Sentence Structure and Paragraph Structure


Sentence Structure and Paragraph Structure

Parlindungan Pardede

The slide in this post presents important concepts and  tips for constructing effective sentences and paragraphs to produce readable article. In general, the slide was developed using Yang’s An outline of scientific writing: for researchers with English as a foreign language, pp. 11-31. Feel free to access and download the slide from here.

Based on the explanation in the slides and text, there are four tips to keep in mind for producing effective scientific paragraphs. In the followings each point is clarified and illustrated in examples.

1. Since a paragraph is a collection of sentences, one sentence does not make a paragraph. Thus, write a paragraph in two or more sentences. Look at this example.

Ineffective

      The high significance of including English articles system in EFL curriculum is justified by three facts, i.e. articles are among the most frequent function words in English making constant rule application difficult over an extended stretch of discourse; function words are normally unstressed and consequently are very difficult for non-native speakers to discern, which affects the availability of input in the spoken mode; and the article system stacks multiple functions onto a single morpheme, which constitutes a considerable burden for the learner who usually looks for a one-to-one correspondence between form and function, especially in the early stages of language learning.

Note

The sentence in the example above is grammatically correct. However, its length and complexity make the idea it express quite difficult to grasp. Better to cut it to some shorter sentences. Compare it to the revised version below.

Revised

       The high significance of including English articles system in EFL curriculum is justified by three facts. First, articles are among the most frequent function words in English making constant rule application difficult over an extended stretch of discourse. Second, function words are normally unstressed and consequently are very difficult for non-native speakers to discern, which affects the availability of input in the spoken mode. Finally, the article system stacks multiple functions onto a single morpheme, which constitutes a considerable burden for the learner who usually looks for a one-to-one correspondence between form and function, especially in the early stages of language learning.

2. Discuss only one main idea in a paragraph. Therefore, any information irrelevant to the idea should be dropped. This will make each paragraph will emerge as a conceptual unit.

 Ineffective

       The participants of this study were 38 pre-service EFL teachers who enrolled in fourth year (eighth semester) of their 4 year undergraduate teacher education program at the Christian University of Indonesia. They were purposively selected from the whole students of that undergraduate teacher education program. They all had passed the classes of Research Methodology, Statistics for Social Sciences, Research in ELT, and Seminar on ELT Research Proposal, and had finished conducting a research required to write their undergraduate thesis when this study was carried out. Having those experiences they were assumed to have no problems to appropriately respond to the whole items (concerning research0 in the questionnaire.

Note

This paragraph deals with the participants’ profile, but the stricken sentence introduce a different idea (that of participant selection technique). This sentence should be discussed in a separate paragraph.

 Revised

       The participants of this study were 38 pre-service EFL teachers who enrolled in fourth year (eighth semester) of their 4 year undergraduate teacher education program at the Christian University of Indonesia. They all had passed the classes of Research Methodology, Statistics for Social Sciences, Research in ELT, and Seminar on ELT Research Proposal, and had finished conducting a research required to write their undergraduate thesis when this study was carried out. Having those experiences they were assumed to have no problems to appropriately respond to the whole items (concerning research0 in the questionnaire.

        The participants were purposively selected from the whole students of the English teaching education program. The reasons for doing this were …

3. All sentences within a paragraph should be connected smoothly. This will guarantee the paragraph’s coherence. Use repetition, transitional words, or pronouns to achieve this. Synonyms are also essential to prevent boredom. Even adjacent paragraphs should also be connected. This could be done by starting and closing a paragraph with a related point, i.e. by suggesting what will be said in the next paragraph and by making reference to what was said in the previous paragraph.

Ineffective

       For many years, the teaching of reading comprehension was based on a concept of reading as the application of a set of isolated skills consisting of identifying words, finding main ideas, identifying cause and effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, and sequencing. Reading comprehension was viewed as a mastery of, these skills. The teaching of reading comprehension followed what the study called mentioning, practicing, and assessing procedure where teachers mentioned a specific skill that students were to apply, had students practice the skill by completing workbook pages, then assessed them to find out if they could use the skill correctly. That’s why the teaching of reading comprehension only did little to help students learn how or when to use the skills and never proved that this particular set of skills enable comprehension.

       Current research results indicating that reading comprehension is an active process of constructing meaning, not skill application need to be considered. The act of constructing meaning is involve three features, i.e., interactive, strategic, and adaptable. The act of constructing meaning is interactive because it involves not just the reader, but the text and the context in which reading takes place. The feature of strategic indicates that readers have purposes for their reading and use a variety of strategies as they construct meaning. The act of constructing meaning is adaptable because readers always change the strategies they use as they read different kinds of text or as they read for different purposes. Reading comprehension instruction should focuses on the teaching of comprehension strategies and environments that support an understanding of text.

Notes
The first paragraph is boring to read because the monotony caused by the use of the same phrase as the subject of every sentence. The sentences are also not well connected one to another. To prevent this, the author could use pronoun and synonym to refer the subject. Look at the italicized words or phrases in the following revision as examples. In addition, the first and the second paragraph are not appropriately connected. Putting the transitional phrase, “To make reading comprehension instruction more effective” will make the two paragraph well connected.

Revised

       For many years, the teaching of reading comprehension was based on a concept of reading as the application of a set of isolated skills consisting of identifying words, finding main ideas, identifying cause and effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, and sequencing. In other words, reading comprehension was viewed as a mastery of, these skills. Consequently, reading comprehension instruction followed what the study called mentioning, practicing, and assessing procedure where teachers mentioned a specific skill that students were to apply, had students practice the skill by completing workbook pages, then assessed them to find out if they could use the skill correctly. That’s why the teaching of reading comprehension only did little to help students learn how or when to use the skills and never proved that this particular set of skills enable comprehension.

       To make reading comprehension instruction more effective, current research results indicating that reading comprehension is an active process of constructing meaning, not skill application need to be considered. The act of constructing meaning involves three features, i.e., interactive, strategic, and adaptable. The act of constructing meaning is interactive because it involves not just the reader, but the text and the context in which reading takes place. The feature of strategic indicates that readers have purposes for their reading and use a variety of strategies as they construct meaning. The act of constructing meaning is adaptable because readers always change the strategies they use as they read different kinds of text or as they read for different purposes. Reading comprehension instruction should focuses on the teaching of comprehension strategies and environments that support an understanding of text.

4. Develop your paragraph adequately. It should be neither so short that the topic is underdeveloped and insufficiently explained, nor so long that it tends to break down into too many subtopics that would be better organized into separate paragraphs. As a practical guide, a paragraph should be written in approximately eight to twelve sentences (75-125 words).

Ineffective

       To answer the research questions, two types of data were collected and tested using the product moment correlation. They were the data concerning the students’ reading interests and the data concerning the students’ vocabulary achievement.

     The questionnaire used to collect the data of students’ reading interest was adapted from the questionnaire of Pardede’s (2010). It was designed into two sections. The first one is aimed to collect the participants’ demographic variables. The second section was constructed to gauge the participants’ interest in reading English texts, gauged by asking the participants to indicate their agreement or disagreement to each of the 25 statements on a 5-point Likert scale that ranged from strongly disagree, score 1, to strongly agree, score 5. While the instruments used to collect the data concerning the students’ vocabulary achievement was an objective vocabulary test consisting of 50 questions in the form of multiple choices. The test materials were randomly taken from the texts the students had been suggested to read. Each correct answer was scored 2 and an incorrect answer was scored 0. All questions focused on the students’ mastery of the words in the text. To cope with the test, then, mastery of the words’ meaning was crucial. Pre-testing of the comprehension passages showed that the average discrimination index for the questions was, although not perfect, but acceptable (0.43). The average facility index of the tests was 0.72 and most of the distracters functioned well. Using Kuder-Richardson Formula 21 (K-R 21), the researchers calculated the reliability of the reading comprehension tests and the result came out to be 0.70.

Notes
The topic in the first paragraph is underdeveloped because the author just wrote two sentences to discuss the topic—two types of collected data. The second paragraph is too long and deals with two different topics, i.e. description of the questionnaire and the vocabulary test. It would be better to organize it into two separate paragraphs. Look at the revision below.

 Revised

       To answer the research questions, two types of data were collected and tested using the product moment correlation. First, the data concerning the students’ reading interests which were collected through the questionnaire. Second, the data concerning the students’ vocabulary development collected through the administered test.

     The questionnaire used to collect the data of students’ reading interest was adapted from the questionnaire of Pardede’s (2010). It was designed into two sections. The first one is aimed to collect the participants’ demographic variables. The second section was constructed to gauge the participants’ interest in reading English texts, gauged by asking the participants to indicate their agreement or disagreement to each of the 25 statements on a 5-point Likert scale that ranged from strongly disagree, score 1, to strongly agree, score 5.

       The instrument used to collect the data concerning the students’ vocabulary achievement was an objective vocabulary test. It consists of 50 questions in the form of multiple choices. The test materials were randomly taken from the texts the students had been suggested to read. Each correct answer was scored 2 and an incorrect answer was scored 0. All questions focused on the students’ mastery of the words in the text. To cope with the test, then, mastery of the words’ meaning was crucial. Pre-testing of the comprehension passages showed that the average discrimination index for the questions was, although not perfect, but acceptable (0.43). The average facility index of the tests was 0.72 and most of the distracters functioned well. Using Kuder-Richardson Formula 21 (K-R 21), the researchers calculated the reliability of the reading comprehension tests and the result came out to be 0.70.

After studying the slide, the text (Yang’s An outline of scientific writing: for researchers with English as a foreign language, pp. 11-31), and the tips above, do the following exercises on the reply section below. (Deadline: Saturday, April 26, 2014).

A. Sentence Exercises

Rewrite each of the following sentences to make them more effective and grammatically correct!

  1. Without sufficient vocabulary will have problems in the development of speaking, reading, listening, and writing.
  2. Being able to read in English is very important as it is known that being able to read is the most necessary because it is a basic tool of education.
  3. While teaching them during the teaching practice program last semester, the present witer find the students always find that it is hard to express ideas due to the students poor vocabulary.
  4. According to Richards & Renandya (2002, p.255) accentuates vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.
  5. A person read for many purposes, and that purpose helps them to understand more the text which is read by people.

B. Paragraph Exercises

Rewrite each of the following paragraphs to make them more effective and grammatically correct!

  1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico cited Celce and Murcia (2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or
    foreign. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001), emphasize that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998) when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.


  2. Songs are one of the most effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) cited in (Zhang and Wu, 2011) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

  3. English is the first foreign language which has an important position in education in Indonesia. The government of Indonesia has made it a compulsory subject to learn starting from primary schools until university. In some kindergartens, it is also included in the curriculum. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

  4. For many people whose first language is not English or those who did not learn English as a second language in school like in Indonesia their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs; so language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, are natural and fun and could be used to introduce cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

  5. Almost everyone loves music. It is part of our language and life from birth onwards. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. If used in coordination with a language lesson, music can be of great value, especially for developing listening skills. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives.

 

As a skill, writing is like swimming. The more you ‘jump into the pool’ the more skillful you are!

21 Comments

  1. Name : Desiana Sianturi
    SIN: 1112150022

    here is my answer, sir.
    thank you

    A. Sentence Exercise

    1. Vocabulary is important to develop speaking, reading, listening, and writing.
    2. Being able to read in English is important because reading is a basic tool of education.
    3. While teaching them, the present writer find the students is hard to express ideas because of poor vocabulary.
    4. According to Richards and Renandya (2002, p. 255), accentuating vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.
    5. A person reads for Man purpose that to more understand the text.
    B. Paragraph Exercise
    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects
    the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico (as
    cited in Celce & Murcia, 2001) stated that vocabulary learning is central to
    language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or
    foreign. According to McCharthy (1998) when we speak of the vocabulary we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is tied to the learning words of language, then it will be central in language learning.
    2. Songs are one of the most effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.
    3. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. Students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).
    4. For those whose first language isn’t English and didn’t Lear English as a Second language in the school their first exposure English may probably be through popular songs. Language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, and are natural and fun. A variety of new vocabulary can be introduced as well as cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).
    5. Almost everyone loves music. It is part of our language and life from birth onwards. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives. Music can be of great value if it is included in a language lesson, especially for developing listening skills.

  2. Naomi Anitasari
    1112150034/FKIP BS-B

    Sir, here is my assignment.

    A. Sentence Exercises
    1. Problems in the development of speaking, listening, and writing skills is lack of vocabulary.
    2. Being able to read in English is the most necessary, it is a basic tool of education.
    3. The students are hard to express ideas because of their lack of vocabulary.
    4. Richards & Renandya (2002, p. 255) states that vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.
    5. Person read for many purposes that help them to understand the text they read.

    B. Paragraph Exercises
    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency. It is because of vocabulary affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. According to McCharthy (1998) when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Song is one of the most effective materials for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), “a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs”. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also to create endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long-term memory. Murphey (1992) (as cited in Zhang & Wu, 2011) believed that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

    3. English is the first foreign language which has an important position in education in Indonesia. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English, especially to be a master of four basic skills in listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4. For many people whose first language is not English or those who did not learn English as a second language in school like in Indonesia. Their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs. Therefore, language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language are easily obtainable, natural, fun and could be used to introduce cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

    5. Everyone loves music. It is a part of our language and life. We heard music from baby until adult. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we hear the beat of famous singers in the world in our daily lives. Music permeates through television programs, movies, theater and even the news. Music supports or changes every mood and emotion in our activities. If it is coordinated with a language lesson, music can be a great value, especially for developing listening skills.

  3. Name: Guntur Adventius
    SIN: 1112150021

    A. Sentence Exercises
    1. Without sufficient vocabulary we will have problems to develope speaking, reading, listening, and writing.
    2. Being able to read in English is important because reading is a basic tool of education.
    3. While teaching them, the present writer find the students is hard to express ideas because of poor vocabulary.
    4. Richards & Renandya (2002, p.255) accentuates that vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.
    5. A person reads for many purposes that help them to understand the text more.

    B. Paragraph Exercises
    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects four language skills. Decarrico cited Celce and Murcia (2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001), emphasize that foreign language learners need to know many words as this may be useful for them in the long-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998) when we speak of the vocabulary we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is tied to the learning words of language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Songs are one of the most effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), popular songs can acquire a wide variety of useful vocabulary items. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) cited in (Zhang and Wu, 2011) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

    3. English is the first foreign language which is important in Indonesia’s education. The government of Indonesia has made it a compulsory subject to learn. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4. For many people who learn English in school like in Indonesia their first exposure to English is probably through popular songs; so language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, are natural and fun and could be used to introduce cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

    5. Song is part of our language and life from birth onwards. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. If we use this in coordination with a language lesson, music can be a great value for developing listening skills.

  4. Name : Mei Pangaribuan
    SIN : 11 12 15 00 15
    Class : A

    Good morning sir, here I send my sentence and paragraph assignment. Thank you.

    A. Sentence Exercises

    1. Students will have problems in the development of speaking, reading, listening, and writings without sufficient vocabulary.

    2. Being able to read in English is very important it because is the basic tool of education.

    3. In the teaching practice program last semester, students are hard to express ideas because their lack of vocabulary.

    4. Richards & Renandya (2002, p. 255) accentuated vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.

    5. People read for many purposes which help them to understand more about the text they read.

    B. Paragraph Exercise

    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico in Celce and Murcia (2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001), emphasize that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998), when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Song is one of the most effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) cited in believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

    3. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4. For many people whose first language is not English or they do not learn English as a second language in school like in Indonesia, their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs. Language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, natural, fun. A variety of new vocabulary can be introduced as well as cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

    5. Almost everyone loves music because it is part of our language and life. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives. Music can be of great value if it is included in a language lesson, especially for developing listening skill.

  5. Putri Warinagia Peranginangin
    11 121 500 36
    BS – B

    Good Morning, Sir. 😀
    Here’s my assignment.

    SENTENCE EXERCISES

    1. Problem in the development of speaking, reading, listening, and writing is lack of
    vocabulary.

    2. Being able to read in English is very important, because it is a basic tool of
    education.

    3. Because students are lack of vocabulary, they can’t express their ideas well.

    4. According to Richards & Renandya (2002), “vocabulary is the core component
    of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners
    speak, listen, read, and write” (p.255).

    5. The purpose of reading is helping someone to understand the text deeply.

    PARAGRAPH EXERCICES

    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects
    the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico (as
    cited in Celce & Murcia, 2001) stated that vocabulary learning is central to
    language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or
    foreign. Nation (2001) emphasized that foreign language learners need to know
    very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as
    learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy
    (1998), “when we speak using the vocabulary of language, we are primarily but
    not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language”. It means that
    vocabulary is a central in language learning because of relating tightly to the
    learning words of certain language.

    2. Song is one of the most effective materials for developing students’ vocabulary.
    According to Mishan (2005), “a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be
    acquired through popular songs”. Using students’ favorite songs to teach
    vocabulary also to create endless opportunities for revision which is
    fundamental for storing the information in long-term memory. Murphey (1992)
    (as cited in Zhang & Wu, 2011) believed that music may help learners to
    overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of
    sticking in one’s head.

    3. English is the first foreign language which has an important position in
    education in Indonesia. The government of Indonesia has made it as
    compulsory subject to learn which is started from primary schools until
    university. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to
    use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such
    as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are linked completely
    each other, but reading is a major skill.

    4. For many people whose first or second language is not English, like in
    Indonesia, the popular songs can be the exposure to English, because those
    contain natural language; which are easily obtainable and fun; and could be
    used to introduce cultural aspects and different types of English accents
    (Lynch, 2005).

    5. Music is part of our life and our language. Almost everyone loves music. It is
    heard from baby until adult. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we
    play, sing and dance of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we hear the beat of
    famous singers in the world in our daily lives. Music permeates through
    television programs, movies, theater and even the news. Music supports or
    changes every mood and emotion in our activities. If it is coordinated with a
    language lesson, music can be a great value, especially for developing listening
    skills.

  6. Good morning sir, this is my assignment. thank you 🙂
    name: Erika Magdalena Septiana
    nim: 1112150901
    bs-b

    A. Sentence Exercises

    1. Students will have problems in the development of speaking, reading, listening and writing, without sufficient vocabulary.

    2. Being able to read, especially in English, it is the most necessary tool of education.

    3. While the writer was teaching students during teaching practice program last smester, he found them who hard to express ideas due to the students vocabulary is poor.

    4. Richards & Renandya (2002, p. 255), accentuated that “vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how the learners speak, listen, read, and write well”.

    5. People read for many purposes that help them to understand more about the text which they read.

    B. Paragraph exercise

    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico (as cited in Celce and Murcia, 2001) states that vocabulary learning is central of language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign.The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001) emphasizes that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words that may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary and should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998), when we speak the vocabulary of language primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Song is one of the most effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (as cited in Zhang and Wu, 1992) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

    3. English is the first foreign language which has an important position of education in Indonesia. the objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4. For many people whose first language is not English or they did not learn English as a second language in school like in Indonesia, their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs. Language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, and are natural and fun. A variety of new vocabulary can be introduced as well as cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

    5. Almost everyone loves music because it is part of our language and life from birth onwards. music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theater and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives. Music can be of great value if it is included in a language lesson, especially for developing listening skills.

    1. sorry sir, I mean….
      name: Erika Magdalena Septiana
      nim: 1112150901
      class: b

      A. Sentence Exercises

      1. Students will have problems in the development of speaking, reading, listening and writing, without sufficient vocabulary.

      2. The skill of reading in English is very important because it is a basic tool of education.

      3. While the writer was teaching students during teaching practice program last smester, he found them who hard to express ideas due to the students vocabulary is poor.

      4. Richards & Renandya (2002, p. 255), accentuated that “vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well the learners speak, listen, read, and write”.

      5. People read for many purposes that help them to understand more about the text which they read.

      B. Paragraph exercise

      1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico (as cited in Celce and Murcia, 2001) states that vocabulary learning is central of language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign.The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001) emphasizes that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words that may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary and should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998), when we speak the vocabulary of language primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

      2. Song is one of the most effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (as cited in Zhang and Wu, 1992) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

      3. English is the first foreign language which has an important position of education in Indonesia. the objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

      4. For many people whose first language is not English or they did not learn English as a second language in school like in Indonesia, their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs. Language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, and are natural and fun. A variety of new vocabulary can be introduced as well as cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

      5. Almost everyone loves music because it is part of our language and life from birth onwards. music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theater and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives. Music can be of great value if it is included in a language lesson, especially for developing listening skills.

      Thank you sir, GBU 🙂

  7. Name: Vhanny Rumondang
    Nim: 1112150029
    Class: A

    A. Sentence Exercises
    1. Problems the students are speaking, reading, listening and writing, which have sufficient vocabulary ability.
    2. Learn the English language is very important, because it is the basis of education.
    3. Teaching and training program last semester, students teaching English is difficult to understand because; the students do not understand the vocabulary.
    4. According to Richards & Renandya (2002, p.255) states accentuates vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.
    5. It’s someone who reads a lot better understanding of the text read.

    B. Paragraph Exercises
    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills. Decarrico (cited Celce and Murcia 2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001), emphasize that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998), when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.
    2. Song is the one of the most effective materials for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory.
    3. In Indonesia English is the first foreign language which has an important position in education. The government has made it a compulsory subject to learn starting from primary schools until university. In some kindergartens, it is also included in the curriculum. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).
    4. Therefore, language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching method because songs contain natural language are easily obtainable, natural, fun and could be used to introduce cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).
    5. Like everyone, especially my own music is the music lover. Music is part of the art, as the very popular youth music.
    Music can also eliminate saturated in activities, music also changed the mood of emotion.

    Thank you Sir Parlin,God bless 🙂

  8. NAME : Debora Evina Banjarnahor
    NIM : 1112150004
    Class A – 11-

    A Sentence Exercises

    1. Students will have a problem in the development of speaking, reading, listening and writing, if their vocabulary is inadequate.

    2. Being able to read in English is very important because it is a basic tool of education.

    3. During the training program last semester, students are difficult to express ideas due to inadequate vocabulary possessed.

    4. According to Richards & Renandya (2002, p.255) states accentuates vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.

    5. Someone reading for various purposes to help him understand more about the text being read.

    B. Paragraph Exercises

    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico cited Celce and Murcia (2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001), emphasize that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998) states when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Songs are one of the most effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) cited in (Zhang and Wu, 2011) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

    3. English is the first foreign language has an important position in education in Indonesia. The Indonesian government has made it compulsory subjects ranging from kindergartens and elementary schools to universities included in the curriculum. The aim of English teaching is to develop students’ skills in English usage. Students must master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are really interrelated, but reading is usually regarded as a major skill. These skills are absolutely intertwined with each other, but the reading is usually regarded as a major skill. Reading can broaden one’s horizons, identify, expand and intensify his interest and gain a deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4. For many people who are not native speakers or those who do not learn English as a second language in school in Indonesia as their first exposure to English may be through popular songs. ; so the teacher should use songs as part of their English language teaching because the songs contain natural language, easily available, natural and fun and can be used to introduce the cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

    5. Almost all people love music because it is part of our language and our lives. Music is there to support or change any mood and emotion. As babies, we hear lullabies. As a young child, we play, sing and dance myriad rhyme. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music can be a great value, especially for developing listening skills when used in coordination with a language lesson. A fun song played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our daily lives.

    Many Thanks Sir

  9. NAME : MEGA INTAN SARI
    NIM : 1112150012

    A. Sentence exercise

    1. Without sufficient vocabulary, students will have problems in the development of speaking, reading, listening, and writing.

    2. Being able to read in English is very important because it is a basic tool of education.

    3. During the practice program last semester, the students are hard to express ideas due to the students poor vocabulary.

    4. According to Richards & Renandya (2002, p.255) states accentuates vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.

    5. A person read for many purposes, and it helps them to understand more the text which is read by people.

    B. paragraph exercise

    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico cited Celce and Murcia (2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001), emphasize that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998) states when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.
    ________________________________________________________________________

    2.Song a is one of the most effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.
    _________________________________________________________________________

    3.In Indonesia, English has an important position in education. The government of Indonesia has made it a compulsory subject to learn starting from primary schools until university. In some kindergartens, it is also included in the curriculum. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    _________________________________________________________________________

    4. For many people are not native speaker or those who did not learn English as a second language in school like in Indonesia their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs; so language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, are natural and fun and could be used to introduce cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).
    _________________________________________________________________________

    5. Almost everyone loves music because it is part of our language and our life. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. Music can be of great value, especially for developing listening skills if used in coordination with a language lesson. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives.

    Thanks sir.

  10. Name : Dewi Natalia Perangin-angin
    SIN : 1112150042
    Class B
    A. Sentence Exercises
    1. Without sufficient vocabulary, students have problems in learning of speaking, reading, listening, and writing.
    2. Being able to read in English is very important as it’s known because it is a basic of education.
    3. While teaching them during the program last semester, the present writer find the students who hard to express ideas due to the students poor vocabulary.
    4. According to Richards & Renandya (2002, p.255) states vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.
    5. A person read for many purposes, and it helps person to more understand the text which is read by people.

    B. Paragraph Exercises
    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico (cited in Celce and Murcia, 2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. Nation (2001), emphasize that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998), when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Song is one of the most effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (as cited in Zhang and Wu, 1992) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.
    3. English is the first foreign language which has an important position of education in Indonesia. The government has made it a compulsory subject to learn starting from primary schools until university. In some kindergartens, it is also included in the curriculum. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).
    4. Many people whose first language is not English or those who did not learn English as a second language in school like in Indonesia. They exposure to English may probably be through popular songs; so language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, are natural and fun and could be used to introduce cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).
    5. Everyone loves music. It is part of our language and life from birth onwards. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. If used in coordination with a language lesson, music can be of great value, especially for developing listening skills. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives.

  11. Name: Melva Melisa Tambunan
    S I N: 11. 121. 500. 16
    FKIP BS (A) – 2011

    A. SENTENCES EXERCISES
    1. Students will have problems in the development of speaking, reading, listening and writing, without sufficient vocabulary.
    2. Being able to read in English is very important because it is the basic tool of education.
    3. In the teaching practice program last semester, the students are hard to express ideas because of their lack of vocabulary.
    4. Richards and Renandya (2002, p. 255) states that vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read and write.
    5. A person read for many purposes that help him to understand more about the text which is read.

    B. PARAGRAPH EXERCISES
    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language ability that affects four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Decarrico cited Celce and Murcia (2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001), emphasize that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998) when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Song is one of the most effective materials for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

    3. English has an important position in education in Indonesia and a compulsory subject to learn starting from primary schools until university. The objective of English teaching is the students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are linking each other, but the major of them is reading. Reading transfers the experiences to the readers that expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify their interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4. For many people that has not English as their first or second language, like Indonesia, can exposure the students through popular songs. It is because songs contain the natural language, are easily obtainable and fun, so the teacher can use it to introduce cultural aspects and different types of English accents (Lynch, 20015).

    5. Almost everyone loves music because it is part of our language and life. We hear music from babies. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives.

  12. NAMA : CIANLY SRIWISESA
    NIM : 1112150047
    CLASS : BS B

    A. Sentence Exercises
    1. Without sufficient vocabulary, student will have problems in the development of speaking, reading, listening, and writing.
    2. Being able to read in English is very important because it is a basic tool of education.
    3. While the teaching practice program last semester, the present writer find the students is hard to express ideas because of their poor vocabulary.
    4. According to Richards & Renandya (2002, p.255) vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.
    5. A person read for many purposes and helps them to understand more the text that they read.

    B. Paragraph Exercises
    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills. Decarrico (cited Celce and Murcia 2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001), emphasize that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998), when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Songs are one of the most effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) cited in (Zhang and Wu, 2011) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

    3. English is the first foreign language which has an important position in education in Indonesia. The government of Indonesia has made it a compulsory subject to learn starting from kindergartens and primary schools until university included in the curriculum. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4. For people whose first language is not English or those who did not learn English as a second language in school like in Indonesia . Their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, natural, fun and could be used to introduce cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

    5. Almost everyone loves music. It is part of our language and life from birth onwards. Music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. If we used in coordination with a language lesson, music can be of great value, especially for developing listening skills.

  13. Name : Tuti Haryati Sihite
    NIM : 1112150044
    Class : B

    A.Sentence Exercises

    1.Without sufficient vocabulary will have problems in the development of english skills.
    2.Being able to read, especially in English is a basic tool of education.
    3.The present writer find the students always hard to express ideas due to the students poor vocabulary.
    4.According to Richards & Renandya (2002, p.255) accentuates vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners english skills.
    5.A person read for many purposes helps them to understand more the text which is read by people.

    B. Paragraph Exercises

    1.Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills. Decarrico cited Celce and Murcia (2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason why vocabulary is important is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001), emphasize that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998) when we speak of the vocabulary we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2.Songs are one of the most effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

    3.In Indonesia English is the first foreign language which has an important position in education. The government has made it a compulsory subject to learn starting from primary schools until university. In some kindergartens, it is also included in the curriculum. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4.For people whose first language is not English, their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs; so language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, are natural and fun and could be used to introduce cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

    5.Almost everyone loves music. It is part of our language and life from birth onwards. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives. Music can be of great value if it is included in a language lesson, especially for developing listening skills.

  14. YULIA LESTARI TARIHORAN
    1112150041
    FKIP BS-B

    A. SENTENCES EXERCISES

    1. Without sufficient vocabulary, students will have difficulty in developing speaking, reading, listening, and writing skills.

    2. Being able to read, especially in English is a basic tool of education.

    3. While the writer was teaching students during teaching practice program last smester, he found them are hard to express ideas due to the students poor vocabulary.

    4. Richards & Renandya (2002, p.255) accentuated that “vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write”.

    5. People read for many purposes that help them to understand more about the text which is read.

    B. PARAGRAPH EXERCISES

    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency. It is because vocabulary affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. According to McCharthy (1998) when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Song is the one of the most effective materials for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory.

    3. English is the first foreign language which has an important position in education in Indonesia. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English, especially to be a master in listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4. For many people whose first language is not English or those who did not learn English as a second language in school like in Indonesia. Their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs. Therefore, language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching methode because songs contain natural language are easily obtainable, natural, fun and could be used to introduce cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

    5. Almost everyone loves music. It is part of our language and life from birth onwards. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. If we used it in coordination with a language lesson, music can be of great value, especially for developing listening skills.

  15. Hardianti A. Tias
    11 121 500 49
    FKIP BS-B

    A. Sentence Exercises

    1. Without sufficient vocabulary, students will have problems in the development of speaking, reading, listening, and writing.

    2. Being able to read in English is very important because it is a basic tool of education.

    3. While teaching practice program last semester, the writer find that the student is hard to express ideas because they lack of vocabulary.

    4. According to Richards & Renandya (2002, p.255) vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.

    5. A person read for many purposes that helps them to understand more the text.

    B. Paragraph Exercises
    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico (as cited in Celce and Murcia, 2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. Nation (2001) emphasize that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998), when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.
    ________________________________________

    2. Songs are one of the most effective materials for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) (as cited in Zhang and Wu, 2011) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.
    _______________________________________

    3. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).
    ________________________________________

    4. For many country like in Indonesia whose first language is not English, their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs; so language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, are natural and fun and could be used to introduce cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).
    ________________________________________

    5. Almost everyone loves music. From the babies until adolescents hear music in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. If used in coordination with a language lesson, music can be of great value, especially for developing listening skills. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives.

  16. Name : Meilynda. Mora. S
    Sin : 1112150027
    Fkip BS class (A)

    A. Sentence Exercises

    1) Without sufficient vocabulary, students will have problems in the development of speaking, reading, listening, and writing.

    2) Being able to read in English is very important because the ability to read is a basic tool of education.

    3) The present witer find students always find it difficult to express ideas because of poor vocabulary students, while teachers who teach them during the last semester of practice teaching program.

    4) According to Richards and Renandya (2002, p. 255), accentuating vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.

    5) The text is read by the people for a variety of purposes, and goals that help them to better understand the reading.

    B. Paragraph Exercises

    1) Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills such as; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico in Celce and Murcia (2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. According to McCharty (1998) when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2) Songs are one of the most effective materials for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005) and Murphey (1992) cited in (Zhang and Wu, 2011) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. A wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs.

    3) The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4) For the country that has not English as her first or second language, like Indonesia, can exposure the students through popular songs. It is because songs contain the natural language. Songs are easily obtainable and fun, so the teacher can use it to introduce cultural aspects and different types of English accents (Lynch, 20015).

    5) Everyone loves music. Music is part of our language and life from birth onwards. As babies, we hear lullabies. As a young child, we play, sing and dance myriad rhyme. As a teenager,
    we are consumed by the beat-known music artists around the world in our daily lives. Music penetrates television, film, theater, and even news. When you exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change any mood and emotion. When used in coordination with a language lesson, music can be a great value, especially for developing listening skills. A song can be fun, if played, hummed or sung by the time we go about our daily lives.

    This my answer sir,
    Thank you nd God Bless You 🙂

  17. Jessica Talentia
    11 121 500 39

    SENTENCE EXERCISES

    1. Vocabulary is needed by students for developing speaking, reading, listening, and writing.

    2. English Reading, a basic tool of education, is important and necessary.

    3. In my teaching practice program, the students are hard to express ideas because of their lack of vocabulary.

    4. Richards & Renandya (2002, p. 255) states that vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.

    5. A person reads for many purposes that help him to understand the text.

    PARAGRAPH EXERCISES

    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language that has four basic skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico (as cited in Celce and Murcia, 2011) states that vocabulary learning is central of language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. Nation (2001) emphasizes that foreign language learners need to know very large numbers of words that may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary and should not be a short-term goal. According to McCharthy (1998), when we speak the vocabulary primarily, we are exclusively teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Song is the effective material for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite song to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (as cited in Zhang and Wu, 2011) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

    3. English, in Indonesia, is the first foreign language as compulsory subject that is learnt in primary school until university. It is also included in the kindergartens’ curriculum. The objective of English is to develop students’ ability in using English and mastering in four basic English skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These skills are linking each other, but the major of them is reading. Reading transfers the experiences to the reader that expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify their interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4. For the country that has not English as her first or second language, like Indonesia, can exposure the students through popular songs. It is because songs contain the natural language. Songs are easily obtainable and fun, so the teacher can use it to introduce cultural aspects and different types of English accents (Lynch, 20015).

    5. Everyone loves music. It is part of our language and life. We hear music from babies until adolescents. Music is there to support or change every mood and emotion when we do our activities. It can be a great value if we coordinate it to language lesson, especially in developing listening skill.

    Thank you, Sir.

  18. Name: Annery Fienta
    SIN: 1112150024
    Class: A

    A. Sentence Exercises
    1. Without sufficient vocabulary, students will have problems in the development of speaking, reading, listening, and writing.
    2. Being able to read, especially in English, is the most necessary tool of education.
    3. In the teaching practice program last semester, the writer found that it was hard for students to express ideas because of their lack of vocabulary.
    4. According to Richards and Renandya (2002, p. 255), accentuating vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.
    5. People read for many purposes which help them to understand more about the text they read.

    B. Paragraph Exercises
    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico in Celce and Murcia (2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. According to McCharty (1998), when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Song is one of the most effective materials for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

    3. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4. For many people whose first language is not English or they did not learn English as a second language in school like in Singapore, their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs. Language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, and are natural and fun. A variety of new vocabulary can be introduced as well as cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

    5. Almost everyone loves music. It is part of our language and life from birth onwards. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives. Music can be of great value if it is included in a language lesson, especially for developing listening skills.

  19. Name: Annery Fienta
    SIN: 1112150024
    Class: A

    A. Sentence Exercises
    1. Without sufficient vocabulary, students will have problems in the development of speaking, reading, listening, and writing.
    2. Being able to read, especially in English, is the most necessary tool of education.
    3. In the teaching practice program last semester, the writer found that it was hard for students to express ideas because of their lack of vocabulary.
    4. According to Richards and Renandya (2002, p. 255), accentuating vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.
    5. People read for many purposes which help them to understand more about the text they read.

    B. Paragraph Exercises
    1. Vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency because it affects the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Decarrico in Celce and Murcia (2001) states that vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language first, second, or foreign. The reason of why vocabulary is important in learning language is implicitly proposed by McCharty. According to McCharty (1998) when we speak of the vocabulary of language we are primarily but not exclusively, teaching about the words of that language. Therefore, if vocabulary is related tightly to the learning words of certain language, then it will be central in language learning.

    2. Song is one of the most effective materials for developing students’ vocabulary. According to Mishan (2005), a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students’ favorite songs to teach vocabulary also creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory. Murphey (1992) believes that music may help learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one’s head.

    3. The objective of English teaching is to develop students’ ability to use English. The students have to master the four basic language skills such as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These skills are completely interlinked with each other, but reading is usually considered as a major skill. Reading transfers experiences to the individual so that the reader may expand one’s horizons, identify, extend and intensify his or her interest and gain deeper understanding of the world (Green, 2002).

    4. For many people whose first language is not English or they did not learn English as a second language in school like in Singapore, their first exposure to English may probably be through popular songs. Language teachers should use songs as part of their English language teaching because songs contain natural language, are easily obtainable, and are natural and fun. A variety of new vocabulary can be introduced as well as cultural aspects and even different types of English accents (Lynch, 2005).

    5. Almost everyone loves music. It is part of our language and life from birth onwards. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children, we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of famous music artists throughout the world in our daily lives. Music permeates television, movies, theatre and even the news. When we exercise, work, play, worship, etc., music is there to support or change every mood and emotion. A likable tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our heads, as we go about our everyday lives. Music can be of great value if it is included in a language lesson, especially for developing listening skills.

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