Chapter 1 of a Research Proposal


Chapter 1 of a Research Proposal

Parlindungan Pardede

Universitas Kristen Indonesia

Chapter 1 or the introduction of a research proposal is the most important part of a proposal, because the rest parts of the proposal are merely supports of this section. The introduction sets the scene for the study, establishes the problem that the study addresses, targets an audience, identifies the relevance of the problem for the audience, defines key concepts, specify the purposes and significance of the study, and clarifies any term that might cause different perceptions.

The followings are brief and practical description to each subsection of the introduction section of a research proposal.

A. Background

In general, this section is written in some short introductory paragraphs (three to four pages at most). The primary goal of these paragraphs is to inform the readers the general area to be addressed by the study and to create a sense of interest in the topic. To achieve the goal, the writer typically establishes the nature, and context of the topic, presents his interest in and experience with it, the reasons why the research is important, relevant findings of previous researches, and arguments how this research will solve problems or add to knowledge in this area. In short, these paragraphs set the stage for the paper and put the topic in perspective.

Look at the following background subsection of the research proposal entitled Short Stories Use in Language Skills Classes: Students’ Interest and Perception (2010).

The inclusion of literature, in general and short-stories in particular, in of the Second Language (SL) or Foreign Language (FL) classroom has been one of the most controversial issues. Used as a notable source of material during the domination of the Grammar Translation Method (GTM) until the end of the 19th century, literary works were absent from the curriculum of SL/FL teaching until 1970s when GTM was successively replaced by the Direct Method, Audiolingual Method, Community Language Learning, Suggestopedia, the Silent Way, Total Physical Response, and the Natural Approach which tend to regard a SL/FL teaching as a matter of linguistics and emphasize more on structures and vocabulary. Literature became even more ignored ESL/EFL classrooms were dominated by dialogues under the ascendancy of the communicative approach (Liddicoat & Crozet 2000). But since the 1980s, literature has found its way back into the ESL/EFL classrooms due to the realization that when used appropriately, with their authentic nature, literary genres are functional tools for language classes for all levels.

Starting from the last two decades the use of literature, in general and short-stories in particular, in ELT classroom has been advocated due to the various advantages they can offer to teachers and learners. Literature, in the form of short-stories, makes English learning enjoyable and attractive. Stories also help to stimulate students’ curiosity about the target culture and language. Integrating short-stories in EFL classrooms also paces the way to the EFL learners’ involvement with rich, authentic uses of the foreign language (Collie and Slater, 1991). Stories foster reading proficiency which is very important for enriching EFL vocabulary. The use of short-stories encourages language acquisition and students’ language awareness. Stories stimulate language acquisition by providing contexts for processing and interpreting new language. They also supplement the restricted input of the EFL classroom. Stories also promote an elementary grasp of English to internalize vocabulary and grammar patterns.

Although the renewed interest in the inclusion of literary works in worldwide SL/FL curricula has flourished since 1980s, its initiation in the curriculum of the English Department of FKIP-UKI is relatively new. It could be traced back to the curriculum revision carried out in 1995 when, for the first time, three classes of literature (2 credits each) were put in to the curriculum. However, these classes were designed to introduce literature for literature’s sake. Literature I—placed in Semester V—is an introduction to English poetry analysis. Literature II—placed in Semester VI—is to an introduction to fiction analysis. Literature III—placed in Semester VII—introduces how to appreciate dramas. Such condition made the students unable to see the mutual relationship of literature and language skills.

 In practice, the inclusion of literary works in language skills classes of the English Department of FKIP-UKI took place since the curriculum was revised in 2000. The new curriculum contains four levels of listening class, five levels of reading class, four levels of speaking, and four levels of writing, and in each level of those language skills classes some literary works were incorporated. For instance, reading classes not only prepared expository passages to read. Some poems, short stories or short plays were also included.

Theoretically, the use of literature in language teaching is very advantageous.  Collie and Slater (1991) list four benefits: authentic material, cultural enrichment, language advancement, and personal growth. First of all, literary texts can be more beneficial than informational materials in stimulating the acquisition process as they provide authentic contexts for processing new language. Since literary texts contain language intended for native speakers, literature stands as a model for language learners to become familiar with different forms and conventions. Second, using literature in language teaching has the advantage of providing cultural information about the target language. Literary texts increase foreign language learners’ insight into the country and the people whose language is being learnt (Collie and Slater, 1991), which fosters learners’ ability to interpret discourse in different social and cultural target language contexts (Savvidou, 2004). Third, containing real examples of grammatical structures and vocabulary items, the literary texts raise learners’ awareness of the range of the target language and advance their competence in all language skills (Povey, 1967). Finally, since literature enables students to understand and appreciate other cultures, societies and ideologies different from their own, it encourages personal growth and intellectual development (Carter and Long, 1991, 2-4). In line with that, Erkaya (2005) notes four benefits of using of short stories to teach ESL/EFL, i.e. motivational, literary, cultural and higher-order thinking benefits.

Therefore, the inclusion of short stories in the language skills classes of the English Department of FKIP-UKI is expected to provide greater opportunities for the students to enjoy the learning activities, to enhance their language skills, to develop their cultural sensitivity, and to sharpen their thinking skills. In addition, the practice is also expected to increase the students’ skills in using short story to teach English. So, when they have graduated, they will also be able to provide the same benefits to their students.

Despite the curriculum designers and lecturers’ enthusiasm and interest in the inclusion of short stories in the language classes of the English Department of FKIP-UKI, students’ perceptions of short story in this context, and its impact on them, have never been investigated or adequately considered in a systematic way. To a certain extent, this may be accepted as a proof of Edmondson’ (1997) anxiety that the inclusion or exclusion of short stories in the curriculum of English programs was mainly based on assumptions and theories. It was conducted without providing any empirical evidence that the use of short stories develops students’ language competence.

Such practice is fundamentally risky. By doing this students are assigned to deal with materials whose suitability with their’ needs, interest, and perception is still uncertain. Since the role of curriculum designer and lecturer is not just to facilitate, but to maximize, students learning, it is therefore vital to delve into students’ interest and perception of short story, and their perception of the importance of using short story in the curriculum they are dealing with.

B. Research Question(s) (or Problems Statement)

The term ‘research question’ is used in qualitative or action research, while ‘problem statement’ is used in quantitative research. This section is the focal point of a research proposal, because this is the place where writer identifies and clearly and precisely states the specific problem to be investigated. The question(s) should be SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and timely).

To illustrate, the followings are the research questions derived from two studies. The first one belongs to Using BALL to Develop Writing Skills: Students’ Interest and Perception and the other belongs to Improving Students’ Vocabulary by Using Video: An Action Research.

The problems to be addressed in this study are the students’ perception and interest in the use of blogs to develop writing skills. Although the nature of blogs emerge them advantageous to be used to develop writing skills, blogs are a relatively new internet application. Thus, using them in writing classes without exploring the students’ perspectives is fundamentally risky. Thus, knowing what students think and whether they are interested in the use of blog or not are very crucial before implementing them in writing classes.

The problems are formulated as follow:

1. What do students think of the use of blogs to develop writing skills?

2. Are students interested in the use of blogs to develop writing skills?

Based on the description in the background section above, through this study the writer wants to know whether the use of videos can improve students’ mastery of English vocabulary. The writer hopes that this study can provide the answers to whether or not videos can improve students’ vocabulary mastery and how far the students’ vocabulary mastery improves after being taught by using video.

The problem is specifically formulated as follows:

1. Can videos improve the students’ vocabulary mastery?

2. How videos improve the students’ vocabulary mastery in teaching and learning process?

C. Objectives

The objectives (or purposes) is a single statement or paragraph that explains what the study intends to accomplish. The objective statement should be directly based on the identified and formulated problem(s) in the previous section, so that readers are be able to realize immediately that the purposes are directly related to those problem(s). The objective statement should be phrased in line with the nature of the problem. This is done by communicating the purpose using ‘action verbs’, such as discover, describe, compare, develop, overcome the difficulty with, investigate, understand the cause or effect of, refine our current understanding of…, or understand what makes ____ successful or unsuccessful which accurately indicate your research objectives.

The followings are the objective statement derived from Using BALL to Develop Writing Skills: Students’ Interest and Perception:

The goal of this study is:

1. To discover and examine the students’ perception on the use of blogs to develop writing skills.

2. To investigate whether the students are interested in the use of blogs to develop writing skills.

 

D. Significance of the study

This section creates a perspective for looking at the problem. It points out how the study relates to the larger issues and uses a persuasive rationale to justify the reason for the study. It makes the objective worth pursuing. The significance of the study points out the benefit(s) to get if the study is done and to whom it is important. In Using BALL to Develop Writing Skills: Students’ Interest and Perception, for instance, the writer states the significance of the study as follows:

The researcher wills this study could give useful information and contributions to the teachers, and other researchers.

1. To teachers, the results of this study will hopefully provide information about students’ perception and interest in the use of blogs to develop writing skills.

2. To other researchers, the results of this study can provide a basis for conducting researches on the same area.

E. Scope of the study

All studies have limitations and a finite scope. Limitations are often imposed by time and budget constraints. Therefore, a researcher should precisely list the limitations of his study, and describe the extent to which he believes the limitations degrade the quality of the research. The “Scope of the Study” section is therefore where you set the boundaries of your study, limitations, and drawbacks that will possibly emerge due to the scope and limitation. The boundaries cover the issues (or variables). The limitation of the study precisely describes the sample/participants and the method and data to be collected and describe the extent to which he believes the limitations degrade the quality of the research. Look at the following example taken from the proposal of Using BALL to Develop Writing Skills: Students’ Interest and Perception.

(SCOPE) This study is set to discover and examine the students’ perception on the use of blogs to develop writing skills and whether the participants are interested in the use of media to develop writing skills. (LIMITATION) Due to the researcher time and budget constraints, the participants in this study will be limited to students of the English Education Study Program of UKI only. The data to be collected are limited to attitudinal information only. In addition, the data will be collected through a survey and interview at one point in time (cross-sectional study). (POSSIBLE DRAWBACK/ QUALITY DEGRADATION) Therefore, the findings may be valid only to students in the single study program. It cannot be generalized to other students in other institutions.

F. Operational Definitions

The operational definitions section is used to define special terms used in the research. Thus, this section is included in a proposal only if it uses terms that are unique to the field of inquiry or that might not be understood by the general reader. Look at the following example:

“For the purpose of this research, improvement is operationally defined as post-test score minus pretest score”.

The introduction (Chapter I) is essentially a ‘miniversion’ of the much larger review of literature (Chapter II) and can be thought of as highlighting certain segments or pieces of it. That is why some researchers prefer to write the introduction after they have actually completed much of their literature review. This section can certainly be written early in the research process, but the researcher should revisit it after he has completed his literature review to ascertain that both sections are consistent one to another.

Group Assignment

Write your group’s research proposal chapter 1 in the reply section below. Include these elements:

  1. Background (2-4 pages)
  2. Problem Statement
  3. Research Objective(s)
  4. Research Question(s)
  5. Research Scope
  6. Research Significance
  7. Operational Definitions (quantitative only)

Please note that each group should write the proposal in accordance with the research method assigned, i.e.:

Group Research Method
I Experimental (cause-effect)
II Correlational
IV Case Study
III Action Research

8 Comments

  1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (Revision)
    CASE STUDY
    TITLE: BARRIERS USING THE ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH

    NAME OF GROUP:
    BELLA CHRISTIE TARIGAN
    FRANKY ALBERT .W
    HAPPY SANDIRO SINAGA
    LIDIA TALENTA PANGARIBUAN
    SEPTIANA NAINGGOLAN

    Intoduction
    Experts give different definitions of speech. Tarin (1985) mentions that “Speaking is the ability to pronounce sounds articulation or words to express, describe, and convey thoughts, ideas, and feelings” More broadly, the talk is a form of human behavior that utilizes the physical factors, psychological, neurological, semantic and linguistic extensively and the results should be regarded as the most important human tool for social control. Thus, it can be said that the activities of talking going process of changing the form of thoughts or feelings into a form of speech or sound meaningful language. Speaking not only give without meaning, but convey thoughts or feelings to others through speech or the spoken language.
    In junior high school speaking can be divided into two phases. For the lower classes (classes VII and VIII) is called basic speaking. For high grade (IX) is called to speak further. Speak starters began to be taught from the students sitting in class VII, is the foundation for students. Called the foundation for all learning activities undertaken will be related to talk. Without speaking skills students are not used to say in the English language, because the students did not understand what was being said. In addition, beginning to talk as well as a base to be able to speak further.
    But the fact that occur in junior high school, in high grade there are students who can not speak. Inability to speak is one of the reasons for such students have difficulty remembering that less can understand the English pronunciation using language. Difficulty learning is a condition in the learning process characterized by certain obstacles, in achieving the learning objectives. So students who have learning difficulties will face obstacles on his duties at the school.

    Background
    The study discusses the case of the student’s learning disabilities in speech aimed to find and describe the factors – factors that cause difficulty talking and learning achievement of Salsa. Salsa is a 7th grade of SMP 40 Jakarta.
    This study describes the difficulty in speak a sentence using the English language experienced by a student named salsa, 7th grade students of SMP 40 Jakarta. The study aims to determine the factors that affect the difficulty in using speaking in English. The method used using quantitative methods. To obtain the data the researchers used several data collection techniques are observation, interview. Research subjects in this study is the salsa and to get information. Researchers chose several speakers, namely salsa, 7th grade teacher, family and friend of Salsa. The results showed that there are several factors that affect the difficulty in using speaking in english with experienced by Salsa. These factors are generally categorized on external factors. Internal factors include remembering vocabulary and language structure and concentration that are less and cause a lack of self confidence in speaking in English.
    Meanwhile, external factors include a family environment, school environment and peers are less supportive to practice English in everyday life. Due to the difficulties speaking experienced by salsa. This leads to academic achievement in the lessons Speaking less than satisfactory. From 11 subjects taught, only four subjects whose value has met the minimum completeness criteria (KKM), while seven others are still under KKM lesson. If the value of learning outcomes in the second semester of salsa later still under KKM then salsa can not go up to grade 8. Because in addition to lack of KKM, she could not even using the english language in the speaking. For that recommended to the family should provide encouragement, motivation and attention in learning activities and do not criticize the deficiencies they have.

    Research Objectives
    1. To find out what is holding Salsa in trouble remembering vocabulary and grammar.
    2. Help Salsa to improve skills in English through English course.

    Research questions
    In the description above, can be formulated the problem in research efforts to improve the ability of speaking Salsa as follows:
    1. Is the english course can help Salsa, 40 junior high school students in Jakarta Class 7 (1 SMP) in enhancing the ability to speak using the English language? ”
    2. What inhibits Salsa, SMP 40 Jakarta country grade 7 (1 SMP) in remembering vocabulary and grammar?

    Research Scope
    This research will conduct for about 2 months towards for students of 7th grade who involved in student of 40 junior high school In addition, the data of this case will be collected through observe for the case.

    Research Significances
    The significance of this research is divided into two significance as follows:
    1. Theoretical Significance
    Theoretically the results of this study are expected to broaden the thinking in using English speaking skills as well as a suggestion to apply the knowledge they have acquired during the learning.
    2. Practical Significance
    In practical terms is expected to lead to confidence in the skills of speaking

    Operational definitions
    VARIABLE: ABILITY AND OBSTACLE
    1. ABILITY
    OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: the capacity of an individual to perform various tasks in a job. Ability is a current assessment of what a person can do.
    CATEGORY: SPEAKING SKILLS / ABILITIES VERBAL
    SCALE: Ordinal
    2. OBSTACLE
    OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: Disorders that anything that disturbs the smooth communication and will hamper the sending and receiving messages
    CATEGORY: DISTRUBER
    SCALE: INTERVAL

    References:
    http://Www.mymarketresearchmethod.com/types-of-data-nominal-ordinal-interval-ratio/1
    Pascasarjana-halimi.blogspot.co.id/2014/12/penelitian-study-kasus-desain-metode.html

  2. RESEARCH PROPOSAL REVISION (Experimental (cause-effect))

    Title
    “The effects of collaborative learning to speaking skill in SMP N 71 Jakarta”

    TEAMWORK:
    1. Retta Mestika Ompusunggu (1412150005)
    2. Alicia Beatrik (1412150014)
    3. Morina Faraera (1412150016)
    4. Cahaya Novita (1412150010)
    5. Epelin Tampubolon (1412150018)

    CHAPTER I
    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study

    When we learn English, there are four skills that should be mastered such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Speaking is the one of the most interesting skills. Any expression of thought that comes from mind can be expressed by speaking. For instance, in daily lives most of people speak more than write. Moreover, speaking skills are the act of generating words that can be understood by the listeners, a good speaker is clear and informative when he or she gives information. If we want to be a good speaker we should make a habit of talking and have become part of our daily life.

    According to Pollard (2008:33) speaking is the one of the difficult aspects for students to master. Everything is involved when speaking: ideas, what will say, language, how to use grammar and vocabulary and pronunciation are very hard to learn. Meanwhile, speaking is important for students to communicate with other people and to express their idea.

    On the other hands, speaking as a foreign language usually seems harder than learning to write and read it. Often, the most important problem people have with foreign languages is that they cannot speak. There are some of speaking problems. First, people make mistakes when speaking, then they become afraid of speaking, and thus they never get the practice which would enable them to correct their mistakes. Second, they have a little of vocabulary. Third, they often hard to pronounce the word hence, they think it is hard to speak.

    Based on the questionnaire with the teacher in SMP N 71 Jakarta, in this school 2 still the teacher as the central of the study and the students just rewrite and do not want to express their mind and their knowledge. This situation made the teacher was acted like they know at all and do not as a facilitator for teaching their students. There were some reasons why students unwilling to express their idea by speaking, first, the motivation to speak English were very low because, students shy to speak and make mistakes when speak, second, students want to speak but they hard to communicate, and the last, the limitation of vocabulary made them hard to understand and express their idea.

    In addition, on the curriculum of junior high school in academic year 2016/2017 at semester one, that one of the speaking basic competence is stated as “to express meanings in forms of spoken in some expression of inviting, accepting, and rejecting invitation accurately, coherently and appropriately to communicate with another person or in their environment. When the teacher asks them to present their story they did not present their story accurately and fluently. The following facts were seen to indicate such problems: (1) some spoke shyly. (2) Some looked nervous. They spoke softer than usual. (3) Some did not speak fluently. They used fillers like eee… when retelling stories. (4) Some who could tell their stories confidently, but they did not speak naturally. In fact, the students need to teach with a new method.

    In learning English, sometimes students are bored with certain teaching learning process. Thus, to help students improve their speaking skill, the researcher offers a technique to overcome this problem that is teaching speaking through Collaborative learning. To collaborate means to work with a team or group. Collazos et al (2002) states collaborative learning is an instrumental 3 method in which students are teamed together on an assignment. Collaborative learning concerns to the students as a central of the study and the teacher as a facilitator. In collaborative learning students are divided into several groups to do the task which is given by the teacher. It is learning through group work rather than learning by working alone. Thus, the success of one student helps other students to be successful. In addition, there are other terms for this kind of activity, such as cooperative learning, team learning, or group learning.

    Based on the real problem of the students’ speaking above the researcher is very interested in knowing the improvement of speaking skill of the eighth-grade students of SMP N 71 Jakarta in academic year 2016/2017 through the implementation of collaborative learning.

    1.2 Problem Statements

    According to the statement above, the research question is formulated as follows: does the collaborative learning effect the speaking skill of the eighth-grade students of SMP N 71 Jakarta?

    1.3 Research Objectives

    This study was carried out to achieve the followings: to find out whether the collaborative learning method can effectively improve the students of SMP N 71 Jakarta speaking skill.

    1.4 Study Limitation

    Due to the time and budget limitation, the population of this study will be limited only to the whole students of the eighth-grade students of SMP N 71 Jakarta. The sample is all the academic year 2016/2017 students. The data will be collected through a survey and observation through tests. As a consequence of those limitations, the findings in this study cannot be generalized to other population.

    1.5 Research significances

    This study is hopefully beneficial to the followings:

    1. For teachers, the result of this study will hopefully help in teaching English through collaborative learning.
    2. For students, this study is hoped to be useful for the students to improve and develop their abilities in speaking English. It will give them a lot of new experiences in order that they will be more interested and enjoy in learning speaking skill.

    1.6 Operational Definitions

    In the context of this study, they are some key terms which need to explain as follows:

    1. The term ‘speaking’ is the action of conveying information or expressing one’s feelings in speech and the activity of delivering speeches. Speaking is one of the four basic English competencies or skills that the students should gain well. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994; Burns & Joyce, 1997).

    2. The term ‘collaborative learning’ is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of students working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product. According to Gerlach (1994) ‘collaborative learning’ is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task or create a product. Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learning is a social act naturally in which the talk of participants among themselves. It is through the talk that learning occurs.

    References

    Brown, H.D. (1994). Teaching by principles: an interactive approach to language pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.

    Burns, A., & Joyce, H. (1997). Focus on speaking. Sydney: National Center for English Language Teaching and Research.

    Collazos, C. A., Guerrero, L.A,.Pino, J. A., & Ochoa, S. F. (2002).Evaluating Collaborative Learning Processes.In J.M. Haake& J.A. Pino (Eds.), Department of Computer Science (pp. 203–221).Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

    Hornby, A. S. (2000). Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary. Oxford: Oxford university press.

    Gerlach, J. M. (1994). “Is this collaboration?” In Bosworth, K. and Hamilton, S. J. (Eds.), Collaborative Learning: Underlying Processes and Effective Techniques, New Directions for Teaching and Learning No. 59.

    Pattanpichet, F. (2011). The effects of using collaborative learning to enhance students‟. Journal of college teaching & learning, 1-8

    Pollard, L. (2008).Guide to Teaching English. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).

  3. Group III (Action Research)
    ———————————————————————————–PDF Download
    https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3j2iJZYGjgGbXhZcU9IZElybjg
    ———————————————————————————-
    Team members:
    1. Isti
    2. Rachel
    3. Theresia
    4. Yanna

    CHAPTER I
    INTRODUCTION

    In this chapter, the researcher presents the research background, problems statement, research objectives, research significance, research scope and operational definitions.

    A. Background
    As we know, communication is one of human basic needs in life. According to Vasile and Mintz (2000:4), every day you communicate orally without giving it a thought. One of the effective ways to communicate is speaking. Ehrlich and Hawes (2000:1) stated that knowing how to speak well can benefit you more than you can imagine.

    Nowadays people are required to speak either two or three languages. According to Lado (1964:3), more languages are studied than ever before, and methods of learning them are changing radically. Since English is recognized and understood by people everywhere so it is a must for people to learn English, especially university learners are obliged to write and speak in English.

    The demand of speaking English fluently at university level is extremely high so it is very important to prepare university learners for the unpredictable and real communication, which is quite different from what can be found in pocket phrase-books.

    However, in Indonesia English is as a foreign language where English is not commonly spoken. This is one of the reasons why the mastery of speaking in English is a priority for us.

    According to Bailey and Savage (1993:vii), Speaking in a second or foreign language has often been viewed as the most demanding of the four skills. When attempting to speak, learners must muster their thoughts and encode those ideas in the vocabulary and syntactic structures of the target language.

    Little chance for university learners to speak English makes educators need to find and apply some effective teaching methodologies in order to improve students’ speaking not only for reaching higher intelligence or academic competence, but also giving the students real-life and meaningful experiences which can develop their speaking skill to face their future.

    There are some serious situations encountered by the educators when teaching speaking to university students. These situations are common ones that non-native speakers of English (and native speakers of English) find themselves in, both at school and on the job. The source of difficulty in such situations may be weak listening skill, weak speaking skill, a lack confidence about speaking up to ask for clarification and/ or help, a lack of knowledge about the appropriate way to prepare and deliver a presentation, or a lack of practice experiences in preparing and delivering a presentation. (Porter, Grant and Drapper (1985:4)).

    However, reminding that speaking skill is very important, especially for university students, although it will be challenging, educators should be able to open students’ mind that speaking is pretty important for themselves, should be able to arrange speaking classes as interesting as possible which not only enhancing the students’ participation in speaking but also in improving their public speaking skill.

    In this study, the researcher chose Christian University of Indonesia as the location because the researcher found out speaking problem at Semester V Faculty of English Education students, EFL learners, in September at preliminary observation there. The researcher interviewed the students. All of the students like English but when it comes into speaking, most of the students dislike it. They admitted that speaking in front of the public is the most difficult skill in English learning. They are shy, lack of practice, and do not know how to do it.

    The focus of this study is to solve the problem faced by Christian University students of Indonesia. The solution given by using presentation aids and oral presentation as a technique. By using presentation aids and oral presentation, the students are invited to practice speaking in front of the class by given topics so it will improve the students’ speaking skill, especially in public speaking.

    One of public speaking activities is doing presentation and oral presentation. According to Beebe and Beebe (2009:308), power point and the multitude of other presentation aids that speakers may use-especially visual aids- are powerful tools: They can help communicate your ideas with greater clarity and impact than can words alone. According to Bailey and Savage (1994:265), oral presentations often provide practice in speaking for presenter.

    Diyah Muthiatul Laili (2015) has conducted to a research in Indonesia related to oral presentation. The research finding showed that students had positive opinions towards this approach and it also approved that oral presentation could enhance students’ speaking skill.

    Based on the explanation above the researcher would like to conduct a research for improving university students’ public speaking skill by using presentation aids and doing oral presentations at Christian University of Indonesia. Accordingly, the title of this action research is “Improving Students’ Public Speaking Skill by Using Presentation Aids and Doing Oral Presentation at Christian University of Indonesia”

    B. Problem Statement
    Based on the background above the main problem of this study formulated as follows: “How can presentations improve students’ public speaking skill?

    C. Research Objectives
    Based on the problem statement, the study is intended to investigate how presentations can improve students’ public speaking skill at Christian University of Indonesia.

    D. Research Significance
    This study hopefully will contribute to the followings:
    1. For educator, it will help them to understand the factors from the presentation aids and oral presentation that can improve university students’ public speaking skill and give some ideas to be applied into their teaching.
    2. For university students, in English teaching program, the results of this study will motivate them to be eager to prepare the presentation aids and doing oral presentation.
    3. For readers and researchers, this will be a good source to enlarge the knowledge of using presentation aid and doing oral presentation in order to improve university students’ public speaking skill.
    E. Research Scope
    This research will conduct for about 3 month towards he semester V students who are involved in English learning program at Christian University of Indonesia. In addition, the data will be collected through action research.

    F. Operational Definitions
    In this part, there are some explanations from the topic of the title previous mention in order to avoid misunderstanding. The title is “Improving Students’ Public Speaking Skill by Using Presentation Aids and Doing Oral Presentation at Christian University of Indonesia”. The definitions of key terms are as follows:
    1. Improve means to (cause something) to get better (Cambridge Dictionary). In this study, improve means an effort of increasing students public speaking better.
    2. Public speaking means the process or act of performing a presentation (a speech) focused around an individual’s direct speech to a live audience in a structured, deliberate manner in order to inform, influence, or entertain them. (Wikipedia)
    3. Presentation aids means items other than the words of a speech that are used to support the intent of the speaker. In particular, they can be visual aids, audio aids or other supporting technology. Visual aids include projectors, physical objects, photographs, diagrams, charts and so on. Audio aids include music, conversations, recordings, etc. Technology that can be used includes computers, lights, microphones and recorders. (Changing Mind.org)
    4. The oral presentation means delivering an address to a public audience. (Effective Business Communication)

    [Put down the reference list, in which you write all cited sources using the APA Style Study https://parlindunganpardede.com/2014/04/17/apa-citation-style/ to start learning the APA Style].

  4. RESEARCH PROPOSAL (Experimental (cause-effect))

    TEAMWORK:
    1. Retta Mestika Ompusunggu (1412150005)
    2. Alicia Beatrik (1412150014)
    3. Morina Faraera (1412150016)
    4. Cahaya Novita (1412150010)
    5. Epelin Tampubolon (1412150018)

    TITLE
    “The effects of collaborative learning to speaking skill in SMP N 71 Jakarta”

    CHAPTER I
    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study
    When we learn English, there are four skills that should be mastered such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Speaking is the one of the most interesting skills. Any expression of thought that comes from mind can be expressed by speaking. For instance, in daily lives most of people speak more than write. Moreover, speaking skills are the act of generating words that can be understood by the listeners, a good speaker is clear and informative when he or she gives information. If we want to be a good speaker we should make a habit of talking and have become part of our daily life.
    Pollard (2008:33) said that speaking is the one of the difficult aspects for students to master. Everything is involved when speaking: ideas, what will to say, language, how to use grammar and vocabulary and pronunciation are very hardly to learn. Meanwhile, speaking is important for students to communicate with other people and to express their idea.
    Besides, there are some of speaking problems. First, people make mistakes when speaking, then they become afraid of speaking, and thus they never get the practice which would enable them to correct their mistakes. Second, they have a little of vocabulary. Third, they often hard to pronounce the word hence, they think it is hard to speak.
    Based on the questionnaire with the teacher in SMP N 71 Jakarta, in this school 2 still the teacher as the central of the study and the students just rewrite and do not want to express their mind and their knowledge. This situation made the teacher was acted like they know at all and do not as a facilitator for teaching their students. There were some reasons why students unwilling to express their idea by speaking, first, the motivation to speak English were very low because, students shy to speak and make mistakes when speak, second, students want to speak but they hard to communicate, and the last, the limitation of vocabulary made them hard to understand and express their idea.
    In addition, on the curriculum of junior high school in academic year 2016/2017 at semester one, that one of the speaking basic competence is stated as “to express meanings in forms of spoken in some expression of inviting, accepting, and rejecting invitation accurately, coherently and appropriately to communicate with another person or in their environment. When the teacher asks them to present their story they did not present their story accurately and fluently. The following facts were seen to indicate such problems: (1) some spoke shyly. (2) Some looked nervous. They spoke softer than usual. (3) Some did not speak fluently. They used fillers like eee… when retelling stories. (4) Some who could tell their stories confidently, but they did not speak naturally. In fact, the students need to teach with a perfect method.
    In learning English, sometimes students are bored with certain teaching learning process. Thus, to help students improve their speaking skill, the researcher offers a technique to overcome this problem that is teaching speaking through Collaborative learning. To collaborate means to work with a team or group. Collazos et al (2002) states collaborative learning is an instrumental 3 method in which students are teamed together on an assignment. Collaborative learning concerns to the students as a central of the study and the teacher as a facilitator. In collaborative learning students are divided into several groups to do the task which is given by the teacher. It is learning through group work rather than learning by working alone. Thus, the success of one student helps other students to be successful. In addition, there are other terms for this kind of activity, such as cooperative learning, team learning, or group learning.
    Based on the real problem of the students’ speaking above the researcher is very interested in knowing the improvement of speaking skill of the eighth-grade students of SMP N 71 Jakarta in academic year 2016/2017 through the implementation of collaborative learning.

    1.2 Problem Statements

    According to the statement above, the research question is formulated as follows:

    • Does the collaborative learning effect the speaking skill of the eighth-grade students of SMP N 71 Jakarta?
    • Can the collaborative learning influence the eighth-grade students of SMP N 71 Jakarta to speak more confidence? [This is typical of an action research’s question!].
    • How the collaborative learning improve the eighth-grade students of SMP N 71 Jakarta speaking skill? [This question needs qualitative data to answer, while an experimental research produces quantitative data. So…?]

    1.3 Research Objectives

    This study was carried out to achieve the followings:
    1. To determine whether the collaborative learning method can effectively improve the students of SMP N 71 Jakarta speaking skill.
    2. To find out if students prefer to study in groups in the classroom.
    [Reconsider this subsection after revising your research question]

    1.4 Study Limitation
    Due to the time and budget limitation the researcher had [a past tense in this context indicates the research had been done. A proposal uses future tenses] in conducting this study, the population of the study was limited only to the whole students of the eighth- grade students of SMP N 71 Jakarta. The sample was all the academic year 2016/2017 students. As a consequence of those limitations, the findings in this study could not be generalized to other population. [Please note that every quantitative research results are meant to generalized!]

    1.5 Research significances

    This study was [Past tense! See previous notes on the use of tenses for a report and a proposal] hopefully beneficial to the followings:
    1. For teachers, the result of this study can be used to help teaching students’ speaking. So, the students can be easier to understand it. Hopefully, this “Collaborative Learning“ can be a medium to improve students’ speaking skill.
    [Pat tense indicates this is a research report, not a proposal]

    2. For students, it can also be used to improve and develop their abilities in speaking English. Because it will give them a lot of new experiences in order that they will be more interested and enjoy in learning speaking, to be a good English speaker. Furthermore, it is hoped to give positive influences to students in their English speaking skill directly. “Collaborative Learning“ can help students to explore alternative problem solutions in a safe environment and stimulates critical thinking and helps students clarify ideas through discussion and debate.

    1.6 Operational Definitions

    In the context of this study, the term ‘collaborative’ (oxford dictionary) is used to describe produced by or involving [What does this mean?] two or more parties working together. And the term ‘learning’ (oxford dictionary) is used to describe the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught [What??????]. So, according to Gerlach (1994) ‘collaborative learning’ is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task or create a product. Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learning is a social act naturally in which the talk of participants among themselves. It is through the talk that learning occurs.
    The term ‘speaking’ is one of the four Basic English competencies or skills that the students should gain well. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994; Burns & Joyce, 1997).

    References
    Hornby, A. S. (2000). Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary. Oxford: Oxford university press.
    Pattanpichet, F. (2011). The effects of using collaborative learning to enhance students‟. Journal of college teaching & learning, 1-8.

    Where is the info about Pollard, Callazos, Gerlach (1994) Brown, 1994; Burns & Joyce, 1997 in this reference list?

  5. Research Methodology
    “The Effect of Vocabulary Knowledge in Writing Skill”
    [This title is typical of an experimental study. Aren’t you asked to write a correlational study proposal?]

    Name of Group:
    Ester Sihombing (1412150011)
    Herlialan Purba (1412150019)
    Jessy D. Hutahaean (1412150017)
    Pricelia Hutagalung (1412150024)
    Yashinta T. wulandari (1412150001)

    CHAPTER I
    INTRODUCTION
    1.1 BACKGROUND
    Vocabulary is all about words — the words in a language or a special set of words you are trying to learn. Words that are generally understood when heard or read or seen constitute a person’s receptive vocabulary. For example, although a young child may not yet be able to speak, write, or sign, he or she may be able to follow simple commands and appear to understand a good portion of the language to which he or she is exposed. In this case, the child’s receptive vocabulary is likely tens, if not hundreds of words, but his or her active vocabulary is zero. When that child learns to speak or sign, however, the child’s active vocabulary begins to increase. It is also possible for the productive vocabulary to be larger than the receptive vocabulary, for example in a second-language learner who has learned words through study rather than exposure, and can produce them, but has difficulty recognizing them in conversation.
    Productive vocabulary, therefore, generally refers to words that can be produced within an appropriate context and match the intended meaning of the speaker or signer. As with receptive vocabulary, however, there are many degrees at which a particular word may be considered part of an active vocabulary. Knowing how to pronounce, sign, or write a word does not necessarily mean that the word that has been used correctly or accurately reflects the intended message; but it does reflect a minimal amount of productive knowledge.
    Wilkins (1972) wrote that “. . . while without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be con-eyed”(pp.111–112). This point reflects my experience with different languages; even without grammar, with some useful words and expressions, I can often manage to communicate.Lewis (1993) went further to argue, “Lexis is the core or heart of language”(p. 89). Particularly as students develop greater fluency and expression in English,it is significant for them to acquire more productive vocabulary knowledge and to develop their own personal vocabulary learning strategies.Students often instinctively recognize the importance of vocabulary to their language learning.As Schmitt (2010) noted,“learners carry around dictionaries and not grammar books”(p. 4). Teaching vocabulary helps students understand and communicate with others in English.Voltaire purportedly said,“Language is very difficult to put into words.” I believe English language students generally would concur, yet learning vocabulary also helps students master English for their purposes.
    Language. Brown, (2001: 336) also claimed that writing is a thinking process. Furthermore, he states that writing can be planned and given with an unlimited number of revisions before its release. In addition, Elbow (1973) in Brown (2001: 336) also says that writing is a two-step process. The first process is figuring out the meaning and the second process is putting the meaning into language.
    Another definition of writing skill is also defined by Urquhart and Mclver and also Harmer. Urquhart and Mclver (2005: 5-6) state that writing is a recursive process, which means students revise throughout the process, frequently moving back and forth among the stages. Then, students should learn strategies for invention and discovery, and teachers should help students generate content and discover a purpose. Also, it is stated that readers, purpose, and occasion define all types of writing and effective writing fulfills the writer’s intention and meets the readers’ needs. It means that writing is a complex process and it seems reasonable to expect.

    Research emphasizes that vocabulary development is a vital part of all content learning, but it is too often ignored. The link between vocabulary knowledge and comprehension is undeniable. While wide reading increases a student’s vocabulary significantly, teachers must realize that direct and explicit instruction in vocabulary must also occur daily in all classrooms. Students enter school with vastly different levels of word knowledge. Teachers must build word-rich environments in which to immerse students and teach and model good word learning strategies. Because research shows that having students look up words and write definitions is the least effective way to increase their vocabulary.
    Words are used in various forms of writing from formal essays to social media feeds. Many written words do not commonly appear in speech. Writers generally use a limited set of words when communicating: for example if there are a number of synonyms, a writer will have his own preference as to which of them to use. He is unlikely to use technical vocabulary relating to a subject in which he has no knowledge or interest.
    That’s why our group want to do a research about the effect of vocabulary to writing skills. Does it relate or not. As we know for writing we have to master some words so that we can write well. Our proposal will show about problem statements, research objectives, research questions, study limitation, research significances and operational definitions. We are interested to this topic “The effect of vocabulary knowledge to Writing skills”.

    1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
    The problem of this study is about the effect of vocabulary knowledge to writing skill. “Reading and writing are two analogous and complementary processes in that both involve generating ideas, organizing ideas into a logical order, drafting them a number of times to achieve cohesion, and revising the ideas as is appropriate” (Laflamme, 1997, p. 373). If the writing process is inextricably linked to the reading process, and the reading process is heavily dependent upon vocabulary, it naturally follows that the writing process is likewise dependent. This digest will explore some of the ways vocabulary influences writing ability, and how teachers can use vocabulary development specifically to improve writing skills.

    Through this study, the researcher formulates the statement of the problem as follows:
    1. How to develop student’s writing skill? [Typical of an action research question!]
    2. Can vocabulary may effect the student’s writing skill? [Typical of an action research question!]
    3. What the effect from vocabulary in student’s writing skill? [Typical of an experimental research question!]

    1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
    This research, aims to determine how the influence of the vocabulary of the students’ in writing skill . In addition, this study also aimed to evaluate and determine how much vocabulary can improve Traffic writing. Because basically vocabulary has a close relationship with the writing process. This study also aims to examine how the effects that caused by the vocabulary of the students’ learning ability. Whether it can improve the process of writing or have no effect at all on the writing process. [Revise this objective in accordance with the revised research problem!]

    1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION [Haven’t you formulated the research question under the research problem sub-section?]
    The ability to write effectively hinges upon having an adequate vocabulary even more than does the ability to read. Once students have learned to decode words, they may be able to read and pronounce many words that are unfamiliar to them. They may even be able to determine accurate meanings of unfamiliar words simply by examining the context in which those words are used. During the writing process, however, a student does not have the luxury of examining the context in which a word is used; he or she is creating the context. Therefore, the writer must be able to spontaneously recall words that are known not only by sight, but that are understood well enough to use correctly. “Mayher and Brause (1986) have stated that writing is dependent upon the ability to draw upon words to describe an event” (Corona, Spangenberger, &Venet, 1989, p. 18).
    The breadth and depth of a student’s vocabulary will have a direct influence upon the descriptiveness, accuracy, and quality of his or her writing. As Ediger (1999) notes, “variety in selecting words to convey accurate meanings is necessary in speaking and writing, the outgoes of the language arts” (p. 1). Corona, Spangenberger, and Venet (1998) concur: “At any level, written communication is more effective when a depth of vocabulary and command of language is evident”.
    So our research want to know how much vocabulary effect the writing ability. Do students decrease vocabulary by using reading or memorizing words to help them in writing? In such away we have to know that their depth in vocabulary. If it is still lack we will do the research by using pictures to help them explore their vocabulary to describe the pictures in writing.

    1.5 STUDY LIMITATION
    We think that students have to explore themselves to get more knowledge in vocabularies so that can write at least simple sentences and paragraph to develop their writing skill. We do this research in SMP 5 South Tambun in seven grade. There are 14 classes in SMP 5. We collaborate daily vocabularies to help in writing. From vocabulary we wish students in SMP 5 will increase their ability in learning language especially in writing.

    1.6 RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCES
    1. For Students:
    a) Students can determine the extent of vocabulary skills in the writing skill.
    b) Increase vocabulary and to improve students’ skills in the writing skills.
    c) Students can understand, learn, and obtain a picture of whether or not the difficulties experienced in the vocabulary of the writing skills.
    d) To increase motivation in the classroom learning the vocabulary in writing skills.

    2. To Researchers:
    a) The extent to which student’ skills in the vocabulary skills in writing.
    b) Research can determine how much influence on the vocabulary learning writing skills.
    c) Knowing the difficulties experienced by students in mastering vocabulary skills or learning to write.

    1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
    In a study entitled “The effect of vocabulary to improve the skill of writing” we find that there are some problems in the process of students’ writing ability. one at issue in the process of writing is errors in punctuation, grammar and lack of vocabulary that they have so often cause problems in writing. therefore the researchers wanted to know how the vocabulary can affect students ‘writing ability, researchers also want to measure how the vocabulary can be one of the measures used in the improvement and overcome problems in students’ writing skills by giving tests to students. Her shaped test “the students write their experiences during the three years of study at JHS”. Researchers also collected data from a JHS where its object is the seven grade students. Therefore, researchers tried to raise the topic of the effect of vocabulary in writing comprehension. Researchers also collected data through an object that has been specified. so that researchers can easily see how the effects of vocabulary in the ability to write and researchers wanted to know whether the vocabulary had an effect on the writing or not.
    To help us do this research we use statistic to check that it is related or not. Using SPSS can help us to know the result of this research because our typical research is quantity research so we use SPSS to help us in the research.

    References
    Brysbaert M, Stevens M, Mandera P and Keuleers E (2016) How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant’s Age. Front. Psychol. 7:1116. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01116.
    Vocabulary 974. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tesol.org
    West, Michael (1953). A general service list of English words, with semantic frequencies and a supplementary word-list for the writing of popular science and technology London, New York: Longman, Green OCLC 318957

    1. Revision:

      Research Methodology (Correlation)
      “How Vocabulary Knowledge Effects Students Writing Ability”

      Name of Group:
      Ester Sihombing (1412150011)
      Herlialan Purba (1412150019)
      Jessy D. Hutahaean (1412150017)
      Pricelia Hutagalung (1412150024)
      Yashinta T. Wulandari (1412150001)

      CHAPTER I

      INTRODUCTION

      1.1 BACKGROUND
      Vocabulary is all about words — the words in a language or a special set of words you are trying to learn. Words that are generally understood when heard or read or seen constitute a person’s receptive vocabulary. For example, although a young child may not yet be able to speak, write, or sign, he or she may be able to follow simple commands and appear to understand a good portion of the language to which he or she is exposed. In this case, the child’s receptive vocabulary is likely tens, if not hundreds of words, but his or her active vocabulary is zero. When that child learns to speak or sign, however, the child’s active vocabulary begins to increase. It is also possible for the productive vocabulary to be larger than the receptive vocabulary, for example in a second-language learner who has learned words through study rather than exposure, and can produce them, but has difficulty recognizing them in conversation.
      Productive vocabulary, therefore, generally refers to words that can be produced within an appropriate context and match the intended meaning of the speaker or signer. As with receptive vocabulary, however, there are many degrees at which a particular word may be considered part of an active vocabulary. Knowing how to pronounce, sign, or write a word does not necessarily mean that the word that has been used correctly or accurately reflects the intended message; but it does reflect a minimal amount of productive knowledge.
      Wilkins (1972) wrote that “. . . while without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be con-eyed”(pp.111–112). This point reflects my experience with different languages; even without grammar, with some useful words and expressions, I can often manage to communicate.Lewis (1993) went further to argue, “Lexis is the core or heart of language”(p. 89). Particularly as students develop greater fluency and expression in English,it is significant for them to acquire more productive vocabulary knowledge and to develop their own personal vocabulary learning strategies.Students often instinctively recognize the importance of vocabulary to their language learning.As Schmitt (2010) noted,“learners carry around dictionaries and not grammar books”(p. 4). Teaching vocabulary helps students understand and communicate with others in English.Voltaire purportedly said,“Language is very difficult to put into words.” I believe English language students generally would concur, yet learning vocabulary also helps students master English for their purposes.
      Language. Brown, (2001: 336) also claimed that writing is a thinking process. Furthermore, he states that writing can be planned and given with an unlimited number of revisions before its release. In addition, Elbow (1973) in Brown (2001: 336) also says that writing is a two-step process. The first process is figuring out the meaning and the second process is putting the meaning into language.
      Another definition of writing skill is also defined by Urquhart and Mclver and also Harmer. Urquhart and Mclver (2005: 5-6) state that writing is a recursive process, which means students revise throughout the process, frequently moving back and forth among the stages. Then, students should learn strategies for invention and discovery, and teachers should help students generate content and discover a purpose. Also, it is stated that readers, purpose, and occasion define all types of writing and effective writing fulfills the writer’s intention and meets the readers’ needs. It means that writing is a complex process and it seems reasonable to expect.
      Research emphasizes that vocabulary development is a vital part of all content learning, but it is too often ignored. The link between vocabulary knowledge and comprehension is undeniable. While wide reading increases a student’s vocabulary significantly, teachers must realize that direct and explicit instruction in vocabulary must also occur daily in all classrooms. Students enter school with vastly different levels of word knowledge. Teachers must build word-rich environments in which to immerse students and teach and model good word learning strategies. Because research shows that having students look up words and write definitions is the least effective way to increase their vocabulary.
      Words are used in various forms of writing from formal essays to social media feeds. Many written words do not commonly appear in speech. Writers generally use a limited set of words when communicating: for example if there are a number of synonyms, a writer will have his own preference as to which of them to use. He is unlikely to use technical vocabulary relating to a subject in which he has no knowledge or interest.
      That’s why our group want to do a research about the effect of vocabulary to writing skills. Does it relate or not. As we know for writing we have to master some words so that we can write well. Our proposal will show about problem statements, research objectives, research questions, study limitation, research significances and operational definitions. We are interested to this topic “The effect of vocabulary knowledge to Writing skills”.

      1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
      The problem of this study is about the effect of vocabulary knowledge to writing skill. “Reading and writing are two analogous and complementary processes in that both involve generating ideas, organizing ideas into a logical order, drafting them a number of times to achieve cohesion, and revising the ideas as is appropriate” (Laflamme, 1997, p. 373). If the writing process is inextricably linked to the reading process, and the reading process is heavily dependent upon vocabulary, it naturally follows that the writing process is likewise dependent. This digest will explore some of the ways vocabulary influences writing ability, and how teachers can use vocabulary development specifically to improve writing skills.
      Through this study, the researcher formulates the statement of the problem as follow:
      1. How many factors in vocabulary knowledge may effect students writing ability?

      1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
      In addition, this research aim to evaluate how much vocabulary can effects writing skill because basically vocabulary has a close relationship with the writing process. The researcher wants to know what factors in vocabulary knowledge effect students writing skill.

      1.4 STUDY LIMITATION
      We think that students have to explore themselves to get more knowledge in vocabularies so that can write at least simple sentences and paragraph to develop their writing skill. We do this research in SMP 5 South Tambun in seven grade. There are 14 classes in SMP 5. We collaborate daily vocabularies to help in writing. From vocabulary we wish students in SMP 5 will increase their ability in learning language especially in writing.

      1.5 RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCES
      1. For Students:
      a) Students can determine the extent of vocabulary skills in the writing skill.
      b) Increase vocabulary and to improve students’ skills in the writing skills.
      c) Students can understand, learn, and obtain a picture of whether or not the difficulties experienced in the vocabulary of the writing skills.
      d) To increase motivation in the classroom learning the vocabulary in writing skills.
      2. To Researchers:
      a) The extent to which student’ skills in the vocabulary skills in writing.
      b) Research can determine how much influence on the vocabulary learning writing skills.
      c) Knowing the difficulties experienced by students in mastering vocabulary skills or learning to write.

      1.6 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
      In a study entitled “The effect of vocabulary to improve the skill of writing” we find that there are some problems in the process of students’ writing ability. One at issue in the process of writing is errors in punctuation, grammar and lack of vocabulary that they have so often cause problems in writing. therefore the researchers wanted to know how the vocabulary can affect students ‘writing ability, researchers also want to measure how the vocabulary can be one of the measures used in the improvement and overcome problems in students’ writing skills by giving tests to students. Her shaped test “the students write their experiences during the three years of study at JHS”. Researchers also collected data from a JHS where its object is the seven grade students. Therefore, researchers tried to raise the topic of the effect of vocabulary in writing comprehension. Researchers also collected data through an object that has been specified. so that researchers can easily see how the effects of vocabulary in the ability to write and researchers wanted to know whether the vocabulary had an effect on the writing or not.
      To help us do this research we use statistic to check that it is related or not. Using SPSS can help us to know the result of this research because our typical research is quantity research so we use SPSS to help us in the research.

      References:
      Brysbaert M, Stevens M, Mandera P and Keuleers E (2016) How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant’s Age. Front. Psychol. 7:1116. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01116.

      Vocabulary 974. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tesol.org

      West, Michael (1953). A general service list of English words, with semantic frequencies and a supplementary word-list for the writing of popular science and technology London, New York: Longman, Green OCLC 318957

  6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    CASE STUDY: BARRIERS USING THE ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH

    NAME OF GROUP:
    BELLA CHRISTIE TARIGAN
    FRANKY ALBERT .W
    HAPPY SANDIRO SINAGA
    LIDIA TALENTA PANGARIBUAN
    SEPTIANA NAINGGOLAN

    BARRIERS USING THE ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH

    Background of case
    Keywords: Difficulties in using English pronunciation. [What’s this? Why isn’t it consistent with the title–speaking or pronunciation?]

    Experts give different definitions of the understanding of speech. Tarin (1985) mentions that “talking is the ability to pronounce sounds articulation or words to express, describe, and convey thoughts, ideas, and feelings” More broadly, the talk is a form of human behavior that utilizes the physical factors, psychological, neurological, semantic and linguistic extensively and the results should be regarded as the most important human tool for social control. Thus, it can be said that the activities of talking going process of changing the form of thoughts or feelings into a form of speech or sound meaningful language. Speaking not only give without meaning, but convey thoughts or feelings to others through speech or the spoken language.
    In junior high school speaking can be divided into two phases. For the lower classes (classes VII and VIII) is called basic speaking. For high grade (IX) is called to speak further. Speak starters began to be taught from the students sitting in class VII, is the foundation for students. Called the foundation for all learning activities undertaken will be related to talk. Without speaking skills students are not used to say in the English language, because the students did not understand what was being said. In addition, beginning to talk as well as a base to be able to speak further.
    But the fact that occur in junior high school, in high grade there are students who can not speak. Inability to speak is one of the reasons for such students have difficulty remembering that less can understand the English pronunciation using language. Difficulty learning is a condition in the learning process characterized by certain obstacles, in achieving the learning objectives. So students who have learning difficulties will face obstacles on his duties at the school.
    The study discusses the case of the student’s learning disabilities in speech aimed to find and describe the factors – factors that cause difficulty talking and learning achievement of Salsa. [Explain directly here who/what Salsa is!]
    This study describes the difficulty in pronouncing a sentence using the English language experienced by a student named salsa, 7th grade students of SMP 40 Jakarta. The study aims to determine the factors that affect the difficulty in using language pronounce English. The method used using quantitative methods. To obtain the data the researchers used several data collection techniques are observation, interview. Research subjects in this study is the salsa and to get information. Researchers chose several speakers, namely salsa, 7th grade teacher, family and friend of Salsa. The results showed that there are several factors that affect the difficulty in using English pronunciation with experienced by Salsa. These factors are generally categorized on external factors. Internal factors include remembering vocabulary and language structure and concentration that are less and cause a lack of self confidence in speaking English.
    Meanwhile, external factors include a family environment, school environment and peers are less supportive to practice English in everyday life. Due to the difficulties pronounciation experienced by salsa. This leads to academic achievement in the lessons Speaking less than satisfactory. From 11 subjects taught, only four subjects whose value has met the minimum completeness criteria (KKM), while seven others are still under KKM lesson. If the value of learning outcomes in the second semester of salsa later still under KKM then salsa can not go up to grade 8. Because in addition to lack of KKM, he could not even using the english language in the pronunciation. For that recommended to the family should provide encouragement, motivation and attention in learning activities and do not criticize the deficiencies they have.

    Problem Statements
    Based on the background of the problems that have been mentioned above, the problem can be identified as follows:
    1. Lack of concentration and memory in remembering vocabulary and the structure of the English language
    2. The emergence self-distrust of Salsa.
    3. The environment is not supportive to practice English in everyday life.
    4. Salsa has less interest in learning English, especially in conversational skills because not have interlocutors.
    [This subsection is entitled “problem statements”, but the content is “problems identification”. Please check the explanation in the article above to correct this!]

    Research Objectives
    1. To find out what is holding Salsa in trouble remembering vocabulary and grammar.
    2. Help Salsa to improve skills in English through English course.

    Research questions
    In the description above, can be formulated the problem in research efforts to improve the ability of speaking (speaking) Salsa as follows:
    1. Is the english course can help Salsa, 40 junior high school students in Jakarta Class 7 (1 SMP) in enhancing the ability to speak using the English language? ”
    2. What inhibits Salsa, SMP 40 Jakarta country grade 7 (1 SMP) in remembering vocabulary and grammar?

    Study Limitation
    1. Efforts to assist Salsa in enhancing the ability to speak using English through English course outside of school.
    [What is study limitation or research scope? See the article above!]

    Research Significances
    The significance of this research is divided into two significance as follows:
    1. Theoretical Significance
    Theoretically the results of this study are expected to broaden the thinking in using English speaking skills as well as a suggestion to apply the knowledge they have acquired during the learning.
    2. Practical Significance
    In practical terms is expected to lead to confidence in the skills of speaking

    Operational definitions
    VARIABLE: ABILITY AND OBSTACLE
    1. ABILITY
    OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: the capacity of an individual to perform various tasks in a job. Ability is a current assessment of what a person can do.
    CATEGORY: SPEAKING SKILLS / ABILITIES VERBAL
    SCALE: Ordinal
    2. OBSTACLE
    OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: Disorders that anything that disturbs the smooth communication and will hamper the sending and receiving messages
    CATEGORY: —
    SCALE: —-
    [Why didn’t you finish/complete this subsection?]

    [Put down the reference list, in which you write all cited sources using the APA Style Study https://parlindunganpardede.com/2014/04/17/apa-citation-style/ to start learning the APA Style].

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