitarian communism—influenced his relatively positive portrayal of Snowball. As a parallel for Leon Trotsky, Snowball emerges as a fervent ideologue who throws himself heart and soul into the attempt to spread Animalism worldwide and to improve Animal Farm’s infrastructure. His idealism, however, leads to his downfall. Relying only on the force of his own logic and rhetorical skill to gain his influence, he proves no match for Napoleon’s show of brute force.
    Although Orwell depicts Snowball in a relatively appealing light, he refrains from idealizing his character, making sure to endow him with certain moral flaws. For example, Snowball basically accepts the superiority of the pigs over the rest of the animals. Moreover, his fervent, single-minded enthusiasm for grand projects such as the windmill might have erupted into full-blown megalomaniac despotism had he not been chased from Animal Farm. Indeed, Orwell suggests that we cannot eliminate government corruption by electing principled individuals to roles of power; he reminds us throughout the novella that it is power itself that corrupts.
    Boxer
    The most sympathetically drawn character in the novel, Boxer epitomizes all of the best qualities of the exploited working classes: dedication, loyalty, and a huge capacity for labor. He also, however, suffers from what Orwell saw as the working class’s major weaknesses: a naïve trust in the good intentions of the intelligentsia and an inability to recognize even the most blatant forms of political corruption. Exploited by the pigs as much or more than he had been by Mr. Jones, Boxer represents all of the invisible labor that undergirds the political drama being carried out by the elites. Boxer’s pitiful death at a glue factory dramatically illustrates the extent of the pigs’ betrayal. It may also, however, speak to the specific significance of Boxer himself: before being carted off, he serves as the force that holds Animal Farm together.
    Squealer
    Throughout his career, Orwell explored how politicians manipulate language in an age of mass media. In Animal Farm, the silver-tongued pig Squealer abuses language to justify Napoleon’s actions and policies to the proletariat by whatever means seem necessary. By radically simplifying language—as when he teaches the sheep to bleat “Four legs good, two legs better!”—he limits the terms of debate. By complicating language unnecessarily, he confuses and intimidates the uneducated, as when he explains that pigs, who are the “brainworkers” of the farm, consume milk and apples not for pleasure, but for the good of their comrades. In this latter strategy, he also employs jargon (“tactics, tactics”) as well as a baffling vocabulary of false and impenetrable statistics, engendering in the other animals both self-doubt and a sense of hopelessness about ever accessing the truth without the pigs’ mediation. Squealer’s lack of conscience and unwavering loyalty to his leader, alongside his rhetorical skills, make him the perfect propagandist for any tyranny. Squealer’s name also fits him well: squealing, of course, refers to a pig’s typical form of vocalization, and Squealer’s speech defines him. At the same time, to squeal also means to betray, aptly evoking Squealer’s behavior with regard to his fellow animals.
    Old Major
    As a democratic socialist, Orwell had a great deal of respect for Karl Marx, the German political economist, and even for Vladimir Ilych Lenin, the Russian revolutionary leader. His critique of Animal Farm has little to do with the Marxist ideology underlying the Rebellion but rather with the perversion of that ideology by later leaders. Major, who represents both Marx and Lenin, serves as the source of the ideals that the animals continue to uphold even after their pig leaders have betrayed them.
    Though his portrayal of Old Major is largely positive, Orwell does include a few small ironies that allow the reader to question the venerable pig’s motives. For instance, in the midst of his long litany of complaints about how the animals have been treated by human beings, Old Major is forced to concede that his own life has been long, full, and free from the terrors he has vividly sketched for his rapt audience. He seems to have claimed a false brotherhood with the other animals in order to garner their support for his vision.

    Conclusion
    The conclusion of animal farm was a rather depressing one. I knew at the beginning of the book that it was suppose to draw a parallel to the corruption of Russia’s socialist society, but I still wanted a happy ending. In the end the pigs transformed their attitudes and mannerisms into human behavior, exactly the opposite of the original revolution ideal. The idea of an equal and utopian society seemed so promising and right, yet it seemed impossible for the pigs not to fall into the habits of man by being greedy, controlling, and deceitful. I wish that the ending had another revolution but this time the rebellion would be against the pigs’ rule. Maybe Boxer has a son and he becomes the new leader or something like that. In reality I know that Orwell ended the book that way for a reason, but it’s still a discouraging ending at best.

    Messages
    The book talks about corrupt leadership as the flaw in revolution (and not the act of revolution itself), it also shows how potential ignorance and indifference to problems within a revolution could allow horrors to happen if smooth transition to a people’s government isn’t satisfied.

  4. A PLOT ANALYSIS OF GEORGE ORWELL’S “ANIMAL FARM”

    Introduction
    This analysis will review the plot of George Orwell’s “Animal Farm” novel which is published on the heels of World War II, in England in 1945 and in the United States in 1946. George Orwell wrote the book during the war as a cautionary fable in order to expose the seriousness of the dangers posed by Stalinism and totalitarian government. Orwell faced several obstacles in getting the novel published. First, he was putting forward an anti-Stalin book during a time when Western support for the Soviet Union was still high due to its support in Allied victories against Germany. Second, Orwell was not yet the literary star he would quickly become. For those reasons, Animal Farm appeared only at the war’s end, during the same month that the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The tragically violent events of the war set the stage well for Orwell’s fictional manifesto against totalitarianism.
    Animal Farm was Orwell’s first highly successful novel (the second being 1984), and it helped launch him out of the minor fame of an essayist into the stratosphere of acclaimed fiction. Despite publishers’ initial hesitance toward the book, the public in both Britain and the United States met it with enthusiasm. In the United States alone, it sold 600,000 copies in four years. Animal Farm was translated into many languages, proving its universal reach.
    George Orwell (1903-1950) was the pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair. Orwell, a British citizen, was born in Motihari, India, in 1903, and attended school in England. Between 1922 and 1927, he served the British government in Burma as an officer of the Indian Imperial Police. After becoming disenchanted with British treatment of the native Burmese, he left the police service, traveled in Europe, and in 1934 published his first novel, Burmese Days, which impugned British imperialism. He also wrote several fine short stories, including “Shooting an Elephant,” which are based on his experiences in Burma. His most famous works, both of which warn of the dangers of totalitarianism, are his novels Animal Farm and 1984.

    Discussion
    1. Synopsis of Animal Farm
    The farm animals that inhabit the Manor Farm are mistreated and abused by Farmer Jones. The animals rebel, expel Jones, and take over the farm, which they rename Animal Farm. Soon, however, the pigs (who represent the party bosses) begin to take special privileges for themselves, e.g. extra food. They enlist the farm’s dogs as enforcers to put down any dissent, and they teach the sheep (rank and file) to speak the party line on demand. At first, this is, “Four legs good, two legs bad”- animals (four legs) are good, humans (exploiters) are bad.
    As time passes, the Seven Commandments (Animal Farm’s Constitution) undergoes subtle changes as the pigs rewrite it to suit their own agenda. When Boxer the horse (symbolizing blue-collar labor, the “workers,”) becomes too old to work, the pigs sell him to the horse butcher, whom they tell the other animals are really the veterinarian. The pigs eventually learn to walk on two legs, thus imitating the animals’ original exploiters, and they teach the sheep to bleat, “Four legs good, two legs better!” The Seven Commandments become one: “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.” The pigs rename Animal Farm the Manor Farm- its original name- and invite the neighboring human farmers, who symbolize the elite class against whom the animals revolted, to admire the results: “…the lower animals on Animal Farm did more work and received less food than any animals in the county.” As the story ends, the pigs become indistinguishable from their human visitors.
    2. Plot style
    Animal Farm is a straightforward and easy-to-understand novel with an engrossing, fast-moving plot and interjections of wit. As a satire, it uses hyperbole and irony often, and as an allegory it frequently employs symbolism and allusion. For example, Napoleon the pig symbolizes the Communist dictator Joseph Stalin; his name is an allusion to the French general and emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821). Snobbish college professors sometimes criticize Orwell’s style for its simplicity, but that is the very quality that makes Animal Farm a great work.

    3. Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot of Animal Farm can be divided into six stages: initial situation, conflict, complication, climax, denouement and conclusion. The paragraphs which introduce readers to the first situation that come across, so readers will think it is the initial one. It is also fairly static, and readers can get the sense things have been this way for a long time, which is sounds like the story need something new and exciting to set the story in motion. This stage opens the story by describing the situation at beginning in the Manor Farm which seems quite boring and flat. Then the story move on to the conflict stages which is started when the Old Major begins his speech in the chapter1. Here are some lines from Old Major speech:
    “Now, comrades, what is the nature of this life of ours? Let us face it:
    our lives are miserable, laborious, and short. We are born, we are given
    just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us
    who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength;
    and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end we are
    slaughtered with hideous cruelty. No animal in England knows the meaning
    of happiness or leisure after he is a year old. No animal in England is
    free. The life of an animal is misery and slavery: that is the plain truth.
    Old Major also begins to sing a song which is called “Beast of England” and eventually throw the animals into the wildest excitement. Lyric from Beast of England:
    Beasts of England! Beasts of Ireland!
    Beasts of land and sea and skies!
    Hear the hoofbeats of tomorrow!
    See the golden future rise!
    How does the life of an animal pass?
    In endless drudgery.
    What’s the first lesson an animal learns?
    To endure its slavery.
    How does the life of an animal end?
    In cruel butchery.
    Beasts of England! Beasts of Ireland!
    Beasts of land and sea and skies!
    Hear the hoofbeats of tomorrow!
    See the golden future rise!
    Now the day of beasts is coming,
    Tyrant man shall lose his throne
    And the shining fields of England
    Shall be trod by beasts alone.
    Pull the rings from out your noses
    Tear the saddle from your back!
    Bit and spur must rust forever,
    Cruel whips no more shall crack.
    Beasts of England, seize the prizes,
    Wheat and barley, oats and hay,
    Clover, beans and mangel wurzel
    Shall be ours upon that day.
    Soon after the Old Major dies three days later. The animals set out to prepare for the rebellion (see chapter 2) even without any plan, the animal rebellion against human ends with great success; finally the farms belong to the animal. Snowball and other animal write “The Seven Commandments” an unalterable law by which all the animal farm must live forever after.
    The Seven Commandments
    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.

    Unexpected big issues arise after the rebellion, complication stages in the story arrive. There are problems with the new leaders. They had the Rebellion, so they should be all set. Right? Wrong. Like any good novel, complications soon arise. Turns out, these new leaders? Not so great. That whole equality business? Not really happening. Things are getting complicated. This stage begins when there is a quibble over the future of the farm between Snowball and Napoleon and both of them start to struggle with each other for power and influence among the other animals (chapter five until seven).
    Some differences between Snowball and Napoleon:
    a. The opposing leaders in Animal Farm Napoleon and Snowball were always contrary to each other and had nothing in common other than the fact that they were both good leaders. Snowball has some lead over Napoleon in the sense that he was a much better speaker than Napoleon was and he knew how to convince the animals. He was an altruistic leader who showed courage and gave moral support to the animals. For an example, when Boxer had injured a stable hand and everybody thought he was dead Snowball cheered them saying, “No sentimentality, comrade this is a war”(Orwell pg. 49). He really believed that all animals are equal and acted and worked for the comfort of his ‘comrades’, he was a hero.
    b. Napoleon on the other hand was a quite a contrary image, he was selfish cruel and corrupt. He would think of his and the pigs interest first and then that of the other animals and the farm. His way of ruling was inequality, completely contrary to the teachings of the Old Major and the ‘The Seven Commandments’ (Orwell pg. 33). Napoleon can be equated to Napoleon Bonaparte for his high ambition and his rule by fear and force.
    c. The most important difference between these two animal leaders is not their behavior but their beliefs, Snowball believing in what could be described as ‘Democratic Communism’ and Napoleon following Dictatorship. This major discrepancy between the ideas of these to ‘pigs’ led to the abolishment and defaming of Snowball by Napoleon and his dogs. The time when Snowball was in ‘Animal Farm’ the animals saw prosperity and peace, for ‘their leader’ wanted to give the animals a better life than in that of Jones’s time. But “Our Leader, comrade Napoleon”(pg. 69) cared for no one else but himself and power, he gave the lower rations to the animals than what they received when Jones was their master. Earlier the animals used to vote on issues but with the expulsion of Snowball their voting rights and also the meeting on Sunday’s were abolished, their inspiration “Beasts of England” was forbidden, the animals were brought under slavery again without their knowledge. Behind all this was Napoleon, the one boar who made a difference.
    d. Napoleon proved that the old way worked just as Stalin did, Napoleon was not a desirable leader but his way of ruling and stopping revolt is truly admirable. While on the other side of the coin Snowball was a leader of the people and a caring one too, though he was not as successful, he was more honest than Napoleon was. “Our Leader, comrade Napoleon” brought back slavery. Democracy fled with Snowball.
    Next is the stage when the things reach climax. In chapter 7 describes that winter in January when the animal struggle to rebuilt windmill, they fall short of food a fact that they work to conceal from the human farmers around them, lest Animal Farm be perceived to be failing. Many bad things happened afterward such as:
    a. In order to feed the animals, Napoleon contracts to sell four hundred eggs a week. This of course causes the hens rebel, and Napoleon responds by cutting their rations entirely. Nine hens die before the others give in to Napoleon’s demands.
    b. Napoleon forces certain animals to confess to their participation in a conspiracy with Snowball and then has the dogs tear out these supposed traitors’ throats. The dogs, apparently without orders, even attack Boxer, who effortlessly knocks them away with his huge hooves. But four pigs and numerous other animals meet their deaths, including the hens who rebelled at the proposal to sell their eggs. The terrible bloodshed leaves the animals deeply shaken and confused.
    Denouement stages are soon after all the tragic things happen at the farms. Time passes and the animals resign to a new and awful life. Their heart rate slows considerably after the glue factory incident, which signifies they have hit the denouement stage. There are no exclamation points here, literal or figurative. The animal just chill out and watch the situation worsen at a steady and un-alarming pace.
    Finally the conclusion stage which is about “Absolute power corrupts absolutely”. The scene with the animals inside playing poker with the humans (see chapter X) seems to be a conclusion and not just because it’s the end of the book. We can see a culmination of the theme here. This is where a nice little bow of closure gets wrapped up around the package of greed, manipulation, and corrupt power that is Animal Farm.
    4. Influential Characters and Symbolic Roles in the Plot
    a. Old Major Dying pig who inspires the animal uprising
    Old Major as a Symbol. He represents Vladimir Ilich Lenin, who founded the Russian Communist Party and led the 1917 Russian Revolution.
    b. Napoleon Ruthless, power-hungry pig who eventually seizes control of Animal Farm and abolishes the idealistic rules of government
    Napoleon as a Symbol. Napoleon represents the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, who succeeded Lenin and ruled with an iron fist. He also represents any tyrant of any age, such as Nero, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Adolf Hitler.
    c. Snowball intelligent pig who helps establish animalism. Seeing Snowball as a rival for power, Napoleon ousts him.
    Snowball as Symbol. Snowball represents Leon Trotsky, the Communist theorist who helped bring about the 1917 Russian Revolution but was later expelled by Stalin.
    d. Squealer Napoleon’s clever propagandist.
    Squealer as Symbol. Squealer represents anyone who distorts the truth or tells outright lies to promote a cause. Paul Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945), director of propaganda under Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany, was a real-life counterpart of Squealer.
    e. Mr. Jones Cruel and neglectful farmer whom the animals overthrow.
    Mr. Jones as Symbol. He represents Russia before the 1917 revolution. Individually, he represents Czar Nicholas II (1868-1918), the autocratic ruler who was overthrown in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
    f. Mr. Frederick Operator of neighboring Pinch field farm. He attacks Animal Farm but is repulsed.
    Mr. Frederick as Symbol. He appears to represent Adolf Hitler, whose forces attacked the Soviet Union in World War II but were defeated.
    g. Boxer Hard-working cart horse.
    Boxer as Symbol. He represents the common people oppressed and manipulated by Joseph Stalin and his Communist henchmen.
    h. Benjamin Old donkey on Animal Farm.
    Benjamin as Symbol. He appears to represent realists who know that the Russian Revolution will not change anything.
    i. Mollie Mare who enjoyed the attentions of human beings.
    Mollie as Symbol. Mollie appears to represent the manipulated masses that are easily satisfied with small rewards that keep that satisfied
    j. The Attack Dogs Napoleon’s private bodyguard and police force.
    The Attack Dogs as Symbols They represent the secret police of totalitarian societies.

    Conclusion and message
    George Orwell criticize communism under Joseph Stalin with this novel. Joseph Stalin is the one who betrayed the ideals of the 1917 Russian revolutionaries and overthrew the old government. Napoleon the pig, the Stalin figure in the novel, abandons the ideals the oppressed animals worked for and becomes a ruthless dictator, as Stalin who used secret police (symbolized by the attack dogs in Animal Farm) and control of the press through propaganda (symbolized by the activities of Squealer in the novel) to maintain an ironclad hold on power. Animal Farm is warning to his reader that any political enterprise–no matter how worthy–is doomed to failure if its leaders sniff too often from the bouquet of power. Power can dressed up lies in the clothing of truth “Napoleon’s propagandist, Squealer, amends the seven commandments of animalism again and again–turning them into lies that benefit the pigs but making them look like other versions of the truth” is what George Orwell want to tell to readers trough this remarkable piece of work. That power can be a very fearful and harmful if it is misused by its owner.

  5. THE COMPARISON BETWEEN ANIMAL FARM’S CHARACTERS AND RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

    Written by Group IV :
    1. Denni Johson 08121500
    2. Frewica Purba 07121500
    3. Gracia Oka Marcela 0812150014
    4. Riris Nainggolan 08121500

    CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
    ILMU PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS
    JAKARTA 2012

    INTRODUCTION

    1. The Russian Revolution and Animal Farm

    In Hitler’s book, Mein Kampf he writes, “All propaganda has to be popular andhas to adapt to the perception of the least intelligent of those whom it intends to direct itself.” No one proves this more than George Orwell in his book Animal Farm. This book, posing as a children’s fairy tale is actually a rebellion against the Russian Revolution and Stalin. Orwell shows how people can be fooled by tyrants to believing anything; in doing so and he attacks modern totalitarian governments around the globe.The animals in the story who act as the main characters may seem like regular animals to a child, but upon closer examination and historical reference these are actually representatives for Communist leaders, such as Joseph Stalin, Leon Trotsky, and others.Critic Bernard Grofman puts it best, “No reader can fully enjoy the book without knowing, for example, that the pig Snowball represents Trotsky and the pig Napoleon represents Stalin” (Grofman 5). This book was not just a fictional story but a complete and utter attack on totalitarianism.
    The story Animal Farm begins with a boar named Old Major gathering all the animals together to tell them of a dream he experienced. He tells them that he dreamt of a world where all animals lived together and there were no humans to rule over them. He tells the animals that they must work towards establishing this paradise. After he dies,three pigs- Napoleon, Snowball, and Squealer develop a concept called “Animalism.”
    Animalism is in reality fictional substitute for Karl Marx’s communist vision. Soon all the animals revolt and overthrow Mr. Jones’s farm. They rename it Animal Farm. Animal Farm is an early success; in a collective effort, every animal works hard and remains content. Later Mr. Jones returns with friends to reclaim the farm. However the humans,the former ruling class, are rebuffed by the animals’ collective spirit at the Battle of Cowshed. Shortly thereafter that Animal Farm begins to collapse as internal politics intervenes. Napoleon and Snowball start fighting with one another about the future of the farm, and over who should have the most power. Tragically one day, during a debate over whether the animals should build a windmill, Napoleon’s dogs chase Snowball from the farm. Snowball is never seen again. Napoleon, now in an uncontested position of power over the Animal Farm, reviles his corrupt nature. He changes his stance on the windmill building, declares pigs the supreme animal, and starves the other animals to further his own means. As problems arise, Napoleon blames them on Snowball. Specifically, whether windmill tragically topples over, he tells all the animals that Snowball did it,emphasizing that they need to blame him.
    Soon Napoleon begins executing any animal that “conspires with Snowball.” He convinces the animals how evil Snowball is and his efforts to make Animal Farm fail. Snowball must be stopped. As time passes, Napoleon acts more and more like a human,departing from the original Animal Farm rules. Squealer justifies this behavior to the other animals by convincing them that everything Napoleon does is in the farm’s best interest. The situation gets progressively worse. The pigs begin wearing clothes, drinking alcohol, carrying whips, and walking like humans. By this time, the animals’ laws are gone; the only law remaining is, “All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others.”Deceivingly, George Orwell’s Animal Farm is a political book. Critic Bernard Grofman says, “There are two common mistakes in reading Animal Farm.
    The first is to confuse the simplicity of form with simplicity of idea; the second is to fail to understand the importance of the events in Animal Farm as a form of political history” (Grofman 6).The novel brilliantly portrays the fundamental follies of communist Russia. “His book, besides a parody of Stalinist Russia, intends to show that Russia was not a true democratic Socialist country,” Critic Howard hunger explains, “The novel is deeply paralleled with the Russian Revolution and Stalin’s rule.” As George Orwell said himself,“Animal Farm was the first book in which I tried, with full consciousness of what I was doing, to fuse political purpose and artistic purpose into one whole.” This furthers the point that this book was not just written for pleasure, but was written was a solid goal in mind.Animal Farm draws parallels between the characters in the book to the leaders in the Russian Revolution. Old Major mirrors Karl Marx because Old Major envisioned“Animalism” while Marx devised Communism. Animalism is comparable to Communism; both declared everyone equal, no owners, no rich, and no poor. In addition, both died prior to their revolutions. One of the main characters, Snowball, can be best compared to Leon Trotsky. Both were very smart, genuinely wanted to improve life for all, and were chased away. Snowball was chased away by Napoleon’s dogs while Trotsky was chased away by the KGB. Napoleon represented Joseph Stalin. Both were poor speakers, corrupt, power hungry, and not as smart as their counter parts.

    2. Timeline of Animal Farm compared to Russian Revolution

    TIME LINE OF EVENTS IN ANIMAL FARM
    Year Events in History Events in Animal Farm
    1917 -Russian Revolution, ending with the abdication of Nicholas II (Mar. 15)
    -Nicholas II was murdered on July 17
    -October Revolution
    -End of World War I (Nov. 17)
    -Start of Labor Camps -Battle of the animals against Jones
    -Battle of the Cowshed
    -Pigs encouraged the animals to work hard on the farm
    1923 -Beginning of the struggle between Stalin and Trotsky -Different opinions between Napoleon and Snowball are apparent
    1924 -Death of Lenin -Napoleon is openly antagonistic to Snowball’s ideas
    1925 -Trotsky removed as war commissar
    1927 -Trotsky expelled from party
    1929 -Trotsky deported
    -Start of Industrialization -Snowball chased away by the dogs
    -Building of the windmill
    1932 -Starvation of millions of people who did not want to work for Stalin -Hens starved to death, when they did not want to sell eggs
    1933 -USA recognizes USSR -Other farms recognized animal farm
    1934 -“Secret Police” became official
    -Kirov was murdered -Dogs helped Napoleon to search through the private belongings of the animals
    1936 -Show trials of Stalin’s opponents -Death of four pigs, three hens, goose and sheep
    1937 -Terror climaxes with labor camps and concentration camps
    1939 -Non-Aggression Pact between Germany and Russia -Deal between Animal Farm and Frederick
    1940 -Trotsky murdered in Mexico
    1941 -German invasion of Russia
    -Start of deportation of non-Russians -Banknotes for woodpile were not worth anything
    1945 -Treaty to divide Germany -Treaty with Pilkington

    Reason of Russian Revolution-The reason for the Revolution was because of mass shortages and hunger.

    Important Events-
    1. Czar Nicholas giving up his power then being murdered.(animals against Jones)
    2. Disagreements between Stalin and Trotsky.(Napoleon and Snowball)
    3. Lenin Dies.( Napoleon taking Snowballs ideas)
    4. Starvation of millions of people who did not want to work for Stalin. (Hens starving to
    death for not producing eggs)
    5. Secret Police coming into the picture(dogs helping Napoleon search through the animals
    things)
    6. Show Trials of Stalin ( death of 4 pigs,3hens,goose and sheep).
    7. Treaty to divide Germany ( treaty with Pilkington)

    About the book- the book animal farm puts Trotsky,Lenin and Stalin in the form of animals. And describes it as in the view of an animal on a farm. And how they overcome their troubles on the farm comparing those of the Russian Revolution.

    3. Animal farm
    A Description of the Characters and Events in the George Orwell’s classic Parody of the Russian Revolution.
    Animal Farm
    Comparison of characters to Russian Revolution
    Animal Farm Russian Revolution
    Mr. Jones
    • irresponsible to his animals (lets them starve)
    • sometimes cruel – beats them with whip
    • sometimes kind – mixes milk in animal mash Czar Nicholas II
    • a poor leader at best, compared to western kings
    • cruel – sometimes brutal with opponents
    • Sometimes kind – hired students as spies to make $
    Old Major
    • taught Animalism
    • workers do the work, rich keep the $, animals revolt
    • dies before revolution Karl Marx
    • invented Communism
    • “workers of the world unite”, take over gov’t
    • dies before Russian Revolution
    Animalism
    • no owners, no rich, but no poor
    • workers get a better life, all animals equal
    • everyone owns the farm Communism
    • same
    • all people equal
    • gov’t owns everything, people own gov’t
    Snowball
    • young, smart, good speaker, idealistic
    • really wants to make life better for all
    • one of leaders of revolution
    • chased away into exile by Napoleon’s dogs Leon Trotsky
    • other leader of “October Revolution”
    • pure communist, followed Marx
    • wanted to improve life for all in Russia
    • chased away by Lenin’s KGB (Lenin’s secret police)
    Napoleon
    • not a good speaker, not as clever like Snowball
    • cruel, brutal, selfish, devious, corrupt
    • his ambition is for power, killed opponents
    • used dogs, moses, and Squealor to control animals Joseph Stalin
    • not a good speaker, not educated like Trotsky
    • same as Napoleon, didn’t follow Marx’s ideas
    • cared for power, killed all that opposed him
    • used KGB, allowed church, and propagandized
    Squealer
    • big mouth, talks a lot
    • convinces animals to believe and follow Napoleon
    • Changes and manipulates the commandments Propaganda department of Lenin’s government
    • worked for Stalin to support his image
    • used any lie to convince the people to follow Stalin
    • benefited from the fact that education was controlled
    The Dogs
    • a private army that used fear to force animals to work
    • killed or intimidated any opponent of Napoleon
    • another part of Napoleon’s strategy to control animals KGB – Secret Police
    • not really police, but forced support for Stalin
    • used force, often killed entire families for disobedience
    • totally loyal, part of Lenin’s power, even over army
    Moses the Raven
    • tells animals about Suga rCandy mountain – Heaven
    • animals can go there if they work hard
    • Snowball and Major were against him
    • they though Heaven was a lie to make animals work
    • Napoleon let him stay because he taught animals to
    • work and not complain Religion
    • Marx said “Opiate of the people” a lie
    • used to make people not complain and do their work
    • Religion was tolerared because people would work
    • Stalin knew religion would stop violent revolutions
    Mollie
    • was vain – loved her beauty and self
    • didn’t think about the animal farm
    • went with anyone who gave her what she wanted Vain, selfish people in Russia and world
    • some people didn’t care about revolution
    • only though about themselves
    • went to other countries that offered more for them
    Boxer
    • strong, hard working horse, believes in Animal Farm
    • “Napoleon is always right”, “I must work harder”
    • gives his all, is betrayed by Napoleon, who sells him Dedicated, but tricked communist supporters
    • people believed Stalin because he was “Communist”
    • many stayed loyal after it was obvious Stalin a tyrant
    • betrayed by Stalin who ignored and killed them
    Benjamin
    • old, wise donkey who is suspicious of revolution
    • thinks “nothing ever changes”, is right
    • his suspicions are true, about Boxer and sign changes Skeptical people in Russia and outside Russia
    • weren’t sure revolution would change anything
    • realized that a crazy leader can call himself communist
    • knew that communism wouldn’t work with power
    • hungry leaders
    Overall details about revolution
    • it was supposed to make life better for all
    • life was worse at the end
    • The leaders became the same as, or worse than,
    • the other farmers (humans) they rebelled against Overall details of Russian Revolution
    • supposed to fix problems from Czar
    • life was even worse long after revolution
    • Stalin made Czar look like a nice guy

    CONCLUSION

    The finally the story describing Animal Farm as a form of political history, illustrate the fundamental foolishness of communist Russia, in addition to parody Stalinist Russia, intends to show that Russia was not a Socialist country true democratic, “and” Animal Farm is the first book in which I tried, with full awareness of what I was doing, to fuse political purpose and artistic purpose into one whole. “This furthers the point that this book is not only written for fun, but writing a solid goal in mind Farm Animal draw parallels between the characters in the book Revolution in the Russian leader. Maj. Karl Marx’s old mirror because the Old Major imagine “Animalism” while Marx designed Communism. Animalism is to Communism comparable; better each person stating the same, no owner, not rich, and not poor. In addition, both died before their revolution.

  6. Hi Sir Parlin,
    I want to ask something to you related to final test of literature II..
    Should we make a copy of the novel?
    and should we make the final test by printing text or posting?
    thanks a lot,
    GBU..
    Dian Maya 0812150038

  7. THEME ANALYSIS OF GEORGE ORWEL IS “ANIMAL FARM” BASED ON MAJOR CHARACTER “NAPOLEON”

    Antonius : 0512150002
    Nanda Dwi Kurina : 0812150006
    Rani Sevtalia : 0812150019
    Neeta Yuliana : 0812150027
    Cristine Natalia : 0812150031
    Pretty Simanjuntak : 0812150040

    Faculty of Education and Teacher Training

    Christian University of Indonesia 

    THEME ANALYSIS OF GEORGE ORWEL IS “ANIMAL FARM” BASED ON MAJOR CHARACTER “NAPOLEON”

    Introduction

    Literature has been used for entertainment and education by noble society and of course by the royal family. Literature derives from Latin “Literatura” and Greek “Grammatika” which means Letter. Literature is everything which written or using word in written form. According to Fletcher (2001: 119), literature is writings of high quality and significance, because of successful integration of style, organization, language, theme or writing such as novels, plays, poems, essay etc. taken collectively.

    One of the literary works that we have known so well is novel. According to Nurgiyantoro, 2002: 9, novel derives from Italian “novella” and in French “Novelle”, literary means “a new little thing”, then it is interpreted as a short story in form of prose. A novel has elements that create the story: they are characters, plot, theme and setting. Those elements build the story in the novel become real and interesting to the reader and also create, imagination, in the reader’s mind.

    Theme as one of elements in the novel. In literature, theme is the comment or statement the author makes about the subjects is invariably emerged from interplay of the various elements. Themes often explore universal ideas and are almost always implied rather than stated explicitly. Along with plot, character, setting, and style, theme is considered one of the fundamental components of fiction.

    This paper made to discuss about the theme in the novel Animal Farm by George Orwell. The writer would like to discover the relationship of theme through the main character, Napoleon in the novel Animal Farm.

    Analysis

    1. Synopsis of Animal Farm

    Old Major, the old boar on the Manor Farm, calls the animals on the farm for a meeting, where he compares the humans to parasites and teaches the animals a revolutionary song, “Beasts of England”. When Major dies three days later, two young pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, assume command and turn his dream into a philosophy. The animals revolt and drive the drunken and irresponsible Mr. Jones from the farm, renaming it “Animal Farm”. The Seven Commandments of Animalism are written on the wall of a barn. The most important is the seventh, “All animals are equal”.

    Snowball attempts to teach the animals reading and writing; food is plentiful, and the farm runs smoothly. The pigs elevate themselves to positions of leadership and set aside special food items, ostensibly for their personal health. Napoleon takes the pups from the farm dogs and trains them privately. When Mr. Jones tries to retake the farm, the animals defeat him at what they call the “Battle of the Cowshed”. Napoleon and Snowball struggle for leadership. When Snowball announces his idea for a windmill, Napoleon opposes it. Snowball makes a speech in favor of the windmill; whereupon Napoleon has his dogs chase Snowball away. In Snowball’s absence, Napoleon declares himself leader and makes changes. Meetings will no longer be held; instead, a committee of pigs will run the farm. Using a young pig named Squealer as a mouthpiece; Napoleon announces that Snowball stole the idea for the windmill from him. The animals work harder with the promise of easier lives with the windmill.

    Napoleon abuses his powers, making life harder for the animals; the pigs impose more control while reserving privileges for themselves. The pigs rewrite history, villain sing Snowball and glorifying Napoleon. Years pass, and the pigs learn to walk upright, carry whips, and wear clothes. The Seven Commandments are reduced to a single phrase: “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.” Napoleon holds a dinner party for the pigs and the humans of the area, who congratulate Napoleon on having the hardest-working animals in the country on the least feed. Napoleon announces an alliance with the humans, against the laboring classes of both “worlds”. He abolishes practices and traditions related to the Revolution, and change the name of the farm to “The Manor Farm”. The animals, overhearing the conversation, notice that the faces of the pigs have begun changing. During a poker match, an argument breaks out between Napoleon and Mr. Pilkington when they both play the Ace of Spades, and the animals realize that the faces of the pigs look like the faces of humans and no one can tell the difference between them.

    2. Theme Identification

    After reading the novelette thoroughly for several time, there is no doubt that the main theme is: “The absolute authority and corruption.” Orwell presents this theme through characterization of Napoleon.

    3. Theme Presentation

    After Old Major died and Snowball is been eliminated, Napoleon claims himself as the only one leader of Animal Farm:

    “Napoleon, with the dogs following him, now mounted on to the raised portion of the floor where Major had previously stood to deliver his speech. He announced that from now on the Sunday-morning meetings would come to an end. They were unnecessary, he said, and wasted time. In future all questions relating to the working of the farm would be settled by a special committee of pigs, presided over by himself.” (Orwell, 1945:47)

    It is obvious that he tends to control the whole Animal Farm from the beginning. During his leadership, the animals do not live prosperously, but more like slaves. Besides that, his absolute authority is getting real when he changes some of the Seven Commandments, for example the Sixth Commandment says ‘No animal shall kill any other animal’ changed into ‘No animal shall kill any other animal WITHOUT CAUSE’. It is implied that no animal disobey or rebel Napoleon.

    His authority increasingly shown by reducing the food for animals that reject work with voluntary. Even he also merciless stop the ration for animal that pose a problem , as that occurs in some hens that refuse given their eggs for sale to Whymper.

    His absolute authority makes him become a corrupting leader. Orwell imagines that Napoleon and the pigs begin their corruption by taking a better room and getting their meal in different way than the other animals “Nevertheless, some of the animal were disturbed when they heard that the pigs not only took their meals in the kitchen and used the drawing room as a recreation room, but also slept in the bed.”(Orwell, 1945:58)

    In addition, Napoleon ordered the almost empty bins in the store-shed to be filled nearly to the brim with sand, which was then covered up with what remained of the grain and meal. Napoleon also makes arrangements to sell a stack of hay and part of current year’s wheat crop, and later on, he will sell eggs if they need more money. In addition, Napoleon inhabited separate apartments from the others. He takes his meals alone with two dogs to wait upon him, and always eat from the Crown Derby dinner service which has been in the glass cupboard in the drawing room. It is also announced that the gun will be fired every year on Napoleon’s birthday, as well as on the other two anniversaries.

    4. Conclusion

    As a conclusion, we can say that the basic theme presented by George Orwell in Animal Farm is the absolute authority and corruption. This theme is presented mainly through Napoleon characterization.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Orwell, George. 1945. Animal Farm. London: Penguin Books.
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to Study of Fiction. Jakarta
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_Farm

  8. “Characterization in the ‘Animal Farm’ by George Orwell”

    Group II:
    1. Welliana. F. Iba (0812150004)
    2. Sekar Ayu Widowati (0812150023)
    3. Riska Debora (0812150011)
    4. Novelina Susanti (0812150032)
    5. Liznindia Simanungkalit (0812150044)

    Introduction

    Fiction is a composition of writer`s imagination. It comes from writer`s opinion based on the experience or observation in real world or life, but actually the story is not exactly as what it be underlined. It can be modified by the writer in accordance with the purpose of the writing or what the writer wants to convey.

    Fiction is so familiar to many people as most of the materials are about human life or a problem that is so close with the readers and happening in the real life and it can contain of message, intention, or criticism that sometimes can arouse and touch the readers. Though we know that fiction is so familiar and many people like to read it, it does not mean that to understand the content is always easy. Sometimes readers get difficulties to get the meaning of the story or the message or intention writer wants to tell about.

    This paper is made to discuss about the characterization in the Animal Farm by George Orwell to make us understand as the effort to help us appreciate the fiction generally, and especially the characters in the Animal Farm. The discussion of this paper is focused not only for the major characters, but also the figuran or extras characters that have the reasonable support for the story. Analyzing is done by using pure structural approach, as all of the discussion is done only based on content of the fiction.

    Analysis

    A. Synopsis

    Animal Farm is the story about the animals who want to get their freedom from human being that is Mr. Jones – the owner of Animal Farm. The idea of Rebellion is conceived by Old Major – the old pig in the Animal Farm although he died finally before reach that freedom. The idea then is continued by the animals under the leading of Snowball – the white pig that has the good intention for the prosperous living of Animal Farm. They begin to work for themselves and do not make a relation with human, even the things that related to human. Snowball actually should be ceased away from Animal Farm by Napoleon – the black and fierce pig – that always gets in disagreement with Snowball through his fierce nine dogs which he rears since they were puppies.

    Animal Farm should be leaded by Napoleon finally with his terrorism, hypocrite, fierce, and dictator leading. All animals should work harder including when they build the windmill for twice because of the ruining caused by attacking from Mr. Jones and Mr. Frederick. No animals can give any protests for the situation, even when Napoleon does the execution for some animals that do not make the mistakes or crimes and decrease the food for animals. He even hardscrabble sells Boxer to the Horse slaughterer and changes it with some bottles of bier. Napoleon makes the relation with the human, drinking alcohol, and changes the seven commandments that are agreed when the Rebellion first is conceived. Finally the prosperous is just for the pigs and dogs, but the other animals still work more hard without getting any good caring.

    B. Analyzing of Characters

    Animal Farm is a fable as most of the characters are animals which act like the humans do. The story actually describes the life and way of a nation which wants to get the freedom. It contains the intention to describe how the nations live under the dictator leader but they cannot do anything. The theme which be lifted in this story is about “The Corruptive Authority”.

    There are ten characters that will be analyzed. There are consisting of two major characters that are Napoleon and Snowball. In the other hand, there are eight figuran characters that writers think should be analyzed as they have the reasonable support in the story. They are Old Major, Squealer, Boxer, Mollie, Clover, Benjamin, Muriel, and Moses. There are also some human characters such as Mr. Jones, Mr. Frederick and Mr.Pilkington. The explaining of each character is below:

    Animal Characters:

    1. Napoleon

    Napoleon is a large, rather fierce-looking Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on the farm, not much of a talker, but likes to do something by his own desire and way (1945: 13). It is just like when he separates nine puppies and then takes care of them himself to be his private guide until the nine dogs finally help him to chase away Snowball from the Animal Farm and help him to reach the absolute power in the Animal Farm:
    At this there was a terrible baying sound outside, and nine enormous dogs wearing brass-studded collars came bounding into the barn. They dashed straight for Snowball, who only sprang from his place just in time to escape their snapping jaws. In a moment he was out of the door and they were after him. … slipped through a hole in the hedge and was seen no more. (Orwell, 1945: 46).

    He likes to get profit for himself and be hypocrite when at the first day of Rebellion he does the corruption by squeezing milk from 3 buffaloes and drinks it with his cronies:
    ‘Never mind the milk, comrades! cried Napoleon, placing himself in front of the buckets. “That will be attended to. The harvest is more important. Comrade Snowball will lead the way. I shall follow in a few minutes. Forward comrades! The hay is waiting.’
    So the animals trooped down to the hayfield to begin the harvest, and when they came back in the evening it was noticed that the milk had disappeared. (Orwell, 1945: 22).

    After he has chased away Snowball from the Animal Farm, he then becomes an egoistic and dictator leader that all of the decision should be decided by him and what he likes to be, it should be. Although it will sacrifice other animals or who wants to oppose his decision, then should be punished. He will decrease the food of the animals that refuse to work harder. It happens when some hens refuse to give their eggs to Mr. Whymper. He orders that the hens should not be given more grain until nine hens dead. (Orwell, 1945: 67). He does not like to talk much, therefore many of his orders that are announced by his speaker, Squealer.

    Napoleon makes the terrorism government by compelling some animals to confess their crimes that actually are not done by them. It happens to four pigs, three hens, and a goose and three sheep. (Orwell, 1945: 73-74). He also becomes a leader which likes to tell the lies when send Boxer to the Horse Slaughterer to sell and exchange him with some bottles of Whysky and announces the lie that he sends Boxer to the hospital in the Willingdon and that Boxer has died in happy there, even he orders to put a large wreath on Boxer`s grave. (Orwell, 1945: 104-109).

    2. Snowball

    Snowball is a more vivacious pig that Napoleon, quicker in speech and more inventive, but is not considered to have the same depth of character. (Orwell, 1945: 13). Different with Napoleon which only wants personal gain, Snowball is a revolutionary type of a good leader and visionary far into the future. He is tireless and always trying to achieve welfare for all people in the Manor Farm. In his view, all animals should be able to write and read:
    Snowball also busied himself with organizing the other animals into what he called Animal Committees. He was indefatiguable at this. He formed the egg production committee for the hens, the Clean Tail for the cows, the Wild Comrade Reducation Committee, the Whiter Wool Movement for the sheep, and various others, besides instituting classes in reading and writing. (Orwell, 1945: 27).

    As a snowball has a quality leader looks good capability of hard work making a windmill to generate electrical: “Snowball declared that this was just the place for a windmill, which could be made to operate a dynamo and supply the farm with electrical power. Within a few weeks Snowball`s plan for the windmill were fully worked out.” (Orwell, 1945: 42). He is also a brave leader with soul of military that he can lead the animals to against Mr. Jones and his men: “Snowball, who had studied an old book of Julius Caesar`s campaigns which he had found in the farmhouse, was in charge of the defensive operations. He gave his orders quickly, and in a couple of minutes every animal was at his post.” (Orwell, 1945: 35).

    Some features of an idealist leader are seemed in Snowball. However, he finally should be expelled from the Animal Farm by Napoleon through his nine dogs. Although Snowball has been not seemed in Animal Farm, his name is actually still mentioned by Napoleon, especially when the worse things and situations happen in the Animal Farm. Take for example, when the ruin of half-finished windmill, then Napoleon takes the Snowball as the actor of this. (Orwell, 1945: 62). Many characters of Snowball that are perverted by Napoleon and he is called as a trouble maker in the Animal Farm although he does not appears until the ending of the story.

    3. Old Major

    In the beginning of the story, Old Major is known as an old, extremely wise and most respected pig with the straight view to the better life and future of the animals. He is the one which thinks first about the Rebellion and the view that all animals are equal, when the humans are enemy. Therefore thinks that animals should be free from human orders: “All men are enemies. All animals are comrades.” (Orwell, 1945: 7)

    4. Squealer

    Squealer is a smallest pig with very round cheeks, twinkling eyes, nimble movements, has a shrill voice. He is also an animal of brilliant speaker that he becomes Napoleon`s spoke person. He has the ability to persuade, even for the worse announcement or news, he can make trust that all are in good ways. He could turn black into white (Orwell, 1945: 13).
    He rises to power because of his quick mind, his nimble tongue, and the fact that he seems to have absolutely no morals whatsoever. He has the important role in the way of Napoleon to get and maintain his authority. He makes his debut appearance when he justifies the fact that the pigs have hoarded milk and apples for themselves. He claims that these foods contain substances absolutely necessary to the well being of the pig. We pigs are brain workers. (Orwell, 1945: 31).

    Because of his close relation with Napoleon, he also has some characters just like Napoleon, such as hypocrite, likes to tell the lies, greedy and will do anything, even for the worse things so he can get the good facilitations.
    Squealer represent the person who knows all of the leader`s way of life, good or not and he always ready to tell what the leader wants to say. When they like to tell the lie, they are like the bootlickers.

    5. Boxer

    Boxer is the strongest and probably the most admires animal on the farm. He is first introduced as “an enormous beast, nearly eighteen hands high, and as strong as any two ordinary horses put together. Although he is a stronger animal, it is not with his intellectual, even to learn the alphabets more than four. He cannot memorize them for long time. (Orwell, 1945: 28).
    He will give his force to volunteer for the building of the Animal Farm, especially for the building of windmill. Without him, many hard working that cannot be done: “now he seemed more like three horses than one; there were days when the entire work of the farm seemed to rest upon his mighty shoulders” (Orwell, 1945: 25). He works tirelessly in building windmill. For him, the two slogans: ‘I will work harder’ and ‘Napoleon is always right.’ (Orwell, 1945: 49).

    Boxer is the view of the weak and low educated people that will be happy to work hard although there are so many unfair actions. In their mind, to make the life be save, do all of what should be done although sometimes it leads to hurt them.

    6. Mollie

    Mollie is painted as a fairy stupid, vain, and materialistic horse. In the very beginning, she comes late to Old Major`s speech and she takes a place near the front and began flirting her white mane, hoping to draw attention to the red ribbons it was plaited with. She is a lazy horse that she does not like to get in the morning and work. When the other animals are working, she will disappear until the time of working is finished and in the meals time then she will appear. (Orwell, 1945: 25).

    She is also an egoistic horse as she does not like to learn anything, except only to learn the six letters of her name. (Orwell, 1945: 29). She always likes to be admiring of other animals. Because of her materialistic and laziness, she finally goes away from Animal Farm to get the interest life without working in the other field. She also cannot live without sugar and red ribbon like in the Jones` time. (Orwell, 1945: 40).

    Mollie is the symbol of the close people of the leader who lives interestingly and completely. In contrast, when the leader stepped down, they cannot do anything and lose all of their privileges just like when the leader was in his position.

    7. Clover

    Clover is a strong and hard working horse, although her strength is not same with Boxer. Besides of her strong power, she actually has the motherly character that knows and gives attention for the animals. It is when she gives attention to Mollie for her unusual activity that makes a relation with the Willingdon (Orwell, 1945: 39). She likes to remind Boxer to take a rest when he works very hard, though her advice is not be cared by Boxer. She finally takes care for Boxer when he gets in sick until he is sent to the Horse Slaughterer: “….Clover administrated it to Boxer twice a day after meals. In the evenings she lay in his stall and talked to him….” (Orwell, 1945:105).

    She is a sensitive horse that although she actually will work hard for the Animal Farm, she cannot receive the worse situation that is happening under the leading of Napoleon and what she does for it just crying: “As Clover looked down the hillside her eyes filled with tears. If she could have spoken her thoughts, it would have been to say that this was not what they had aimed at when they had set themselves years ago to work for the overthrow of the human race.” (Orwell, 1945: 76).

    8. Benjamin

    Benjamin is a wise donkey, “the oldest animal on the farm and the worst tempered. He seldom talked, and when he does, it is usually to make some cynical remark. He does not give his opinion about the Rebellion: “When asked whether he was not happier now that Jones was gone, he would say only ‘Donkeys live a long time. None of you has ever seen a dead donkey.’” (Orwell, 1945: 26). He seems quite unchanged since the Rebellion. He does his work in the same slow obstinate way as he had done it in Jones` time, never shrinking and never volunteering for extra work either.

    Benjamin is the older generation that usually becomes the neutral people to face what is happening. He does not defend for one side. For him the situation will not influence his life, as he has his own view and conviction. One that is important is doing what should he does without giving any volunteer.

    9. Muriel

    Muriel is the white goat who is rather clever than the dogs. She likes to help animals to read for them which cannot read: “Muriel, the goat, could read somewhat better than the dogs, and sometimes used to read to the others in the evenings from scraps of newspaper which she found on the rubbish heap. (Orwell, 1945: 28).

    Muriel is the people that are clever, even more clever than the leader`s close people, but they do not have the bravery to against or show the ability that they have.

    10. Moses

    Moses is a tame crow, Mr. Jones` especial pet, is a spy and a tale-bearer, but he is also a clever talker. He spreads the story about Sugarcandy Mountain, the place when the animals have died then they will get there, place that is full of peace and happiness: “He claimed to know of existence of a mysterious country called Sugarcandy Mountain, to which all animals went when they died.” (Orwell, 1945: 14). He likes to tell the story than to work. Moses only played a small role in Animal Farm.

    Moses represents religious people that usually are used to give the spirit for the weak people. Their job usually just about telling about the things related with God and there are many enough people who like to hear that. They usually do not have other work, except to talking more only.

    Human Characters:

    1. Mr. Jones

    Mr Jones is the owner of Animal Farm. He is a fierce person and drunkard.

    2. Mr. Frederick

    Mr. Frederick is the owner of Pinchfield, the neighbourhood of Animal Farm. He is a though, shrewd man, perpetually involved in lawsuits and with a name for driving hard bargains. (Orwell, 1945: 33).

    3. Mr. Pilkington

    Mr. Pilkington is the owner of Foxwood, the neighbourhood field of Animal Farm. He is an easy-going gentlemen farmer who spent most of his time in fishing or hunting according to the season. (Orwell, 1945: 33).

    C. Conclusion

    Based on the analysis above, the writers think that the author actually has described the complicated situation in a simple ways. He uses the characters of animals to make this story becomes more comprehensively to read and get the intention and all at once he reveals the situation when it has ever happened or is happening. When we read it, we will enjoy the story because the animals act like the human in real. The characters of this story are complex for most of the characters like the human, such as hypocrite, liar, terrorism, and do not be aware of others.

    Orwell uses expository method in the beginning of the story. He describes almost of the characters in the beginning by explaining the characters directly. This makes it is easy for readers become to recognize the characters introduced. He continues presenting the characters by using the dramatic method. All of the characters are emphasized by the acting and speaking of each character. The words choice is simple and direct, so it becomes easy to read and understand. In addition, the author uses many symbolism and allusion to clear the characters.

    Bibliography

    Orwell, George. 1945. Animal Farm. London: Penguin Books.
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction.
    http://www.gradesaver.com/animal-farm/…/characte

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN THEME OF GEORGE ORWELL “ANIMAL FARM”
    Written By:
    1. Alena (0812150041)
    2. Linda Yuliandini (0812150017)
    3. Maria Bertha (0812150005)

    Introduction
    Fiction is the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers, readers often find it difficult to thoroughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for instance, may find it intricate to make out the theme. Some others find it difficult to figure out the character qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented.
    Remember that story in fiction is based on the author’s experiences or observations on life or a true story, fiction seem more realistic or close to real life, making it more familiar to the public or readers. This impression is reasonably good short story or novel in general talks about certain aspects that exist in ordinary people’s lives. Therefore, only natural that interest in fiction far more than poetry or drama enthusiasts. Though fiction is an attempt disclosure of the experience of life that may not be much different from the reality faced by the readers.
    This paper is an attempt to help the reader to appreciate the novel and the discussion this time is about the animal farm. Authors were interested to analyze short stories for the author, George Orwell; British novelist is one of the best 20 th century. His fame as a novelist mainly due to the success of two major novels, Animal Farm and nineteen eighty four. Animal Farm is considered as a revealing depravity allegory Russian revolution under the leadership of Stalin.
    About the George Orwell, he was one of the most important writers of the 20th century and his works have sold millions of copies. Despite his fame, Orwell was a very private man whose life was full of contradictions. Orwell’s socialism found root in the depression of the 1930s with early works such as Down and Out in Paris and The Road to Wigan Pier. Disillusionment followed after going to Spain to fight in the Spanish civil warzi and Homage to Catalonia shows his break with the orthodox left and became more politically isolated in the later years of his life as his works warned of the dangers of totalitarian thought and the end results of revolutionary ideals . He died of tuberculosis at the age of 46, six months after 1984 was published.

    1. Synopsis of the Animal Farm
    Animal Farm is a subtle allusion to the Russian revolution and Stalinism is not able to stem the Capitalism. A good criticism to the left and also hit hard in the ass for the capitalists.
    The action of this novel starts when the oldest pig on the farm, Old Major, calls all animals to a secret meeting. He tells them about his dream of a revolution against the cruel Mr. Jones. Three days later Major dies, but the speech gives the more intelligent animals a new outlook on life. The pigs, who are considered the most intelligent animals, instruct the other ones. During the period of preparation two pigs distinguish themselves, Napoleon and Snowball. Napoleon is big, and although he isn’t a good speaker, he can assert himself. Snowball is a better speaker, he has a lot of ideas and he is very vivid. Together with another pig called Squealer, who is a very good speaker, they work out the theory of “Animalism”. The rebellion starts some months later, when Mr. Jones comes home drunk one night and forgets to feed the animals. They break out of the barns and run to the house, where the food is stored. When Mr. Jones sees this he takes out his shotgun, but it is too late for him; all the animals fall over him and drive him off the farm. The animals destroy all whips, nose rings, reins, and all other instruments that have been used to suppress them. The same day the animals celebrate their victory with an extra ration of food. The pigs make up the seven commandments, and they write them above the door of the big barn.
    They run thus:

    Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings is a friend.
    No animal shall wear clothes.
    No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    No animal shall drink alcohol.
    No animal shall kill another animal.
    All animals are equal.

    The animals also agree that no animal shall ever enter the farmhouse, and that no animal shall have contact with humans. This commandment is summarized in the simple phrase: “Four legs good, two legs bad”. Jones comes back with some other men from the village to recapture the farm. The animals fight bravely, and they manage to defend the farm. Snowball and Boxer receive medals of honor for defending the farm so bravely. Also Napoleon, who had not fought at all, takes a medal. This is the reason why the two pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, often argue. When Snowball presents his idea to build a windmill, to produce electricity for the other animals, Napoleon calls nine strong dogs. The dogs drive Snowball from the farm, and Napoleon explains that Snowball was in fact co-operating with Mr. Jones. He also explains that Snowball in reality never had a medal of honor that Snowball was always trying to cover up that he was fighting on the side of Mr. Jones.
    The animals then start building the windmill, and as time passes the working-time goes up, whereas the food rations decline. Although the “common” animals have not enough food, the pigs grow fatter and fatter. They tell the other animals that they need more food, for they are managing the whole farm. Some time later, the pigs explain to the other animals that they have to trade with the neighboring farms. The common animals are very upset, because since the revolution there has been a resolution that no animal shall trade with a human. But the pigs ensure them that there never has been such a resolution, and that this was an evil lie of Snowball. Shortly after this decision the pigs move to the farmhouse.
    The other animals remember that there is a commandment that forbids sleeping in beds, and so they go to the big barn to look at the commandments. When they arrive there they can’t believe their eyes, the fourth commandment has been changed to: “No animal shall sleep in bed with sheets”. And the other commandments have also been changed: “No animal shall kill another animal without reason”, and “No animal shall drink alcohol in excess”.
    Some months later a heavy storm destroys the windmill, which is nearly finished. Napoleon accuses Snowball of destroying the mill, and he promises a reward to the animal that gets Snowball. The rebuilding of the mill takes two years. Again Jones attacks the farm, and although the animals defend it, the windmill is once again destroyed. The pigs decide to rebuild the mill again, and they cut down the food rations to a minimum. One day Boxer breaks down. He is sold to a butcher, but Napoleon tells the pigs that Boxer has been brought to a hospital where he has died. Three years later, during this time Napoleon deepens the relations with the neighboring farm, and one day Napoleon even invites the owners of this farm for an inspection. They sit inside the farmhouse and celebrate the efficiency of his farm, where the animals work very hard with a minimum of food. During this celebration, all the other animals meet at the window of the farm, and when they look inside they can’t distinguish between man and animal.

    2. Theme Identification
    After we read the novelette and watched the Animal Farm we saw clearly that the main theme is “the government was authoritarian, power struggle, exploitation people and leadership.” But we want to focus only one that is the government was authoritarian. Orwell presents this theme through characterization aided by plot allegory, irony, and propaganda.

    Theme Presentation

    Characterization of allegory
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate novels in general and the Animal Farm, a novelette by George Orwell. The novelette is interesting to analyze Animal Farm is most famous in the West as a stinging critique of the history and rhetoric of the Russian Revolution. Retelling the story of the emergence and development of Soviet communism in the form of an animal fable, Animal Farm allegorizes the rise to power of the dictator Joseph Stalin. In the novella, the overthrow of the human oppressor Mr. Jones by a democratic coalition of animals quickly gives way to the consolidation of power among the pigs. Much like the Soviet intelligentsia, the pigs establish themselves as the ruling class in the new society.
    When we read the novelette and watched the Animal farm, the author showed to readers that start from beginning the Old Major give values to all his follower and then they listened carefully because old major who is respected because his great and wisdom of the wise a pig. Old major think of the needs of the animals like freedom, prosperity, safety and He knew all of the animals is suffering because humans emphasized them. The Author tried to explaining satirical allegory of Soviet totalitarianism. Orwell based major events in the book on ones from the Soviet Union during the Stalin era. Orwell, a democratic socialist, and a member of the Independent Labor Party for many years, was a critic of Stalin, and was suspicious of Moscow-directed Stalinism after his experiences. Animal Farm is a satire of totalitarian governments in their many guises. But Orwell composed the book for a more specific purpose: to serve as a cautionary tale about Stalinism. It was for this reason that he faced such difficulty in getting the book published; by the time Animal Farm was ready to meet its readers, the Allies were cooperating with the Soviet Union.
    The allegorical characters of the novel represent specific historical figures and different factions of Imperial Russian and Soviet society. These include Karl Marx (Major), Vladimir Lenin (Major), Leon Trotsky (Snowball), Joseph Stalin (Napoleon), Adolf Hitler (Frederick), the Allies (Pilkington), the peasants (Boxer), the elite (Mollie). The resemblance of some of the novel’s events to events in Soviet history is indubitable. For example, Snowball’s and Napoleon’s power struggle is a direct allegory of Trotsky’s and Stalin’s. Frederick’s trade agreement with Napoleon, and his subsequent breaking of the agreement, represents the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact that preceded World War II. The following Battle of the Windmill represents World War II itself.

    Characterization of Irony
    Old Major’s speech is a revelation of momentous proportions. Major explains to the animals that they are enslaved and exploited and that man is to blame. He teaches them not only what exploitation means, but also the fact that it is not inevitable. Orwell suggests that exploitation is, in fact, bound to happen when one class of society has an advantage over another. The opposite of exploitation, according to Major, is the state of being “rich and free.” Major’s ideas about animal rights symbolize the importance and scarcity of human rights in an oppressive regime. Gaining freedom does not necessarily lead people also to become rich, but it is better to be poor and free than poor and exploited.

    The focused of Animal Farm is the government was authoritarian.
    The first the government was authoritarian resulted in people suffering and will make people be angry to their government. Animals in farm rebellion to Mr. Jones, here clearly likes Napoleon. He is really duplicity person, greedy and Napoleon also is scheming person to realize his dream to be a ruler, he manipulated people, used violence, also press people to fulfill his own purpose. When Napoleon steals Snowball’s idea for a windmill, the windmill can be considered a symbol of the Soviet Five-Year Plans, a concept developed by Trotsky and adopted by Stalin, who, after banning Trotsky from the Soviet Union, claimed them to be his idea. The failure of the windmill to generate the expected creature comforts and subsequent search for saboteurs is probably a reference to accusations and a show trial against British engineers who were working on electrification projects. He has plan to get rid of the Snowball position as a leader after old major.
    Also the government was authoritarian in this novelette created exploitation we can clearly, the Author talks about need for human rights. Exploitation is the issue around which the animals unite. Initially, the animals do not realize Jones is exploiting them. All the animals on Animal Farm are exploited under Napoleon’s control, save the pigs. Even the dogs, which work closely with the pigs, are exploited. The dogs face perhaps even a worse form of exploitation than the other animals, because they are made into agents of intimidation and death. Whereas Napoleon exploits the other animals’ physical strength and their ignorance, he exploits the dogs’ viciousness and turns them into villains against their parents’. Also exploitation happened to Boxer, he worked hard because Boxer has obsession to contraction of windmill that is purpose in his life.

    Conclusion
    In the general many leaders do not think about what is required by his followers. Leon Trotsky in this novel represent as a Snowball, he is a pig also and he replaced Old Major duity, he cares his follower Old Major and Snowball are good leaders even thought they are not perfect as a leader but they have vision, dream, pure, honest, thinking prosperity for their people and do not thinking about their self. But different with Napoleon, he secretly making planed to be a men in power. In this case the Author showed to us that when we need a leader and carry on the duity of leader not to be easy because as a leader needs to prepare his heart pure, honest and a vison for his people or follower but here Nopoleon or Stantlin is really not good to be a leader.
    We can say that the basic theme presented by George Orwell in The Animal Farm is Country will be destroyed if a leader only think of himself, not prepare their heart to be pure, honest, responsible, do not have vision or dream and we want to say thankful to George Orwell after we read and wathed Animal Farm we know what we must do to prepare for the next generation to become a goood leader in this Country. Because if we want to get a good leader many values we must prepare it.

    References
    Orwell, George. 2004. Animal Farm
    http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/articles/animalfarm.
    http://wwwmondopolitico.com/library/animalfarm.htm
    http://wwwgradesaver.com/animalfarm/
    Pardede, Parlindungan.2008. An Introduction to The study of Fiction.

  10. GROUP 4 :
    • Dian Maya Margareth (0812150038)
    • Debora Magdalena (0812150016)
    • Naomi Margareta (0812150020)
    • Nilam Mantika (0812150029)
    • Netty Irmaria (0812150018)
    • Yuliana Nining Rahayu (0812150003)

    (THE COMPARISON BETWEEN ANIMAL FARM AND RUSSIAN REVOLUTION : FOCUS ON THE CHARACTERIZATION)

    A. INTROUCTION

    Literature is the art of written works, and is not bound to publish sources. One of the literary works is fiction. Fiction is a literary work whose content is produced by the imagination and is not necessarily based on fact. But it can be modified by the writer accordance with the purpose of the writing or what the writer wants to convey. Although fiction may be viewed as a form of entertainment, it has other uses. Fiction has been used for instructional purposes, such as fictional examples used in school textbooks. It may be used in propaganda and advertising. The desire to make the reader initiates certain acts, social, religious, or political. The propagandist purpose has often found its way into fictions. The purpose to make something easier to understand, the writer uses fiction. So fiction is familiar to many people. But the message, intention, or criticism sometimes is difficult to understand. So this paper will help you to get them all.
    This paper focuses on the characterization between Animal Farm and Russian Revolution. The writers want to make the readers know the interesting purposes not only in Animal Farm but also in Russian Revolution. So the readers can more interest with the literary work especially fiction. The characters which are analyzed not only the major characters but also the minor and the things which support in those stories. The analyzing is done by using the references from many sources, and pure structural approach. The discussion in this paper is only based on the content of the fiction.

    B. SYNOPSIS OF ANIMAL FARM
    Old Major, the old boar on the Manor Farm, calls the animals on the farm for a meeting, where he compares the humans to parasites and teaches the animals a revolutionary song, “Beasts of England”. When Major dies three days later, two young pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, assume command and turn his dream into a philosophy. The animals revolt and drive the drunken and irresponsible Mr. Jones from the farm, renaming it “Animal Farm”. The Seven Commandments of Animalism are written on the wall of a barn. The most important is the seventh, “All animals are equal.” Snowball attempts to teach the animals reading and writing; food is plentiful, and the farm runs smoothly. The pigs elevate themselves to positions of leadership and set aside special food items, ostensibly for their personal health. Napoleon takes the pups from the farm dogs and trains them privately.
    When Mr. Jones tries to retake the farm, the animals defeat him at what they call the “Battle of the Cowshed”. Napoleon and Snowball struggle for leadership. When Snowball announces his idea for a windmill, Napoleon opposes it. Snowball makes a speech in favour of the windmill, whereupon Napoleon has his dogs chase Snowball away. In Snowball’s absence, Napoleon declares him-self leader and makes changes. Using a young pig named Squealer as a mouth pieces, Napoleon announces that Snowball stole the idea for the windmill from him. The animals work harder with the promise of easier lives with the windmill. The Seven Commandments are reduced to a single phrase: “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.” Napoleon holds a dinner party for the pigs and the humans of the area, who congratulate Napoleon on having the hardest-working animals in the country on the least feed. He abolishes practices and relates to the Revolution, and changes the name of the farm to “The Manor Farm”. The animals, overhearing the conversation, notice that the faces of the pigs have begun changing. During a poker match, an argument breaks out between Napoleon and Mr. Pilkington when they both play the Ace of Spades, and the animals realize that the faces of the pigs look like the faces of humans and no one can tell the difference between them.
    C. SYNOPSIS OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
    The Russian Revolution took place in 1917, during the final phase of World War I. It removed Russia from the war and brought about the transformation of the Russian Empire into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), replacing Russia’s traditional monarchy with the world’s first Communist state. The revolution happened in stages through two separate coups, one in February and one in October. The new government, led by Vladimir Lenin, would solidify its power only after three years of civil war, which ended in 1920.
    Although the events of the Russian Revolution happened abruptly, the causes may be traced back nearly a century. Prior to the revolution, the Russian monarchy had become progressively weaker and increasingly aware of its own vulnerability (and therefore more reactionary). Nicholas II—the tsar who led Russia in the years leading up to the revolution—had personally witnessed revolutionary terrorists assassinate his grandfather and, subsequently, his own father respond to the assassination through brutal oppression of the Russian people. When Nicholas II himself became tsar in 1894, he used similarly severe measures to subdue resistance movements, which were becoming bolder and more widespread every year. As Nicholas’s newly imposed oppressions in turn incited still more unrest, he was forced to make concessions after each incident: it was in this manner that Russia’s first constitution was created, as was its first parliament. These concessions continued gradually until Nicholas II’s grip on power became very tenuous.
    As Nicholas II grew weaker, Vladimir Lenin rose to prominence as the most powerful figure in Russia. Although this famous leader of the October Revolution was not even in Russia for the February Revolution—he had lived in self-imposed exile in Europe since 1900 and returned to Russia only in April 1917—he nonetheless exerted tremendous influence. Whatever history’s judgment of him, few other Russian revolutionaries possessed Lenin’s decisiveness and strength of vision for Russia’s future. Born in 1870 in the provincial town of Simbirsk as Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov, the young Lenin was profoundly affected by his older brother Alexander’s 1887 execution for being involved in a plot to assassinate the tsar. As a young adult, Vladimir joined the resistance movement himself and took the pseudonym Lenin but swore that he would never engage in the sort of “adventurism” that had ended his brother’s life. Nevertheless, his actions would one day become very adventurous indeed.
    The revolution that Lenin led marked one of the most radical turning points in Russia’s 1,300-year history: it affected economics, social structure, culture, international relations, industrial development, and most any other benchmark by which one might measure a revolution. Although the new government would prove to be at least as repressive as the one it replaced, the country’s new rulers were drawn largely from the intellectual and working classes rather than from the aristocracy—which meant a considerable change in direction for Russia.
    The revolution opened the door for Russia to fully enter the industrial age. Prior to 1917, Russia was a mostly agrarian nation that had dabbled in industrial development only to a limited degree. By 1917, Russia’s European neighbors had embraced industrialization for more than half a century, making technological advancements such as widespread electrification, which Russia had yet to achieve. After the revolution, new urban-industrial regions appeared quickly in Russia and became increasingly important to the country’s development. The population was drawn to the cities in huge numbers. Education also took a major upswing, and illiteracy was almost entirely eradicated.
    The Russian Revolution also had considerable international consequences. Lenin’s government immediately pulled Russia out of World War I, changing the balance of forces for the remaining participants. During the ensuing civil war in Russia, several nations, including the United States, sent troops to Russia in hopes of keeping the chaos from spreading beyond Russia’s boundaries. Over the next several decades, the Soviet Union actively sponsored and assisted Communist movements and revolutions around the world in an effort to broaden its sphere of influence. The country also played a fundamental role in the defeat of Nazi Germany during World War II.
    Threatened by the possibility of revolutions in their own lands, the governments of many Western nations viewed Communism as a spreading threat and moved to isolate the Soviet Union as much as possible. Following World War II and the advent of the nuclear age, a confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States took center stage. As this Cold War got under way, the two countries emerged as superpowers with much of the rest of the world falling in behind one or the other. A protracted nuclear arms race between the United States and Soviet Union would last until the USSR finally collapsed in 1991.

    D. THE COMPARISON BETWEEN ANIMAL FARM AND RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
    Animal Farm is an allegorical novella by George Orwell published in England on 17 August 1945. According to Orwell, the book reflects events leading up to and during the Stalin era before World War II. Orwell, a democratic socialist, was a critic of Joseph Stalin and hostile to Moscow-directed Stalinism, and what he saw of the results of the influence of Communist policy (“ceaseless arrests, censored newspapers, prowling hordes of armed police” – “Communism is now a counter-revolutionary force”), during the Spanish Civil War. In a letter to Yvonne Davet, Orwell described Animal Farm as his novel “Contre Stalin”.
    One of Orwell’s goals in writing Animal Farm was to portray the Russian (or Bolshevik) Revolution of 1917 as one that resulted in a government more oppressive, totalitarian, and deadly than the one it overthrew. Many of the characters and events of Orwell’s novel parallel those of the Russian Revolution: In short, Manor Farm is a model of Russia, and Old Major, Snowball, and Napoleon represent the dominant figures of the Russian Revolution.
    The original title was Animal Farm: A Fairy Story, but the subtitle was dropped by the US publishers for its 1946 publication and subsequently all but one of the translations during Orwell’s lifetime omitted the addition. Other variations in the title include: A Satire and A Contemporary Satire. Orwell suggested for the French translation the title Union des républiques socialistes animales, recalling the French name of the Soviet Union, Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques, and which abbreviates URSA, which is the Latin for “bear”, a symbol of Russia.
    The similarity between Animal Farm and the Russian Revolution is extremely blatant to anyone that is somewhat familiar to Russian history. The book tells how an entire farm of animals can talk and think like human beings, and then tells how they become the equivalent of the Russian government by trying to take over the farm in a Communistic fashion. The similarity between the book and the Russian Revolution can be shown in three major points: the symbolism behind the characters, the correspondence of events, and the usage of information censorship.

    E. THE COMPARISON BETWEEN ANIMAL FARM’S CHARACTERS AND RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
    To begin with, the symbols the characters represent are either prominent groups or people that were part of the Russian Revolution. These are the characters in Animal Farm which represent the characters in Russian Revolution:
    • ANIMALS
    1. Old Major
    As a democratic socialist, Orwell had a great deal of respect for Karl Marx, the German political economist, and even for Vladimir Ilych Lenin, the Russian revolutionary leader. His critique of Animal Farm has little to do with the Marxist ideology underlying the Rebellion but rather with the perversion of that ideology by later leaders. Major, who represents both Marx and Lenin, serves as the source of the ideals that the animals continue to uphold even after their pig leaders have betrayed them. Though his portrayal of Old Major is largely positive, Orwell does include a few small ironies that allow the reader to question the venerable pig’s motives. For instance, in the midst of his long litany of complaints about how the animals have been treated by human beings, Old Major is forced to concede that his own life has been long, full, and free from the terrors he has vividly sketched for his rapt audience.
    2. Napoleon
    From the very beginning of the novella, Napoleon emerges as an utterly corrupt opportunist. Though always present at the early meetings of the new state, Napoleon never makes a single contribution to the revolution—not to the formulation of its ideology, not to the bloody struggle that it necessitates, not to the new society’s initial attempts to establish itself. He never shows interest in the strength of Animal Farm itself, only in the strength of his power over it. Thus, the only project he undertakes with enthusiasm is the training of a litter of puppies. He doesn’t educate them for their own good or for the good of all, however, but rather for his own good: they become his own private army or secret police, a violent means by which he imposes his will on others.

    Although he is most directly modeled on the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, Napoleon represents, in a more general sense, the political tyrants that have emerged throughout human history and with particular frequency during the twentieth century. It is a testament to Orwell’s acute political intelligence and to the universality of his fable that Napoleon can easily stand for any of the great dictators and political schemers in world history, even those who arose after Animal Farm was written. In the behavior of Napoleon and his henchmen, one can detect the lying and bullying tactics of totalitarian leaders.
    3. Snowball
    Orwell’s stint in a Trotskyist battalion in the Spanish Civil War, based on Leon Trotsky, Snowball is intelligent, passionate, eloquent, and less subtle and devious than his counterpart, Napoleon. Snowball seems to win the loyalty of the other animals and cement his power. His idealism, however, leads to his downfall. Relying only on the force of his own logic and rhetorical skill to gain his influence, he proves no match for Napoleon’s show of brute force. Snowball basically accepts the superiority of the pigs over the rest of the animals. Moreover, his fervent, single-minded enthusiasm for grand projects such as the windmill might have erupted into full-blown megalomaniac despotism had he not been chased from Animal Farm. Indeed, Orwell suggests that we cannot eliminate government corruption by electing principled individuals to roles of power; he reminds us throughout the novella that it is power itself that corrupts.
    4. Squealer
    The pig that spreads Napoleon’s propaganda among the other animals. Squealer justifies the pigs’ monopolization of resources and spreads false statistics pointing to the farm’s success. Orwell uses Squealer to explore the ways in which those in power often use rhetoric and language to twist the truth and gain and maintain social and political control. This pig represents the Russian media, which spread Stalin’s version of the truth to the masses. Squealer’s name also fits him well: squealing, of course, refers to a pig’s typical form of vocalization, and Squealer’s speech defines him, at the same time, to squeal also means to betray, aptly evoking Squealer’s behavior with regard to his fellow animals.
    5. Boxer
    The cart-horse whose incredible strength, dedication, and loyalty play a key role in the early prosperity of Animal Farm and the later completion of the windmill. Quick to help but rather slow-witted, Boxer shows much devotion to Animal Farm’s ideals but little ability to think about them independently. He also, however, suffers from what Orwell saw as the working class’s major weaknesses: a naïve trust in the good intentions of the intelligentsia and an inability to recognize even the most blatant forms of political corruption. Boxer represents all of the invisible labor that undergirds the political drama being carried out by the elites. Boxer is portrayed as being a dedicated worker, but as possessing a less-than-average intelligence. His personal motto was, “I will work harder!”
    6. Clover
    Clover, a good-hearted female cart-horse and Boxer’s close friend. Clover often suspects the pigs of violating one or another of the Seven Commandments, but she repeatedly blames herself for misremembering the commandments.
    7. Mollie
    Mollie craves the attention of human beings and loves being groomed and pampered. She has a difficult time with her new life on Animal Farm, as she misses wearing ribbons in her mane and eating sugar cubes. Mollie seems to be some sort of representation of Russia’s upper classes. She represents the petit bourgeoisie that fled from Russia a few years after the Russian Revolution. Mollie is one of Orwell’s minor characters, but she represents something very important. Mollie is one of the animals who opposed to the new government under Napoleon. She doesn’t care much about the politics of the whole situation; she just wants to tie her hair with ribbons and eat sugar, things her social status won’t allow
    8. Moses
    The tame raven which spreads stories of Sugarcandy Mountain, the paradise to which animals supposedly go when they die. Moses symbolizes the Russian Orthodox Church. In the beginning of the novel, Moses was Mr. Jones’s ‘pet’. Moses never did any work. All he did was sit around telling stories – primarily of “Sugar Candy Mountain”, a paradise where animals lived on after they have died. Moses plays only a small role in Animal Farm, but Orwell uses him to explore how communism exploits religion as something with which to pacify the oppressed.

    9. Benjamin
    The long-lived donkey which refuses to feel inspired by the Rebellion. He is described as rather unchanged since the rebellion. He still does his work the same way, never becoming too excited or too disappointed about anything that has passed. Benjamin symbolizes the older generation, the critics of any new rebellion. Benjamin firmly believes that life will remain unpleasant no matter who is in charge. Of all of the animals on the farm, he alone comprehends the changes that take place, but he seems either unwilling or unable to oppose the pigs.
    10. Muriel
    The white goat which reads the Seven Commandments to Clover whenever Clover suspects the pigs of violating their prohibitions. Muriel is a knowledgeable goat who reads the commandments for Clover. Muriel represents the minority of working class people who are educated enough to decide things for themselves and find critical and hypocritical problems with their leaders. Unfortunately for the other animals, Muriel is not charismatic or inspired enough to take action and oppose Napoleon and his pigs.

    11. Cows
    The cows are another animal that is scarcely mentioned in the book, so they too are difficult to pin down. All that is said about them is that during the revolution “One of the cows broke in the door of the store-shed with her horn and all the animals began to help themselves from the bins.”
    12. Fox
    When Jones heard the Animals singing ‘Beasts of England’ at old major’s meeting, he feared that there was a ‘Fox in the yard ‘. The fox is probably just a metaphor for revolutionaries.
    13. Birds
    The primary motto of Animalism is “Four legs good, two legs bad”. The birds argued with this saying since it seems to exclude birds, which have two legs and two wings. In real life, there were several classes of citizens ‘left out’ of socialist rhetoric as well. Most of the communistic slogans dealt with the ‘proletariat’ – which was primarily a reference to urban factory workers.
    14. Hens
    In Chapter seven, Napoleon calls for the hens to ‘surrender their eggs’. This is a reference to Stalin’s attempt to collectivize the peasant farmers of Russia. The hens attempted to resist the order at first, just as the peasant farmers of the Ukraine. But, just as in real life, they were eventually starved into submission. In the book, 9 hens died during the incident. In real-life, it is estimated that somewhere between 4 and 10 million Ukrainian peasants were starved to death by Stalin.

    15. Pigeons
    The pigeons, who fly out each day to spread the word about ‘animalism’ to the other farms in Willingdon, represent the “Communist World Revolution,” The communist international.
    16. Rats and Rabbits
    The rats and rabbits are the wild animals which live on the farm. They seem to represent beggars, thieves, and gypsies. During the first animal meeting, a vote is taken on whether or not these creatures should be considered as “comrades”. Perhaps the reference to the Czars’ attempt to maintain law and order when he sensed that a revolt was near.
    17. Sheep
    The sheep represent the masses at large.
    18. Dogs
    The dogs represent the military/police of Stalin. The dogs are the arch-defenders of Napoleon and the pigs, and although they don’t speak, they are definitely a force the other animals have to reckon with.
    • THINGS
    • Animalism – Communism.
    • Hoof and Horn – Hammer and Sickle.
    • “Beast of England” – The song ‘Beasts of England’ is a metaphor for the ideology of Communism.
    • Windmill – The great windmill symbolizes the pigs’ manipulation of the other animals for their own gain. The windmill is a symbol for Stalin’s ‘Five-Year plan’. Just as the windmill was promised to make the animal’s life easier, the ‘Five-Year Plan’ was supposed to improve Soviet industry to the point that the proletariats’ life as well by increasing production and allowing the soviets to shorten the work-week.
    • Alcohol – After the revolution it is decided that animals should never again consume alcohol. After a short time, the pigs ignored began to break this cardinal rule. This is a metaphor for the intoxicating effects of power. Alcohol was originally seen as a grave evil of the new regime. It symbolizes, more than anything, a corrupt government— a government drunk on prosperity (a prosperity which never trickles down to the common animal).
    • Animal Farm – The Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.). ‘Animal Farm’ is the name the animals gave their farm after the revolution.
    • Manor Farm – Russia. It was the name of the farm when Jones ran it.
    • The Red Lion – A Pub in Willingdon. This may represent the Royal Palace in England, or could merely represent one of the smaller nations in Europe.

    • Sugar Candy Mountain – An obvious reference to ‘Heaven’.
    • Ribbon and Sugar – Orwell’s use of ribbons and sugar symbolizes the luxuries of life enjoyed by the old middle class under the old government.
    • The Barn – The barn at Animal Farm, on whose outside walls the pigs paint the Seven Commandments and, later, their revisions, represents the collective memory of a modern nation.

    • HUMAN
    1. Mr. Jones
    The often drunk farmer who runs the Manor Farm before the animals stage their Rebellion and establish Animal Farm. Mr. Jones is an unkind master who indulges himself while his animals lack food; he thus represents Tsar Nicholas II, whom the Russian Revolution ousted.
    2. Mr. Frederick
    Though, shrewd operator of Pinchfield, a neighboring farm. Based on Adolf Hitler, the ruler of Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, Mr. Frederick proves an untrustworthy neighbor.
    3. Mr. Pilkington
    The farmer who runs Foxwood, Mr. Frederick’s bitter enemy, Mr. Pilkington represents the capitalist governments of England and the United States.
    4. Mr. Whymper
    Mr. Whymper is represented Animal Farm in human society. Mr. Whymper’s entry into the Animal Farm community initiates contact between Animal Farm and human society, alarming the common animals.

    F. CONCLUSION
    In conclusion, by reading the fiction, especially Animal Farm, we can prove that fiction use to interpret the life, propaganda, report something, change the thought, and express the spirit. In Animal Farm, the Orwell’s goals in writing Animal Farm was to portray the Russian (or Bolshevik) Revolution of 1917 as one that resulted in a government more oppressive, totalitarian, and deadly than the one it overthrew. Many of the characters and events of Orwell’s novel parallel those of the Russian Revolution: In short, Manor Farm is a model of Russia, and Old Major, Snowball, and Napoleon represent the dominant figures of the Russian Revolution.

    References :
    Orwell, George. 1945. Animal Farm. London: Penguin Books.
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction.
    Taken from: http://www.george-orwell.org
    http://www.sparknotes.com/…/animalfarm/themes.ht...
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Revolution

  11. Group I
    Tommy Sangapan S. (0812150035)
    Mega Sari Ambarita (0812150012)
    Krisdiana Septa Herlina (0812150025)
    Christine Valentina S. (0812150033)
    Ian Fraskah (0812150009)

    PLOT ANALYSIS OF GEORGE ORWELL’S “ANIMAL FARM”

    INTRODUCTION

    Same with other literatures, novel is processed result of author’s imagination. The material of novel is based on author’s experience and observation on life. Some novels are inspired by reality but the material is not presented same with the underlying reality. In process of creating the novel, the author chooses and modifies the material which he has to present his purpose.

    Considering that story in novel is based on the author’s experience and observation on life, novel seems more realistic or closer with reality, so more familiar to readers. The impression is caused because novel generally tells about certain aspects in ordinary people life.

    Although fiction is a work of retelling of life experience, the readers often face difficulty to comprehend the novel. Consequently, the values of humanism and art which given by the author often can not be understood fully. Most likely the difficulty is caused by lack of literature analysis ability among the readers.

    This analysis attempts to help the readers to appreciate novel in general. “Animal Farm,” a short story by George Orwell in particular. The novel is interesting to analyze because it presents well-made plot and can be applied in life in order to reveal the importance of learning by experience in one’s life.

    This paper is focused on well-made plot. A well-made plot can be divided into four stages: exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The analysis is carried out by using the structural approach because all discussions only based on the content of the novel. The presentation of analysis result uses conventions of academic writing.

    CONTENT

    2. Synopsis

    “Animal Farm” tells about animals that live in oppression at Manor Farm, owned by Mr. Jones. There are various types of animals that live on the farm. The animals have a role and function; cows produce milk, chickens produce eggs, pigs produce meat and there are also strong power animal, such as horses and dogs.

    Among the animals that live in the Manor Farm, there is an old male pig named Old Major. This smart pig teaches the animals at the farm about the meaning of happiness that can only be obtained by freedom. According to Old Major, no animals live in freedom and happiness there. Old Major illustrates life of the animals with two words, enslaved and suffering. Both of these problems are experienced by all animals as a result of one cause, human.

    After Old Major dies, the pigs, led by the two boars Snowball and Napoleon, start teaching ideas to the other animals. They develop it into a system of thought called Animalism. A few months later, Mr. Jones gets drunk and forgets to feed the animals, who become so hungry that they rebel and drive the human beings off the farm. They rename the farm “Animal Farm” and write the Seven Commandments of Animalism up on the wall of the barn. Jones comes back with a group of armed men and tries to recapture the farm, but the animals, led by Snowball, defeat the men.

    Snowball and Napoleon have different argument over plans for the future of the farm. They are unable to agree, especially over a windmill which Snowball wants to build to provide the farm with electric power, and which Napoleon ridicules. Napoleon calls in nine dogs who he has specially trained and they chase Snowball off the farm. Squealer, the very persuasive pig who relays most of Napoleon’s decisions to the other animals, tells them that Snowball was a betrayer and the windmill was really Napoleon’s idea anyway and will go ahead.

    The animals work hard, work on the windmill is slow and they rely heavily on Boxer, the cart-horse, who is very strong and hard-working. Napoleon begins trading with nearby farms, and the pigs move into the farmhouse and sleep in the beds there – even though sleeping in beds like humans was forbidden by the original principles of Animalism.

    The winter is difficult, the animals have little food. Napoleon and Squealer blame Snowball for everything that goes wrong on the farm, from bad crops to blocked drains. Then Napoleon’s dogs attack four pigs that then confess to plotting with Snowball and start a series of confessions of various “crimes” from other animals – all of those who confess are executed by the dogs, leaving the survivors shaken and miserable.

    The windmill is finally completed and to get money to buy the machinery for it, Napoleon decides to sell a pile of timber – after wavering between the two neighboring farmers Pilkington and Frederick. He sells it to Frederick and changes it with some alcohol. Frederick and his men then come on to the farm and blow the windmill to pieces with explosives, although the animals manage to drive them off the farm again after a bloody battle. A few days later the pigs find a case of whisky in the farmhouse cellar and get drunk.

    Boxer is injured while working on repairs to the windmill. Napoleon calls to send him to the vet, has “Horse Slaughterer” painted on the side. After Boxer has “died in hospital” under care of the vet, the pigs mysteriously find money to buy another case of whiskey.

    After many years, life is just as hard as it ever was. The pigs start walking on two legs. None of the old Commandments are left on the barn wall. A group of human come to see the farm, they play with the pigs over a game of cards. The animals discover they can no longer tell which is human and pig.

    3. Type of Plot

    “Animal Farm” is written by employing the chronological plot. From the beginning until the end of the story all events n the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place. “Animal Farm” presents Animals’ revolution about misuse of power and seven commandments.

    4. Stages and Elements of Plot

    The plot of “Animal Farm” has a regular structure so that it can be neatly divided into four stages: exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The first chapter of the story is employed as an exposition. Napoleon is a ruthless, power-hungry pig. After the animals overthrow Jones and establish their own society and their own form of government, called animalism, Napoleon eventually seizes control of the farm and abolishes the animals’ idealistic rules of government. Snowball is an intelligent pig who helps establish animalism and becomes Napoleon’s rival for power. Napoleon’s attack dogs drive him out of “Animal Farm.” It means that this novel tells about animal versus animal.

    The first conflict in this novel is the rivalry between Snowball and Napoleon. The ending of they rivalry is Napoleon expels Snowball from the farm. “But just at this moment Napoleon stood up and, casting a peculiar sidelong look at Snowball, uttered a high-pitched whimper of a kind no one had ever heard him utter before.” (Chapter 5) After this problem, Snowball never comes back again to the farm.

    The second conflict in this novel is the animals work hard to build windmill. “The animals carried on as best they could with the rebuilding of the windmill, well knowing that the outside world was watching them and that the envious human beings would rejoice and triumph if the mill were not finished on time.” (Chapter 7) The animals feel so tired after they work hard to build the windmill.

    The third conflict is the winter is difficult, the animals have little food. “For days at a time the animals had nothing to eat but chaff and mangels. Starvation seemed to stare them in the face.” (Chapter 7) Napoleon and Squealer blame Snowball for everything that goes wrong on the farm, from bad crops to blocked drains.
    The climax is Boxer is injured while working on repairs to the windmill and die in the hospital. “Alfred Simmonds, Horse Slaughterer and Glue Boiler, Willingdon. Dealer in Hides and Bone-Meal. Kennels Supplied.’ Do you not understand what that means? They are taking Boxer to the knacker’s!” (Chapter 9) Boxer was never seen again.

    The resolution is the pigs start walking on two legs. A group of human come to see the farm, they play with the pigs over a game of cards. “What could be happening in there, now that for the first time animals and human beings were meeting on terms of equality? With one accord they began to creep as quietly as possible into the farmhouse garden.” (Chapter 10) The animals discover they can no longer tell which is human or pig.

    5. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme

    “Animal Farm” shows how the high ideals that fuel revolutions gradually give way to individual and class self-interest. Not even Napoleon planned to become a dictator before the revolution, but as his power grew, he took more and more until his power became absolute.

    The struggle is between the pigs Snowball and Napoleon. In the historical and fictional cases, the idealistic but politically less powerful figure (Snowball) is expelled from the revolution state by powerful (Napoleon). The purges and show trials with which Napoleon eliminated his enemies and solidified his political base find expression in “Animal Farm” as the false confessions and executions of animals that Napoleon distrusts following the collapse of the windmill. Napoleon’s tyrannical rule and eventual arbitrariness of the founding principles are represented by the pigs’ turn to violent government and the adoption of human traits and behaviors.

    CONCLUSION

    Based on the result of our analysis, we agree that the “Animal Farm” describes the plot that supports the readers in order to can create illustration of revolution. The novel also combines humor with critic about revolution. In this novel there are some figures like animals that have behavior like human being. This plot reveals the theme of serious revolution that is “tyrannical power of one figure.” We hope the readers can response the message from the author, George Orwell, seriously based on the plot of “Animal Farm.”

    In this novel, we can see there are simple sentences but understandable, that we understand the plot easily. Through this novel, Orwell successfully carries the readers out into scope of life about revolution. For example, this novel tells Napoleon has an ambition and desire that if can not be controlled will create destruction. However, Snowball can build a people with idealism that can make revolution.

    Overall, the characterizations element in George Orwell’s “Animal Farm” is used to present the theme of revolution. In this novel, Napoleon is a greedy man. He uses his power to control the whole territory so others would be oppressed. Oppressed people are described by the animals. According to this novel, George Orwell would like to emphasize that a leader should have a fair and judicious manner. He must be able to give the right of his people and he should give his affection for his subjects.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Orwell, George. 1945. Animal Farm. London: Penguin Books.
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction.
    Taken from: http://www.george-orwell.org

  12. A PLOT ANALYSIS F GEORGE ORWELL “ANIMAL FARM”
    written by :
    1. Sri Darma Siahaan (0812150046)
    2. Yesi Kartika Sari (0812150015)
    3. Yuliana Silhayati (0812150045)

    A PLOT ANALYSIS OF GEORGE ORWELL “ANIMAL FARM”

    Introduction
    Fiction is undoubtely the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense. Th ematerial of fiction usally based on the author experience. Moreover the story in a novel sometimes is based on the fact or reality. Eventhough fiction is people imagination but we can find some the values of humanity in it. Literary analysis is indeed an intricated process because it necessitates a good understanding of the works elements and how these elements are combined to created a unified literary works.
    Animal Farm can be read on three different levels. On its first level, it is an entertaining story about farm animals ruled first by cruel human overseers and later by ruthless animal overseers. Very young children can understand and enjoy the story at this level. On its second level, it is an allegory representing the Communist take over of Russia in 1917 and the subsequent perversion of the idealistic goals of the revolutionaries. On its third level, Animal Farm is a satire ridiculing any movement—and the persons in that movement—that goes awry because of the corrupting lure of power. On the second and third levels, the novel develops the thesis of British historian which observed, “Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.”
    This papers is focused on Plot Analysis. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach because the enteri discussion is pure based on the novel and also this paper is intendeed for Literature II for work group assingment.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis
    Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, has not been a very responsible farmer. Of late, he has taken to drinking and tends to neglect his farming chores. His careless attitude makes Old Major, the Berkshire boar, incite the animals to rise up against Jones. The boar calls for a meeting to explain his dream for the farm animals. Although Old Major does not narrate the dream, he does explain the ill treatment given to them by man and the dreary and deplorable life they are leading on the farm. He also inspires the animals with his song ‘Beasts of England.’
    The inspired animals seize their very first opportunity to oust Mr. Jones and rename the farm as “Animal Farm”. They inscribe their laws, seven commandments, on the barn-wall. Napoleon and Snowball vie with each other for leadership. Although the two boars do not see eye to eye, they come together to banish their common enemy, Jones and his men, in The Battle of Cowshed.After the battle, the rivalry between the two contenders comes out in the open. Snowball’s plan of building the windmill is declared as ‘nonsense’ by Napoleon. He also chases Snowball off of the farm with the help of his fire dogs. He then puts forth the windmill project as his own.
    The pigs from the ruling class are non-productive and live off the labor of the other animals. They change the commandments to suit their own desires. Squealer, Napoleon’s henchman, tells the other animals that the rules must be changed to prevent Jones from returning to control the farm. They are terrorized into confessing whatever the authorities want and say that they have been scheming with Snowball as his agents. Napoleon’s reign of terror is severe and takes a toll of several animals. He snatches every chance to further his own personality. He even negotiates ‘trade’ with his human neighbors after setting them against each other.
    Frederick, a neighboring farmer, launches an attack, called the Battle of Windmill, against the animals. During the fighting, the Windmill is blown off. Reconstruction of the Windmill brings about prosperity, but not for all the animals; the pigs are the only beneficiaries. Ironically, the pigs now resemble the humans that they hated. They carry whips and walk upright on their hind legs. The only rule that now exists is, “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.” The novel ends with Napoleon entertaining his human neighbors, and it is impossible to distinguish the pigs from the men.

    2. Types of plot
    Animal Farm by George Orwell is a story which is written by employing a chronological plot. From the beginning until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place. This plot contain exposition, conflict, complication, climax, falling action, denoument and conclusion.
    a. Exposition
    The exposition intoduces the reader with some characters, setting, and the conflict. In the beginning of the story we can see how misery the life of animal at the Manor Farm is. Submission under tyrannical human owner Jones, that’s what happend to them. The Old Major, twelve years old pig was the first who told them about the Rebellion. But, soon he died. That’s why who take his position are Snowball and Napollen and later they always have opposed each other and finally Napolleon as the one who take the a part as a leader.
    The problem that take them to Rebellion is because the animals want to run things themselves. “That is my message to you, comrades: Rebellion! I do not know when that rebellion will come, it might be in a week or in a hundred years, but I know, as surely as I see this straw beneath my feet, that sooner or later justice will be done” (chaper I, pg 7). They did not want their life is in human’s hand. An impending rebellion sounds a lot like a conflict. So does the Rebellion itself, what with the fighting and violence and all.
    b. Conflict
    There are a number of conflicts in Animal Farm—the animals versus Mr. Jones, Snowball versus Napoleon, the common animals versus the pigs, Animal Farm versus the neighboring humans—but all of them are expressions of the underlying tension between the exploited and exploiting classes and between the lofty ideals and harsh realities of socialism. And the major conflict in this novel is between the farm animals with the human oppressor, Mr. Jones and between the farm animal with the leader, Napolleon.
    Conflict 1
    The conflict first centers on the struggle between the farm animals and their human oppressor, Mr. Jones. After the animals overthrow Jones, the conflict centers on the struggle between the rank-and-file animals and the power-hungry animals that control the government and become the new oppressors. It shows in chapter II pg 15, “June came and the hay was almost ready for cutting. Mr. Jones went into Willingdon and got so drunk at the Red Lion that he did not come back till midday on Sunday. [……] .When Mr. Jones got back he immediately went to sleep”. All the animal got hungry know, and the situation began when the cows broke in the door of the storeshed. “Jones and his men suddenly found themselves being butted and kicked from all sides”.
    Conflict 2
    The second coflict is, when all the farm animal realized about Napolleon leadership. They feel injustice of Napolleon leadership, when Napolleon changed The Seven Commandments become (Chapter X pg 117): “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others”.
    c. Complication
    The complication in this novel is when the animals throw off their human oppressors and establish a socialist state called Animal Farm; the pigs, being the most intelligent animals in the group, take control of the planning and government of the farm; Snowball and Napoleon engage in ideological disputes and compete for power. “How they toiled and sweated to get the hay in! But their effort were rewarded, for the harvest was an even bigger such as than they had hoped”. […..]. the pigs did not actually work, but directed and supervised the others with their superrior knowledge it was natural that they should assume the leadership” (Chapter III pg 23). The other complication is, there are problems with the new leaders. He runs the leadership unavailable with their rules/commandments , many things that he change about the rules, and behave like human being.
    d. Climax
    The ultimate climax is reached when Napoleon changes Animal Farm into a republic and elects himself president, assuring the maintenance of his seized power. It shows in chapter V pg.48 and chapter IX pg.101. The result of Napoleon’s victory over the masses is that the pigs start walking on their hind legs and acting totally like humans (Chapter X pg.115). It is an indication that Animal Farm has really returned to the status of Manor Farm.
    “Afterwards Squealer was sent round the farm to explain the new arrangement
    to the others. “Comrades,” he said, “I trust that every animal here appreciates the
    sacrifice that Comrade Napoleon has made in taking this extra labour upon
    himself. Do not imagine, comrades, that leadership is a pleasure! On the contrary, it is a deep and heavy responsibility.
    No one believes more firmly than Comrade Napoleon that all animals are equal. He would be only too happy to let you make your decisions for yourselves. But sometimes you might make the wrong decisions, comrades, and then where should we be? Suppose you had decided to follow Snowball, with his moonshine of
    windmills–Snowball, who, as we now know, was no better than a criminal?”
    “In April, Animal Farm was proclaimed a Republic, and it became necessary
    to elect a President. There was only one candidate, Napoleon, who was
    elected unanimously”.

    “It was a pig walking on his hind legs”

    e. Falling action
    Squealer emerges to justify Napoleon’s actions with skillful but duplicitous reinterpretations of Animalist principles; Napoleon continues to consolidate his power, eliminating his enemies and reinforcing his status as supreme leader; the common animals continue to obey the pigs, hoping for a better future.
    f. Denoument
    The denoument of this novel is: time passes and the animals resign to a new and awful life.
    Years passed. The seasons came and went, the short animal lives fled by. “A time came when there was no one who remembered the old days before the Rebellion, except Clover, Benjamin, Moses the raven, and a number of the pigs. Muriel was dead; Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher were dead. Jones too was dead – he had died in an inebriates’ home in another part of the country (Chapter X pg. 110).

    Conclusion
    Animal Farm tells the simple and tragic story of what happens when the oppressed farm animals rebel, drive out Mr. Jones, the farmer, and attempt to rule the farm themselves, on an equal basis. What the animals seem to have aimed at was a utopian sort of communism, where each would work according to his capacity, respecting the needs of others. The venture failed, and Animal Farm ended up being a dictatorship of pigs, who were the brightest, and most idle of the animals.
    In Animal Farm, Orwell describes how power turned the pigs from simple “comrades” to ruthless dictators who managed to walk on two legs, and carry whips. The story maybe seen as an analysis of the Soviet regime, or as a warning against political power games of an absolute nature and totalitarianism in general. For this reason, the story ends with a hair-raising warning to all humankind:” The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again: but already it was impossible to say which was which”.

    References
    Orwell, George. 2004. Animal Farm
    http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides2/AniFarm.html
    http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides2/AniFarm.html
    http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/animalfarm/facts.html
    http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/animalfarm/facts.html
    http://bookreviews.nabou.com/reviews/animalfarm.html

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