4th Group Exercise
Translate each paragraph and fable assigned to your group into most accepted Indonesian! Write your answers in the reply section below. Start by providing your group members list, then put your Indonesian version successively. Deadline: Saturday, November 19, 2016, 0:00 a.m.
Progress in almost every field of science depends on the contributions made by systematic research; thus research is often viewed as the cornerstone of scientific progress. Broadly defined, the purpose of research is to answer questions and acquire new knowledge. Research is the primary tool used in virtually all areas of science to expand the frontiers of knowledge. For example, research is used in such diverse scientific fields as psychology, biology, medicine, physics, and botany, to name just a few of the areas in which research makes valuable contributions to what we know and how we think about things. Among other things, by conducting research, researchers attempt to reduce the complexity of problems, discover the relationship between seemingly unrelated events, and ultimately improve the way we live. (From: Essentials of Research Design and Methodology by: Marczyk, G., DeMatteo, D. & Festinger, D. (2005), p. 16)
The Ant and the Grasshopper
In a field one summer’s day a Grasshopper was hopping about, chirping and singing to its heart’s content. An Ant passed by, bearing along with great toil an ear of corn he was taking to the nest.
“Why not come and chat with me,” said the Grasshopper, “instead of toiling and moiling in that way?”
“I am helping to lay up food for the winter,” said the Ant, “and recommend you to do the same.”
“Why bother about winter?” said the Grasshopper; we have got plenty of food at present.”
But the Ant went on its way and continued its toil. When the winter came the Grasshopper had no food and found itself dying of hunger, while it saw the ants distributing every day corn and grain from the stores they had collected in the summer.¶¶¶
Moral: It is best to prepare for the days of necessity.
Although researches are conducted in many diverse fields of science, the general goals and defining characteristics of research are typically the same across disciplines. For example, across all types of science, research is frequently used for describing a thing or event, discovering the relationship between phenomena, or making predictions about future events. In short, research can be used for the purposes of description, explanation, and prediction, all of which make important and valuable contributions to the expansion of what we know and how we live our lives. In addition to sharing similar broad goals, scientific research in virtually all fields of study shares certain defining characteristics, including testing hypotheses, careful observation and measurement, systematic evaluation of data, and drawing valid conclusions. (From: Essentials of Research Design and Methodology by: Marczyk, G., DeMatteo, D. & Festinger, D. (2005), p. 16).
The Hawk and the Pigeons
Some pigeons had long lived in fear of a hawk, but since they had always kept on the alert and stayed near their dovecote, they had consistently managed to escape their enemy’s attacks.
Finding his sallies unsuccessful, the hawk now sought to use cunning to trick the pigeons. “Why,‟ he once asked, “do you prefer this life of constant anxiety when I could keep you safe from any conceivable attack by the kites and falcons? All you have to do is to make me your king, and I won’t bother you anymore.”
Trusting his claims, the pigeons elected him to their throne, but no sooner was he installed than he began exercising his royal prerogative by devouring a pigeon a day.
“It serves us right,” said one poor pigeon whose turn was yet to come. ¶¶¶
Moral: Some remedies are worse than the disease itself.
In recent years, the results of various research studies have taken center stage in the popular media. No longer is research the private domain of research professors and scientists wearing white lab coats. To the contrary, the results of research studies are frequently reported on the local evening news, CNN, the Internet, and various other media outlets that are accessible to both scientists and nonscientists alike. For example, in recent years, we have all become familiar with research regarding the effects of stress on our psychological well-being, the health benefits of a low cholesterol diet, the effects of exercise in preventing certain forms of cancer, which automobiles are safest to drive, and the deleterious effects of pollution on global warming. We may have even become familiar with research studies regarding the human genome, the Mars Land Rover, the use of stem cells, and genetic cloning. Not too long ago, it was unlikely that the results of such highly scientific research studies would have been shared with the general public to such a great extent. (From: Essentials of Research Design and Methodology by: Marczyk, G., DeMatteo, D. & Festinger, D. (2005), p. 17)
The Hen and the Fox
A Fox having crept into an out-house, looked up and down, seeking what he might devour; and at last spied a Hen sitting upon the uppermost perch, so high, that he could by no means come at her. He then ad recourse to his own stratagems; dear cousin, ways he addressing himself to the Hen, how do you do? I heard that you were ill, and kept within; at which I was so concerned, that I could not rest till I came to see you. Pray, how is it with you now? Let me feel your pulse a little; indeed you do not look well at all. He was running on after this impudent fulsome manner, when the Hen answered him from the roost, truly, cousin Reynard, you are in the right on it; I never was in more pain in my life; I must beg your pardon for being so free as to tell you, that I see no company; and you must excuse me too for not coming down to you; for, to say the truth, my condition is such, that I fear I should catch my death if I should do it.¶¶¶
Moral: Beware of the insincere friend.
Despite the accessibility and prevalence of research in today’s society, many people share common misperceptions about exactly what research is, how research can be used, what research can tell us, and the limitations of research. For some people, the term “research” conjures up images of scientists in laboratories watching rats run through mazes or mixing chemicals in test tubes. For other people, the term “research” is associated with telemarketer surveys, or people approaching them at the local shopping mall to “just ask you a few questions about your shopping habits.” In actuality, these stereotypical examples of research are only a small part of what research comprises. It is therefore not surprising that many people are unfamiliar with the various types of research designs, the basics of how research is conducted, what research can be used for, and the limits of using research to answer questions and acquire new knowledge. (From: Essentials of Research Design and Methodology by: Marczyk, G., DeMatteo, D. & Festinger, D. (2005), p. 17)
The Cat and the Mice
A certain house was much infested with mice; but at last they got a cat, who caught and eat every day some of them. The mice finding their numbers grew thin, consulted what was best to be done for the preservation of the public, from the jaws of the devouring cat. They debated, and came to this resolution, that no on should go down below the upper shelf. The cat, observing the mice no longer come down as usual, hungry and disappointed of her prey, had recourse to this stratagem; she hung by her hinder legs on a pet, which stuck in the wall, and made as if she had been dead, hoping by this lure to entice the mice to come down. She had not been in this posture long, before a cunning old mouse peeped over the edge of the shelf, and spoke thus: Aha, my good friend! Are you there? There you may be! I would not trust myself with you, though your skin were stuffed with straw.¶¶¶
Moral: He is once deceived is doubly cautious.
In simple terms, science can be defined as a methodological and systematic approach to the acquisition of new knowledge. This definition of science highlights some of the key differences between how scientists and nonscientists go about acquiring new knowledge. Specifically, rather than relying on mere casual observations and an informal approach to learn about the world, scientists attempt to gain new knowledge by making careful observations and using systematic, controlled, and methodical approaches. By doing so, scientists are able to draw valid and reliable conclusions about what they are studying. In addition, scientific knowledge is not based on the opinions, feelings, or intuition of the scientist. Instead, scientific knowledge is based on objective data that were reliably obtained in the context of a carefully designed research study. In short, scientific knowledge is based on the accumulation of empirical evidence. (From: Essentials of Research Design and Methodology by: Marczyk, G., DeMatteo, D. & Festinger, D. (2005), p. 19)
The Lion, the Ass, and the Fox
One day the Lion, the Ass, and the Fox went hunting together, and it was agreed that whatever they caught would be shared between them. After killing a large stag, they decided to have a hearty meal. The Lion asked the Ass to divide the spoils, and after the Ass made three equal parts, he told his friends to take their pick, whereupon the Lion, in great indignation, seized the Ass and tore him to pieces. He then told the Fox to divide the spoils, and the Fox gathered everything into one great pile except for a tiny portion that he reserved for himself.
“Ah, friend,” asked the Lion, “Who taught you to divide things so equally?”
“I needed no other lesson,” replied the Fox, “than the Ass’s fate.”¶¶¶
Moral: We learn by the misfortunes of others.