6. Augustan (Neo-Classical) Period


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  1. Agustan Period:

    1) The British society preferred to keep the monarch because they wanted to keep the stability of the kingdom and they did not want the revolution in 1649 happened again.

    2)Women became leading novelist during that period because:
    i) women have always written a lot of fiction
    ii) women are also greatest part of the readership and the market for the new professional writers.

    3) Gulliver’s Travels are in four parts.

    In the first book, he traveled to Liliput where he meets the very small inhabitants.

    In the second book, on Brobdignag, the people are enormous while the religion and politics are satirized in particular.

    In the third book, the new learning of the Royal Society is the victim. The Royal Society was founded in I662 and 1663 `for the Improving of Natural Knowledge. It was a center of science and culture, but, as Swift saw it, all the wisest men have no practical sense of how to live in the real world.

    In the fourth book, he met the cultured horses, the Houynhnms, and compares their ways with the nasty monkey-like Yahoos, who represent humanity. Swift’s satire is particularly strong because Gulliver observes another world in which ordinary human actions are criticized when performed by extraordinary characters.

    4) In A Modest Proposal, Jonathan Swift propose a way to solve the Irish problem of having too many children by selling them to England to be eaten. He satirizes on political solutions to the problem at that time.

    5) Stream of Consciousness technique is a technique which following the thoughts of characters as they come into their heads.

    6) The special characteristics of a Gothic novel are the novel often developed by imagination going beyond realism and moral instruction, the novel explored the extreme of feeling and imagination

    The title of the first Gothic novel in English literature are The Sublime and The Beautiful, The Old English Baron, Vathek

  2. 1. This was a great threat to the stability of British society, which did not want to see the revolution of 1649 repeated.
    2. Women have always written a lot of fiction, and in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century they were also the greatest part of the readership, the market for the new professional writers.
    3. The novel is in four parts. In the first part, Gulliver travels to Liliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants; in book two, on Brobdignag, the people are enormous. Religion and politics in particular are satirized, and the king of Brobdignag, after hearing Gulliver describes the society of England. In the third book all the new learning of the Royal Society is the victim. The Royal Society was found in 1662 and 1663 ‘for the improving of Natural Knowledge’. It was a centre for science and culture, but, as Swift saw it, all the wisest men have no practical sense of how to live in the real world. And in the final book, Gulliver meets the cultured horses, the houyhnhnms, and compares their ways with the nasty monkey-like yahoos, who represent humanity.
    4. His A modest Proposal (1729) for example, suggested a way to solve the Irish problem of too many children-by selling the children to England to be eaten.
    5. Sterne was the first writer to use what came to be known as the Stream of Consciousness technique, following the thoughts of characters as they come into their heads.
    6. To the end of the eighteenth century the novel took a new direction. Horace Walpole’s The castle of Otranto (1764) started the fashion for the Gothic, and the horror novel was born. The story is set in medieval times, with castles and ghosts, appearances and disappearances, and a whole range of frightening effects which are still popular in story and film.

  3. 1. British society prefer to keep the monarch because British Society did not want to see the revolution of 1694. They want to get a democratic government that is always moderate and tolerant.

    2. Women became leading novelists in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. The first they have always written a lot of fiction, and second they were also the greatest part of the readership, the market for the new professional writers.

    3. The first book: Gulliver’s traveling to Liliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants. It shows that England feels that they are a big, power nations thus made them underestimate to the other nations.
    The second book: Gulliver’s arriving in Brobdignag. Religion and politics in particular are satirized, and the king of Brobdignag, after hearing Gulliver describes the society of England decides that ‘your natives’.
    The third book: Gulliver arrived at the flying island, Laputa. Means that England was a centre for science and culture, but all the wisest men have no practical sense of how to live on the real world.
    The last book: Gulliver is in the land of Houyhnhnms who are horrible, deformed and savage. Then he met also with the Houyhnhnms who claimed to be the ruler. It explains that every human has a different character such as good and bad.

    4. “A Modest Proposal,” a satire-laden piece in which Swift addresses the terrible living conditions that existed in Ireland during the eighteenth century. As is the case with any well-written satire, Swift created and implemented a shocking revelation and used a serious, detached tone to make it seem real.

    5. Stream of consciousness refers to the flow of thoughts in the conscious mind. The full range of thoughts that one can be aware of can form the content of this stream, not just verbal thoughts. Commonly used experimental techniques, including self-reporting, gives easier access to verbal thoughts than to thoughts more closely connected to senses other than hearing and activities other than speaking and writing.

    6. A Gothic novel usually involves a main character who is increasingly trapped in some oppressive situation (the trapped character is usually, but not always, a woman). In stereotypical Gothic novels, the character will probably also literally be trapped in a crumbling castle by someone who is trying to force her to marry someone. She’ll spend a lot of time wandering around the corridors and finding scary things. Gothic novels tend to explore psychological issues, especially madness. Gothic novels tend to be lengthy (but are definitely not always lengthy!), and there are often subplots that echo the main plot (for example, there will be supporting characters who are dealing with the same situation that the main character is dealing with). Religion often plays a part in these novels, as well. Most people assume that Gothic novels are all about vampires and monsters, but often the supernatural is not a major part of a Gothic novel: the real horrors are psychological or human-made. For this reason, things like domestic violence, racism, and other negative human qualities are often recurring themes. Still, Gothic novels pretty much always end with a return to normal society. The normal order is restored, and if there are supernatural elements, they are either destroyed or explained (as in, “That wasn’t a ghost you heard, it was a ventriloquist.”). Example of ghotic novel: Frankenstein (Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley)–some people consider this the first “technogothic” novel because it is about the horrors of science.

  4. 1. Because the revolution would threaten the stability of British society, which did not want to see the revolution of 1649 repeated

    2.Women have always written a lot of fiction and they were the greatest part of the readership, the market for the professional writers.

    3. The first book tells about Gulliver travels to Lilliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants. This book satirizes England which underestimates other nations.
    The second book, Gulliver arrives at Brobdignag, where the people are giant. This part satirizes religion and politics in particular.
    The third book, Gulliver arrives at a place looking like a flying saucer. In this part all the new learning of Royal society was founded in 1662 and 1663. it was a centre for science and culture, but, as swift saw it, all the wisest men have no practical sense of how to live in the real world.
    The fourth book, Gulliver meets the cultured horses, the houyhnhnms and compares their ways with the nasty monkey who represents humanity. Gulliver’s satire is particularly strong because Gulliver observes another world in which ordinary human actions are critized when performed by extraordinary characters

    4. He proposed a way to solve the Irish problem of too many children-by selling the children to be eaten. He satirizes the political solution to the problem

    5. the technique is following the thoughts of characters as they come into their heads

    6. Gothic novel is set in medieval times with castles and ghosts, appearances and disappearances. developed the imaginative range of the genre, going beyond realism and moral instruction and explored extremes of feeling and imagination

  5. Neeta Yuliana
    Claa A
    0812150027

    1. British society prefer to keep the monarch because British society did not want
    to see the revolution of 1649 repeated.

    2. Women became leading novelists in the late 17th and early 18th centuries because (1) women have always written a lot of fiction, and (2) women were also the greatest part of the readership, the market for the new professional writers.

    3. The story of Gulliver’s Travels

    1st book: Gulliver travels to Lilliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants

    2nd book: On Brobdignag, the people are enormous. Religion and politics in particular are satirized, and the king of Brobdignag, after hearing Gulliver describes the society of England decides that ‘your natives’

    3rd book:The new learning of the Royal Society is the victim. The Royal Society was founded in I662 and 1663 `for the Improving of Natural Knowledge.’ It was a centre for science and culture, but, as Swift saw it, all the wisest men have no practical sense of how to live in the real world.

    4nd book: Gulliver meets the cultured horses, the Houyhnhnms, and compares their ways with the nasty monkey-like Yahoos, who represent humanity. Swift’s satire is particularly strong because Gulliver observes another world in which ordinary human actions are criticized when performed by extraordinary characters.

    4. Swift propose in A Modest Proposal is a way to solve the Irish problem of too many children—by selling the children a England to be eaten.
    He satirize in political solutions to the problem

    5. The mean of the Stream of Consciousness technique is the thoughts of characters as they come into their heads.

    6. Special characteristics of a Gothic novel are castles and ghosts, appearances and disappearances, and a whole range of frightening effects. The Gothic novel developed the imaginative range of the genre, going beyond realism and moral instruction. It explored extremes of feeling and imagination.

    Title of the first Gothic novel in English literature is The Sublime and the Beautiful by Edmund Burke

  6. 1. The British society prefer to keep the monarchy because they did not want to see the revolution of 1649 repeated.
    2. The reasons why women became leading in the late 17th and early 18th centuries because they have always written a lot of fiction, and they were also the greatest part of the readership, the market fro the new professionals writers.
    3. a. 1st book Gulliver travels to Lilliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants. It shows that England feels that they are a big, power nations thus made them underestimate to the other nations.
    b. 2nd book , on Brobdignag, the people are enormous. Religion and politics in particular are satirized; English political practices of the day met with much scorn.
    c. 3rd book Gulliver arrived at the flying island, Laputa. Means that England was a centre for science and culture, but all the wisest men have no practical sense of how to live on the real world.
    d. The final book, Gulliver is in the land of Houyhnhnms, who are a superior race of intelligent horses, it compares to their ways with the nasty monkey -like Yahoos, who represent humanity. Swift’s satire is particularly strong because Gulliver observes another world in which ordinary human actions are criticized when performed by extraordinary characters.
    4. Swift proposes in A Modest Proposal is a way to solve the Irish problem of too many children- by selling the children a England to be eaten.
    5. The stream of Consciousness technique is a literary technique which characterized by following the thoughts of characters as they came into their heads.
    6. The special character of a Gothic novel are developed the imaginative range of the genre, going beyond realism and moral instruction. It explored extremes of feeling and imagination.
    The first title Gothic novel in England literature is The Sublime and the Beautiful by Edmund Burke 1757.

  7. 1.British society prefer to keep the monarch because British Society did not want to see the revolution of 1694.
    2.Two reasons why women became leading novelists in the late 17th and early 18th centuries because they gave a strong moral position to the novel and they were completely ignored by the (mostly male) critics who followed.
    3.Part I: A Voyage to Liliput
    Gulliver meets the very small inhabitants. He satirizes that England as the powerful nation is underestimating other nation.
    Part II: A Voyage to Brobdingnag
    Gulliver on Brobdingnag where the people are enormous. He satirize religion and politics of society of England
    Part III: A Voyage to the Laputa
    In this third book all the new learning of the Royal Society is the victim where it was a centre for science and culture. He satirize that all the wisest men have no practical sense of how to live in the real world.
    Part IV: A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms
    Gullivers meets the culture horses, the Houyhnhnms and compares their ways with the nasty Monkey-like Yahoos, who represent humanity. Swift’s satire is particularly strong because Gulliver observes another world in which ordinary human actions are criticized when performed by extraordinary characters.
    4.He proposed a way to solve the Irish problem of too many children – by selling the children an England to be eaten. He satirize on political solution to the problem.
    5.The technique that following the thoughts of characters as they come into their heads.
    6.The special characteristic of a Gothic novel is imaginative range of the genre, going beyond realism and moral instruction. It explored extremes of feeling and imagination. Matthew Lewis’s The Monk (1796).

  8. 1. British people still choose the king as head of state because they want to get a democratic government that is always moderate and tolerant.

    2. – At that time, the women do not get the freedom to education, politics, voting rights and employment.
    – The women do not want to be called weak. The concept of strong men and weak women would result in discrimination against women.

    3. I. Gulliver is shipwrecked and finds himself a prisoner of Liliput race whose height is less than 6 inches. It explains that a person must comply with regulations in other nations.
    II. Gulliver lived with the people who are very big in Brobdingnag. However, the king was not happy with the story of Gulliver in Europe about the permissibility of using guns and cannons. It explains that a country should maintain the safety and security in order to avoid of danger.
    III. After Gulliver ship attacked by pirates, he was stranded on the flying island of Laputa. This book also explains that knowledge is not just enough to master mathematics and the arts but it is also necessary to understand the religion properly.
    IV. Gulliver met Humanoid race who are horrible, deformed and savage. Then he met also with the Houyhnhnms who claimed to be the ruler. It explains that every human has a different character such as good and bad.

    4. A Modest Proposal by Swift is the laughingstock of the project for the poor. This condition is depicted in Ireland where many poor people experience economic hardship.

    5. The stream of consciousness is a literary technique used in poetry and fiction. This illustrates the point of view of individual thought processes of characters.

    6. Gothic novels usually contain elements of magic, ghosts and so on. In addition, the gothic novel also develops extraordinary imagination and exploration. Gothic novel was first written by Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto in 1764.

  9. 1. British society prefer to keep the monarch because they did not want to see the revolution of 1649 repeated.
    2. Women became leading novelists in the late 17th and early 18th centuries because at the time women have always written a lot of fiction and they were also the greatest part of the readership, the market for the new professional writers.
    3. Swifts’ Gulliver’s Travels was written in 4 four books.
    a. First book Gulliver travels to Lilliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants. It shows that England feels that they are a big, power nations thus made them underestimate to the other nations.
    b. Second book , on Brobdignag, the people are enormous. Religion and politics in particular are satirized; English political practices of the day met with much scorn.
    c. Third book Gulliver arrived at the flying island, Laputa. Means that England was a centre for science and culture, but all the wisest men have no practical sense of how to live on the real world.
    d. The final book, Gulliver is in the land of Houyhnhnms, who are a superior race of intelligent horses, it compares to their ways with the nasty monkey -like Yahoos, who represent humanity. Swift’s satire is particularly strong because Gulliver observes another world in which ordinary human actions are criticized when performed by extraordinary characters.
    4. Swift proposes in A Modest Proposal is a way to solve the Irish problem of too many children – by selling the children a England to be eaten. He satire characterized by shocking proposal which are treated as if they were normal and which are not commented on by the writer.
    5. Laurence Sterne is the inventor of the Stream of Consciousness technique, this technique means following the thought of characters as they come into their heads.
    6. The special characteristics of a Gothic novel are developed the imaginative range of genre, going beyond realism and moral instruction. It explored extremes of feeling and imagination.
    The first Gothic novel in English literature is The Sublime and the Beautiful which is written by Edmund Burke (1757)

  10. AUGUSTAN (NEO CLASSICAL) PERIOD

    1. When American Declaration of Independence (1776) and the French Revolution (1789) with the slogan ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ grew a new mood of freedom in England, British society preferred to keep the monarch because British society thought that the freedom in England was a great threat to the British society which did not want to see the revolution of 1649 repeated.

    2. Mention two reasons why women became leading novelists in the late 17th and early 18th centuries?
    a. Because there was a growing market for novels among the middle classes especially among ladies and this market grew during the eighteenth century until the novel reached a huge leadership all over the world.
    b. The second reason was Mary de la Riviere whose novels were hugely popular in her own lifetime and they were completely ignored by the mostly male ctitics who followed.

    3. Swifts’ Gulliver’s Travels was written in 4 books. Explain the story of each book and what he satirized in each it.
    a. First book tells about his travel to Lilliput, where he meets the very small inhabitant. This part satirizes England which underestimates other nations.
    b. Second book tells about people who are enormous at Brobdignag. Religion and politics in particular are satirized.
    c. In the third book, Gulliver arrives at a place looking like a flying saucer. In this part all the new learning of the Royal society is the victim. He satirizes a centre for science and culture, but, as Swift saw it, all the wisest men have no practical sense of how to live in the real world.
    d. In the fourth book, Gulliver meets the cultured horses, the Houyhnhnms, and compares their ways with the nasty monkey-like yahoos, who represent humanity. His satire is particularly strong because Gulliver observes another world in which ordinary human actions are critized when performed by extraordinary characters.

    4. What does Swift propose in A Modest Proposal, and waht does he satirize in it?
    He proposes a way to solve the Irish problem of too many children by selling the children a England to be eaten. He satirizes on political solution to the problem. His satire characterized by shocking proposals which are treated as if they were normal and which are not commented on by the writer.

    5. Laurence Sterne is the inventor of the Stream of Consciousness technique. It means that he does not want to follow the traditional technique plot in his novel. He plays with time, plot and character, and even with the shape and design of the page.
    6. What are the special characteristics of a Gothic novel? Mention the title of the first Gothic novel in English literature.
    The characteristic of Gothic novel uses frightening effect where there are castle and ghosts, appearances and disappearances. It developes the imaginative range of the genre, going beyond realism and moral instruction. It explores extremes of feeling and imagination. The first Gothic novel in English is The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole.

  11. Dear Sir,
    Below is my response about the questions in Augustan period.
    1. The American Declaration of Independence (1776) and the French Revolution (1789) with the slogan `Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ grew a new mood of freedom in England, but why did British society prefer to keep the monarch because I think there was a time when the monarchy was going to be fall because the rebellions which were supporters of Monarch were defeated and the power of Parliament and Prime Minister was back to function.
    2. The reaosen why women became leading novelists in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: First, Women had more time to pay attention to fashion, art and literature, women had more to read and use the feminism feelings to create writings in novel format. Second, there were some new formats of novels developing at that time so that it could encouraged women to express their feminism.
    3. First book is told about Gulliver’s traveling to Liliput. In this story, he meets the smallest inhabitants. Second book is tell about Gulliver’s arriving in Brobdignag. In this story, He satirizes in Political and religion. The third story is told about the new learning all society. The royal society was founded in 1662 and 1663 for the improving of natural knowledge. He satirizes in science and culture. The fourth, tells about Gulliver’s meeting some culture horse. In this book, Swift tries to show that ordinary people are being criticized by extraordinary people.
    4. Swift propose in A Modest Proposal, and what does he satirize in it because he proposes a way for Irish to deal with having many children by selling their children to England to be eaten. He satirizes on political solutions to the problem.
    5. Laurence Sterne is the inventor of the Stream of Consciousness techniqueis a literary technique by thoughts of characters as they come into their heads. The technique breaks the rule, especially on the plot structure.
    6. The special characteristics of a Gothic novel? Mention the title of the first Gothic novel in English literature are develop imagination and feelings most.

  12. I’m so sorry sir because i’m late to do my assigment……
    1.The American Declaration of Independence (1776) and the French Revolution (1789) with the slogan `Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ grew a new mood of freedom in England, British society preferred to keep the monarch because this was a great threat to the stability of British society, which did not want to see the revolution of 1649 repeated.

    2.Two reasons why women became leading novelists in the late 17th and early 18th centuries they are :the first, they have always written a lot of fiction, second they were also the greatest part of the readership, the market for the new professional writers. In the first part Gulliver travels to Lilliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants. This parts satirizes England which underestimates other nations.

    3. Swifts’ Gulliver’s Travels was written in 4 four books.
    -The first book tells about Gulliver travels to Liliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants. He satirizes in religion and politics.
    -The second book tells about when Gulliver on Brobdignag, where the people and also the king enormous to him when he describes the Englad society. He still satirizes in Political and religion.
    -The third book tells about the all the new learning of all society is the victim. The royal society was founded in 1662 and 1663 for the improving of natural knowledge. He satirizes in science and culture.
    -The last books tells about Gulliver meets the cultured horses the Houyhnhms and compares that way with the nasty monkeys like Yahoos, who represent humanity. He satirizes in particularly strong because he observes another world in which ordinary human action are criticized when performed in extraordinary characters.

    4. Swift proposes in A Modest Proposal, a way to solve the Irish problem of too many children—by selling the children a England to be eaten. He satirizes on political solutions to the problem.

    5. The Stream of Consciousness technique is a literary technique which characterized by following the thoughts of characters as they come into their heads.

    6. The special characteristics of a Gothic novel are develope the imaginative range of the genre, going beyond realism and moral instruction. It explore extremes of feeling and imagination, and the title of the first Gothic novel in English literature are The Sublime and The Beautiful, The Old English Baron, Vathek

  13. 1. There was a time when the monarchy was going to be fall because the rebellions which were supporters of Monarch were defeated and the power of Parliament and Prime Minister was back to function. Not to mention, the Industrial Revolution had developed in European. These reasons could push the Monarch away and it’s not good for the Royal society and high-class society who really rely on common people in finance. British Kingdom still believed that monarch system was the best for country’s stability.

    2. There were two reasons why women became leading novelist in 17th and early 18th century. First was because the society’s welfare had increased. Women had more time to pay attention to fashion, art and literature. These encouraged women to read more and use the feminism feelings to create writings in novel format. Second, the situation was more opened at that time. There were some new formats of novels developing at that time. One of them was epistolary novels. It encouraged women to express their feminism.

    3. First book is told about Gulliver’s traveling to Liliput. In that story, he showed that how England underestimates other nations. Second book is about Gulliver’s arriving in Brobdignag. It’s a place where people are huge or giant. Through this story, he focuses on religion and politics power at that time. The third story is about Gulliver’s arriving in a place where it looks like a flying saucer. The flying saucer represents the Royal Society who considers as the center of science and culture. The fact was that it’s far from the reality. The fourth, or the last book tells about Gulliver’s meeting some weird creatures which compare them with a nasty monkey-like Yahoos which represent humanity. In this book, Swift tries to show that ordinary people are being criticized by extraordinary people. So it seems that the extraordinary people are the ‘normal’ one.

    4. He proposes a way for Irish to deal with having many children by selling their children to England to be eaten. It seems bold and it’s actually a satire to a solution of political problem at that time.

    5. Stream of Consciousness technique is following the thoughts of characters as they come into their heads. It doesn’t look like traditional novel which describe the plot had the beginning, middle, and end in order. The technique breaks the rule, especially on the plot structure. The point is how the characters can be retained in readers’ mind.

    6. Special characters of gothic novels are set in medieval times. The layout settings are castle. Ghost appearance completes the story to show appearances and disappearances. The story is about horror and mystery. Gothic novels develop imagination and feelings most. The examples are The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole (1764); The Old English Baron by Clara Reeve (1777); Vathek by William Beckford (1786); The Mysteries of Udolpho by Ann Radcliff (1794); and The Monk by Matthew Lewis (1796).

  14. dear sir
    below is my response about the questions in Augustan period
    1.The American Declaration of Independence (1776) and the French Revolution (1789) with the slogan `Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ grew a new mood of freedom in England, British society preferred to keep the monarch because they wanted to keep the stability of the kingdom they didn’t want the war happened again. They didn’t want the revolution in 1649 happened again.
    2.Two reasons why women became leading novelists in the late 17th and early 18th centuries are the first at that time as novelists they didn’t have to have a good education like men do in the previous age. It is equal, women are as free as men to write novel. The second women had written a lot of novels.
    3.Swifts’ Gulliver’s Travels was written in 4 four books. The story of each book and he satirizes in each it: the first book tells about Gulliver travels to Liliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants. He satirizes in religion and politics. The second book tells about when Gulliver on Brobdignag, where the people and also the king enormous to him when he describes the Englad society. He still satirizes in Political and religion. The third book tells about the all the new learning of all society is the victim. The royal society was founded in 1662 and 1663 for the improving of natural knowledge. He satirizes in science and culture. The final books tells about Gulliver meets the cultured horses the Houyhnhnms and compares that way with the nasty monkeys like Yahoos, who represent humanity. He satirizes in particularly strong because he observes another world in which ordinary human action are criticized when performed in extraordinary characters.
    4.Swift proposes in a Modest Proposal by a way to solve the problem of too many children by selling the children to a England to be eaten, and he satirizes religions and politics especially political solution to the problem of Irish problem of many children in it.
    5.Laurence Sterne is the inventor of the Stream of Consciousness technique. The meant by this technique is following the thoughts of the characters as they come to their head.
    6a. The special characteristics of a Gothic novel are the novel developed by imaginative genre going beyond realism and moral instruction, the novel explored the extreme of feeling and imagination
    b.The title of the first Gothic novel in English literature are The Sublime and The Beautiful, The Old English Baron, Vathek

  15. 1. British society prefered to keep the monarch because they disliked any revolution to
    threaten its stability. They did not want to see the revolution of 1649 repeated

    2. Two reasons why women became leading novelists in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. First they have always written a lot of fiction, second they were also the greatest part of the readership, the market for the new professional writers.

    3.The story of each book of Swifts’ Gulliver’s Travels and what he satirizes in each it.

    • In the first part Gulliver travels to Lilliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants. This parts satirizes England which underestimates other nations.
    • In book two, Gulliver arrives at Brobdignag, where the people are enormous. Religion and politics in particular are satirized
    • in the third book Gulliver arrives at a place looking like a flying saucer. In this part all the new learning of the Royal Society is the victim. The Royal Society was founded in I662 and 1663 `for the Improving of Natural Knowledge.’ It was a centre for science and culture, but, as Swift saw it, all the wisest men have no practical sense of how to live in the real world.
    • In the fourth book, Gulliver meets the cultured horses, the Houyhnhnms, and compares their ways with the nasty monkey-like Yahoos, who represent humanity. Swift’s satire is particularly strong because Gulliver observes another world in which ordinary human actions are criticized when performed by extraordinary characters
    .
    4. Swift proposes in A Modest Proposal,a way to solve the Irish problem of too many children—by selling the children a England to be eaten. He satirizes on political solutions to the problem.

    5. The Stream of Consciousness technique is a literary technique which characterized by following the thoughts of characters as they come into their heads.

    6. The special characteristics of a Gothic novel are develope the imaginative range of the genre, going beyond realism and moral instruction. It explore extremes of feeling and imagination. The Sublime and the Beautiful written by Edmund Burke is the first Gothic novel in English literature

  16. After studying the topic above, answer each of the following questions briefly but concisely.

    1) The American Declaration of Independence (1776) and the French Revolution (1789) with the slogan `Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ grew a new mood of freedom in England, but why did British society prefer to keep the monarch?
    2) Mention two reasons why women became leading novelists in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
    3) Swifts’ Gulliver’s Travels was written in 4 four books. Explain the story of each book and what he satirizes in each it.
    4) What does Swift propose in A Modest Proposal, and what does he satirize in it?
    5) Laurence Sterne is the inventor of the Stream of Consciousness technique. What is meant by this technique?
    5) What are the special characteristics of a Gothic novel? Mention the title of the first Gothic novel in English literature

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