Classroom Action Research


Classroom Action Research (CAR)

Classroom action research (CAR) is classroom-based research conducted by educators in order to reflect upon and evolve their teaching. It is a systematic, documented inquiry into one aspect of teaching and learning in a specific classroom. The purpose of CAR is to gain understanding of teaching and learning within one’s classroom and to use that knowledge to increase teaching efficacy/student learning.

The slide posted below (similar to the one I used in your class) introduces the main basic concepts concerning CAR. To get more detailed explanations of the concepts, please study Penelitian Tindakan Kelas: Sebuah Pengantar and Meningkatkan Kualitas Pembelajaran Melalui Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Though they are in Indonsesian, I expect you could study them without any difficulties.

The slides could be downloaded from here

To get an example of classroom action research implementation please study Siahaan’s Using Story Reading Technique to Improve EFL Young Learners’ Vocabulary. (The complete paper could be downloaded by clicking the link provided below the abstract). After studying the article, see how it is reviewed based on the concept of the action research procedure in the following section.

Review of the Action Research Procedure

in Siahaan’s Using Story Reading Technique to Improve EFL Young Learners’ Vocabulary

 

The eight stages of Action research procedure.

Stage 1: The researcher identifies, evaluates, and formulates a problem that is viewed as critical to her everyday teaching.

Stage 2: The researcher consults with other interested parties—teachers, other researchers, and administrators—in order to focus the problem more clearly and perhaps suggest the cause of the problem.

Stage 3: The researcher reviews research literature to find out what can be learned from comparable studies.

Stage 4: Based on the reading, the researcher may modify or redefine the initial statement of the problem, which may take the form of a set of objectives or a testable hypothesis.

Stage 5: The researcher specifies the research design including the participants, choice of materials, and procedures.

Stage 6: The researcher clarifies how the project will be evaluated.

Stage 7: The researcher implements the project and collects the data.

Stage 8: The researcher analyzes the data, draws inferences, and evaluates the project.

The Review

Using that eight stages of action research procedure as the basis of evaluation , here is the review of Siahaan’s Using Story Reading Technique to Improve EFL Young Learners’ Vocabulary.

Stage 1:
The problem identified by Siahaan was kindergarten students’ lack of vocabulary which causes them to lose focus and motivation, unable to express what they want to communicate, and find English difficult to master. Since vocabulary knowledge is an essential pre-requisite for language acquisition, she believes to increase the learners’ vocabulary mastery should be made the first priority.

Stage 2:
The article doesn’t include this stage. Siahaan probably skipped this because she had got the appropriate focus of the problem. She had also realized that the problem was caused by the wrong use of strategies and techniques and that the vocabulary learning was not yet enjoyable and meaningful to the students.

Stage 3:
According to the article Siahaan conducted a comprehensive literature review. The references she studied covered current publications and research reports on the nature of vocabulary, the great importance of vocabulary in communication and learning, vocabulary teaching strategies and techniques, and the use of stories as an effective and interesting medium to develop children’s vocabulary.

Stage 4:
Based on her literature review, Siahaan directed her study to see whether story reading technique as a complementary teaching activity significantly improve her K-1 grade students’ EFL vocabulary. To achieve the objective she specifically formulated the problem in two research questions: (1) How does the use of reading story technique affect the K-1 grade students’ EFL vocabulary learning? (2) Does the use of reading stories technique improve the K-1 grade students’ EFL vocabulary mastery?
In addition, she also stated the action hypothesis of the study as follow: “If the reading stories technique is used, the K-1 grade students’ EFL vocabulary mastery will increase.”

Stage 5:
Under the methodology section of the article, Siahaan specified that the study was a three-cycled action research which was conducted in two month (May to June 2012) in Grace Kids Preschool, Kelapa Gading, Jakarta. The participants of the research were the 10 K-I students taught by the researcher. During the study, the researcher selected stories that were combined with the students’ textbooks. The stories were regarded as complementary learning materials.

Stage 6:
To evaluate the study, under the methodology section Siahaan clarified that she collected the data using test and non-test instruments. The test technique was used to collect quantitative data derived from the participants’ vocabulary achievement. Non-test techniques were used to collect qualitative data, including: observation, documentation, and interview. Tests were carried out four times; the pre-test, post test I, post test II, and post test III. The non-test techniques were carried out using observation sheet, documentation and interview guide.

Stage 7:
Under the results section, Siahaan described how the project was implemented in three cycles. The description of the four action research steps (Plan, Action, Observation, and Reflection) in each cycle is quite comprehensive. She included the process description and the data obtained in each cyle.

Stage 8:
To analyze the quantitative data obtained from the tests, t-test was employed by using SPSS version 17. To analyze the qualitative data, the descriptive analysis technique was employed.

All the three paired-samples t-tests Siahaan administered to test the action hypothesis disclose that the use of story reading technique significantly increased the students’ vocabulary mastery in each cycle. Therefore, the action hypothesis “If the reading stories technique is used, the K-1 grade students’ EFL vocabulary mastery will increase” is accepted.

The descriptive analysis used to examine the qualitative data revealed that along with implementation of using reading stories technique to develop the students’ vocabulary, the class management gradually improved and the students’ enthusiasm and involvement kept on increasing from cycle to cycle. This increase of engagement then increased their achievement.

At the end of the article, Siahaan concluded that the classroom action research she conducted caused class management improvement, more fully attention to every student, better performance in the story reading, and students’ enthusiasm and involvement increase. This increase of engagement, in turn, increased their achievement, as shown by the results of post-tests conducted at the end of every cycle. Therefore, using story reading to increase children’s vocabulary is very effective.

Realizing its high effectiveness, Siahaan recommended kindergarten EFL teachers are to use story reading technique as an alternative to boost young learners’ vocabulary development.

Assignment

Using the review of Siahaan’s Using Story Reading Technique to Improve EFL Young Learners’ Vocabulary above as a sample, read and review Nazara’s Improving Students’ English Pronunciation Using the Explicit Teaching Approach. As shown in the example, all you need to do is to briefly but succinctly describe the relevant points of each of the eight stages of action research procedure provided in the article.

Write your review on the reply section below by Tuesday, May 27, 2014. After that, please criticize 2 (two) other students’ review by showing at least one weak point in their reviews. Deadline for the critic is Thursday, May 29, 2014.

The fundamental goal of the peer critic is to facilitate everyone (the writer, the critic, and the reader) to get better understanding of the topic being learned, to develop critical thinking, and to increase the skills to answer questions. Therefore, don’t hesitate to put your critics to anyone work. Please note that the weak points you could comment could be a misconception, grammatical error, inappropriate diction, and other relevant matters which will contribute to the improvement of the answer or work.

Good luck!

 

27 Comments

  1. YULIA LESTARI TARIHORAN
    111 21 500 41

    I’m sorry Sir I post it late. It is because there was problem with my Laptop connection to Internet several days ago.

    Review of the Action Research Procedure
    in Nazara’s Improving Students’ English Pronunciation
    Using The Explicit Teaching Approach

    Stage 1

    The problem identified by Nazara was the students’ English Pronunciation. Pronunciation is a significant impediment to communication for many students of the English Teaching Study Program of the Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of the Christian University of Indonesia (FKIP-UKI) Jakarta. Their pronunciation inaccuracy often caused their utterances while having discussions difficult to understand.

    Stage 2

    Nazara quoted the results of Pardede‘s (2006) study on the production of English fricatives by the freshmen of the English Teaching Study Program of FKIP-UKI Jakarta. Which was revealed that the errors committed by the subject while pronouncing /θ/ 89.8%; /ʃ/ 76.2%; /ʒ/ 89.7%; /ð/ 72.5%; /z/ 55%. and based on the findings it was concluded that the production accuracy level fricatives of freshman was low due to their mother tongue’s interference.

    Stage 3

    According to the Nazara’s article, pronunciation explicit teaching is defined as the instruction which raises the students‘ awareness and consciousness of the pronunciation elements they are practicing by letting them listening to the utterances, watching videos showing how the utterances are produced, and using phonemic symbols, i.e.., the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to analyze their own pronunciation for the sake of helping them get the feel of the language.

    Stage 4

    Nazara directed his study to see whether the explicit teaching approach increase the students‘ pronunciation skills or not, and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice?

    Stage 5

    Under the methodology section of the article, Nazara specified that the study used two cycled action research. That is the comparison of the results of the pre-test and post-test indicated that pronunciation explicit teaching enabled the participants to produce better pronunciation in English. The participants of the study were 16 students attended a Speaking III class in the
    English Teaching Study Program of the Christian University of Indonesia during the Odd Semester of 2011/2012 Academic Year. The meetings were conducted once a week, beginning from Wednesday, September 21, 2011 and ended on Wednesday, December 14,
    2011

    Stage 6

    To evaluate the study, under the methodology section Nazara clarified that she collected the data using pre test and pot-test. He used the qualitative data through the descriptive analysis and quantities data through the post-test and pre-test.

    Stage 7

    Under the results section, Nazara described how the project was implemented in two cycles. Each cycle was divided into four activities, here they are: (1) planning, (2) actions, (3) observation, and (4) reflection.

    Stage 8

    The qualitative data obtained through observations was analyzed using the descriptive analysis. The quantitative data obtained from the tests and was analyzed using descriptive statistical operation in the form of table and graphs.

    Nazara gave the success indicator for this action research. The success indicator in this action research was that at the end of the study the class achieved mean score of ≥ 75. This indicator determination was based on the assumption that by achieving that mean score, the subjects must have been able to pronounce 75% of the English pronunciation elements accurately and if they, after the study was ended, proceed practicing pronunciation in the same way, their pronunciation intelligibility would become better and better.

    At the end of the article, Nazara concluded that the explicit teaching of pronunciation seems effective to English adult learners and carrying similar action research to high school students is recommended

    Thank you sir God bless 🙂

  2. Naomi Anitasari
    1112150034

    Review of the Action Research Procedure
    in Nazara’s Improving Students’ English Pronunciation
    Using The Explicit Teaching Approach

    Stage 1:
    The problem indentified by Nazara that the students of English Teaching Study Program of The Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of The Christian University of Indonesia’s pronunciation inaccuracy often caused their utterances while having discussions difficult to understand. He trusts that explicit teaching can increase the students’ pronunciation skills. Nazara realized that good pronunciation skills are a key element to every ESL student’s ability to communicate in English.

    Stage 2:
    This stage refers to the result analysis of Pardede‘s (2006) study on the production of English fricatives by the freshmen of the English Teaching Study Program of FKIP-UKI Jakarta. He took the Pardede’s analysis. He explained that the errors commited by the subjects while pronouncing /θ/ 89.8%; /ʃ/ 76.2%; /ʒ/ 89.7%; /ð/ 72.5%; /z/ 55% that concluded the production accuracy level of fricatives of these freshmen was low due to their mother-tongue’s interference.

    Stage 3:
    According to Nazara, the students tended to ignore many aspects of pronunciation while speaking. That ignorance included not only sounds but also other elements of pronunciation, especially intonation, rhythm, pausing, and linking. He realized that explicit teaching defined as a solution for this.

    Stage 4:
    Based on his research is to see whether the explicit teaching approach increase the students’ pronunciation skills or not and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice.

    Stage 5:
    Nazara specified that the study was a two-cycled action research which was conducted once a week in three months (September to Desember 2011) in the English Teaching Study Program of the Christian University of Indonesia, Jakarta. The participants for Nazara’s research were 16 students who attended at Speaking III class in English Teaching Study Program of the Christian University of Indonesia. There are LCD Projector, laptop, and speaker to facilitate the pronunciation practice. Then, he provided the materials from the copies of Hewing’s (2007) texts and CDs, and Jennifer’s (2010) videos downloaded from website.

    Stage 6:
    Nazara clarified that there are three techniques were employed to collect the data. First, observation carried out by colleague during the implementation of the actions. Second, one pre-test which was administered to measure the students’ initial condition concerning their mastery of pronunciation, and two post-tests (post-test one was conducted at the end of cycle 1 and post-test two was conducted at the end of cycle 2) which were used to collect quantitative data for revealing the students’ achievement in using the explicit teaching approach to develop pronunciation. Third, questionnaires distributed to the students to before and after the study was conducted, were used to gauge the information concerning the students’ perception of the implementation of the action research.

    Stage 7:
    Nazara described how the research was implemented in two cycles and each cycle consists of four activities (planning, action, observation, and reflection).

    Stage 8:
    The qualitative data obtained through observations was analyzed using the descriptive analysis and the quantitative data. The descriptive analysis used to examine the qualitative data revealed that along with implementation of the explicit teaching approach to improve the students’ English pronunciation, their attitude gradually developed. The tests was analyzed using descriptive statistical operation in the form of table and graphs. The outcomes indicate that both cycles showed the implications of the importance of explicit pronunciation training for adults who study English as foreign language.
    In cycle 1, the students did provide improvement in explicit teaching. The class mean-score increased from 56.78 in the pre-test to 65.81 in the post-test. In cycle 2, the students that got the “very good” percentage are 7.1 % and the highest in the good range 78.6 %.
    At the end of the study, Nazara concluded that the explicit teaching approach can used by the educators for increasing their students’ pronunciation skills. It is because of the result of his research is significant.

    Thank you Sir

    1. Hi Naomi, I just remind you there is an error in the sentence. Please pay attention to: first stage, last sentence. You explained that, “Nazara realized that good pronunciation skills are a key element to every ESL student’s ability to communicate in English.”
      I think the right sentence is, “Nazara realized that good pronunciation skill is a key element to every ESL student’s ability to communicate in English.”
      Look at: “are” or “a” in your sentence. Thank you.

      1. Hi Naomi, After reading your post I want to remind you there is little error in the first sentence “The problem indentified by Nazara that” I think you forgot to put “was” in that sentence. it should be
        “The problem indentified by Nazara was … ” That’s only little mistake but it is important to put the helping verb on there. Thank you 🙂

  3. GLADYS YUSIVA DOANE
    11 121 500 46

    Review of the Action Research Procedure
    in Nazara’s Improving Students’ English Pronunciation
    Using The Explicit Teaching Approach

    The Review

    Stage1:
    In Nazara’s research, Nazara realized that good pronunciation skills are a key element to every ESL student’s ability to communicate in English. The Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of The Christian University of Indonesia’s pronunciation inaccuracy often caused their utterances while having discussions difficult to understand. He trusts that explicit teaching can increase the students’ pronunciation skills.

    State 2 :
    This state refers to the result analysis of Pardede‘s (2006) study on the production of English fricatives by the freshmen of the English Teaching Study Program of FKIP-UKI Jakarta. He explained that the errors committed by the subjects while pronouncing /θ/ 89.8%; /ʃ/ 76.2%; /ʒ/ 89.7%; /ð/ 72.5%; /z/ 55%. Based on the findings it was concluded that the production accuracy level of fricatives of these freshmen was low due to their mother-tongue’s interference.

    State 3 :
    According to Nazara, the students tended to ignore many aspects of pronunciation while speaking. That ignorance included not only sounds but also other elements of pronunciation, especially intonation, rhythm, pausing, and linking. He realized that explicit teaching defined as a solution for this problem.

    State 4 :
    This research was conducted to see whether using the explicit teaching significantly approve his students of the English Teaching Study Program’s pronunciation.
    In addition, he also stated the action hypothesis of the study as follow: “If the explicit teaching approach technique is used,and the students get the post-test ≥ 75 the student’s pronunciation of the speaking III class increase.”

    Stage 5:
    Nazara specified that the study was a two-cycled action research which was conducted once a week in three months (September to Desember 2011) in the English Teaching Study Program of the Christian University of Indonesia, Jakarta. The participants who attended at Speaking III class for Nazara’s research were 16 students. To facilitate the pronunciation practice, the class was equipped with LCD Projector, laptop, and speaker. Then, he provided the materials from the copies of Hewing’s (2007) texts and CDs, and Jennifer’s (2010) videos downloaded from website.

    Stage 6:
    To collect the data, Nazara employed three techniques. First technique is observation, carried out by a colleague, to check whether the actions were conducted in accordance with the action plan or not. Second is one pre-test to measure the students’ initial condition concerning their mastery of pronunciation and two post-tests to collect quantitative data for revealing the students’ achievement in using the explicit teaching approach to develop pronunciation. The last technique is questionnaires to gauge the information concerning the students’ perception of the implementation of the action research.

    Stage 7:
    Nazara described the students’ initial condition and how the project was implemented in two cycles. Each cycles consists of four activities : planning, actions, observation, and reflection.

    Stage 8:
    The qualitative data obtained through observations was analyzed using the descriptive analysis and the quantitative data. The descriptive analysis used to examine the qualitative data revealed that along with implementation of the explicit teaching approach to improve the students’ English pronunciation, their attitude gradually developed. The tests was analyzed using descriptive statistical operation in the form of table and graphs. The outcomes indicate that both cycles showed the implications of the importance of explicit pronunciation training for adults who study English as foreign language.
    In cycle 1, the students did provide improvement in explicit teaching. The class mean-score increased from 56.78 in the pre-test to 65.81 in the post-test. In cycle 2, the students that got the “very good” percentage are 7.1 % and the highest in the good range 78.6 %.
    Because of the significant result, Nazara recommended to bring this action research to high school students.The explicit teaching of pronunciation seems effective to English adult learners.

    Thankyou.

    1. Hi Gladys, I just remind you there is an error in the sentence. Please pay attention to: first sentence in the first stage. You explained that, “Nazara realized that good pronunciation skills are a key element to every ESL student’s ability to communicate in English.”
      I think the right sentence is, “Nazara realized that good pronunciation skill is a key element to every ESL student’s ability to communicate in English.”
      Look at: “are” or “a” in your sentence. Thank you.

  4. Name : Debora Evina Banjarnahor
    NIM : 1112150004
    Class – A –

    Sorry sir, I am late submitting assignment.
    Many Thanks

    State 1 :

    Nazara identification informal observations revealed that pronunciation is a significant impediment to communication for many students of the English Teaching Study Program of the Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of the Christian University of Indonesia (henceforward FKIP-UKI) Jakarta. Their pronunciation inaccuracy often caused their utterances while having discussions difficult to understand.

    State 2 :
    This refers to the result analysis of Pardede‘s (2006) study on the production of English fricatives by the freshmen of the English Teaching Study Program of FKIP-UKI Jakarta. He explained that the errors commited by the subjects while pronouncing that concluded the production accuracy level of fricatives of these freshmen was low due to their mother-tongue’s interference.

    State 3 :
    According to the article Nazara conducted a comprehensive literature review. Action research aimed to help student improve their pronunciation skills towards the ability to produce intelligible pronunciation to English native speakers which will ensure that these students can express their ideas or feelings through spoken English.

    State 4 :
    Based on his introduction, Nazara directed his study the action research was conducted to see whether the explicit teaching approach increase the students‘ pronunciation skills or not, and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice.

    State 5 :
    Under the methodoloy section of the article, the researcher used two cycle in this study. First, design to improve the subject’ skills to produce some English sounds, clusters and stresses correctly. Second, conducted in four phases such as planning, acting, observing and reflecting. It was carried out to improve the subjects skills to linking and pausing( breaking speech into units). Both of cycle one and cycle two showed the implications of the importance of explicit pronunciation training for adults who study English as a foreign language. The participants of the study were 16 students attended a speaking III class in the Christian University of Indonesia during the odd semester of 2011/2012 Academic Year. The class was equipped with LCD projektor, laptop and loudspeaker in addition to the copies of Hewings (2007) text’s and CD’s and Jenifer’s (2010) videos downloaded from website.

    State 6 :
    To evaluated the study under the methodoloy section Nazara explained that he uses three techniques to collect data using observations, pre – test and post-test for students.

    State 7 :
    Under the result section, Nazara describes how the project implemented in to two cycle. And each cycle consist of four activities, namely : Plan, Action, Observation, and Reflection in each cycle is quite comprehensive. He included the process description and the data obtained in each cycle.

    State 8 :
    The main reason of the use of the explicit teaching approach in this study is the fact that among the very few ESL/EFL studies of pronunciation teaching conducted, some have confirmed the effectiveness of the explicit instruction.
    Identification of the pronunciation elements that were problematic to the subjects, the recorded passage reading was also used as the pre-test. Each of the phonetic transcription was compared to the phonetic transcription
    of a native speaker‘s utterance of the same passage. Based on the comparison, each subject‘s pronunciation performance was rated by the researcher and the observer. The mean of the obtained scores were then used as the pre-test results.Study was conducted in two cycles and each cycle was divided into fouractivities, namely: (1) planning, (2) actions, (3) observation, and (4) reflection.
    The results of the qualitative data analysis were used to make sure that study was carried out in line with the action plan. It was also employed to determine changes in the students‘ attitudes. The quantitative data obtained from the tests and was analyzed using descriptive statistical operation in the form of table and graphs.

    1. Hello, Sist Debora 🙂
      I have something to remind you. Actually, this is a small thing, but I has good impact for your writing letter to be meaningful. About punctuation.

      You can see in the third stage :
      You forgot to put comma after the word “article”.

      According to the article (,) Nazara conducted a comprehensive literature review.

      🙂

  5. Hardianti A. Tias
    11 121 500 49
    Good morning Sir, this is my assigment. please forgive me, sir. I’m so late to post this assignment.

    Review of the Action Research Procedure
    in Nazara’s Improving Students’ English Pronunciation Using Explicit Teaching Approach

    Stage 1

    The problem identified by Nazara was students’ English Pronunciation. . The pronunciation is the crucial obstacle to communication for some junior students in English Teaching Study Program of FKIP-UKI. Although they have been attending Phonology and speaking classes, but they have problem in pronunciations.

    Stage 2

    Nazara use the result of Pardede’s (2006) study on the production of English fricatives by the freshman of the English Teaching Study Programs of FKIP-UKI Jakarta. The study revealed that the errors committed by the subject while pronouncing /θ/ 89.8%; /ʃ/ 76.2%; /ʒ/ 89.7%; /ð/ 72.5%; /z/ 55%. and based on the findings it was concluded that the production accuracy level fricatives of freshman was low due to their mother tongue’s interference.

    Stage 3

    According to the article of Nazara, students are more likely to ignore many aspects of pronunciation when speaking. So, using explicit teaching approach is the right solution for improving students’ pronunciations.

    Stage 4

    Nazara directed his study to investigate whether use of the explicit teaching approach can help students improve their pronunciation of English as a foreign language or not. And the questions to be answer were whether the explicit teaching approach increases the students’ pronunciation skills or not and how the participants perceive use of the explicit teaching approach in their pronunciation practice.

    Stage 5

    Under the methodology section of the article, Nazara specified that the study was a two-cycled action research which was conducted during the Odd Semester of 2011/2012 Academic Year. The meetings were conducted oce a week, beginning from Wednesday, September 21, 2011 and ended on Wednesday, December 14, 2011. Since the Speaking class was allotted two credits (100 minutes), the activities for speaking was designed to take place only in about 60 minutes, so that the class still had about 40 minutes for pronunciation practice. To facilitate the pronunciation practice, Nazara used LCD projector, Laptop, and loudspeaker, in addition to copies of Hewings’ (2007) texts and CDs, and Jenifer’s (2010) Vidios downloaded from website (English Pronunciation Lessons with JeniferESL) which were provided to each participant.

    Stage 6

    To evaluate the study, under the methodology section Nazara clarified that she collected the data using pre test and pot-test. Nazara used the qualitative data through the descriptive analysis and quantities data through the post-test and pre-test.

    Stage 7

    Based on the results of the study, Nazara explains how the study was conducted in two cycles. Each cycle has four steps (planing, action, observation, and reflection).

    Stage 8

    The result of Nazaras’ study is significant. This analyze was based on the score that he conducted. The result is increased from 56.78 in the pre-test to 65.81 in the post-test.
    Nazara said that although this study is small in scope, has produced some interesting results. It is hoped will make a contribution towards developing future educational strategies to assist English teacher to help their students develop their pronunciation.
    It means that Nazara concluded the explicit teaching approach can used by the educators for increasing their students’ pronunciation skills, because the result is significant.

  6. sorry sir for this lateness.

    Guntur Adventius Willem/1112150021

    The Review

    Stage1:
    The researcher indentified that the students of English Teaching Study Program of The Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of The Christian University of Indonesia’s pronunciation inaccuracy often caused their utterances while having discussions difficult to understand. He trusts that explicit teaching can increase the students’ pronunciation skills.

    Stage2:
    Nazara has put the Pardede’s result that said that the errors committed by the subjects while pronouncing /θ/ 89.8%; /ʃ/ 76.2%; /ʒ/ 89.7%; /ð/ 72.5%; /z/ 55%. Based on the findings it was concluded that the production accuracy level of fricatives of these freshmen was low due to their mother-tongue’s interference.

    Stage3:
    According to the article the main reason of the use of the explicit teaching approach in this study is the fact that among the very few ESL/EFL studies of pronunciation teaching conducted, some have confirmed the effectiveness of the explicit instruction.

    Stage4:
    Nazara directed this action research to see whether the explicit teaching approach increase the students’ pronunciation skills or not, and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice?

    Stage5:
    Under the methodology section of the article, Nazara specified that the study was a two-cycled action research which was conducted in three month (September to December 2011). The participants of the research were the 16 students of Speaking III class. In this study, the researcher incorporated explicit pronunciation teaching to correct English pronunciation elements which turned to be erroneously uttered by the subject in to the public speaking course of the speaking IV.

    Stage6:
    Nazara used three ways to collect the data. They are observation, pre-test, and post-test. Post-test 1 was conducted at the end of cycle 1 and post-test 2 at the end of cycle 2. He used the qualitative data through the descriptive analysis and quantitative data through the post-test and pre-test.

    Stage7:
    Nazara conducted this study in two cycles. Both of them divided into four activities (planning, actions, observation, and reflection).

    Stage8:
    The descriptive analysis used to examine the qualitative data revealed that the study was carried out in line with the action plan and determined changes in the students’ attitude.
    Nazara’s gave the success indicator. The score of success indicator is ≥ 75. The pre-test and post-test were analyzed with the score of students’ achievement and that scores were used for analyzing students’ pronunciation achievement through explicit teaching approach.
    In cycle 1, the students did provide improvement in explicit teaching. The class mean-score increased from 56.78 in the pre-test to 65.81 in the post-test. In cycle 2, the students that got the “very good” percentage are 7.1 % and the highest in the good range 78.6 %.
    Because of the significant result, Nazara recommended to bring this action research to high school students.

  7. Cianly Sriwisesa
    1112150047
    BS B

    Stage 1

    The problem of Nazara’s research that utterences the students’ relatively unintelligible to understand. He believes with using the explicit teaching approach can improving students’ English pronunciation.

    Stage 2
    The researher has inserted the Pardede’s result in his research. The production accuracy level of fricatives of these freshmen was low due to their mother tongue interference .

    Stage 3

    According to the article Nazara conducted a comprehensive literature review. They actually passed the English Phonology class dealing with the concepts how of sounds are produce and what articulatos and point of articulations are employed in producing certain sounds. But it seemed that knowledge did not affect their pronunciation skills.

    Stage 4

    Based on literature review, Nazara directed his study to see whether the actions were conducted in accordance with the action plan or not, and to measure the students’ skills in using the explicit teaching approach to develop pronunciation. In addition, He also stated the action hypothesis of the study as follow: if the class achieved mean score of ≥ 75, their pronunciation skills have increasing.

    Stage 5

    Under the methodoloy section of the article, the researcher used two cycle in this study. First, design to improve the subject’ skills to produce some English sounds, clusters and stresses correctly. Second, conducted in four phases such as planning, acting, observing and reflecting. It was carried out to improve the subjects skills to linking and pausing( breaking speech into units). Both of cycle one and cycle two showed the implications of the importance of explicit pronunciation training for adults who study English as a foreign language. The participants of the study were 16 students attended a speaking III class in the Christian University of Indonesia during the odd semester of 2011/2012 Academic Year. The class was equipped with LCD projektor, laptop and loudspeaker in addition to the copies of Hewings (2007) text’s and CD’s and Jenifer’s (2010) videos downloaded from website.

    Stage 6

    To evaluated study under the methodoloy section Nazara clarified that he collected data using observation, pre-test and post-test for the students.

    Stage 7

    Under the result section, Nazara describes how the project implemented in to two cycle. And each cycle consist of four activities, namely : Plan, Action, Observation, and Reflection in each cycle is quite comprehensive. He included the process description and the data obtained in each cycle.

    Stage 8

    To analyze the qualitative data obtained through observation was analyzed using the descriptive analysis. The results of the qualitative data analysis were used to make sure that study to carried out in line with the action plan. It was also employed to determined changes in the students’ attitudes. The quantitative data obtained from the tests and was analyzed using descriptive statistical operation in the form of the table and graphs.

    The outcomes indicate that both cycles showed the implications of the importance of explicit pronunciation training for adults who study English as a foreign language. The practice did not only make the subject more enthusiastics to practice and improve the pronunciation but also made them more confident to speak English. Therefore, the explicit teaching of pronunciation seems efective to English adult learners.

  8. Name : Dewi Natalia P
    SIN : 1112150042
    Stage 1 :
    Nazara used the explicit teaching to increase the students’ pronunciation skills. The problem identified by Nazara’s research was the pronunciation inaccuracy happen in students’ utterances while having discussion difficult to understand at English Teaching Study Program of The Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of The Christian University of Indonesia.

    Stage 2 :
    Nazara took the Pardede’s analysis (2006) study on the production of English fricatives by the freshmen in FKIP-UKI Jakarta. He explained that the errors commited by the subjects while pronouncing /θ/ 89.8%; /ʃ/ 76.2%; /ʒ/ 89.7%; /ð/ 72.5%; /z/ 55% that concluded the production accuracy level of fricatives of these freshmen was low due to their mother-tongue’s interference.

    Stage 3 :
    According to Nazara that the high important of accurate pronunciation in speaking could be obviously seen in the fact that use of incorrect sounds and intonation will likely cause misunderstanding. The listener is difficult to catch speaker’s message.

    Stage 4 :
    Nazara directed his action research can improve students’ English pronunciation as a foreign language using the explicit teaching approach to the participants of the English Teaching Study Program UKI. The action research teaching approach was interesting to the participant and made them more confidence with their pronunciation.

    Stage 5 :
    Action research that researcher used is pronunciation workbook by a native English-speaking language accompanied by audio CDs and relevant tutorial video and phonetic transcription to analyze participants’ pronunciation. The comparison of the result to indicate that pronunciation explicit teaching enabled the participant to produce better pronunciation.

    Stage 6 :
    Nazara used the comparison of the results of the pre-test and post-test. The qualitative data obtained via questionnaire, semi-structured interviews and class observations revealed with teaching approach to improve participants’ pronunciation of English.

    Stage 7 :
    The researcher implements the action research in two cycles. Four activities are planning, actions, observation, and reflection. Data collection was employed in three techniques in this study. First, observe by a colleague. Second, one pre-test and two post-test. Third, questionnaires distributed to the students.

    Stage 8 :
    The analysis of the data obtained the qualitative data through observations using the descriptive analysis. The quantitative data obtained from the test and was analyzed using the form of table and graphs.
    The success indicator in this action research is ≥ 75. The pre-test and post-test are analyzed with the score of students’ achievement. The scores are used to see and analyze students’ pronunciation skill through explicit teaching approach.
    Nazara could increase the pronunciation of the students in his action research significantly. Because, Cycle 1, the students provided improvement in explicit teaching. And the class mean-score also increased from 56.78 in the pre-test to 65.81 in the post-test. Cycle 2, the students got 7.1 %. The highest in the good range 78.6 %. In addition, all of them responded that the pronunciation action research increased to help students develop their pronunciation.

    1. Hello, Dewi. I just want to remind you to put subject and verb in every sentence. Pay attention to:

      First, observe by a colleague. Second, one pre-test and two post-test. Third, questionnaires distributed to the students.

      That’s all I wanna say to you. Please don’t hesitate to criticize mine. Thanks 😉

  9. Name : Meilynda Mora.S
    Sin : 1112150027
    FKIP BS (A)

    Stage I
    The problem identified by Nazara was English Teaching Study Program of the Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of the Christian University of Indonesia students’ pronunciation inaccuracy which caused their utterances while having discussions difficult to understand. Since pronunciation skill is a key element to every ESL student‘s ability to communicate in English, he belive to increase the students’ pronunciation mastery should be made the first priority.

    Stage II
    Nazara has inserted to Pardede’s result in his research. Pardede said that the errors committed by the subjects while pronouncing /θ/ 89.8%; /ʃ/ 76.2%; /ʒ/ 89.7%; /ð/ 72.5%; /z/ 55%. Based on the finding it was concluded that the production accuracy level of fricatives of these freshmen was low due to their mother-tongue’s interference.

    Stage III
    According to the article Nazara conducted a comprehensive introduction. The references he studied covered current publications and research reports on the explicit teaching approach, the high importance of explicit teaching approach in speaking pronunciation, how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice?, and the use of explicit teaching approach as an effective medium to develop student’s pronunciation.

    Stage IV
    Based on his introduction, Nazara directed his study to see whether the explicit teaching approach increase the students’ pronunciation skills or not, and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice?. In addition, if the students get the post-test ≥ 75, their pronunciation skills have increasing.

    Stage V
    Under the methodology section of the article, Nazara specified that the study was a two-cycled action research which was conducted during the Odd Semester of 2011/2012 Academic Year in the English Teaching Study Program of the Christian University of Indonesia. The participants of the study were 16 students attended a Speaking III class. During the study, the researcher incorporated explicit pronunciation teaching to correct English pronunciation elements which turned to be erroneously uttered by the subjects in to the public speaking course. These elements included some difficult English sounds, and consonant clusters stress; pausing; and linking.

    Stage VI
    To evaluate the study, under the methodology section Nazara clarified that he collected the data using test and non-test instruments. The test technique was used to collect quantitative data derived from the participants’ pronunciation achievement. Non-test techniques were used to collect qualitative data, including: observation. Tests were carried out three times; the pre-test, post test I, and post test II.

    Stage VII
    Under the results section, Nazara described how the project was conducted in two cycles. The description of the four action research steps (Plan, Action, Observation, and Reflection) in each cycle is quite comprehensive. He included the process description and the data obtained in each cycle.

    Stage VIII
    To analyze the quantitative data obtained from the test, t-test was employed by using descriptive statistical operation in the form of table and graphs. To analyze the qualitative data, the descriptive analysis technique was employed.
    All the three paired-samples t-tests Nazara administered to test the action hypothesis disclose that the use of explicit teaching approach technique significantly increased the students’ pronunciation in each cycle.

    Descriptive analysis used to examine the qualitative data revealed that along with implementation of using explicit teaching approach technique to develop the students’ pronunciation, the class management gradually improved and the students’ enthusiasm and involvement kept on increasing from cycle to cycle. This increase of engagement then increased their achievement.

    And at the end of the article, from Nazara concluded that the classroom action research he conducted caused class management improvement, more fully attention to every student, better performance in the explicit teaching approach, and students’ enthusiasm and involvement increase. This increase of engagement, in turn, increased their achievement, as shown by the results of post-tests conducted at the end of every cycle. Therefore, using explicit teaching approach pronunciation is very effective to increase student’s.

    Thankyou 🙂 God Bless Us

    1. Hi Meilynda, please pay attention to:

      ….., he belive to increase the students’ pronunciation mastery should be made the first priority.
      — It should be “believes”

      Therefore, using explicit teaching approach pronunciation is very effective to increase student’s. (The last sentence)
      — I think you should put noun after “student’s” to make the meaning clear.

      Don’t hesitate to criticize mine. Thanks 🙂

  10. MELVA MELISA TAMBUNAN
    11. 121. 500. 16
    FKIP BS (A) – 2011

    Review of the Action Research Procedure
    in Nazara’s Improving Students’ English Pronunciation
    Using the Explicit Teaching Approach

    Stage 1 :
    The researcher identifies a problem which was pronunciation is a crucial obstacle to communication for some junior students of the English teaching study program of The Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of Christian University of Indonesia. And he said that good pronunciation skill is a key element to every ESL student‘s ability to communicate in English.

    Stage 2 :
    The researcher concluded that the production accuracy level of fricatives of these freshmen in English Teaching Study program of The Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of Christian University of Indonesia were low due to their mother-tongue’s interference.

    Stage 3 :
    According to Nazara, he did some comprehensive literature review in his research. The references he studied covered current publications; the mechanical elements of speaking skill; the importance of accurate pronunciation in speaking; and the use of explicit teaching approach to develop students’ pronunciation.

    Stage 4 :
    According to the article that is to see whether the explicit teaching approach increase the students’ pronunciation skills or not and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice. In his action, he gave the post test to his students to improve their pronunciation skill.

    Stage 5 :
    The participants of the research were the 16 students who attended Speaking III class of the English teaching study program of The Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of Christian University of Indonesia. The researcher has facilitated: LCD projector, laptop, and a loudspeaker in the classroom. And others, such as: the copies of Hewing’s (2007) texts and CDs, and Jennifer’s (2010) videos downloaded from website.

    Stage 6 :
    There are three techniques were employed to collect the data, according to Nazara in the article. The first is observation, to check whether the actions were conducted in accordance with the action plan or not. The second are: one pre-test and two post-test. One pre-test, to measure the students’ initial condition concerning their mastery of pronunciation; two post-test, which were used to collect quantitative data for revealing the students’ achievement in using the explicit teaching approach to develop pronunciation. And the third is questionnaires, to gauge the information concerning the students’ perception of the implementation of the action research.

    Stage 7 :
    The researcher conducted this study in two cycles and each cycle was divided into four activities (planning, action, observation, and reflection). He included the process description and the data obtained in each cycle.

    Stage 8 :
    The qualitative data obtained through observation was analyzed using the descriptive analysis. That along with implementation of using explicit teaching approach technique to help improve the students’ pronunciation.
    The quantitative data obtained from the test, the descriptive analysis technique was employed, by using descriptive statistical operation in the form of table and graphs.
    At the end of the article, Nazara concluded that using explicit teaching approach to improve student’s pronunciation is very effective for students of the English teaching study program of The Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of Christian University of Indonesia.

    1. Hello, Melva.
      In my point of view, there’s an error.

      Stage 1

      The researcher ” identifies ” a problem which was pronunciation is a crucial obstacle …. –> I saw that you had to commit to use simple present or simple past. In the first stage, you used simple present tense, look at the word I’ve quoted (identifies). I said that because I saw that the other stage you used in simple past. Be careful 🙂

  11. PUTRI WARINAGIA
    11 121 500 36

    Good morning, Sir. Here’s my review of the Nazara’s.

    Review of the Action Research Procedure
    in Nazara’s Improving Students’ English Pronunciation
    Using The Explicit Teaching Approach

    Stage 1 :

    The researcher evaluates that there is a problem in English Teaching Study Program students’ English pronunciation. The pronunciation is the crucial obstacle to communication for some junior students in English Teaching Study Program of FKIP-UKI because they tended to ignore many aspects of pronunciation while speaking so it cause misunderstanding in real communication.

    Stage 2 :

    Nazara’s research consult with Pardede’s (2006) study the production of English fricatives which was concluded that the production accuracy level of fricatives of the freshmen in English teaching study program of Christian University of Indonesia were low due to their mother-tongue’s interference.

    Stage 3 :

    The research reviews some research literatures to find out what can be learned from comparable studies for this issue are the pronunciation explicit teaching approach, the mechanical elements of speaking skill, the importance of accurate pronunciation in speaking, the production accuracy level of fricatives.

    Stage 4 :

    Nazara’s hypothesis in his research is to see whether the explicit teaching approach increase the students’ pronunciation skills or not and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice.

    Stage 5 :

    The participants for Nazara’s research were 16 students who attended at Speaking III class in English Teaching Study Program of the Christian University of Indonesia. The meeting was conducted once a week. There were facilities which were equipped in the classroom such as LCD Projector, laptop, and speaker. Then, he provided the materials from the copies of Hewing’s (2007) texts and CDs, and Jennifer’s (2010) videos downloaded from website.

    Stage 6 :
    Nazara clarified that there are three techniques were employed to collect the data. First, observation carried out by colleague during the implementation of the actions to check whether the actions were conducted in accordance with the action plan or not. Second, one pre-test which was administered to measure the students’ initial condition concerning their mastery of pronunciation, and two post-tests (post-test one was conducted at the end of cycle 1 and post-test two was conducted at the end of cycle 2) which were used to collect quantitative data for revealing the students’ achievement in using the explicit teaching approach to develop pronunciation. Third, questionnaires distributed to the students to before and after the study was conducted, were used to gauge the information concerning the students’ perception of the implementation of the action research.

    Stage 7 :

    Nazara described how the research was implemented in two cycles and each cycle was divided into four activities (planning, action, observation, and reflection). He also included the description of each cycle which has those activities in each cycle.

    Stage 8 :

    The qualitative data obtained through observation was analyzed using the descriptive analysis. The quantitative data obtained from the tests and was analyzed using descriptive statistical operation in the form of the table and graphs. He served the description of them well and easy to be read and understood.

    *Feel free to criticize mine 🙂 Thank you.

  12. Name: Annery Fienta
    SIN: 1112150024
    Class: A

    Review of the Action Research Procedure
    in Nazara’s Improving Students’ English Pronunciation
    Using the Explicit Teaching Approach

    Using that eight stages of action research procedure as the basis of evaluation, here is the review of Nazara’s Improving Students’ English Pronunciation Using the Explicit Teaching Approach.

    Stage 1:
    Nazara realized that good pronunciation skills are a key element to every ESL student’s ability to communicate in English. However, he identified a problem which was pronunciation is a crucial obstacle to communication for some junior students of the English Study Program of FKIP-UKI. Their pronunciation inaccuracy often caused their utterances while having discussions difficult to understand.

    Stage 2:
    This stage is not included in the article. Nazara probably skipped this because he had got the appropriate focus of the problem. He had also realized that the problem was caused by the wrong use of strategies and techniques and that the pronunciation had often been treated implicitly, and there had been no attempt to explicitly or systematically cover all of the main features of the phonology of English.

    Stage 3:
    According to the article Nazara conducted a comprehensive literature review. The references he studied covered current publications and research reports on the great importance of pronunciation in communication and learning, and the use of explicit teaching approach to improve students’ pronunciation.

    Stage 4:
    Based on his introduction, Nazara directed his study to see whether explicit teaching approach increase the students’ pronunciation skills or not and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice. He stated that the aim of this action research is to help students improve their pronunciation skills.

    Stage 5:
    Under the methodology section (on the action plan sub section) of the article, Nazara specified that the study was a two-cycled action research which was conducted once a week in three months (September to Desember 2011) in the English Teaching Study Program of the Christian University of Indonesia, Jakarta. The participants of the research were the 16 students who attended Speaking III class. To facilitate the pronunciation practice, the class was equipped with LCD projector, laptop, and loudspeaker, in addition to the copies of Hewings’ (2007) texts and CDs, and Jennifer’s (2010) videos downloaded from website which were provided to each participant.

    Stage 6:
    To evaluate the study, Nazara employed three techniques. The first technique is observation, carried out by a colleague, to check whether the actions were conducted in accordance with the action plan or not. The second is one pre-test to measure the students’ initial condition concerning their mastery of pronunciation and two post-tests to collect quantitative data for revealing the students’ achievement in using the explicit teaching approach to develop pronunciation. The last technique is questionnaires to gauge the information concerning the students’ perception of the implementation of the action research.

    Stage 7:
    Under the results section, Nazara described the students’ initial condition and how the project was implemented in two cycles. The description of the four action research steps (Plan, Action, Observation, and Reflection) in each cycle is quite comprehensive. He included the process description and the data obtained in each cycle.

    Stage 8:
    The qualitative data obtained through observations was analyzed using the descriptive analysis and the quantitative data obtained from the tests was analyzed using descriptive statistical operation in the form of table and graphs. The outcomes indicate that both cycles showed the implications of the importance of explicit pronunciation training for adults who study English as foreign language. Therefore, the explicit teaching of pronunciation seems effective to English adult learners.

    The descriptive analysis used to examine the qualitative data revealed that along with implementation of the explicit teaching approach to improve the students’ English pronunciation, their attitude gradually developed. All of them agreed and strongly agreed that the texts, audios, and videos in the action research made the activities interesting and helped pronunciation skill development. In addition, most of them agreed that the explicit teaching approach significantly developed their English pronunciation. This increase of engagement then increased their achievement.

    At the end of the article, Nazara concluded that the classroom action research he conducted caused the subjects more enthusiastic to practice, the students’ pronunciation and confidence to speak English improve. This increase of engagement, in turn, increased their achievement, as shown by the results of post-tests conducted at the end of every cycle. Therefore, using explicit teaching approach to improve adult learners’ pronunciation is very effective.

    Realizing its high effectiveness, it might be interesting to see whether it also work well on students of educational lower levels and Nazara recommended EFL teachers are to conduct similar action research to high school students.

  13. Name : Mei Pangaribuan
    SIN : 11 12 15 00 15

    Good night sir, here I send my Classroom Action Research assignment. Thank you.

    Stage 1
    The problem identified by Nazara was English Teaching Study Program of the Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of the Christian University of Indonesia students’ pronunciation inaccuracy which caused their utterances while having discussions difficult to understand. Since pronunciation skill is a key element to every ESL student‘s ability to communicate in English, he belives to increase the students’ pronunciation mastery should be made the first priority.

    Stage 2
    Nazara has inserted the Pardede’s result in his research. Pardede said that the errors committed by the subjects while pronouncing /θ/ 89.8%; /ʃ/ 76.2%; /ʒ/ 89.7%; /ð/ 72.5%; /z/ 55%. Based on the finding it was concluded that the production accuracy level of fricatives of these freshmen was low due to their mother-tongue’s interference.

    Stage 3
    According to the article Nazara conducted a comprehensive introduction. The references he studied covered current publications and research reports on the explicit teaching approach, the high importance of explicit teaching approach in speaking pronunciation, how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice?, and the use of explicit teaching approach as an effective medium to develop student’s pronunciation.

    Stage 4
    Based on his introduction, Nazara directed his study to see whether the explicit teaching approach increase the students’ pronunciation skills or not, and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice?. In addition, if the students get the post-test ≥ 75, their pronunciation skills have increasing.

    Stage 5
    Under the methodology section of the article, Nazara specified that the study was a two-cycled action research which was conducted during the Odd Semester of 2011/2012 Academic Year in the English Teaching Study Program of the Christian University of Indonesia. The participants of the study were 16 students attended a Speaking III class. During the study, the researcher incorporated explicit pronunciation teaching to correct English pronunciation elements which turned to be erroneously uttered by the subjects in to the public speaking course. These elements included some difficult English sounds, and consonant clusters stress; pausing; and linking.

    Stage 6
    To evaluate the study, under the methodology section Nazara clarified that he collected the data using test and non-test instruments. The test technique was used to collect quantitative data derived from the participants’ pronunciation achievement. Non-test techniques were used to collect qualitative data, including: observation. Tests were carried out three times; the pre-test, post test I, and post test II.

    Stage 7
    Under the results section, Nazara described how the project was conducted in two cycles. The description of the four action research steps (Plan, Action, Observation, and Reflection) in each cycle is quite comprehensive. He included the process description and the data obtained in each cycle.

    Stage 8
    To analyze the quantitative data obtained from the test, t-test was employed by using descriptive statistical operation in the form of table and graphs. To analyze the qualitative data, the descriptive analysis technique was employed.

    All the three paired-samples t-tests Nazara administered to test the action hypothesis disclose that the use of explicit teaching approach technique significantly increased the students’ pronunciation in each cycle.

    The descriptive analysis used to examine the qualitative data revealed that along with implementation of using explicit teaching approach technique to develop the students’ pronunciation, the class management gradually improved and the students’ enthusiasm and involvement kept on increasing from cycle to cycle. This increase of engagement then increased their achievement.

    At the end of the article, Nazara concluded that the classroom action research he conducted caused class management improvement, more fully attention to every student, better performance in the explicit teaching approach, and students’ enthusiasm and involvement increase. This increase of engagement, in turn, increased their achievement, as shown by the results of post-tests conducted at the end of every cycle. Therefore, using explicit teaching approach to increase student’s pronunciation is very effective.

  14. Name : Tuti Haryati Sihite
    NIM : 1112150044

    Stage 1:
    The problem identified by Nazara was students of the English Teaching Study Program’s inaccuracy of pronunciation that causes incorrect sounds and intonation likely cause misunderstanding. A pre-exsisting pronunciation workbook publish by a native English- speaking language practitionare accompanied by audio CD’s and relevant suplementary tutorials video to provide inputs and models and phonetic transcriptions to analyze participants’ pronunciation. The comparison of the results of the pre-test and post-test indicated that pronunciation explicit teaching enable the participants to produce better pronunciation in English.

    Stage 2:
    The research consult with Pardede (2006). The students pronunciation inaccuracy often caused their utterances while having discussion difficult to understand. Most recent informal observation on the fourth-semester students revealed that they tended to ignore many aspects of pronunciation while speaking. That ignorance included not only sound but also other elements of pronunciation, especially intonation, rythme,pausing and linking. They also did not use different intonation for the word that almost has the same sound pronounce. For example: the different between see, she and sea.

    Stage 3:
    According to the article of Nazara the students tended to ignore many aspects of pronunciation while speaking. That ignorance included not only sounds but also other elements of pronunciation, especially intonation, rhythm, pausing, and linking. He realized that using the explicit teaching approach defined as a solution for this problem.

    Stage 4:
    Based on her literature review, Nazara directed his study to see whether using the explicit teaching significantly approve his students of the English Teaching Study Program’s pronunciation. To achieve the objective he specifically formulated the problem in two research questions: 1 . how does the using of the explicit teaching approach effect the student’s pronunciation who attended the speaking III class? 2. Does the use of the explicit teaching approach technique improve the students of speaking III class pronunciation?
    In addition, he also stated the action hypothesis of the study as follow: “If the explicit teaching approach technique is used,and the students get the post-test ≥ 75 the student’s pronunciation of the speaking III class increase.”

    Stage 5:
    Under the methodology section of the article, Nazara clarified that the study was a two -cycled action research which was conducted in one a week. Beginning from Wednesday, September 21, 2011 and ended on Wednesday, December 14, 2011 in The Christian University of Indonesia. The participants of the research were 16 students attended a speaking III class in English Teaching Study Program of The Christian University of Indonesia during the odd semester of 2011/2012 Academic Year. In this study, the researcher incorporate explicit pronunciation teaching to correct English Pronunciation element which turned to erroneously uttered by the subjects in to the public speaking course of the speaking IV.

    Stage 6:
    To evaluate the study under the methodology section Nazara clarified that the collected the data using observation,pre – test, post-test and questionare. The Observation thecnique was used to carry out by collage during the implementation of the action to check whether the action were conducted in accordance with the action plan or not. The pre-test thecnique was used to measure the student’s initial condition concerning their mastery of pronuncation. The pre-test was used to collecte the quantitative for revealing the student’s achievement in using the explicit teaching approach to develop pronunciation. An the questionare were use to gauge the information concerning the student’s perception of the implementation of the action research.Test were carry out three times: pre-test 1,pre-test 2 and post-test 1.

    Stage 7:
    Under the result section Nazara describes how the projected implemented in to two cycle. The description of the four action research step (plan, action, observation and reflection). In each cycle is quite comprehensive.he encluded the process description and the data obtained in each cycle.

    Stage 8:
    The qualitative data obtained through observations was analyze using the descriptive analysis. The result of qualitative data analysis were used to make sure that study was carried out in line with the action plan. It was also employed to determine changes in the student’s attitudes. The quantitative data obtained from the test and was analyzed using indicator.

    This study was an action research aim to help students to improve their pronunciation skill towards the ability intelligible pronunciation to English native speaker which will ensure that the student can express their ideas or feeling through spoken English.
    In particular, the action research was conducted to see whether the explicit teaching approach can increase the students pronunciation skills or not, and how the participants perchieve used of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice.

    at the en of the article,Nazara said that this study although small in scope,but has produce some interesting results. And it is hoped will make a contribution towards developing future educational strategies to assist English teacher to help their students developing their pronunciation.

    1. Hai, tuti.
      IN my point of view, there is an error.
      Stage 6:
      To evaluate the study under the methodology section Nazara clarified that the collected the data using observation,pre – test, post-test and questionare. The Observation thecnique was used to carry out by collage during the implementation of the action to check whether the action were conducted in accordance with the action plan or not. I think the right sentence is To evaluate the study under the methodology section Nazara clarified that the collected the data using observation,pre – test, post-test and questionnaire. The Observation technique was used to carry out by collage during the implementation of the action to check whether the action were conducted in accordance with the action plan or not.
      thank you 🙂

    2. Hi Tuty I just want to remind you there is little error on your explanation in
      stage 4
      “Based on her literature review, Nazara directed his study to see..”
      the pronoun “HER” on that sentence is not appropriate because Nazara is male, you should change to “HIS” . Thank you 🙂

  15. Erika Magdalena Septiana
    1112150901

    sorry sir, I mean…..

    The Review

    Using that eight stages of action research procedure as the basis of evaluation , here is the review of Nazara’s Improving Students’ English Pronunciation Using the Explicit Teaching Approach.

    Stage 1:
    The problem identified by Nazara was students’ lack of pronunciation at Christian University of Indonesia which causes them become incorrect sound and intonation of pronunciation in speaking in English, unable to understand what they want to communicate, and make the listener become difficult to catch the message. Since the explicit pronunciation teaching is an effective means of helping their erroneous pronunciation problem,knowledge is an essential pre-requisite for speaking in English, he believes to increase the learners’ pronunciation mastery should be made the first priority.

    Stage 2:
    Nazara used the results of Pardede in his research. Pardede revealed that the errors comitted by the subjects while pronouncing /θ/ 89.8%; /ʃ/ 76.2%; /ʒ/ 89.7%; /ð/ 72.5%; /z/ 55%. and based on the findings it was concluded that the production accuracy level fricatives of freshman was low due to their mother tongue’s interfrence.

    Stage 3:
    According to the article Nazara, the students tended to ignore many aspects of pronunciation while speaking. That inaccurate included not only speak in English but also they inaccurate to produce better pronunciation, especially intonation, rhythm, pausing, and linking. He realized that explicit teaching approach effective to increase student’s English pronunciation skill.

    Stage 4:
    Based on her literature review, Nazara directed her study to see whether the explicit teaching approach can significantly increase the student’s pronunciation or not and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice? In addition, if the students can pronounce 75% of the English pronunciation elements accurately, their pronunciation become better.

    Stage 5:
    Under the methodology section of the article, Nazara specified that the study was a two-cycled action research which was conducted in two month (September 21, 2011 and ended December 14, 2011) toward fourth semester students (speaking III class) in Christian University of Indonesia, Cawang, Jakarta. The participants of the research were the 16 students who attended a speaking III class. During the study, the researcher selected the pronunciation practice from copies of Hewings (2007) text and CDs and Jennifer (2010) video download from website (English pronunciation lessons with Jennifer ESL) which were provided to each participant. Each recorded utterance was then transcribed into phonetic transcriptions and compared to the transcription made by listening to the native speaker utterance of the same passage provided by Hewing (2007) in mp3 format sound in the accompanying CD of this book.

    Stage 6:
    To evaluate the study, the methodology section Nazara clarified that she collected the data using pre-test and post-test instruments. The post- test technique was used to collect quantitative data derived from the participants’ public speaking course of the speaking IV. pre-test techniques were used to collect qualitative data, including: observation, documentation, and questionnaire. Tests were carried out four times; the pre-test, post test I and post test II. The pre-test techniques were carried out using the recorded passage reading, documentation and questionnaire.

    Stage 7:
    Under the results section, Nazara described how the project was implemented in two cycles. The description of the four action research steps (Plan, Action, Observation, and Reflection) in each cycle is quite comprehensive. he included the process description and the data obtained in each cycle.

    Stage 8:
    Nazara obtained the success indicator. This indicator determination was based on the assumption that by achieving that mean score. The study the class achieved mean score of ≥ 75. The pre-test and post-test are analyzed with the score of students’ achievement. And that scores are used for analysing students’ pronunciation achievement through explicit teaching approach. And the qualitative data was analyzed using the descriptive analysis.
    In cycle 1, the students did provide improvement in explicit teaching. If in the pre-test 62,5 got poor score, 31,25% got fair category, 6,25 got good category, and 93,75% got fair in the post-test 1. And the class mean-score also increased from 56.78 in the pre-test to 65.81 in the post-test. In cycle 2, The students that got the very good category are 7.1 %. And the highest in the good category 78.6 %. This is the result of pronunciation action research from Nazara.
    At the end of the study, Nazara concluded that using the explicit teaching approach can increase students’ pronunciation skills, because the explicit teaching approach can be effective for adult learners’ English pronunciation skills.

    thank you 🙂

  16. Erika Magdalena Septiana
    1112150901

    The Review

    Using that eight stages of action research procedure as the basis of evaluation , here is the review of Nazara’s Improving Students’ English Pronunciation Using the Explicit Teaching Approach.

    Stage 1:
    The problem identified by Nazara was students’ lack of pronunciation in Christian University of Indonesia which causes them become incorrect sound and intonation of pronunciation in speaking in English, unable to understand what they want to communicate, and make the listener become difficult to catch the message. Since the explicit pronunciation teaching is an effective means of helping their erroneous pronunciation problem,knowledge is an essential pre-requisite for speaking in English, he believes to increase the learners’ pronunciation mastery should be made the first priority.

    Stage 2:
    Nazara used the results of Pardede in his research. Pardede revealed that the errors comitted by the subjects while pronuncing /θ/ 89.8%; /ʃ/ 76.2%; /ʒ/ 89.7%; /ð/ 72.5%; /z/ 55%. and based on the findings it was concluded that the production accuracy level fricatives of freshman was low due to their mother tongue’s interfrence.

    Stage 3:
    According to the article Nazara, the students tended to ignore many aspects of pronunciation while speaking. That inaccurate included not only speak in english but also they inaccurate to produce better pronunciation, especially intonation, rhythm, pausing, and linking. He realized that explicit teaching approach effective to increase student’s English pronunciation skill.

    Stage 4:
    Based on her literature review, Nazara directed her study to see whether the axplicit teaching approach can significantly increase the student’s pronunciation or not and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice? In addition, if the students can pronunce 75% of the english pronunciation elements accurately, their pronunciation become better.

    Stage 5:
    Under the methodology section of the article, Nazara specified that the study was a two-cycled action research which was conducted in two month (September 21, 2011 and ended december 14, 2011) toward fourth semester students (speaking III class) in Christian University of Indonesia, Cawang, Jakarta. The participants of the research were the 16 students who attended a speaking III class. During the study, the researcher selected the pronunciation practice from copies of Hewings’(2007 text and CDs and Jennifer (2010) video download from website (English pronunciation lessons with JenniferESL) which were provided to each participant. Each recorded utterance was then transcribed into phonetic transcriptions and compared to the transcription made by listening to the native speaker utterance of the same passage provided by Hewings (2007) in mp3 format sound in the accompanying CD of this book.

    Stage 6:
    To evaluate the study, under the methodology section Siahaan clarified that she collected the data using pre-test and post-test instruments. The post- test technique was used to collect quantitative data derived from the participants’ public speaking cousre of the speaking 4. pre-test techniques were used to collect qualitative data, including: observation, documentation, and questionnaire. Tests were carried out four times; the pre-test, post test I and post test II. The pre-test techniques were carried out using the recorded passage reading, documentation and questionnaire.

    Stage 7:
    Under the results section, Nazara described how the project was implemented in two cycles. The description of the four action research steps (Plan, Action, Observation, and Reflection) in each cycle is quite comprehensive. he included the process description and the data obtained in each cyle.

    Stage 8:
    Nazara’s obtained the success indicator. This indicator determination was based on the assumption that by achieving that mean score. The study the class achieved mean score of ≥ 75. The pre-test and post-test are analyzed with the score of students’ achievement. And that scores are used for analysing students’ pronunciation achievement through explicit teaching approach. And the qualitative data was analyzed using the descriptive analysis.
    In cycle 1, the students did provide improvement in explicit teaching. If in the pre-test 62,5 got poor score, 31,25% got fair category, 6,25 got good category, and 93,75% got fair in the post-test 1. And the class mean-score also increased from 56.78 in the pre-test to 65.81 in the post-test. In cycle 2, The students that got the very good category are 7.1 %. And the highest in the good category 78.6 %. This is the result of pronunciation action research from Nazara.
    At the end of the study, Nazara concluded that using the explicit teaching approach can increase students’ pronunciation skills, because the explicit teaching approach can be effective for adult learners’English pronunciation skills.

    thank you 🙂

    1. hi erika, I just want to remind you, I think there is an error in your post. Please pay attention to: the first sentence in third stage.

      According to the article Nazara, the students tended to ignore many aspects of pronunciation while speaking.
      I think you should make it like this : according to the Nazara’s article, …..
      thank you 🙂

  17. Jessica Talentia
    11 121 500 39

    Stage 1 :

    In Nazara’s research, English Teaching Study Program of The Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of The Christian University of Indonesia’s pronunciation inaccuracy often caused their utterances while having discussions difficult to understand. He trusts that explicit teaching can increase the students’ pronunciation skills.

    Stage 2 :

    Nazara has inserted the Pardede’s result in his research. Pardede said that the errors commited by the subjects while pronouncing /θ/ 89.8%; /ʃ/ 76.2%; /ʒ/ 89.7%; /ð/ 72.5%; /z/ 55%. Based on the findings it was concluded that the production accuracy level of fricatives of these freshmen was low due to their mother-tongue’s interference.

    Stage 3 :

    According to Nazara, the students tended to ignore many aspects of pronunciation while speaking. That ignorance included not only sounds but also other elements of pronunciation, especially intonation, rhythm, pausing, and linking. He realized that explicit teaching defined as a solution for this.

    Stage 4 :

    This action research was conducted to see whether the explicit teaching approach increase the students’ pronunciation skills or not, and how the participants perceive use of explicit teaching approach in their English pronunciation practice? In addition, if the students get the post-test ≥ 75, they pronunciation skills have increasing.

    Stage 5 :

    The researcher used two cycle in this study. The first is improving the subjects ability to correctly pronounce English sounds which were problematic to them. Second, to improve the subjects’ skills to correctly use linking and pausing. Both of them are used to increase the students’ pronunciation skills.

    Stage 6 :

    Nazara planned the three data collection. They are observation, pre-test, and post-test for the students. Post-test 1 was conducted at the end of cycle 1 and post-test 2 at the end of cycle 2. He used the qualitative data through the descriptive analysis and quantative data through the post-test and pre-test.

    Stage 7 :

    The researcher conducted this study in two cycles and each cycles consists of four activities : planning, actions, observation, and reflection.

    Stage 8 :

    Nazara’s gave the success indicator. This indicator determination was based on the assumption that by achieving that mean score. The score success indicator is ≥ 75. The pre-test and post-test are analyzed with the score of students’ achievement. And that scores are used for analysing students’ pronunciation achievement through explicit teaching approach. And the qualitative data was conducted from descriptive analysis.

    In cycle 1, the students did provide improvement in explicit teaching. And the class mean-score also increased from 56.78 in the pre-test to 65.81 in the post-test. In cycle 2, The students that got the very good percantage are 7.1 %. And the highest in the good range 78.6 %. This is the good increasing in Class Action Research of Nazara.

    At the end of the study, Nazara concluded that the explicit teaching approach can used by the educators for increasing their students’ pronunciation skills, because the result is significant.

    Thank you for reading.

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