Mid-Term Short Story Analysis (2013)


Dear all attendees of Prose Class,

Post your analysis in the reply section below by Sunday, November 18, 2013, 12:00 A.M. Make sure that your work is written using the following guidelines.

  1. Focus your analysis on an element of the short story (plot, character,theme, setting, or style).
  2. Make sure you include all sources of citation and list them in the references section.
  3. Use APA Style for citing and referencing (For a practical guide, see: APA Referencing Style)
  4. Write in continuous essay (minimize numbering and prevent using dots)
  5. Make sure every paragraph of yours meets the features of a good paragraph (see: Paragraph Definition and Elements)
  6. Use grammatical and effective sentences
  7. Use the following outline:
  • Title
  • Introduction
  • Analysis

1. Synopsis
2. (Body of Analysis)

  • Conclusion
  • References

Good Luck!

93 Comments

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  3. AN ANALYSIS OF THE STYLE OF
    AARON HELLEM “FAR FROM THE EYES OF THE SUN “

    (Vhanny Rumondang)
    1112150029

    Introduction
    In literature we have known about the three kinds of fiction, they are novel, Folktale and short story. All of kinds of fiction are the imagination of the writer. The writer creates the atmosphere and builds the character of each person or things in the story so the reader will get fun in reading the fiction. When the reader begins to enjoy the story and the people sink in the condition and atmosphere in the story, the writer success in making and creating the fiction. The writer sometimes uses his own experience, observation and even his real life in making the story, sometimes the reader will feel that the story is real or even get close with the real life near the society. This kind of situation is really good because in short story and novel tell about some aspects in our surrounding society. It makes the reader of fiction is more than the reader of non-fiction. A fiction is a kind of expression that is related with the real life/ real experience of life but sometimes the reader face the difficulties in understanding the story. It makes the reader doesn’t know the real meaning that is delivered by the writer. It may be the minimal ability to analyze the fiction. Some of the readers only know some of the information and they don’t go through inside of the story to get the detailed meaning and the general meaning. Stylistic analysis which focuses on role of the linguistic codes of the text contributes much to the development of literary criticism. This is widely accepted by the critics that a literary text can be comprehended better if it is studied in parallel with stylistic analysis.

    Analysis.
    1) Synopsis
    Approved as to style and content by: I wish to express my thanks to Aaron Hellem for his unique perspectives and landscapes in this collection feel “Mexican” in my mind’s eye, but only a When the sun rose the crowds came to petition miracles: a blind man We’re far from civilized, sombrero, said the papa.
    “Far From the Eyes of the Sun” by Aaron Hellem because I really like it, and also because it’s different than much of what we publish. Our stories are usually short, clever, sharp punchers of surprising images and strokes of phrase, sad and hilarious in blistering tandem.
    2) Body of Analysis
    wish to express my thanks to Aaron Hellem for his unique perspectives and always landscapes in this collection feel “Mexican” in my mind’s eye, but only a When the sun rose the crowds came to petition miracles: a blind man wishing to she merged into the floor as her body scrubbed back and forth, back and forth.

    Conclusion
    On the basis of analysis we may conclude that Hellem’s writing style, as is revealed by an examination of the most prominent linguistic features, does not have anything unique. Very common types of stylistic features of short story writing have been found. Which is universally recognized as being pompous, filled with sharp-edged irony, together with criticism so direct and forceful? This is due to the fact that this short story is written especially for teaching vocabulary and grammar. One can claim that his style is sensitive, delicate, poetic, seemingly impersonal yet emotional. In the last it can be said that the analysis of the stylistic in relation to the analysis of other literary corpus of Aaron Hellem’s, will certainly bring out some specific features of his writing style.
    Sorry Sir I’m late 🙂 Thanks Gbu

  4. A CHARACTERIZATIONAN ANALYSIS OF A SCHOOL STORY

    Introduction
    Literature is a body of written words of mainly languages, periods, and cultures. When one writes a work of literature they are using imaginative and creative writing.
    Inspite of the fact that fiction is the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sence it offers, readers often find it difficult to througly comprehead a fiction they are reading. This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate novels in general and A school story , a novelette by M.R James greene in particular.The novelette is interesting toanalysis and read.
    This novelette don”t tell about the story with interesting, because the story make the reader difficult understand, the story is convoluted.
     Synopsis of a school story
    A school story is a novelette written M.R James.
    This story is about the story of a school that the story was a little creepy . Where there are people who frequently see strange happenings at school , footprints were very feared , and always look on the school stairs . There are a lot of incident in the school , and makes one wonder . McLeod is one who has experienced strange occurrences in her school , where he knows sampson is skinny , tall and pale.Sampson is very strange , the first thing he’s done sampson is using Latin , and sampson asking others including McLead to use Latin as well . A moment , Mc Lead was sleeping and there was a strange occurrence . ” There was one other incident of the same type with the latter he says . He recalls , there was a strange thing that was happened in school . Afternoon, Sampson is not feeling well . At the next night , I slept in a corner and McLead dorm room , while Sampson sleep in the main building , and on the main floor there is a very bright full moon . Quite some time later , I was awoken by McLead , he was invited into the room I saw Sampson , he said there was a thief who entered , I was confused because McLead does not want to wake the others . Initially I was scared , but I was not alone deal with it . we saw there was a man sitting or kneeling on Sampson’s window-sill, and looking in, and I thought he was beckoning.’ ‘What sort of man?’ McLeod wriggled. ‘I don’t know,’ he said, ‘but I can tell you one thing–he was beastly thin: and he looked as if he was wet all over: and,’ he said, looking round and whispering as if he hardly liked to hear himself, ‘I’m not at all sure that he was alive.'”We–McLeod and I–slept in a dormitory at right angles to the main building. Sampson slept in the main building on the first floor. There was a very bright full moon. At an hour which I can’t tell exactly, but some time between one and two, I was woken up by somebody shaking me. It was McLeod, and a nice state of mind he seemed to be in. ‘Come,’ he said,–‘come there’s a burglar getting in through Sampson’s window.’ As soon as I could speak, I said, ‘Well, why not call out and wake everybody up? ‘No, no,’ he said, ‘I’m not sure who it is: don’t make a row: come and look.’ Naturally I came and looked, and naturally there was no one there. I was cross enough, and should have called McLeod plenty of names: only–I couldn’t tell why–it seemed to me that there was something wrong–something that made me very glad I wasn’t alone to face it. We were still at the window looking out, and as soon as I could, I asked him what he had heard or seen. ‘I didn’t hear anything at all,’ he said, ‘but about five minutes before I woke you, I found myself looking out of this window here, and there was a man sitting or kneeling on Sampson’s window-sill, and looking in, and I thought he was beckoning.’ ‘What sort of man?’ McLeod wriggled. ‘I don’t know,’ he said, ‘but I can tell you one thing–he was beastly thin: and he looked as if he was wet all over: and,’ he said, looking round and whispering as if he hardly liked to hear himself, ‘I’m not at all sure that he was alive

    “We went on talking in whispers some time longer, and eventually crept back to bed. No one else in the room woke or stirred the whole time. I believe we did sleep a bit afterwards, but we were very cheap next day. “And next day Mr. Sampson was gone: not to be found: and I believe no trace of him has ever come to light since. In thinking it over, one of the oddest things about it all has seemed to me to be the fact that neither McLeod nor I ever mentioned what we had seen to any third person whatever. Of course no questions were asked on the subject, and if they had been, I am inclined to believe that we could not have made any answer: we seemed unable to speak about it.
    “That is my story,” said the narrator. “The only approach to a ghost story connected with a school that I know, but still, I think, an approach to such a thing.”

     Character Analysis
    The most interesting for me was the character McLead.
    1. McLead
    He’s a brave boy, curiosity, and concern for others. In any situation he keep the spirit and there is no fear in the face of any kind.
    The Author tells about the story of the school, which could make other people interested in reading it. Interesting story but make the heart wonder how the real story.
    The author is coward , did not dare to face what lies ahead.
    2. Sampson
    His name was Sampson. He was a tallish, stoutish, pale, black-bearded man. Difficult to guess, and very suspicious…
    The Conclusion
    From the story, I can conclude that what we see is not necessarily true. Believe in the reality, still dare to face what will happen in our lives, and also our future. Never fear, because fear only wreak havoc. Keep spirit .
    References:
    http://gaslight.mtroyal.ca/schoolst.htm
    https://parlindunganpardede.wordpress.com/2013/10/23/short-stories-for-mid-term-assignment/?relatedposts_exclude=2818

  5. PLOT OF “SIGNS AND SYMBOLS” BY VLADIMIR NABOKOV
    Rentha jullindah__1112150006 class B

    Introduction
    Literature is an art, Literature is commonly classified as having two major forms fiction and non-fiction and two major techniques poetry and prose. Literature may consist of texts based on factual information. Literature is the art of written works . Literally translated , the word means ” acquaintance with letters ” ( from Latin littera letter ) , and therefore the academic study of literature is known as Letters ( as in the phrase ” Arts and Letters ” ). In Western culture the most basic written literary types include fiction and nonfiction
    Literary study – the humanistic study of literature
    arts, humanistic discipline , humanities , liberal arts – studies intended to provide general knowledge and intellectual skills ( rather than work or professional skills ) ; ” the college of arts and sciences ”
    Literature – the humanistic study of a body of literature; ” he took a course in Russian literature ”
    Comparative literature – studying literary works from different cultures ( often in translation )
    Literary criticism – analysis and evaluation of literature information

    Function of literature:
    • Literature can serve to give pleasure or enjoyable; properties can vary pleasure. Sometimes it happens a release of tension ( eg precisely the tension ) , sometimes aesthetic pleasure derived active , the pleasure gained an appreciation for the text to follow the twists and totality in the text. We have seen that the identification can be driven by the nature of fictional text.
    • Another function is that many so-called “benefits ” , that literature can provide more general insights about human problems , social , or intellectual .
    Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the literature and the methods for analyzing literature. However, knowledge of literature since the 19th century often includes – in addition to, or even instead of literary theory in the strict sense – considerations of intellectual history, moral philosophy , social prophecy , and other interdisciplinary themes. In the humanities, the style often end knowledge called “theory”
    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of Signs and Symbols
    In his famous letter to Katharine A. White, the chief editor of The New Yorker, while explaining the intricate riddle-like structure of “The Vane Sisters,” which had been rejected by the magazine, Nabokov mentioned that some of his stories written in the past had been composed according to the same system “wherein a second (main) story is woven into, or placed behind, the superficial semitransparent one.”1 As an example, he named another story with such an “inside”–“Signs and Symbols,” which had been published in The New Yorker.
    Thanks to Nabokov’s explanations, the “inner scheme” of “The Vane Sisters” has become a common property. It is a story of the intervention by gentle spirits (or ghosts) into the reality of the narrator, “a callous observer of the superficial planes of life,” crowned by the secret message in the finale that can be decoded by the rules of acrostic reading. To quote the letter to Katherine A. White again, “everything in the tale leads to one recurving end, or rather forms a delicate circle, a system of mute responses, not realized by the Frenchman but directed by some unknown spirit at readers.”2 Yet numerous critics of “Signs and Symbols” so far have failed to discover a similar “inside” in the story which, as everybody believes, should hinge upon a mystery of the third, unanswered telephone call at the very end and its interpretation. While one line of criticism has been to focus on the obvious patterning of images and incidents in the narration and to read them as ominous “signs and symbols” indicating that the third call is a death notice from the sanatorium,3 the majority–from William Carroll’s pioneering article of 19744 up to Irvin Malin’s recent coquettish blabber5 –has chosen the reader-response approach. Most of the critics have embraced William Carroll’s provocative idea that those readers who interpret numerous “signs and symbols” in the story as clues allowing one to solve the puzzle are guilty of “referential mania” and therefore bear an “esthetic responsibility” for the boy’s death. In spite of Nabokov’s attesting to the presence of a “second (main) story” behind “the superficial semitransparent one” in “Signs and Symbols,” they either deny its existence or question its relevance. Thus, in his book The Magician’s Doubts Michael Wood writes that Nabokov’s comment makes “the work sound more like a riddle than it probably is” and reads it as a vague metaphor. In his view, a second story in “Signs and Symbols” concerns not the characters–“the old Jewish couple and their sick boy”–but us, the readers, and our response to the mystery of the third telephone call: “In the second story, the young man’s world invades ours; his clouds and trees become our telephone, and a new pain, the pain of a new uncertainty, is visited upon the innocent and the guilty alike.”6
    Contrary to the prevailing line of criticism, I take Nabokov at his word and argue in this article that “Signs and Symbols,” like “The Vane Sisters,” is constructed according to a specific “system” of concealment and does contain a neat soluble riddle whose function is similar to the acrostic puzzle in the later story.
    To understand what Nabokov means by his “system” of two superimposed stories it can be helpful to recall a classical dichotomy of siuzhet (the plot) and fabula (the story) introduced by the Russian formalists. In their parlance fabula is the sum total of interconnected textual events (or motifs) in chronological and causal order, in contrast to siuzhet, which consists of the same events as they are actually presented in the narrative. As Boris Tomashevsky wrote, “the place in the work in which the reader learns of an event, whether the information is given by the author, or by a character, or by a series of indirect hints–all this is irrelevant to the story. But the aesthetic function of the plot is precisely this bringing of an arrangement of motifs to the attention of the reader.”7
    Nabokov’ peculiar strategy that he used sparingly but persistently throughout his mature work is to create a discrepancy or a tension between siuzhet and fabula of a text through enigmatizing certain important elements of the latter. He constructs the narrative in such a way that it does not contain any direct or even indirect reference to an important, usually pivotal event (or a number of events) of the fabulaand disguises this ellipsis. For example, instead of presenting such climatic events as death of the protagonist in “Lik,” a betrayal and murder out of jealousy in “That in Aleppo Once…” or supernatural intervention in “The Vane Sisters,” the plots of these short stories deliberately conceal them, superseding the textual “reality” with false or incomplete accounts of it. However, narration of this kind not only hides or masks the important event but also provides the reader with adequate means to deduce it and thereby construe the fabula in its entirety. Relevant information related to the omitted event (or events) is encrypted in the siuzhet as a kind of intratextual riddle (often supported by intertextual references), and specifically marked clues to the pertinent code are implanted into the text.
    2. Plot types
    Plot can be classified into two types, there are chronological plot and logical – sequence plot. The Signs and Symbols is written by Vladimir Nabokov logical – sequence plot, the events are arranged in a cause-effect. An elderly couple tries to visit their deranged son in a sanatorium on his birthday. They are informed that he attempted to take his life and they cannot see him now. After their return home, the husband announces his decision to take him out of the sanatorium. The story concludes with mysterious telephone calls. The first two apparently misdialed calls are from a girl asking for “Charlie”; the story ends when the phone rings for the third time.
    In the course of the story the reader learns many details of the couple’s life: the unnamed couple is likely to be Jewish; had come from Russia; live probably in New York, depend financially upon the husband’s brother, Isaac; had a German maid when they lived in exile in Germany; had an aunt, Rosa, who perished in the holocaust; and have a nephew who is a famous chess player. The elderly man feels that he is dying.
    The son is unnamed, suicidal, and suffering from “referential mania”, where “the patient imagines that everything happening around him is a veiled reference to his personality and existence”. “Everything is a cipher and of everything he is the theme”. Real people are excluded from this paranoia, and the condition is worse the further he is away from familiar surroundings. The son’s condition is based on a real condition
    3.Plot stages and Elements
    Exposition in Signs and Symbols” is a short story centering on the severe mental debility of a young man and on the struggle of his elderly parents to cope with it. The action takes place in a large American city in the apartment of an elderly couple, on public transit systems, on streets, and in a mental hospital. The time is 1947 or 1948. The atmosphere, including the weather and the scenes that the elderly couple see, is bleak and cheerless.
    Complication in this story is His parents—Russian Jewish immigrants—had been married many years before he was born. (The author does not identify them or their son by name.) Now the parents are old. This year, as in the previous years, they are taking him a birthday gift carefully selected to please him. He generally interprets fabricated objects—those considered gadgets, for example—as either evil or useless. So they purchased him a basket containing ten small jars of different jellies. The mother dresses for the occasion in a black dress with no makeup.
    When they are on their way the sanitarium, the subway breaks down; they must sit in silence for fifteen minutes. After leaving the subway, they wait a long time for a bus to take them the rest of the way. It is loaded with noisy high school students. After reaching their destination, they walk through pouring rain to the sanitarium entrance. Once inside, there is more waiting. Finally, a nurse they do not like arrives to inform them their son had attempted suicide. He is all right now, she says, but a visit is out of the question; it might upset him. Since the sanitarium is understaffed and items left for patients tend to get mixed up, they take the gift home with them.
    On the bus ride back to the subway station, the mother notices a girl crying on the shoulder of a woman. The girl reminds her of Rebecca Borisovna, a woman she knew in Minsk, Russia, long ago. Their son’s last suicide attempt to escape the prison of his mind was “a masterpiece of inventiveness,” a doctor observed. One patient who thought he was trying to learn how to fly intervened, out of envy, inadvertently saving his life. In addition to believing that clouds and trees are plotting against him, he perceives pebbles, flecks of sunlight, or stains as symbols and signs forming messages that he must intercept. Pools of water and glass surfaces are spies. Coats in store windows are “prejudiced witnesses,” the narrator says, and storms and running water “have a distorted opinion of him and grossly misrepresent his actions.” He spends every waking moment decoding the meaning of what he sees. However, he poses no threat to people, for he does not perceive them as part of a conspiracy. Besides, he believes he is superior to them.
    Climax in this story Ominous signs and symbols confront not only the son in his world but also the mother and father in their world. Examples are their signs and symbols are the subway that loses “its life current,” the report that their son has attempted suicide, a dying bird in a puddle, the girl crying on the shoulder of a woman, the photograph of the relative killed by the Nazis. Do all of these foreshadow bad news at the end of the story—namely that the third telephone call.
    4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme is Think of a plot as the storyline. When writing about the plot you describe the beginning, middle and end of the story. The theme of a story is
    Conclusions
    This story really struck me for a variety of personal reasons.
    The story elaborates on the conflict of supporting and loving someone who is mentally ill and the lack of control that you often have to help them. You never really feel like you know what’s best for your loved one and ultimately they are the only ones that can decide to improve or change. If they choose not to, then you are at a complete loss, which is the case for the unfortunate parents in this story.
    Bibliography
    rving Malin, “Reading Madly by Irving Malin,” in Torpid Smoke: The Stories of Vladimir Nabokov. Ed. by Steven G. Kellman and Irving Malin (Amsterdam; Atlanta, Ga: Rodopi, 2000), 219-227. See also: Paul Rosenzweig, “The Importance of Reader Response in Nabokov’s ‘Sign and Symbols’,” Essays in Literature, 7 (Fall 1980), 255-260; Larry R. Andrews, “Deciphering ‘Sign and Symbols’,” inNabokov’s Fifth Arc: Nabokov and Others on His Life’s Work. Ed by J. E. Rivers and Charles Nicol (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982), 139-152; David H. Richter, “Narrative Entrapment inPnin and ‘Sign and Symbols’,” Papers on Language and Literature, 20 (Fall 1984), 418-430; Leona Toker, “‘Sign and Symbols’ in and out of Contexts,” in A Small Alpine Form: Studies in Nabokov’s Short Fiction. Ed. by Charles Nicol and Gennady Barabtarlo (New York: Garland Pub., 1993), 167-180; Dzh. Trez’iak. “Razgadyvaia stradanie,” in V.V. Nabokov: Pro et Contra. Antologiia. T.2. SPb., 2001. S. 852-863.

  6. Hi Sir,
    Sorry I’m late post my analysis because there is a problem in my computer.
    Juliana ( 1012150040 )
    I. The Snows of Kilimanjaro – By Ernest Hemingway
    II. Introduction
    There are many people who dislike reading, and they think reading make them bored. In fact, reading can give a new information and knowledge for us. Fiction is one of the story that we can read. Fiction is the form of any work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary and theoretical—that is, invented by the author. Although fiction describes a major branch of literary work, it may also refer to theatrical, cinematic, or musical work. Fiction contrasts with non-fiction, which deals exclusively with factual (or, at least, assumed factual) events, descriptions, observations, etc. (e.g., biographies, histories) and this story is one of the fiction. In ‘‘The Snows of Kilimanjaro,’’ Ernest Hemingway presents the story of a writer at the end of his life. While on a safari in Africa, Harry, the protagonist, is scratched on the leg by a thorn, and the infection becomes gangrenous and eventually kills him. Where most of Hemingway’s stories feature protagonists who speak little and reflect nothing at all about their motivations and inner lives, in this story, the main character ‘‘sees his life flash before his eyes’’ as he realizes that he is dying. Many readers have seen Harry as a self-portrait of Hemingway himself. Reading the story this way, the reader can look into Hemingway’s struggles with himself: his insecurities, his machismo, his need and disdain for women. But it is not necessary to read the story through the lens of Hemingway’s biography. The story is a gripping look at a man who is facing death and regretting many of the choices he has made in his life, as well as being a memorable glimpse inside the head of a writer who is reflecting on his craft and the demands it has made on him.
    III. Analysis
    a. Synopsis of the “ The snows of Kilimanjaro”
    The Snows of Kilimanjaro by Ernest Hemingway
    At the start of the novel it says, “Kilimanjaro is a snow-covered mountain 19,710
    feet high, and is said to be the highest mountain in Africa. Its western summit is
    called the Masai “Ngaje Ngai,” the House of God. Close to the western summit there is the dried and frozen carcass of a leopard. No one has explained what the leopard was seeking at that altitude.”
    The snows kilimanjaro story tells about a couple, they are Harry and Helen. Hary is a write, Helen is a rich woman and she is Harry’s wife. They are temporarily stranded when their truck breaks down from a burned- out bearing. While photographing a herd of waterbuck, Harry’s knee is scratched by athorn. Gangrene develops in his right leg. Harry attributes the problem to his failure to apply iodine to the world.the rotting leg has a awful stench but harry denies any pain and horror. He is just angry and extremely fatigued. He resent his wife and is verbaly cruel to her. While he rest, she shoots a ram. Harry reminisces about the people ad places in his past. He has multiple flashback and contemplates all the writing he had one day hoped to do about many experiences he has accumulated in his life but realize nothing more will be accomplished. He senses the heavy presence of death.
    When the rescue plane finally arrives, harry is transported over the summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa. But wait it seems harry was only dreaming. There is no rescue plane yet. Helen discovers that her husband has died in his sleep. Outside their tent, a hyena makes a strange noise that resembles the sound of human being crying.
    b. Character
    In the story of the snows of kilimanjaro, there are four characters. They are divided into 3 parts; major, minor, and figurant. Based on the story, the major character in this story, are Harry and Helen. There are many minor Characters in this story. At the African camp are the servants, and one is mentioned by name; Molo is called several times to prepare the ever present whisky-sodaThe last is Compton, in this story Compton is just imagine in Harry’s dream.
    Harry ( protagonist )
    Harry is the main character in this story. He is a writer who has accomplished comparatively little in wriiting, instead choosing to live off a series of rich wives. He also had many experiences in Europe. He also very much enjoys big game hunting. When the story begins. Harry is suffering from gangrene in his leg and he is dying in the African backcountry while waiting for a plane to tae him to the city.
    Helen
    Helen is also the main character in this story . Helen is Harry’s wife.
    Harry’s wife Helen, also known as The Wife, remains unnamed until the end of the story, when a delirious Harry finally refers to her by name as he dies. After Harry reaches the summit of Kilimanjaro, the previous narrative voice resumes and again calls her simply ‘‘the woman.’’ Harry does not seem to love her, but he respects her to a certain degree for her skill with a gun. She comes from a wealthy family and Harry has contempt for that. She, on the other hand, cares for him greatly and tries to ease his suffering.
    Molo
    Molo is the African servant who serves Helen and Harry. He does very little in the story apart from bringing Harry whiskey and sodas.
    Compton
    Compton flies the plane that is meant to take Harry back to the city to save his life. He is confident and tries to make Harry feel better about his predicament. However, he exists only in Harry’s dream.
    IV. Conclusion
    The snow of Kilimanjaro is at heart about how one’s first love, or the feeling of it, lingers nd haunts us throughout one’s life. There are a couple of scenes of Harry street chasing after women whom he mistakes for “Cyn”, and towards the end, his wife remarks that he married her solely because she ressembled her so closely.
    V. References
    Pardede, Parlindungan.2008. An Introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta

  7. I am desiana sianturi (1112150022) BS- V A

    The Cask Of Amontillado
    by Edgar Allan Poe
    (published 1846)

    Introduction
    Inspite of the fact that fiction is the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers, readers often find it difficult to toughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some others find it difficult to figure out the characters’ qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented. Parede (2008 : 127)
    ‘‘The Cask of Amontillado’’ was first published in the November 1846 issue of Godey’s Lady’s Book, a monthly magazine from Philadelphia that published poems and stories by some of the best American writers of the nineteenth century, including Nathaniel Hawthorne Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Harriet Beecher Stowe. Lack of literary analysis competence is indeed one problem, but the fact that it was written in 1846 is also a problem because of language style. Although the setting where the main event happens is clear, some words are from French or Italian origin.
    Analysis
    1. Synopsis

    In this story there is a grudge between Montressor and Furtunato. Furtunato is drunkard. He always wants to drink very much. Sometime Fortunato feels comfortable with Montresor. One day Montresor asks Fortunato to follow him to the vaults. Montresor make a trap, he invited Fortunato to taste the drink. He used as excuse the amontillado, a type of drink. Luchresi is another character seems to be Fortunato’s rival. So Montresor uses it to make Fortunato want to go to the vault and tell him if it is really amontillado or not. In the vaults, Montrsor leaves furtunato in there and he strings his friend with chain. He builds a wall to make a small room for furtunato in vaults. And Fortunato stays there until he dies.
    2. The Setting
    The setting is in the evening in the carnival season, look like a funny day. Near them there is virtuoso to make a beautiful night. There is tone to make morbid imagery and tone as well as the demeanor of the characters. Montresor tells Fortunato to go and taste a new kind of sherry called Amontillado. In a more general sense, the story is set in a city, again, most likely European, and a long time ago, during a season of carnival or celebration. The majority of the action takes place in the labyrinth-like, dreary catacombs, or series of underground chambers, underneath the palazzo, or estate, of Montressor.
    Montresor make sure that Fortunato gets interested enough to follow him We can see that Montresor tries to show Fortunato that he is proud of him as it says in the text when he says “My dear Fortunato, you are luckily met. How remarkably well you are looking to-day. But I have received a pipe of what passes for Amontillado, and I have my doubts.”
    After that Fortunato follow Montresor to the vaults. When they are in the vaults, the situation is dark and scary “He turned towards me, and looked into my eyes with two filmy orbs that distilled the rheum of intoxication. Fortunate really like to drink wines. He always asks Montresor to give him a drink. He wants to kill him, so he makes a trap. Montresor leaves Furtunato in the vaults and he strings his friend with chain.
    Step by step he builds a wall, his friend Fortunato become terrified. At midnight, he finished to make a wall in the vaults. For Montresor it is a joke. Without worrying about its consequences.
    Conclusion
    Last but not least, this story is interesting. For me, it is horror story. Although, their isn’t ghost in the story but the story make us scary when Montresor and Furtunato in vaults and Montresor string his friend and make wall to close his friend in the vaults.
    As a conclusion, we can see there isn’t good friendship with them. And the beautiful day because carnival season has changed become nightmare.
    Reference

    http://poestories.com/read/amontillado
    Parlindungan, Pardede. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Jakarta

    .

  8. Analyze Setting of “The Fly”
    By Katherine Mansfield
    Kristi Intan K
    1012150013

    Sorry sir, I’m late 🙂

    Introduction
    “The Fly,” by Katherine Mansfield, is a short story which can be understood best as social criticism. It has long been a staple of literature for authors to veil social criticism with allegory and symbolism in subtle ways, thus forcing the reader to determine for himself what a story may actually mean. For example, the act of the boss dropping ink onto the fly repeatedly to see what it will do makes little sense if taken at face value, but the scene begins to make sense once it is acknowledged that the boss and the fly, as well as the situation itself, are symbols best understood in the context of World War One. In fact, it can be demonstrated that the use of symbolism and allegory is carefully employed in “The Fly” in order to criticise the British military leaders and the elder generation of the early twentieth century who supported the firstWorld War out of unthinking patriotism and a childish desire to win at all costs, themselves remaining willfully ignorant of the horrors of modern warfare into which they sent their nation’s sons.

    This short story is an excellent example of social criticism through symbolism and allegory.
    Although World War 1 is never overtly mentioned in the text, when one takes the story and puts it into its historical context, such an interpretation would make sense. Indeed, the story was written in 1922, only four years after the end of the First World War that took Mansfield’s brother. Similarly, every character in “The Fly” has experienced a loss of some kind. Mr. Woodfield has lost a person named Reggie, possibly his son, as his daughters went to visit his grave, and the Boss also lost his son. Evidently, one of the major themes of the story is loss, and how people deal with it. Most importantly, the story analyses how the boss deals with this loss, as he feels more resentment than sadness towards his son.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Fly
    Indeed, the boss does not have a name, his identity is encapsulated in his title, he is simply the boss, still going strong, still at the helm.. The boss enjoys the admiration of his subordinates, perhaps even thinks it is his due, As a matter of fact he was proud of his room; he liked to have it admired, especially by old Woodifield.
    In every way the boss is superior to Woodifield, the former has health and vigor, the latter has let age wither him. Yet ironically it is Woodifield who manages to lay the boss low, quite unintentionally. Woodifield does so by mentioning the boss’s son, lost in the war, The girls were in Belgium last week having a look at poor Reggie’s grave, and they happened to come across your boy’s…. Old Woodifield paused, but the boss made no reply. Only a quiver in his eyelids showed that he heard.
    The boss has never visited his son’s grave, For various reasons the boss had not been across. and the mere mention of it unmans him, The door shut, the firm heavy steps recrossed the bright carpet, the fat body plumped down in the spring chair, and leaning forward, the boss covered his face with his hands.
    From the confident and assured character at the beginning of Mansfield’s story, the boss suddenly becomes frail, brought low by the sorrow of his loss. This sorrow, his inability to have his son with him again, is translated into his tormenting of the fly.
    The fly is a fighter, determined to escape the muck of ink which he finds himself trapped in, The horrible danger was over; it had escaped; It was ready for life again. Yet the boss is not ready for life, perhaps never will be again. Thus, even in the midst of admiring the fly’s pluck for life, the boss continually places new obstacles to the fly’s escape, until finally it dies, exhausted.

    2. Place Setting
    The writer didn’t tell the reader more place setting. Start the story until the end, almost in office. The writer’s focus setting for reader in office. She wants tell us about the character do in office. And the writer did’t tell us specific time. But because almost the setting in office, it happened when work’s time. In this story tells about a little mysterious when the boss remember his son, who was die.

    3. Types of Setting
    In setting of fiction have two major types, natural setting and artificial setting. In “The Fly“ by Katherine Mansfield, use natural setting. Because use geographical location and historical time. In office for geographical location, and past and present for historical time. Past time when the boss remember his son who was die. And for present time when the boss and Woodifield in office.

    Conclution
    The writer didn’t tell reader more specific for place and time, it makes hard to analyze this story. The explanation of the setting is not clear and make the reader guess about the setting.

    References
    Conejos, A. (n.d.). (Short Story) The Fly by Katherine Mansfield. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.kaijansson.com/docs/thefly.pdf
    Kai Jansson. (n.d.). The Use of Symbolism in Katherine Mansfield’s “The Fly” . Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.kaijansson.com/docs/thefly.pdf
    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: English Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Christian University of Indonesia.

  9. Lamtiur Tampubolon(1112150017)
    Mid term test Literature 2
    FKIP BS-A
    The analyze of the plot “ The Snows of Kilimanjaro”.
    Introduction
    “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” is a combination of fact and fiction. Hemingway based the main character on, as he said, someone “who cannot sue me-that is me.” In the story, while facing his imminent death on an African safari, a writer goes in and out of consciousness. During his conscious moments, he argues with his wife and seems intent on destroying her. During unconscious or dream-like states, he remembers his life and has insights into why he made some of the choices he made. He has regrets, fears, and some wonderful memories of good times, as well. These memories are based on Hemingway’s own experiences and professional career.
    Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, the son of Clarence and Grace Hemingway. His first published works appeared in the Oak Park High School newspaper and the school’s literary magazine. After graduation, he worked as a reporter covering the police and hospital beat for the Kansas City Star. The allure of World War I appealed to him, and he enlisted with the Red Cross as an ambulance driver. Not long after he arrived in Italy in 1918, he was severely wounded when a bomb exploded near the front line where he was delivering canteen supplies. After a lengthy recovery during which he wrote short stories and received many rejections from magazine editors, he began writing features for the Toronto Star newspaper.
    In 1921 Hemingway married Hadley Richardson and moved to Paris as a European correspondent for the Toronto Star. In this old city, he wrote short stories while living the expatriate life. The couple traveled throughout Europe skiing and hiking, and Hemingway’s enduring fascination with bullfighting began when he attended his first bullfight in Spain.
    2. Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Snows of kilimanjaro
    The story opens with a paragraph about Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa, which is also called the “House of God.” There is, we are told, the frozen carcass of a leopard near the summit. No one knows why it is there.
    Then we are introduced to Harry, a writer dying of gangrene, and his rich wife Helen, who are on safari in Africa. Harry’s situation makes him irritable, and he speaks about his own death in a matter-of-fact way that upsets his wife, predicting that a rescue plane will never come. He quarrels with her over everything, from whether he should drink a whiskey-and-soda to whether she should read to him. Helen is obviously concerned for his welfare, but self-pity and frustration make him unpleasant to her.
    He then begins to ruminate on his life experiences, which have been many and varied, and on the fact that he feels he has never reached his potential as a writer because he has chosen to make his living by marrying a series of wealthy women. In italicized portions of the text that are scattered throughout the story, Hemingway narrates some of Harry’s experiences in a stream-of-consciousness style.
    Harry’s first memories are of traveling around Europe following a battle, hiding a deserter in a cottage, hunting and skiing in the mountains, playing cards during a blizzard, and hearing about a bombing run on a train full of Austrian officers.
    Harry then falls asleep and wakes in the evening to find Helen returning from a shooting expedition. He meditates on how she is really thoughtful and a good wife to him, but how his life has been spent marrying a series of women who keep him as “a proud possession” and neglecting his true talent, writing. Helen, he remembers, is a rich widow who was bored by the series of lovers she took before she met him and who married him because she admired his writing and they had similar interests.
    Harry then recalls the process by which he developed gangrene two weeks before: he had been trying to get a picture of some water-buck and had scratched his knee on a thorn. He had not used iodine and it had become septic. As Helen returns to drink cocktails with Harry, they make up their quarrel.
    1. Types of Plot :
    The Snows of kilimanjaro is written by employing a Psychological plot.
    from the beginning until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place. In the story, while facing his imminent death on an African safari, a writer goes in and out of consciousness. During his conscious moments, he argues with his wife and seems intent on destroying her. During unconscious or dream-like states, he remembers his life and has insights into why he made some of the choices he made. He has regrets, fears, and some wonderful memories of good times, as well. These memories are based on Hemingway’s own experiences and professional career.
    2. Stages and elements of plot
    The plot of The Snows of kilimanjaro has a regular structure so that it can be neatly divided into four stages : exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. In tthe first and the second paragraph of the story are employed as an exposition. These paragraphs introduced to Harry, a writer dying of gangrene, and his rich wife Helen, who are on safari in Africa. Harry’s situation makes him irritable, and he speaks about his own death in a matter-of-fact way that upsets his wife, predicting that a rescue plane will never come. He quarrels with her over everything, from whether he should drink a whiskey-and-soda to whether she should read to him. Helen is obviously concerned for his welfare, but self-pity and frustration make him unpleasant to her.
    He then begins to ruminate on his life experiences, which have been many and varied, and on the fact that he feels he has never reached his potential as a writer because he has chosen to make his living by marrying a series of wealthy women. In italicized portions of the text that are scattered throughout the story, Hemingway narrates some of Harry’s experiences in a stream-of-consciousness style.
    The climax is when helen, in a state of denial about Harry’s prognosis, struggles to keep his attitude positive. In doing so, Hemingway creates a character whose optimistic sentiments strike Harry as the platitudes of a fool. Her sanguine sentiments are counterbalanced by Harry’s cynical outlook, with the result that they quarrel frequently. Helen wants to strengthen Harry with broth, which, in rare acquiescence, he drinks. In a moment of guilt over how badly he treats Helen, he uncharacteristically tells her that the brothtastesgood. However, what Harry really wants is his whiskey soda. He asks for it several times and sometimes gets it, but always the request and its occasional fulfillment are accompanied by Helen’s refrain, “It’s not good for you.” Helen’s concern for her husband is genuine. She is a mother figure, as Hemingway’s wives often were. Harry (Hemingway) both wants and needs a mother but also greatly resents his wife’s playing this role. The seeds of the Harry-Helen conflict increase with every nurturing move that Helen makes.
    3. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    An underlying theme in “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” illustrates the inroads that wealth can make on talent. Harry was once regarded as a promising author, a part of the expatriate movement that flourished in Paris following World War I. Hemingway, very much a part of this literary group, uses this story to articulate a great many of his own fears and feelings regarding his problems. The story has strong autobiographical elements, although the facts of Hemingway’s existence that it often suggests are not intended to be taken as accurate auto biographical accounts of his life. Harry’s friends once relished reading what he was writing. After his marriage to Helen, he moved into a different echelon of society and was thrown into the company of rich people who were more comfortable with him when he did not work. It is from these people he hopes to escape when he and Helen go to Africa for what he considers his own rehabilitation. Therefore, their trip is a basic one devoid of the luxuries they could easily command.
    Throughout the story, Helen, seemingly in a state of denial about Harry’s prognosis, struggles to keep his attitude positive. In doing so, Hemingway creates a character whose optimistic sentiments strike Harry as the platitudes of a fool. Her sanguine sentiments are counterbalanced by Harry’s cynical outlook, with the result that they quarrel frequently. Helen wants to strengthen Harry with broth, which, in rare acquiescence, he drinks. In a moment of guilt over how badly he treats Helen, he uncharacteristically tells her that the brothtastesgood. However, what Harry really wants is his whiskey soda. He asks for it several times and sometimes gets it, but always the request and its occasional fulfillment are accompanied by Helen’s refrain, “It’s not good for you.” Helen’s concern for her husband is genuine. She is a mother figure, as Hemingway’s wives often were. Harry (Hemingway) both wants and needs a mother but also greatly resents his wife’s playing this role. The seeds of the Harry-Helen conflict increase with every nurturing move that Helen makes.
    Conclusion
    Although The Snows of kilimanjaro is written by employing a psychological plot. It is really interesting due to hemingway expertise in arrangging the events that keeps the reader’s curiosity to finish reading the story. So, he said to himself, we did well to stop the quarreling. He had never quarreled much with this woman, while with this woman, while with the women that he loved he had quarreled so much they had finally, always, with the corrosion of the quarreling, killed what they had together. He had loved too much, demanded too much, and he wore it all out.
    References :
    Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia. “The Snows of kilimanjaro” retrived november 17, 2013 from
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Snows_of_kilimanjaro

  10. Guntur Adventius Willem
    1112150021

    A Setting Analysis of Franz Kafka’s “A Hunger Artist”

    Introduction
    Fiction is the form of any work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary and theoretical—that is, invented by the author. Although fiction describes major branch of literary work, it may also refer to theatrical, cinematic, or musical work. Fiction contrasts with non-fiction, which deals exclusively with factual (or, at least, assumed factual) events, descriptions, observations, etc. (e.g., biographies, histories).
    in this paper the writer will focus on the analysis of the setting to help the readers understand the setting of the story.

    Synopsis
    A few decades ago, a hunger artist was enormously popular. This is his story.
    The hunger artists act tours the cities of Europe, where crowds come to view his cage day and night. (That is right – he hangs out in a cage, wearing a black leotard.) During his act, he starves himself for forty days. Then, in an amphitheater filled with spectators, he leaves his cage and eats his first meal in over a month.
    Suddenly, the hunger artist is no longer popular. He and his manager tour Europe, looking for an audience, but they just cannot find anybody to watch. The hunger artist fires his manager and signs on as an act in a large circus.
    At the circus, the hunger artist is just a sideshow. His cage is placed in between the main circus and the animal menagerie, which sounds rather embarrassing. Circus-goers stream past his cage on the way to the menagerie of exotic animals, and they barely notice his existence.
    Overlooked and forgotten, the hunger artist continues to starve.
    One day, the circus supervisor actually notices the hunger artist’s cage. After poking around in the straw, he discovers the hunger artist, barely alive. Before dying, the hunger artist murmurs his last words into the supervisor’s ear.
    The circus workers bury the hunger artist with his straw. They move a panther into his cage, which really pleases the circus-goers.

    The Setting
    The story does not give us much in the way of specific geographical or chronological details, but we do learn that the hunger artist and his manager seek out various cities in Europe to put on their act. The details about the performance and the audience are so generic that the time period is hard to identify – and perhaps deliberately so, as the narrator keeps mentioning how unspecified “times” have changed. This unspecified “times” gives the story an almost mythical quality. If we do want to figure out why the public appetite for hunger artists has changed, we cannot look to any specific historical event. Our only clue is in what “Europe” signifies for the text – which, again, is not spelled out for us.
    Most of the action takes place in two locales: when the artist is popular, his performance takes place in an amphitheater, but when his act falls out of fashion, he ends up in a circus. These two arenas are not so different: both of them are places for popular spectacles, not really the right settings for the kind of high art the hunger artist is striving for.

    The Use of Setting
    In this story the setting can be used to tell who is the artist and what does he do. Amphitheater, circus, and cage can describe who is the artist and what he does until he died.
    Conclusion
    It is hard enough to analyze the setting of the story is little. The explanation of the setting is not clear. We can only know that the place is set in Europe. Moreover, the author didn’t mention the time period in this story.

    References
    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: English Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Christian University of Indonesia.
    Shmoop Editorial Team. (November 11, 2008).A Hunger Artist. Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://www.shmoop.com/hunger-artist/summary.html
    Shmoop Editorial Team. (November 11, 2008).A Hunger Artist. Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://www.shmoop.com/hunger-artist/setting.html
    Johnston, I. A Hunger Artist. Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://records.viu.ca/~Johnstoi/kafka/hungerartist.html

  11. SETTING ANALYSIS OF VLADIMIR NABOKOV’S “SYMBOL AND SIGN”

    Rurin Saurma (1112150035)

    Introduction
    Fiction is a particularly rewarding from of literature. It yields a measure of enjoyment and insight more readily than other forms, but, if read as carefully and intelligently as the best of it deserves, it can also broaden and intensify our enjoyment and understanding of life as fully as poetry and drama do. It is variety of subject matter, themes and techniques has become as broad as human experience itself. The field of fiction is, indeed, nothing less than all human experience.
    In fiction, setting is the place where the events occur and the time or age of the action. It includes what in the theater would be called props and properties – the implements employed by the characters in various activities.
    The use of the setting to show the characters’ development is often very effective because these traits and interests are implied rather than implicit. This makes the characters seem all the more real, since in life we gain opinions about people and their habits through impressions.
    Another important function of setting is to establish the atmosphere, which helps create the tone and mood. For certain types of stories, setting plays a very important.

    Synopsis
    He suffers from a rere form of paranoia called referential mania, in which he believes nature and certain man-made objects against him. His parent had been married many years before je was born. This year, as in the previous years, they are taking him a birthday gift carefully selected to please him.
    When they are on their way the sanitarium, the subway breaks down; they must sit in silence for fifteen minutes. After leaving the subway, they wait a long time for a bus to take them the rest of the way. After reaching destination , finally a nurse they do not like arrives to inform them their son had attemped suicide. “ he is all right now” she say. But a visit is out of the question ; it might upset him.
    On the bus ride back to the subway station, the mother notices a girl crying on the shoulder of a woman. The girl reminds her Rebecca Borivsona, a woman she knew.
    At home after supper, the father retires to bed while the mother looks at a photo album with old picture. A photo falls out. There is a picture of her son when he was four and one of aunt Rosa.
    After midnight her husband staggers into the living room and says he is dying. She thinks his stomach is the problem and suggest that they call a physican. But he wants a doctor. Apparently he believes that if they do not bring their son home, he will kill himself and they will be to blame.
    The telephone rings and a girl ask for Charlie. The mother informs her that she has the wrong number. The father then tells the mother that they will get their son the first thing in the morning. The telephone rings again and wrong number.
    The Setting
    • Types of setting
    In a fictional story, there are two kinds of settings, they are the natural setting and the artificial setting . Symbol and sign use artificial setting . The author describes things around and the environment.
    • Setting of Place
    The first action takes places in large American city in apartment of an elderly couple, be evidenced in paragraph 2 line 6 “ in New York, wholly dependent on his brother Isaac “
    The second action takes place on public transit system couple, be evidenced in paragraph 3 line 1 “ The subway train lost it is life current between two stations and for a quarter of an hour they could hear nothing but the dutiful beating of their hearts and the rustling of newspaper:
    The third action takes place on streets, be evidenced in paragraph 4 line 2 “ They reached the bus-stop shelter on the other side of the streets and he closed umbrella”
    And the last action takes place in a mental hospital , be evidenced in paragraph 3 line 5 “ it began to rain as they walked up the brown path leading to the sanitarium”. sanitarium is mental hospital that their son treated
    • Setting of Time
    The time is 1947 or 1948 and the atmosphere, including the weather and the scenes that the elderly couple see is bleak and cheerless

    Conclusion
    The story symbol and sign, is very interesting. The setting that made the author is very easy to analyze and clear. Author describe in detail the places and situations

    References :
    Sign and Symbol by Vladimir Nabokov
    http://www.newyorker.com/archive/1948/05/15/1948_05_15_031_TNY_CARDS_000214135

    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI

  12. SETTING ANALYZE IN THE SHORT STORY
    “A SCHOOL STORY”
    BY M.R JAMES
    ( Abraham 1012150002 ) class A

    Introduction

    M.R James was the notable writer was an English mediaeval scholar and provost of King’s College, Cambridge(1905–1918), and of Eton College (1918–1936). He is best remembered for his ghost stories, which are regarded as among the best in the genre. James is best known for his ghost stories, but his work as a mediaeval scholar was prodigious and remains highly respected in scholarly circles. Indeed, the success of his stories was founded on his antiquarian talents and knowledge. From the Wikipedia the writer find that M.R James is discovery of a manuscript fragment led to excavations in the ruins of the abbey at Bury St Edmunds, West Suffolk, in 1902, in which the graves of several twelfth-century abbots described by Jocelyn de Brakelond (a contemporary chronicler) were rediscovered, having been lost since the Dissolution.

    According to Wikipedia, He catalogued many of the manuscript libraries of the Cambridge colleges. Among his other scholarly works, he wrote The Apocalypse in Art, which place illuminated into families. He also translated the New Testament Apocrypha and contributed to the Encyclopedia Biblical (1903). His ability to wear his learning lightly is apparent in his Suffolk and Norfolk (Dent, 1930), in which a great deal of knowledge is presented in a popular and accessible form, and in Abbeys (Great Western Railway, 1925).

    Analyze

    1. Synopsis

    A School Story is a kind of ghost story that writes by M.R James. In this short story show there is a physical and social setting. In this short story showed the physical and social setting. The physical setting was showing well by James. For example in the sentence: “The school I mean was near London. It was established in a large and fairly old house –a great white building with very fine grounds about it; there were large cedars in the garden, as there are in so many of the older gardens in the Thames valley, and ancient elms in the three or four fields which we used for our games”. It really can imagine the readers where the story took place. It showed the place and the sphere. On the other hand, it showed that school was a special school for the rich children.
    The writer analyze that the school is for the high class social economic children. Then, there are also many physical setting, such as: place, time, and environment that explain the sphere in that short story. For example: dormitory at right angels to the main building”. At that time, Sampson was sleeping in the main building on the first floor when “there was very bright full moon”. Two students saw there was wet dressed man “sitting or knelling on Sampson’s window”. At the next day Sampson was gone and no one can find him. It became a mystery at the school because “the students who seen the tragedy nor they ever mentioned what he had seen to any third person whatever”.
    The event of that short story was scary because it happens at night when everyone was asleep. Therefore, the time in the night and the bright full moon showed that the story happen in a frightened night. So, those setting were explained the condition in that short story. Not only to provide a background for the events and characters or to help the readers can understand the characters and their conflicts, but also to create problems for the characters.

    2. Setting

    The short story A School Story is a ghost story . The setting divided in to two kinds. It is social and physical setting.

    In the first paragraph we can find the physical setting:

    “Two men in a smoking-room were talking of their private-school days.”

    It showed the place in a smoking room that builds in a school. We can also know a physical setting from the two men conversation. It is also make a scary feel, because the two men told about scary story.

    “The house with a room in which a series of people insisted on passing a night; and each of them in the morning was found kneeling in a corner, and had just time to say, I’ve seen it and died.”

    “Wasn’t that the house in Berkeley Square?”

    It showed that the men tell a story that takes place in a house, and then the time is in the night and morning. In the night the person of that house insisted on passing a night and in the morning was found kneeling in a corner. The story that the men have told was located in Berkeley Square.

    ”Then there was the man who heard a noise in the passage at night, opened his door, and saw someone crawling towards him on all fours with his eye hanging out on his cheek.”

    From that sentence we can also know that the story was happen at night.

    “The school I mean was near London. It was established in a large and fairly old house – a great white building with very fine grounds about it; there were large cedars in the garden, as there are in so many of the older gardens in the Thames valley, and ancient elms in the three or four fields which we used for our games.”

    It means that the school was near London, and it was a wonderful school that was really large. It showed that school was a special school for the rich children. The writer explains that the school is for the high class children.

    “I came to the school in a September, soon after the year 1870”

    The time of the first character that he came to the school after year 1870.

    “The school was a large one: there must have been from 120 to 130 boys there as a rule, and so a considerable staff of masters was required, and there were rather frequent changes among them.”

    It means that the place of that school is very large and it has many students. On the other side and the students are just boys.

    “It turned out that the clock struck twelve before he had got to McLeod”

    It showed the time in the story.

    Next day McLeod took to his bed with a chill or something of the kind, and it was a week or more before he was in school again. And as much as a month went by without anything happening that was noticeable.

    It showed the time that McLeod took his bed with a chill or something of the kind, and it was a week or more before he was in school again.

    “I am pretty sure, of course, now, that there was something very curious in his past history, but I’m not going to pretend that we boys were sharp enough to guess any such thing.”

    It showed the setting of condition in his past history.

    “That same afternoon I took it out of my locker – I know for certain it was the same bit, for I made a finger-mark on it and no single trace of writing of any kind was there on it.

    It showed the time in the afternoon and the place in the first character locker.

    “That day was a half-holiday, and next day Sampson was in school again,
    much as usual. That night the third and last incident in my story happened.”

    It showed the time was happened in a half-holiday and it was at night.

    “One evening his host was turning over a drawer full of odds and ends in the smoking-room.”

    It showed the place of his host was turning over a drawer full of odds and ends is in the smoking-room.

    Conclusion

    From the analysis, it can be concluded that the School Story is a short story that has so many settings. Suggests setting the story happens in the short story. Arrangement has created a problem for the character. We can prove it from the characters created by the settings that appear in the story. The setting also shows all the characters of economic conditions, we can know from their school which is exclusive school . The setting also provides the backdrop for the show and the character, because the situation that setting opening will be held in a short story .

    The author also shows detailed settings to help understand the characters and their conflicts. Describe the settings in any condition that the characters feel. Therefore, the reader can easily follow the plot of this story with detail settings.

    Thus, the setting is the most important aspect in this short story. This gives affected by the plot, the characters and the reader the ability to better understand the short story of “A School Story”.

  13. A CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS OF
    EDGAR ALLAN POE’S “THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO”
    (Chelsea Sharon Miranda – 1012150018)

    Introduction

    “The Cask of Amontillado” is a horror short story by Edgar Allan Poe which narrates about a person name Montresors who struggles to revenge against Fortunato, his friend who he believes had wronged through insults. This essay gives an analysis of the characteristics. The story starts with one of the main characters pledging to take revenge on another character, Fortunato who he claims had insulted him. Montresors plans to execute the revenge on Fortunato carefully without letting him have a clue of his intentions. He pretends to be friendly and secretly arranges on how he will have Fortunato dead.

    Analysis

    1. Synopsis of The Cask of Amontillado

    Due to Montresor’s long-standing hatred towards his friend Fortunato, the former decided to kill the latter. Montresor could not stand anymore his friend’s injuries and insults so he planned to lure Fortunato into the catacombs where a supposed pipe of Amontillado, a type of wine, was there. Montresor needed Fortunato’s expertise in wine, which was also Fortunato’s weak point. When they were already at the hidden place, Montresor buried Fortunato alive. Actually, that murder happened 50 years ago, and now, Montresor is telling it to the readers in a first-person narration (Villanueva, 2011).

    2. Characters Analysis

    a. Montresor – (Protagonist)

    The main character Montresor portrays a man of pride, great intellect and a slight sadistic nature which drove him to his remorseless revenge. His ego has been hurt by Fortunato by a simple insult (Grailxox, 2011). His vain and poor way to handle the situation of being insulted shows how he cannot stand to be affronted as said in the beginning, “ The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could, but when he ventured upon insult I vowed revenge” (p. 1). As all traits are somewhat learned, his pride comes from his family (Freemasons). As their motto says to protect you and your family as he reiterates it for Fortunato. He says: “The Montresors …were a great numerous family.”… “And the motto?” “Nemo me impune lacessit” (p. 3). In translation “no one attacks me with impunity” referring to “me’’ as the family, if looked on that way. And another factor of his pride is his emphasis on avenging himself as said “At length I would be avenged; this was a point definitively settled…I must not only punish, but punish with impunity” (p. 1). Montresor must do this if he wants a peace of mind, to go on with his life without doubts and regain his pride. In this short story many readers see him as insane, but others find him intelligent, and other readers find him to be both. Montresor’s skills in manipulation show his understanding of a human’s weakness. Those weaknesses are their arrogance, and pride which are found in Fortunato: a gullible easy to manipulate target.

    b. Fortunato – (Antagonist)

    Fortunato is addicted to wine. He’s already really drunk when he meets Montresor, and he thinks the Amontillado can help him take it to the next level. Right up until the end, he thinks of Amontillado, and only Amontillado. Plus, he lets Montresor get him get even more drunk down in the catacomb. His addiction leaves him vulnerable to Montresor’s attack. Whether he really hurt and insulted Montresor or not, he’s so insensitive, he doesn’t notice that Montresor is mad at him, something any fool can see. And he just guzzles Montresor’s wine without even saying “thank you.” Because he’s so insensitive, he’s a poor judge of character. He’s either too proud or too greedy. Maybe Montresor doesn’t need to bring up Luchesi to get Fortunato down in the hole, but it doesn’t hurt. Fortunato either wants to prove that he’s a better wine taster than Luchesi, or he wants to make sure Luchesi doesn’t get his hands on the Amontillado. Being too trusting can be a weakness – if you hang out with guys like Montresor. Montresor says he made sure Fortunato had no reason to doubt him. But still, Fortunato should know better than to follow a masked man into a catacomb (Shmoop Editorial Team, 2008)

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, “The Cask of Amontillado” by Poe is a story which brings about different themes, with the main theme being revenge where Montresors vows to revenge against Fortunato for insulting him, which he does at the end of the story by killing Fortunato at the catacombs.

    Bibliography

    Giordano, R. (n.d.). An exploration of short stories by Edgar Allan Poe. Retrieved November 2013, from poestories.com.
    Grailxox. (2011, December 09). Montresor, The cask of amontillado, characterization. Retrieved November 06, 2013, from Otherpapers: http://otherpapers.com/English/Montresor-Cask-Ammontillado-Characterization/16674.html
    Team, S. E. (2008, November 11). The cask of amontillado. Retrieved November 06, 2013, from Shmoop University, Inc.: http://www.shmoop.com/cask-of-amontillado/
    Villanueva, A. (2011, April 06). Short story analysis: The cask of amontillado by Edgar Allan Poe. Retrieved November 06, 2013, from Welcome to my blog: http://articlewriterproofreader.blogspot.com/2011/04/short-story-analysis-cask-of.html

  14. A CHARACTERIZATION OF FRANZ KAFKA
    “IN THE PENAL COLONY”
    (Serly Novita Ayuningtias-1112150008)

    Introduction
    As a fiction genre, fiction is processed by the author’s imagination. The content of fiction usually based on author’s experience and observation of life. Most of novel or short story is according to a reality. But the content not strictly like based on that reality. In the process of writing, author chooses and modifications the content that author’s has based on the purpose. The story of fiction based on author’s experience and observation of life, fiction is impressed more realistic or closer to the real life, so that it is more intimate to society or readers. This impression is quite excusable; it is because short story, in general, telling about specific aspects which is common in society’s life. It makes sense if the devotee of fiction is more than the devotee of poetry or drama.
    Although fiction is an effort of re-expressing life experience (which is not really different from the reality of the readers), they often find it difficult to understand the fiction they read. As a consequence, the values of humanity or artistic that is expressed by the author often cannot be comprehended as a whole. To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence.
    “In the Penal Colony,” one of the most famous short stories Kafka. It had a stranger and disturbing elements down, not to mention all the stuff about judgment and justice: it is a complex story of a torture / execution engine kill “innocent people.” As you will soon find out after reading it, this story also has a whole “It must mean something, but what??” things happen, big time.
    Analysis
    A. Synopsis of In the Penal Colony
    In this short story focus on the explorer, who is in the first time faces the brutal machine. In this story always tell about the machine. The officer tells the executed experience in the machine. The officer raises Explorer to speak on behalf of the Commander gyro continue to use the machine. Explorer refuses to do so, and said that he would not speak out against it publicly, but will give his opinion to the Commander in person and then go before he can be called upon to give an official account. With this, freeing Officer Convicted and set up the machine for himself, with the words “Be Just” to be written on him. However, the engine damage due to the advanced condition of collapse, rather than elegant common operations, quickly stab Officer to death, denying him the mystical experience of the prisoners who had been executed.
    Accompanied Soldier and Condemned, Explorer makes a trip to the tea house where he was shown the tomb of the old commander. The stone is set so low that the table can easily be placed on top of it, an inscription stating his belief that he would rise from the dead one day and once again take control of the colony. As an Explorer prepares to leave by boat, Soldier Sentenced board and tried but rejected by Explorer himself.
    B. Character Analysis
    In this story has six persons, there are the explorer, the officer, the condemned man, the soldier, the old commandant, and the new commandant.
    1. The Explorer
    In this story we don’t know how the explorer looks because we don’t get any background on him, or any description of strong emotions going on inside of him. The only thing that he’s kind of bored and distracted by shiny things:
    The explorer did not care much about the apparatus and walked up and down behind the prisoner with almost visible indifference. (2)
    He had not been listening very attentively, the glare of the sun in the shadeless valley was altogether too strong, it was difficult to collect one’s thoughts. (3)
    2. The Officer
    The officers are people who make a spectacle of themselves. Emotional is an understatement to call him. We brought back time and time again for the enthusiasm he felt for apparatus and the “fairness” of the old Commander. Perhaps the word enthusiasm is too weak; officer basically adore old commander and systems that he created, which is embodied in equipment: We who were his friends knew even before he died that the organization of the colony was so perfect that his successor, even with a thousand new schemes in his head, would find it impossible to alter anything, at least for many years to come. And our prophecy has come true. (3) He also relishes the idea that anyone who goes into the machine has a moment of certainty, just before dying, that “Now Justice is being done” (22). That’s his reason for living. In fact, he can’t live without it. So when the explorer refuses to help him and he realizes that whole system will go down the drain, he goes into the apparatus himself. However, he doesn’t die in quite the way he wants – his execution is rapid with no chance for transfiguration.
    3. The Condemned Man
    […] a stupid-looking, wide-mouthed creature with bewildered hair and face […] in any case, the condemned man looked so like a submissive dog that one might have thought he could be left to run free on the surrounding hills and would only need to be whistled for when the execution was due to begin. (1)
    The condemned is basically described as a dumb animal, and that’s the kind of role he plays the whole story. For the most part, he was kept in chains, and the swallows return every time he moves too close to the apparatus. One of the most important things he does is throw up, the whole apparatus and him. He also never spoke – he did not understand French officer and explorer, and so just sit by, watching them with a sort of mute appeal. That one sentence he said, even though we only hear through the concierge, is ” Put the whip away or I will eat you alive.” It does not help the case for humanitarian you a lot if you only talk by threatening to eat people. Little fact makes clear the condemned man who is actually pretty brutal, in addition to being somewhat animalistic. Although the horrible fate he should, he’s just not very sympathetic. He was also excited to watch the officers suffer through the pain apparatus
    4. The Soldier
    The soldier is a dull-witted fellow who most distinct feature is that he seems to fall asleep easily and he was not very good at his job. He did not seem to know or care about what he was doing, and basically only in the execution because his orders to be there and she obeyed. That’s why it was almost a shock to hear him speak in the epilogue and reveal something about the officer and the commander of our parents do not know. Turns out he did not know some valuable information.
    5. The Old Commandant
    The old commander colony founder and designer of the apparatus. According to the officer, he was kind of bomb. He is responsible for everything about the colony, from the phrase judicial apparatus for operating procedures. A sort of aura surrounds the old Commandant, at least when listening to the officer talk about him. It’s as if he’s God or something. He’s a Creator: the colony is all his design, just as he built the machine himself. Oh, and don’t forget that everything he made is perfect (according to the officer). The old Commandant is like a divine Judge or Lawgiver: his system delivers perfect justice, which everybody knows is just (or so the officer says). And he’s kind of like Jesus: apparently, there’s a prophecy that the old Commandant will “rise again” from his grave and lead his faithful to retake the colony. Though most people in the colony now find this notion very funny.
    6. The New Commandant
    Like the Officer, we don’t know too much about him, except that he’s not such a big fan of the old Commandant’s way of doing things, particularly the use of the apparatus. He’s hoping the explorer will speak against the apparatus, and enable him to eliminate it once and for all. What we don’t know about the new Commandant are his motives. We know he’s opposed to the old traditions, but we don’t know why.
    Conclusion
    The story is set in an unnamed colony. This describes the last use of an elaborate torture and execution device that carve sentences of condemned prisoner on his skin in a script before letting him die. As the plot unfolds, readers learn more about the machine, including its origins, and the original justification.
    References
    Pardede, P. (2008). An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta.
    (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.shmoop.com/penal-colony/characters.html

  15. Happy sunday sir…
    This is my mid-term test sir…
    Thank you sir… GBU.

    A PLOT ANALYSIS OF FRANS KAFKA’S
    “ A HUNGER ARTIST “

    INTRODUCTION
    Fiction is a literary work which is the result of creativity generated by developing the author’s imagination. So, this is usually the result of imagination colored by culture, personal experiences or others, educational, moral and others. Author modifies the story with the purpose of attracting the attention of the reader and invites the reader reasoning. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to throughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for instance, find it difficult to see the relationship among the actions and events that develop the plot. Some others may find it intricated to make out the theme. Some others find it complicated to figure out the characters’ qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented.
    To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. Literary analysis is indeed an intricated process because it necessitates a good understanding of the works elements and how these elements are combined to create a unified literary work. Roberts (1977:6) explains that literary analysis is the process of breaking up a literary work into smaller units so that each of the elements nature, function, and meaning could be deeply discerned, and the corelation among the elements could be easily defined.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and A Hunger Artist, a short story by Frans Kafka in particular. The short story is interesting for me to analyze because it is very dramatize. This story can give a valuable lesson that is how to appreciate of a life. We can learn from the life experience of a hunger artist that so difficult. That is one of the most powerful and perfectly story.
    This paper deals with the plot of the story. Plot is the story line, or the arrangement of the events or actions in story- to what the author tells first, second, third, etc. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology, i.e a study aimed to analyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.

    ANALYSIS
    1. Synopsis of A Hunger Artist

    Synopsis

    A hunger artist was a spectacle. It is introduced about the culture of hunger artists, told what a phenomenon they were; about their visible ribs, the cage furnished with naught but straw, a glass of water, and a clock; how children would look on holding one another’s hands; how there used to be money in it. Guards of three would be set to watch the hunger artist at all times to ensure he was not fed in secret. Of course, eating during a fast went against the hunger artist’s code—those guards that made a point of playing cards on their shift especially so some nourishment might be slipped him only diminished the sanctity of his art. The hunger artist would instead prefer guards who would sit close to the cage, and with whom he could speak, through long hours of story constantly proving himself, and be happiest when, in the morning, they were served a lavish breakfast and he watched them eat it.
    Since none could observe him continuously, of course, none could be sure that his fast went unbroken: only the hunger artist could be certain of his virtue. But he was virtuous at his art, no question, because he was never satisfied with it; fasting, to him, was easy—so much so that no hunger artist had ever left, during a fast, the cage of his own volition. Since after forty days or so the public would lose interest, on the fortieth day the hunger artist would be medically examined, removed from the cage, celebrated and given a modest meal. The hunger artist never enjoyed the pageantry, nor the food: he wanted only to continue with his art. He was gloomy and grew gloomier, because no one really understood him. But the art thrived and people came to see him, anyways.
    Then things changed to their present state, and people lost interest in the hunger artist altogether. Being old and devoted to starving himself, there was little more he could do than join a circus. Of course, his display was a modest one: on the way to the menagerie, usually but a brief stop on the way of circus-goers. Attention used to reaffirm him; it was the main purpose of his life; now it is hard to come by. Then attention grew even harder to come by. The hunger artist’s cage became a mere obstacle on the way to the animals. The circus staff stopped changing the number sign which counted how many days the fast had gone on, which, though a sign of neglect, allowed the artist to do what he had always wanted: to go fasting on and on, well past the forty previously-allowed days. Of course, since there was nothing to mark his progress and none observed him, now even he didn’t know the greatness of his achievement.
    The days pass, and pass, and finally one of the staff notices a perfectly good cage and wonders why it is not being used, filled with naught but rotting straw. He asks the supervisor, and when they see the number on the table they remember the hunger artist. The poke through the straw and find him embedded in it. The hunger artist asks for forgiveness, because he could do nothing else; he had never tasted a food which was pleasing to him. Frail, he dies. In the empty cage is placed a lively, prowling young panther, who eats food it enjoys to its heart’s content, and, though caged, is happy; the spectators are never in short supply.

    2. TYPES OF PLOT

    A Hunger Artist is written by employing a dramatic plot. The journey of the narrator from the begining until the end is told chronologically. From the beginning until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place. It tells about the sadness of a hunger artist caused by fasting. On the last decade interest in professional fasting has markedly diminished” – even though, at one point, the entire city will take a “lively interest” in a professional such as fasting, or “hunger artist.

    3. STAGES AND ELEMENTS OF PLOT
    The plot of A Hunger Artist has a regular structure so that it can be divided into four stages: exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The first paragraph of the story explain as an exposition. This paragraph introduces to reader with the place and time settings and the major characters. It tells about the sad experience from A hunger artist . The climax of the story, the artist fires his manager and joins the circus, where he is now just a sideshow. The exotic animals are way more popular. Then after the climax, the story is also find the resolution. The hunger artist disappears from the public eye. The circus manager notices the artist’s cage, where the weakened artist is buried beneath some straw. The artist whispers his last words to the circus manager, who doesn’t seem to care.

    4. THE USE OF PLOT TO PRESENT THE THEME
    In addition to success in making a dramatic plot is interesting, the other achievements of Franz Kafka by making A hunger Artist in his writing is the ability to effectively present the theme through the groove. The theme is death that ends with a deep sadness. When death pick him up, he was never afraid. He trying to be strong although his body was very tired. In the end, we must think of the writer’s experience less as a horrible tale and more as a profound learning experience.

    CONCLUSION
    In conclusion, A Hunger Artist is written in a dramatic plot, it is really interesting due to Franz Kafka expertise in arranging the events that keeps the reader’s curiosity to finish reading the story. Moreover, He has made the plot represents the theme. He also makes the story far from boring by varying the use of the summary, scenic methods to tell the story and easy to understand.That’s why this short story “ A Hunger Artist “ by Franz Kafka become one of the best short story. From this story, we can understand to appreciate a life. Because, every moment of our life is very precious so, make your every minute of your life meaningful.

    REFERENCES
    Glatzer, Nahum N., ed. 1999. “A Hunger Artist”, The Complete Short Stories of Franz Kafka by
    Franz
    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta.
    Robertson, Ricthie. 2004. Kafka: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: OUP
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Hunger_Artist
    http://julieisrael.wordpress.com/2013/01/10/30-stories-day-10-a-hunger- artist/

    Melina Magawati
    1012150020
    FKIP BS, A

  16. Hello sir, this is my revised paper. In my paper, you said that my title ‘the Plot of Three Questions’ is similiar to Tri Maryati. I’m sorry I didn’t know about that sir. As I know, Tri Maryati analyzed the plot of School Story. On your blog, I posted my title on October 25, 2013 at 10:14 am. Thanks 🙂

    A PLOT ANALYSIS OF
    LEO TOLSTOY’S “THREE QUESTIONS”

    (Yudith Putrigajevsky)
    1012150028

    Introduction
    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experiences, emotions, and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to reality. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to thoroughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for instance; find it difficult to see the relationship among the actions and events that develop the plot. Some others may find it intricate to make out the theme. Some others find it complicated to figure out the characters’ qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented (Pardede, 2008).

    To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. Literary analysis is indeed an intricate process because it necessitates a good understanding of the works elements and how these elements are combined to create a unified literary work. Roberts (1997) explains that literary analysis is the process of breaking up a literary work into smaller units so that each of the elements nature, function, and meaning could be deeply discerned, and the correlation among the elements could be easily defined (Pardede, 2008).

    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and Three Questions, a short story by Leo Tolstoy in particular. The short story is interesting to analyze because it manages to dramatize one stage of the process of knowing king’s three answers in life by his experience of helping people.
    This paper deals with the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology, i.e. a study aimed to analyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of Three Question
    Three questions is a short story written by using the kingdom lifestyle as a background. It starts when a King is obsessed to be the perfect king. He does not want to fail in anything. Of course, it is his big problem. He always thinks three questions on his mind that he must know those answers to solve his problem. He proclaims throughout his kingdom that he will give a great reward to anyone who will teach him: what is the most important time to do things; who is the most important person; and what is the most important thing to do.

    Some learned men try to answer his three questions, but all the answers are different. He grows frustrated. He agrees with none of them, and gives the reward to none. He still wishes to find the right answers of his questions; he decides to consult a hermit, widely renowned for his wisdom. He tries to make the hermit answer his question thrice, but the hermit does not answer his questions.

    Suddenly, there is a bearded man comes running out of the wood. The man holds his hands pressed against his stomach, and blood is flowing from under them. The King helps him and saves his life, but the King does not know that the man is his enemy who wishes to kill him. The man realizes that the King has saved his life. Then, the man apologizes to the King. The man promises that he will serve the King as his most faithful slave, and will bid his sons do the same. The King is very glad to make peace with him so easily, and to gain him for a friend, and the King not only forgives him, but says he will send his servants and his own physician to attend him, and promises to restore his property.

    For the last time, the King tries to make the hermit answers his questions. Then, the hermit says that the King has found his answers from the bearded man who the King has saved his life. The King does not realize about that. So, the hermit explains it to the King. First, the important time to do things is now. Second, the most important person is whoever he is with. Third, the most important thing is to do good to the person he is with. Finally, the King knows the right answers of his questions.

    2. Types of Plot
    Three questions are written by employing a chronological plot. From the beginning until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place. The king tries to find the right answers of his three questions to some learned men, then to the hermit until he finds the right answer of it.

    3. Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot of three questions has a regular structure so that it can be neatly divided into four stages: exposition, complication, climax, and resolution (Pardede, 2008). The first paragraphs of the story are employed as an exposition. These paragraphs introduce the reader with the place and time settings and the two major characters. While the King and the hermit are being introduced to the reader, the conflict of the story is also initiated, i.e. whether the king gets the right answers of his three questions:

    All the answers being different, the King agreed with none of them, and gave the reward to none. But still wishing to find the right answers to his questions, he decided to consult a hermit, widely renowned for his wisdom.

    The conflict is directly proceeding with the complication, i.e. the King tries to find the right answer by asking them to the hermit, but the hermit does not answer his question:

    The King went up to him and said: “I have come to you, wise hermit, to ask you to answer three questions: How can I learn to do the right thing at the right time? Who are the people I most need, and to whom should I; therefore, pay more attention than to the rest? And, what affairs are the most important, and need my first attention?”
    The hermit listened to the King, but answered nothing. He just spat on his hand and recommenced digging.

    The climax is reached when the bearded man is blooded who comes running out the wood. The King saves his life, but the King does not know that the man is helped by the King wishes to kill the King:

    The King turned round, and saw a bearded man come running out of the wood. The man held his hands pressed against his stomach, and blood was flowing from under them. When he reached the King, he fell fainting on the ground moaning feebly. The King and the hermit unfastened the man’s clothing. There was a large wound in his stomach. The King washed it as best he could, and bandaged it with his handkerchief and with a towel the hermit had. But the blood would not stop flowing and the King again and again removed the bandage soaked with warm blood, and washed and rebadged the wound. When at last the blood ceased flowing, the man revived and asked for something to drink. The King brought fresh water and gave it to him. Meanwhile the sun had set, and it had become cool. So the King, with the hermit’s help, carried the wounded man into the hut and laid him on the bed. Lying on the bed the man closed his eyes and was quiet; but the King was so tired with his walk and with the work he had done, that he crouched down on the threshold, and also fell asleep–so soundly that he slept all through the short summer night.

    Soon after the climax, Leo presents the resolution, i.e. the King knows the right answers of his three questions by his experiences of helping the bearded man.

    “Do you not see,” replied the hermit. “If you had not pitied my weakness yesterday, and had not dug those beds for me, but had gone your way, that man would have attacked you, and you would have repented of not having stayed with me. So the most important time was when you were digging the beds; and I was the most important man; and to do me well was your most important business. Afterwards when that man ran to us, the most important time was when you were attending to him, for if you had not bound up his wounds he would have died without having made peace with you. So he was the most important man, and what you did for him was your most important business. Remember then: there is only one time that is important– Now! It is the most important time because it is the only time when we have any power. The most necessary man is he with whom you are, for no man knows whether he will ever have dealings with anyone else: and the most important affair is, to do him well, because for that purpose alone was man sent into this life!”

    The reason why the use of the chronological plot in this story does not make it boring is Leo’s great expertise in presenting a suspense right in the beginning of the story. The readers are curious about the answers of three questions. It makes the readers want to know how the King gets his answers. When this suspense is answered, Leo presents the king’s enemy as the right answer of his three questions by the King’s experience of helping a bearded man (his enemy). However, the king did not realize it, so the hermit explained it to him when he asked it again to the hermit for the last time.

    4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    Besides his success in making a simple chronological plot interesting, another achievement of Leo in writing Three Questions is his ability to effectively present the theme through plot. The theme of the story is the idea that “The important thing in life is to do good for the one you are with”. As a leader, the King does not want to be failed in anything. He always thinks that he will never fail if he knows three things:

    It once occurred to a certain king, that if he always knew the right time to begin everything; if he knew who were the right people to listen to, and whom to avoid; and, above all, if he always knew what was the most important thing to do, he would never fail in anything he might undertake.

    However, the King is an irresponsible man. He does not concentrate on his kingdom and people. He is too much busy to do his business which is the answers of his three questions:

    And this thought having occurred to him, he had it proclaimed throughout his kingdom that he would give a great reward to anyone who would teach him what was the right time for every action, and who were the most necessary people, and how he might know what was the most important thing to do.

    The King is not a callous person. He helped a bearded man whose stomach is blooded. He saved his life:

    The King and the hermit unfastened the man’s clothing. There was a large wound in his stomach. The King washed it as best he could, and bandaged it with his handkerchief and with a towel the hermit had. But the blood would not stop flowing and the King again and again removed the bandage soaked with warm blood, and washed and rebadged the wound. When at last the blood ceased flowing, the man revived and asked for something to drink. The King brought fresh water and gave it to him. Meanwhile the sun had set, and it had become cool. So the King, with the hermit’s help, carried the wounded man into the hut and laid him on the bed. Lying on the bed the man closed his eyes and was quiet; but the King was so tired with his walk and with the work he had done, that he crouched down on the threshold, and also fell asleep–so soundly that he slept all through the short summer night.

    The King does not realize that his questions are answered by his experience of helping the bearded man. So, the hermit explains it to him. From that, he knows that the important thing in his life is to do good for the one he is with.

    Conclusion
    Although Three Questions is written in a simple chronological plot, it is really interesting due to Leo’s expertise in arranging the events that keeps the reader’s curiosity to finish reading story. He also makes the story far from boring by varying the use of the summary and scenic methods to tell the story. In addition, Leo succeeds to employ the interesting plot to effectively present the main theme of the story.

    REFFERENCES
    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta.

    Three questions. (n.d.). Retrieved 11 17, 2013, from The literature network: http://www.online-literature.com/tolstoy/2736/

  17. Dewi Natalia (1112150042)
    Theme of Signs and Symbols By Vladimir Nabokov

    Introduction
    Literary fiction is a term principally used for certain fictional works that are claimed to hold literary merit.Despite the fact that all genres have works that are well written, those works are generally not considered literary fiction. To be considered literary, a work usually must be “critically acclaimed” and “serious”.[1] In practice, works of literary fiction often are “complex, literate, multilayered novels that wrestle with universal dilemmas”. Literary fiction is usually contrasted with paraliterary fiction (e.g., popular, commercial, or genre fiction). This contrast between these two subsets of fiction is highly controversial amongst critics and scholars who study literature.
    The theme in fiction is its moral. The theme of a parable is its teaching. The theme of a piece of fiction is its view about life and how people behave. In fiction, the theme is not intended to teach or preach. In fact, it is not presented directly at all. You extract it from the characters, action, and setting that make up the story. In other words, you must figure out the theme yourself. The writer’s task is to communicate on a common ground with the reader. Although the particulars of your experience may be different from the details of the story, the general underlying truths behind the story may be just the connection that both you and the writer are seeking.

    Analysis Synopsis of Symbols and Signs.

    Symbols and signs deal with individuals who are at a loss to explain the world around them. The trick of Nabokov’s story is how this premise is explored through the differences between the people who cannot understand the world. On one hand we have the unnamed son. His is a world where everything is loaded with meaning. Indeed, it is in the very minutiae of life that he obsessively focuses on, everything is a cipher and of everything he is the theme. On the other hand, the unnamed parents live in a world where nothing has meaning. They have never integrated into American society and as such see themselves as perpetual immigrants. They can only attempt to make sense of America through references back to the old world, Whom did that woman resemble? She resembled Rebecca Borisovna, whose daughter had married one of the Soloveichiks – in Minsk, years ago… He read his Russian-language newspaper while she laid the table. For the son, the littlest speck has meaning, the very air he exhales is indexed and filed away.The silhouettes of his blood corpuscles, magnified a million times, flit over vast plains. For the parents, even the loud, obnoxious things of life, like the subway and children, have no meaning, are dissonant, The subway train lost its life current between two stations and for a quarter of an hour they could hear nothing but the dutiful beating of their hearts and the rustling of newspapers. The bus they had to take next was late and kept them waiting a long time on a street corner, and when it did come, it was crammed with garrulous high-school children. For the son it is his environment he does not understand, reacting to objects as if they were alive, as if they were animated by motivations and desires.

    For the parents it is people they do not understand, the people who are now their neighbors in their new country, Unlike other women of her age (such as Mrs. Sol, their next-door neighbor, whose face was all pink and mauve with paint and whose hat was a cluster of brookside flowers), she presented a naked white countenance to the faultfinding light of spring. Ironically then while both son and parents share the characteristic of finding their worlds meaningless (either because of too much meaning or too little), they differ in almost everything else. As such, Symbols and Signs may be suggesting that regardless of our situation the world is inherently meaningless. Indeed, a great factor of this meaninglessness is the apathy of the people around the son and the parents. In the son’s case, his doctors are more interested in studying him than helping him, a nurse they knew and did not care for appeared at last and brightly explained that he had again attempted to take his life. The doctors treat the son as a sort of amusement as well, The last time the boy had tried to do it [suicide], his method had been, in the doctor’s words, a masterpiece of inventiveness. The parents too have no one to turn to in America. While they live on the support of the father’s brother his distance from them is clearly established in the parents’ nickname for their patron – the Prince.
     Theme Identification
    Symbols and Signs illustrates through comparison and contrast how sane and disturbed alike see the true state of the world as meangingless.
     Theme Presentation

    Nabokov has a long term interest in various forms of madness – which he puts to grotesque and comic effect in novels such as Despair and Pale Fire. Here, the son’s ‘referential mania’ is detailed in a manner which recalls Borges’s ‘Funes, the Memorious’ written six years earlier:
    ‘Clouds in the staring sky transmit to one another, by means of slow signs, incredibly detailed information regarding him. His inmost thoughts are discussed at nightfall in manual alphabet, by darkly gesticulating trees’
    There is a sense in which this is the second subject in the story, running parallel with the first, which is the harshness of the couple’s life as émigrés. They are poor, living on the support of a relative, and they are getting old. Behind them they have the flight of émigrés – ‘Minsk, the Revolution, Leipzig, Berlin’– and relatives who have perished:
    ‘Aunt Rosa, a fussy, angular, wild-eyed old lady, who had lived in a tremulous world of bad news, bankruptcies, train accidents, cancerous growths – until the Germans put her to death, together with all the people she had worried about’
    But the separate subjects are given two links. The first is the most obvious – that to have an incurably mad son is yet another misfortune to add to the rest. The second is the connection offered by the implied ending to the story. As a radical traditionalist, Nabokov is here combining two well-tested and yet apparently contradictory strategies of closure – the open-ended narrative, and the dramatic twist.
    The story ends with the two wrongly numbered telephone calls and an upturn to the elderly man’s feelings as he contemplates a birthday present of selected jams he has bought for his son:
    ‘His clumsy moist lips spelled out their eloquent labels: apricot, grape, beech plum, quince. He had got to crab apple, when the telephone rang again’
    We are given no further information, but it is impossible to escape the implication that the call is from the hospital with news of another and this time successful suicide attempt. For if it were another wrong number there would be no relation at all between these calls and the remainder of the story.
    It is not possible to ‘prove’ that this is the case, but it is quite obvious that Nabokov is inviting the reader to supply the missing explanation. Thus the old man and his wife do have a further blow waiting for them, and the second link between the two subjects is made – in the reader’s mind.
    As Sean O’Faolin argues, this is a hallmark of the truly modern short story – courting brevity by leaving the reader to work out what is being suggested or implied:
    ‘Telling by means of suggestion or implication is one of the most important of all the modern short story’s shorthand conventions. It means that a short story writer does not directly tell us things so much as let us guess or know them by implying them.
    Conclusion
    The point is this prose illustrates is the recurring symbol of death and the darkness of the world that the boy seems to be declined into. The signs and symbols all relate to the boys condition and offer insight to the characters emotion. The setting Nabokov illustrates is dark and deathlike.

    References
    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: English Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Christian University of Indonesia.
    Mbacon . (2011). Comparing Signs and Symbols in Short Stories.From: http://www.studymode.com/essays/Comparing-Signs-And-Symbols-In-Short-834488.html

  18. THE MAIN THEME OF KATHERINE MANSFIELD’S “THE FLY”
    Kristianto Budiman (1012150019)
    Universitas Kristen Indonesia

    Introduction

    Literary works (novels) is the product of invention in creating by the author through his imagination, although literary works created from the imagination of fantasy author or tall, but his work still life. The author is a member of a society bound by social status; hence the resulting paper is also described as the life of the community.
    In understanding the literary works, the role of language is very important. Literary fiction in particular, often referred to as the world in words. This led to the “world” created, built, the offering, abstraction, and interpreted by the words (language). Anything that is said to be the author or otherwise interpreted by readers, with regard to language. (Nurgiyanto, 2009: 272)
    Novel is simply the result of a writer’s imagination but impressed more realistic fiction or close to real life. This impression is well-grounded, for both short stories and novels are generally about aspects of people’s lives.
    The discussions in this paper are focused on the analysis of theme and the way how Mansfield presents it. The analysis is done using a pure approach, because the entire discussion is done only on the contents of the short story.

    Analysis

    1. Synopsis of The Fly

    Woodifield, an old and rather infirm gentleman, is talking to his friend, “the boss”, a well-to-do man five years older than he is and “still going strong”. The boss enjoys showing off his redecorated office to Woodifield, with its new furniture and electric heating (with an old picture of a young man, whom we learn is his deceased son). Woodifield wants to tell the boss something, but is struggling to remember what it was, when the boss offers him some fine whisky. After drinking, his memory is refreshed and Woodifield talks about a recent visit that his two daughters made to his son’s grave, saying that they had come across the boss’s son’s grave as well. We now come to know that the boss’s son had died in the war six years ago, a loss that affected the boss heavily.
    After Woodifield leaves, the boss sits down at his table and informs his clerk that he does not want to be disturbed. He is extremely perturbed at the sudden reference to his dead son, and expects to weep but is surprised to find that he can’t. He looks at his son’s photo, and thinks it bears little resemblance to his son, as he looks stern in the photo, whereas the boss remembers him to be bright and friendly. The boss then notices a fly struggling to get out of the inkpot on his desk. The boss helps it out of the inkpot and observes how it dries itself. When the fly is dry and safe, the boss has an idea and starts playing with the fly by dropping ink on it. He admires the fly’s courage and continues dropping ink on it, watching it dry itself continuously. By this time, the fly is weak and dies. The boss throws the dead fly, along with the blotting paper, into the wastepaper basket, and asks his clerk for fresh blotting paper. He suddenly feels a wretchedness that frightens him and finds himself bereft. He tries to remember what it was he had been thinking about before, but has no recollection of what he was thinking about before the fly.

    2. Theme Identification

    After reading the novelette, the major theme is “Time is a great healer, vanquisher of all the griefs and sorrows of man.” Mansfield presents this theme through characterization aided by plot imagery.

    3. Theme Presentation

    To show that time conquers grief the writer presents two characters, Mr. Woodifield and his ex-boss. Both of them lost their only sons six years ago. It was a long period and it had healed up their grief.
    First, the writer tells us about the state of grief of Mr. Woodifield. He has forgotten everything. He is able to remember about the grave of his some after drinking whisky. He talks about his son and his grave, but does not feel any pang of grief. This clearly shows that the time has made him forget his grief.
    Then the writer talks about the state of grief of the boss. The Boss believed that time would not make any difference to his grief. Now his present state of grief is different. After the departure of old Woodifield, he sits in the chair. He wants to feel the same pang of grief that he used to feel. The writer expresses his feelings very beautifully: “He wanted, he intended, he arranged to weep…. But no tears came yet.” This is the present condition of his grief. Time has conquered his grief.
    He wants to feel the pang of grief. As a last try, he decides to get up and have a look at his son’s photograph. However, a fly in the inkpot attracts his attention and he forgets about his son and the grief in a moment. He starts dropping drops of ink on the fly to enjoy its struggle. After the death of the fly, he tries to remember what he was thinking, but cannot. This clearly shows that time has conquered his grief.

    4. Conclusion

    Thus, it is seen that Old Woodifield has performed some important function in Katherine Mansfield’s, “The Fly”. The pathetic condition of this old man helps us to understand the mood of post-war depression in Europe. He serves as a foil to the protagonist of the story and makes significant condition to the development of the plot.

    Bibliography

    Mansfield, K. The Fly. (inPardede, Parlindungam. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI).

    Nurgiyanto (2009), Bab 1 Pendahuluan. Retrieved October 28, 2013 from

    Click to access BAB%201%20-%2010201247001.pdf

  19. A PLOT ANALYSIS OF
    D.H. LAWRENCE’S “THE ROCKING HORSE WINNER”

    (Rahelia Eta) (1112150033)

    Introduction

    Fiction is containing the antecedent of stories that created by fantasy or imagination o the writers. Usually a fiction story booked and collected as a novel. Fiction stories usually try to demonstrate portray of fictions idea to their reader. Fiction consist of character, theme, setting and plot.
    The reader usually get difficulties to understand the whole of the story. It caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. In this paper will be focus on plot of the story. Plot concerns the organization of the main events of a work of fiction. Plot differs from story in that plot is concerned with how events are related, how they are structured, and how they enact change in the major characters. Most plots will trace some process of change in which characters are caught up in a conflict that is eventually resolved.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and The Rocking Horse Winner, a short story by D.H. LAWRENCE . The short story is interesting to analyze because the story teach us about the lesson of the story for everyone in order to be gratful what we have achieved.
    This paper deals with the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Rocking Horse Winner
    This kid Paul lives in a family that is poor. The mother is always bitching about how they don’t have money. Paul loves to ride his rocking horse and fantasizes about the horse races. Then his Uncle Oscar takes him to the races. Paul tells him what horses to bet on. He tells his Uncle that he and his friend Bassett bet all the time and have lots of money. Uncle Oscar doesn’t believe him (because he is just a young kid). Then they go to the races and Paul picks the winners and he, Bassett and his uncle become stinkin rich. Paul wants to give the money to his mom, but doesn’t want her to know that it is from him. So Uncle Oscar deposits it into the family bank account as a birthday gift and says it is from a distant relative. Uncle Oscar set it up so she would receive 1000 pounds ($2,000 roughly) every year for 5 years. But when Paul’s mom finds out about it, she asks for it all upfront because she is in debt. Throughout this whole thing Paul hears voices coming from the house. The voices yell about how the family needs more money (the kid is a little psycho). Paul goes to boarding school and in the summer he returns. Then he goes a bit nuts. His mom wants to send him to the beach, but Paul doesn’t want to go to the beach until after the Derby (big horse race). Paul still rides his rocking horse (even though he’s a bit too old for it). He has to ride it to pick a winner in the Derby. Then Paul gets sick (mentally and physically). Paul’s mom worries about him. One day at a party she feels like something is wrong back home (motherly instinct). She goes home and catches Paul riding the rocking horse in the dark. Then he shouts out the name of the horse he will bet on (Malabar). Then he, Bassett and Uncle Oscar put tons of money on Malabar. Malabar wins the race and Paul is a rich dude. He then goes absolutely nuts and starts yelling about how he needed his rocking horse to pick the winner. He also babbles on about luck and money. Unfortunately, he dies in the end.

    2. Types of Plot
    The Rocking Horse Winner is written by employing a chronological plot. From the beginning until the end of the story all event are arranged based on the order of the time they take place. The Paul’s journey to be a lucky person after he won the horse race.

    3. Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot of The Rocking Horse Winner has a regular structure so that it can be neatly divided into four stages : exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. In the first and the second paragraph (line 1 – 8) of the story are employed as an exposition. These paragraphs introduce the reader with the characters. While the character (a woman, her husband and her children, a boy named Paul and two little children) are being introduced to the reader the conflict of the story is also initiated, to prove the conflict : “Although they lived in style, they felt always an anxiety in the house. There was never enough money. The mother had a small income, and the father had a small income, but not nearly enough for the social position which they had to keep up. The father went into town to some office. But though he had good prospects, these prospects never materialized”.
    The climax is when Paul’s mother did not know how to solve her problem. She think hard and tried this thing and the other, but she could not ind anything successful. Paul constantly and perpetually hears repetitive sounds of whispering in the walls of his house as “There must be more money. There must be more money”. The overwhelming obsession with which he hears the whisperings and his understanding of the fact that his family lacked wealth considerably, forces him to ask his mother why they did not have car and why they were the poor member of the family. The answer that he gets from his mother is “its because your father has no luck”.
    Soon after the climax, Laurence presents the resolution.
    Having correlated the word “luck” with “wealth” Paul decides rather with an air of desperation and declares that he is “lucky”. He winning horses in the races and he decides with the help of the attorney that his family be given a sum of one thousand pounds each year for five years.

    4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    Beside he success in making a simple chronological plot interesting, another achievement of Lawrence in writing The Rocking Horse Winner is he can present the theme through plot. The theme of the story is the idea that “be grateful of what you are for good”. Paul’s family never be grateful of what they have. They have willingness to get the luxurious in their life. They are never enough money. Her children were growing up, they have to go to school, so there must be more money.
    “Although they lived in style, they felt always an anxiety in the house. There was never enough money. The mother had a small income, and the father had a small income, but not nearly enough for the social position which they had to keep up. And so the house came to be haunted by the unspoken phrase: There must be more money! There must be more money! The children could hear it all the time though nobody said it aloud”.
    Lawrence makes an interesting thing to solve the problem. Paul is the little boy who posted with all racing news, and he know would be the winner although he never known it about racing before. The end of the story is Paul died after he said to his mother that he is a lucky person .
    “I never told you, mother, that if I can ride my horse, and get there, then I’m absolutely sure – oh, absolutely! Mother, did I ever tell you? I am lucky!”

    Conclusion
    The story of “The Rocking Horse Winner” is written in simple chronological plot. Lawrence is arranged the event that keeps the reader’s curiosity to finished reading the story. He also makes the story far from boring by adding the summary to tell the story.

    References :
    “The Rocking Horse Winner (1930). Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://www.schoolbytes.com/english/lawrence/rocking-horse-winner/

    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI

  20. Introduction
    Fiction is a kind of story that describes someone’s imagination. The authors usually present story not based on a true story. The authors usually write down thoughts or observations based on the reality of life even the author’s reality. Some fictions take on the true story of the author, but the story is presented is not exactly the truth.
    Fiction story is very familiar to the public or readers. This happens because the fictional story based on the author’s experiences or observations on life, making it seems more fictional reality with real life. In addition, there are some fictions entertaining and easy to read. Moreover, many fictional stories made in are based on all walks of life, from children to adults. This makes fiction much more interesting than poetry or drama enthusiasts.
    However, although fiction is liked by the people because the story is seen close to the reality of life, many people have difficulty understanding that reading fiction. Thus, social values and moral message delivered writers often not conveyed properly. It is likely caused by the lack of analysis of literary fiction among readers.
    This paper is an attempt to help lovers of fiction to better understand the content of reading fiction, especially in the story Three Questions. The authors are interested in analyzing this short story because its author, Leo Tolstoy, is one of the best novels writers. Simple writing style makes his work interesting people liked.
    Discussion in this paper focuses on plot aspect. The analysis is performed based on the contents of the short story itself. Besides, this paper is also intended to fulfill the midterm assignment in literature II class.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Pit and The Pendulum
    The Pit and The Pendulum is a short fiction story written by Edgar Allan Poe in 1919. It tells about French Soldier who put in a dark cell in dungeons. He is sentenced to death. He finds that he will be death after he investigates what happen in the cell. He finds many deep pits that can make him trap inside and finally died. Because of that reason he decides to stay in one save place that is far from the pits. He does anything there until finally he falls asleep. Besides, he finds himself strapped to a long, wooden rack. At the same time he finds the pendulum swinging under the ceiling. Then the pendulum comes closer to him. It seems that pendulum wants to kill him because the bottom of the pendulum is a sharp blade and its swing is directly across his chest. However he saves from pendulum. It happens when the captors feeding him with meet. He doesn’t eat the meat yet he put the meat in the rope that binds him to the table. It calls some rats closer. Because of the meat smell, the rat come and bit the rope that binds him and make him free.
    Finally, he saves from the captors. It happens when a new horror thing faces him. The walls in that cell are made of iron and it heated because the pendulum is drawn quickly up. Then, they begin to glow red. Suddenly the walls rush back and save the man from the captors.

    2. Types of setting
    In a fiction story, there are two kinds of setting; they are natural setting and artificial setting. The Pit and The Pendulum use artificial setting. It can be seen by the way Poe writes the setting. He writes by describing the surrounding thing and environment. For instance, he introduces the place by introducing the things that are in the surrounding place. ‘’I saw the lips of the black-robed judges. They appeared to me white–whiter than the sheet upon which I trace these words–and thin even to grotesqueness; thin with the intensity of their expression of firmness, of immovable resolution, of stern contempt of human torture. I saw that the decrees of what to me was fate were still issuing from those lips. I saw them writhe with a deadly locution.’’ (p.1)

    3. Setting
    a. The setting of place
    The Pit and The Pendulum takes place in a dark cell in dungeons in France. However, the writer introduces the place indirectly. It can be shown that h e shows some clue words until finally tells the exact place. This kind of strategy makes the reader really feel the atmosphere happen in the story because he writes it in detail.

    b. The setting of time
    Just like the setting place, the setting of time is also written in indirect style. It means that the writer writes it not in the point yet in related detail words that finally answer the curiosity. The time in this story is in the middle of war era, ‘’ It conveyed to my soul the idea of REVOLUTION, perhaps from its association in fancy with the burr of a mill-wheel. This only for a brief period, for presently I heard no more.’’ (p.1)
    It is also happen in the whole day; in the morning, afternoon, and night. It shows when the writer writes that the France soldier sleep and awake.

    Conclusion
    In short, The Pit and The Pendulum is an interesting short story. It is because Poe writes the story with a good style. The setting writes in indirect style, means that it writes not in direct. The writer reveal the setting by putting some related word that shown the real setting. It makes the reader curious when reading the story. Besides, he can bring the reader to the real situation because he tells the setting clearly and detail. However, some of words that he uses are hard to understand yet it can enrich our glossary.

    References
    ’’The Pit and the Pendulum’’. (2013, October 31). Retrieved November 17, 2013 from
    http://www.americanliterature.com/author/edgar-allan-poe/short-story/the-pit-and-the-pendulum
    http://serc.sogang.ac.kr/erc/Literature/Setting.htm
    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: English Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Christian University of Indonesia.

    1. Introduction
      Fiction is a kind of story that describes someone’s imagination. The authors usually present story not based on a true story. The authors usually write down thoughts or observations based on the reality of life even the author’s reality. Some fictions take on the true story of the author, but the story is presented is not exactly the truth.
      Fiction story is very familiar to the public or readers. This happens because the fictional story based on the author’s experiences or observations on life, making it seems more fictional reality with real life. In addition, there are some fictions entertaining and easy to read. Moreover, many fictional stories made in are based on all walks of life, from children to adults. This makes fiction much more interesting than poetry or drama enthusiasts.
      However, although fiction is liked by the people because the story is seen close to the reality of life, many people have difficulty understanding that reading fiction. Thus, social values and moral message delivered writers often not conveyed properly. It is likely caused by the lack of analysis of literary fiction among readers.
      This paper is an attempt to help lovers of fiction to better understand the content of reading fiction, especially in the story The Pit and The Pendulum. The authors are interested in analyzing this short story because its author, Edgar Allan Poe, is one of the best novels writers. Simple writing style makes his work interesting people liked.
      Discussion in this paper focuses on setting aspect. The analysis is performed based on the contents of the short story itself. Besides, this paper is also intended to fulfill the midterm assignment in literature II class.

      Analysis
      1. Synopsis of The Pit and The Pendulum
      The Pit and The Pendulum is a short fiction story written by Edgar Allan Poe in 1919. It tells about French Soldier who put in a dark cell in dungeons. He is sentenced to death. He finds that he will be death after he investigates what happen in the cell. He finds many deep pits that can make him trap inside and finally died. Because of that reason he decides to stay in one save place that is far from the pits. He does anything there until finally he falls asleep. Besides, he finds himself strapped to a long, wooden rack. At the same time he finds the pendulum swinging under the ceiling. Then the pendulum comes closer to him. It seems that pendulum wants to kill him because the bottom of the pendulum is a sharp blade and its swing is directly across his chest. However he saves from pendulum. It happens when the captors feeding him with meet. He doesn’t eat the meat yet he put the meat in the rope that binds him to the table. It calls some rats closer. Because of the meat smell, the rat come and bit the rope that binds him and make him free.
      Finally, he saves from the captors. It happens when a new horror thing faces him. The walls in that cell are made of iron and it heated because the pendulum is drawn quickly up. Then, they begin to glow red. Suddenly the walls rush back and save the man from the captors.

      2. Types of setting
      In a fiction story, there are two kinds of setting; they are natural setting and artificial setting. The Pit and The Pendulum use artificial setting. It can be seen by the way Poe writes the setting. He writes by describing the surrounding thing and environment. For instance, he introduces the place by introducing the things that are in the surrounding place. ‘’I saw the lips of the black-robed judges. They appeared to me white–whiter than the sheet upon which I trace these words–and thin even to grotesqueness; thin with the intensity of their expression of firmness, of immovable resolution, of stern contempt of human torture. I saw that the decrees of what to me was fate were still issuing from those lips. I saw them writhe with a deadly locution.’’ (p.1)

      3. Setting
      a. The setting of place
      The Pit and The Pendulum takes place in a dark cell in dungeons in France. However, the writer introduces the place indirectly. It can be shown that h e shows some clue words until finally tells the exact place. This kind of strategy makes the reader really feel the atmosphere happen in the story because he writes it in detail.

      b. The setting of time
      Just like the setting place, the setting of time is also written in indirect style. It means that the writer writes it not in the point yet in related detail words that finally answer the curiosity. The time in this story is in the middle of war era, ‘’ It conveyed to my soul the idea of REVOLUTION, perhaps from its association in fancy with the burr of a mill-wheel. This only for a brief period, for presently I heard no more.’’ (p.1)
      It is also happen in the whole day; in the morning, afternoon, and night. It shows when the writer writes that the France soldier sleep and awake.

      Conclusion
      In short, The Pit and The Pendulum is an interesting short story. It is because Poe writes the story with a good style. The setting writes in indirect style, means that it writes not in direct. The writer reveal the setting by putting some related word that shown the real setting. It makes the reader curious when reading the story. Besides, he can bring the reader to the real situation because he tells the setting clearly and detail. However, some of words that he uses are hard to understand yet it can enrich our glossary.

      References
      ’’The Pit and the Pendulum’’. (2013, October 31). Retrieved November 17, 2013 from
      http://www.americanliterature.com/author/edgar-allan-poe/short-story/the-pit-and-the-pendulum
      http://serc.sogang.ac.kr/erc/Literature/Setting.htm
      Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: English Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Christian University of Indonesia.

      1. good evening sir, my fixed revision is the second one that i sent. i sent it twice because there are some mistypings in the first one.
        thank you sir

      2. The Setting Analysis of ”The Pit and the Pendulum” written by Edgar Allan Poe
        (Tri Maryati Damanik_1012150011)

        Introduction
        Fiction is a kind of story that describes someone’s imagination. The authors usually present story not based on a true story. The authors usually write down thoughts or observations based on the reality of life even the author’s reality. Some fictions take on the true story of the author, but the story is presented is not exactly the truth.
        Fiction story is very familiar to the public or readers. This happens because the fictional story based on the author’s experiences or observations on life, making it seems more fictional reality with real life. In addition, there are some fictions entertaining and easy to read. Moreover, many fictional stories made in are based on all walks of life, from children to adults. This makes fiction much more interesting than poetry or drama enthusiasts.
        However, although fiction is liked by the people because the story is seen close to the reality of life, many people have difficulty understanding that reading fiction. Thus, social values and moral message delivered writers often not conveyed properly. It is likely caused by the lack of analysis of literary fiction among readers.
        This paper is an attempt to help lovers of fiction to better understand the content of reading fiction, especially in the story The Pit and The Pendulum. The authors are interested in analyzing this short story because its author, Edgar Allan Poe, is one of the best novels writers. Simple writing style makes his work interesting people liked.
        Discussion in this paper focuses on setting aspect. The analysis is performed based on the contents of the short story itself. Besides, this paper is also intended to fulfill the midterm assignment in literature II class.

        Analysis
        1. Synopsis of The Pit and The Pendulum
        The Pit and The Pendulum is a short fiction story written by Edgar Allan Poe in 1919. It tells about French Soldier who put in a dark cell in dungeons. He is sentenced to death. He finds that he will be death after he investigates what happen in the cell. He finds many deep pits that can make him trap inside and finally died. Because of that reason he decides to stay in one save place that is far from the pits. He does anything there until finally he falls asleep. Besides, he finds himself strapped to a long, wooden rack. At the same time he finds the pendulum swinging under the ceiling. Then the pendulum comes closer to him. It seems that pendulum wants to kill him because the bottom of the pendulum is a sharp blade and its swing is directly across his chest. However he saves from pendulum. It happens when the captors feeding him with meet. He doesn’t eat the meat yet he put the meat in the rope that binds him to the table. It calls some rats closer. Because of the meat smell, the rat come and bit the rope that binds him and make him free.
        Finally, he saves from the captors. It happens when a new horror thing faces him. The walls in that cell are made of iron and it heated because the pendulum is drawn quickly up. Then, they begin to glow red. Suddenly the walls rush back and save the man from the captors.

        2. Types of setting
        In a fiction story, there are two kinds of setting; they are natural setting and artificial setting. The Pit and The Pendulum use artificial setting. It can be seen by the way Poe writes the setting. He writes by describing the surrounding thing and environment. For instance, he introduces the place by introducing the things that are in the surrounding place. ‘’I saw the lips of the black-robed judges. They appeared to me white–whiter than the sheet upon which I trace these words–and thin even to grotesqueness; thin with the intensity of their expression of firmness, of immovable resolution, of stern contempt of human torture. I saw that the decrees of what to me was fate were still issuing from those lips. I saw them writhe with a deadly locution.’’ (p.1)

        3. Setting
        a. The setting of place
        The Pit and The Pendulum takes place in a dark cell in dungeons in France. However, the writer introduces the place indirectly. It can be shown that h e shows some clue words until finally tells the exact place. This kind of strategy makes the reader really feel the atmosphere happen in the story because he writes it in detail.

        b. The setting of time
        Just like the setting place, the setting of time is also written in indirect style. It means that the writer writes it not in the point yet in related detail words that finally answer the curiosity. The time in this story is in the middle of war era, ‘’ It conveyed to my soul the idea of REVOLUTION, perhaps from its association in fancy with the burr of a mill-wheel. This only for a brief period, for presently I heard no more.’’ (p.1)
        It is also happen in the whole day; in the morning, afternoon, and night. It shows when the writer writes that the France soldier sleep and awake.

        Conclusion
        In short, The Pit and The Pendulum is an interesting short story. It is because Poe writes the story with a good style. The setting writes in indirect style, means that it writes not in direct. The writer reveal the setting by putting some related word that shown the real setting. It makes the reader curious when reading the story. Besides, he can bring the reader to the real situation because he tells the setting clearly and detail. However, some of words that he uses are hard to understand yet it can enrich our glossary.

        References
        ’’The Pit and the Pendulum’’. (2013, October 31). Retrieved November 17, 2013 from
        http://www.americanliterature.com/author/edgar-allan-poe/short-story/the-pit-and-the-pendulum
        http://serc.sogang.ac.kr/erc/Literature/Setting.htm
        Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: English Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Christian University of Indonesia.

  21. A Characterization Analysis of Oscar Wilde’s “The Nightingale and the Rose”
    (Damayanty Hotmauli – 1112150023)
    1. Introduction
    As works of literature, fiction (novel, novella, short story), is the result of the author’s imagination processed. A material of fiction is usually based on experience or observation of the author’s life. In fact, most of the novel or short story inspired by a true story. But the material is not presented exactly with the underlying reality. In the process of creating story, the author chose and modify its content in accordance with its objectives.
    Given that the fictional story is based on experience and / or observation of the author’s life, or a true story, fiction seem more realistic or closer to real life, so it is more familiar to the public or readers. This impression is quite reasonable, because both short stories and novels in general talk about certain aspects that are common in the lives of ordinary people. Although fiction is a re-disclosure of business life experience (which may not be much different from the reality faced by the reader), they often have difficulty understanding that reading fiction. The difficulty is most likely caused by the lack of literary analysis skills among readers.( An Introduction to The Study of Fiction, p: 91)
    This paper is an effort to help members of the public to appreciate The Nightangle and The Rose in particular. Authors were interested in analyzing this short story, for the author, Oscar Wilde. Wilde novels were preoccupied with emotional and psychic themes that seem to reflect childhood anxieties: parents who have lost their children, children who have lost their parents, people who are not what they seem; the inevitability of tragedy; Puritanism, philanthropy and hypocrisy. Discussion in this paper focuses on the analysis of the character of the figures, which are in the story. Analysis was done with purely structural approach, because the whole discussion was based solely on the contents of stories. And given that this paper is intended as a valuation analysis for midterms in Literature class II presentation of analysis pursued by using the rules of academic writing.
    2. Analysis
    a. Synopsis “ The Nightingale and the Rose”
    The nightangle and the rose is a story in which the first character that appears is a Student. This boy is sad because a girl promised to dance with him on condition that he brought her red roses, but he did not find any red rose; there were white roses and yellow roses, but he could not find red roses. While he was moaning because her love would not dance with him,three characters from nature started to talk about him, a little Green Lizard, a Butterfly and a Daisy.
    The Nightingale, who understood the Student, started to fly until she saw a Rose-tree. She told him to give her a red rose, and she promised, in exchange, to sing her sweetest song, but the Rose-tree told her that his roses then the Nightingale went to see the new Rose-tree, and after promising the same in exchange for a red rose, the Rose-tree told her that his roses were yellow, then he send the Nightingale to his brother, who grew beneath the Student’s window, so the Nightingale went there. When she asked the Rose-tree to give her a red rose, the Rose-tree said that his roses were red, but that the winter had chilled his veins and the frost had nipped his buds, so he could not give her a red rose. The Rose-tree gave her a solution: he told her that if she wanted a red rose, she had to build it out of music by moonlight and stain it with her own heart’s blood. She had to sing to the Rose-tree with her breast against a thorn; the thorn would pierce her heart and her life-blood would flow into the Rose-tree veins.
    The Nightingale said that death was a great price to pay for a red rose, but at the end, she accepted. At night, the Nightingale went to the Rose-tree and set her breast against the thorn. She sang all night long. She pressed closer and closer against the thorn until the thorn finally touched her heart and she felt a fierce pang of pain. The more the rose got the red colour, the fainter the Nightingale’s voice became, and after beating her wings, she died. The next morning, the Student saw the wonderful rose under his window. He took it and went to see the girl and offered her the rose, but she just say that the rose would not go with her dress and that the Chamberlain’s nephew had sent her real jewels and that everybody knew that jewels cost far more than flowers. After arguing with her, the Student threw the rose into a gutter.
    b. Analyzing of characterization
    The character of The Nightangle and The Rose consists of the student , the nightangle (which become a rose), the girl ( person who the student loves), and the three animals.
    – The student
    The student charahter is dinamic, we can prove that from; at the beginning he really loves the girl but after the girl avoids him, because the rose is does not match with her dress, so the students threw the rose and does not love the girl anymore. In this story the student is protagonist and as the main character.
    From the sentence “Passion has made his face like pale ivory, and sorrow has set her seal upon his brow”. It means that he fears that his heart will break. Then , “The Student does not “understand what the Nightingale was saying to him, for he only knew the things that are written down in books.” It means that he only thinks about his love, but he never actively tries to find a red rose. Then from the sentence “As soon as the rose is no help any longer, he throws it “into the street, where it fell into the gutter, and a cart-wheel went over it”. We can see that he considers love to be unpractical and complains about love because it makes one believe “things that are not going to happen” or we can say that he easily gives up.
    – The nightangle
    The nightangle in this story also the main character and as protagonist. Her character is static. We can prove it from; from the beginning she believes that the student has a true love and she must help him to get the student’s love. Although the three animals laughed at him that it is a silly moment when the student cannot dance with his love just because a flower. Then to help the student to get his love, the nightangle was willing to die, as long as the student get his love. She is full of love, we can prove it from the sentence “Her voice was like water bubbling from a silver jar.”which has meaning symbolises of love.
    – The girl that the student loves
    she does not want dancing with the student because he did not bring the red flower. I t means, to love her, there is requirements that must be fulfilled. The man must demonstrate his love with comply what she wants. In the sentence She does not accept the rose because it does not match her dress it determains her vanity. It shows that the girl is really selfish in love. Then in the sentence She considers jewels more valuable because they cost more than the rose It shows that She just appreciates something from the price, not from how it takes.
    – The Three Animals
    From the sentence weeping for a red rose was ridiculous It shows that, they always take things to the trivial. they do not understand how it feels to fall in love and broken hearts, therefore they think it is ridiiculous.
    3. Conclusion
    One can draw several lessons from the story. However, few of them are: Looks can be deceiving. People are not always what they seem to be. Then infatuation is a very elusive and ephemeral thing without substance. Love, however, is always true and stands the test of time. And the last before making sacrifices, count the price. Don’t throw away your life for people or things that aren’t worth it. Oscar Wilde shows that love is a temporary madness which erupts and then subsides and when it subsides you have to make a decision.
    4. Bibliography
    Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia
    “The Nightingale and The Rose ”. (2012, April 23). Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://theyoungurbanunprofessional.com/the-nightingale-and-the-rose-by-oscar-wilde-a-short-story-review/
    “The Nightingale and The Rose ”,1991. Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://nubuk.com/literature/wilde/nightingale_characters.pdf

  22. Almira Komala Putri
    1012150012
    FKIP BS A

    A CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS OF
    William Carlos “The Use of Force”

    INTRODUCTION
    Who doesn’t like to read a short story? Usually in our childhood, our mother or father love to read short stories to us before bedtime. Short story can make us imagine as if we who are in the story. Based on Wikipedia, a short story is a brief work of literature, usually written in narrative prose. Emerging from earlier oral storytelling traditions in the 17th century, the short story has grown to encompass a body of work so diverse as to defy easy characterization. At its most prototypical the short story features a small cast of named characters, and focuses on a self-contained incident with the intent of evoking a “single effect” or mood.

    In so doing, short stories make use of characterization, plot, resonance, and other dynamic components to a far greater degree than is typical of an anecdote, yet to a far lesser degree than a novel. While the short story is largely distinct from the novel, authors of both generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques.

    Characterization is whom the story revolves around (often a description of their physical, emotional, and psychological selves). Characterization causes the reader to care about the story because they care about the character. Character development brings life and dimension to prose. People are interesting. Meeting a character in prose can be like meeting a person in real life. One learns about them, develops opinions and feelings toward them, and can be influenced by them.

    ANALYZING
    A. Synopsis Of The Use Of Force
    William Carlos Williams’s “The Use Of Force” is the story of a doctor who tried to make a diagnosis regarding a child’s illness. In the story the main character, the doctor realized the human potential for anger in all of us through his actions. The good part of the story that might catch the reader’s intention is when the doctor goes “beyond reason” and is finding it a “pleasure to attack the child”.

    It starts when the doctor come to visit the olson family. There’s a girl named mathilda has had a high fever for three days. Since no medicine worked, her parents called the doctor. The doctor noticed that she has been eating up her cold, having steady eyes with no facial expression. The doctor asked the parents if she has a sore throat because there’ve been number of cases of diphtheria in the school. The doctor asked her if he could check her throat but she refused to and fought back as the doctor tried to stick a swab in her mouth. The doctor hates the parents when they say that doctor is a nice man and will not hurt her. Then the doctor decides to use force than to leave her die.

    When the doctor is about to look into her throat, her father suddenly releases her. Then, the doctor grabs the child’s head and tries to get the wooden depressor into her mouth. The girl breaks it with her molars. The child’s mouth stars bleeding. Later he forces the spoon back of her teeth and throat. He finds that she has a sore throat is suffering from diphtheria.

    B. Analyzing Of Characteristic
    In the story of the use of force, there are four characters. They are divided into 3 parts; major, minor, and figurant. Based on the story, the major character in this story, is the doctor and the parents are a minor character who support the major character, the doctor. The rest of the characters are figurant that they can make the situation in the story become more realistic.

    1. The doctor
    The character of the doctor shows that he is a good doctor and we can say he is also intrepid, he dare to take risks and decided to use a force. Firstly, he asked mathilda to open her mouth smoothly, but she was doing nothing.
    “Well, I said, suppose we take a look at the throat first. I smiled in my best professional manner and asking for the child’s first name I said, come on, Mathilda, open your mouth and let’s take a look at your throat.
    Nothing doing “ par. 12

    The doctor hates the parents when they say that doctor is a nice man and will not hurt her. Then the doctor decides to use force than to leave her die.
    “Such a nice man, put in the mother. Look how kind he is to you. Came on, do what he tells you to. He won’t hurt you.”par. 15

    Doctor uses force because of social responsibility while the parents do not want the use of force. Their love towards their child was about to cause the death of their child.
    “Then I grasped the child’s with my left hand tried to get the wooden tongue depressor between her teeth. She fought, with clenched teeth,

    Desperately! But now I also had grown furious-at a child. I tried to hold myself down but I couldn’t. I know how to expose a throat for inspection. And I did my best. When finally I got the wooden spatula behind the last teeth and just the point of it the moth cavity, she opened up for an instant but before I could see anything she came down again and gripping the wooden blade between her molars she reduced it to splinters before I could get it out again. “ par. 29

    2. The parents
    Character of the parents is nervous and afraid to force their child. The parents repeatedly call him “nice man”. Their inane comments serve to do nothing but hinder the doctor’s efforts to get the child to understand what he needs to do, and the placement of their comments in the speaker’s own internal thoughts allow them to be felt in the same way the speaker felt them (usually as spontaneous and subtanceless interjections: “do you think she can stand it. Doctor! Said the mother.”). The father (who receives very little characterization) provides one example of the weakness and ineptitude of the parents in dealing with the situation when he is attempting to hold his daughter back and fails restrain her at each pivotal moment due to his fear of hurting her. This behavior and the behavior of the family as a whole is spectacularly ironic, considering that all of their fears are preventing them from stopping what they should truly are fearing: a fatal case of diphtheria.

    The weakness on the parent’s part and the stubbornness on the daughter’s part contribute to the doctor’s escalating frustration, to the point where he asserts his power: with a smooth spoon, he forces the girl’s mouth open.

    3. Mathilda
    She is a strong girl. She can survive although it’s very hurt for her. She hides her hurt feeling to anyone. In fact, the disease that attacks her can easily make her die. She also hate that their parents called a doctor to check her condition up. She showed by being rude. Like when the doctor asked her to open her mouth, he didn’t do anything. Also when the doctor grabs her head and tried to get the wooden depressor into her mouth. Mathilda broke it with her molars, her mouth stars bleeding. Later he forces the spoon back of her teeth and throat. Until finally the doctor found that she had a sore throat and is suffering from diphtheria.

    Conclusion
    Generally force is unjustifiable, but if it is used with good motives in order to save somebody’s life, it becomes a necessity. Here the basic conflict is between the doctor and the parents of the patient. Doctor uses force because of social responsibility while the parents do not want the use of force. Their love towards their child was about to cause the death of their child. The parents concentrate on the immediate pain without thinking the consequences of the deadly diseases. So the doctor loves the innocent child but finds her parents contemptible.

    Bibliography

    Parlindungan. 2006. An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI)
    http://www.classicshorts.com/stories/force.html

  23. ANALYSIS OF MAJOR CHARACTERS ON NOVEL
    “THE FLY” – KATHERINE MANSFIELD

    Introduction
    As literary of fiction (novel, novelette, short story), is a manner of author’s result imagination. One material fiction usually being gone upon on experience or author watch on own their life. Even as novel or short story was inspired by the reality story. But that material may not presented with exactly spread out of their reality. In story creation process, author chooses and having material modified that propriate in its objective.
    It is even fiction story is to be gone upon on experience or author’s life observation, or reality of story, realistic impressed fiction or close to real life, so more popular for society or reader. Roberts (1997 : 6) explains that literary analysis is the process of breaking up a literaty work into smaller units so that each of the elements nature, function, and meaning could be deeply discerned, and the correlation among the elements could be easily defined.
    This analysis is venture to aid readers to appreciate novels in general and The Fly, a novelette by Katherine Mansfield in particular. The novelette is interesting to analyze due to three reasons. First, it was written by a novelist who is regarded as the best and posthumously published collection since 1922 in Paris. Mansfield was a novelist who could satisfy two group of readers-laymen and literary critics-who always have constrastive perception in English literature.
    Therefore this letter is focused on major’s aspect. Analysis has done by use of nature structural approaching, because all of story just basic of short story content. And remembering that this paper slated for analysis example at Literature II classroom., the result of analysis representation is endeavored by use of academic writing methods.

    Analysis
    A. Synopsis of The Fly
    Mr. Woodfield comes to see his ex-boss. He is retired and is a heart patient. He praises the new setting and furniture of the office. Then the boss offers him whisky. After drinking it, Mr. Woodfiled remembers what he has forgotten. He tells the boss that his daughters have visited the graves of the boss’s as well as Mr. Woodfield’s son. Actually, they have died in a war.
    When Mr. Woodfiled has gone, the boss remembers his dead son. He tries to have the same feelings of the grief as he felt on the day of his death. However, he fails. For the last try, he decides to go to the photograph of his son, but a fly in a inkpot attracts his attention. He forgets all about his son.
    He takes the fly out of the inkpot and puts it on a blotting paper. As soom as the fly is about to fly, he drops a drop of ink on it and enjoys its struggle. At last, the fly dies of drops of ink. The boss throws it away and orders for a fresh blotting paper. Then he tries to remember what he was thinking before attending to the fly. It means he forgets his dead son again.
    Besides, The Fly was written in February 1922, while Katherine Mansfield was undergoing X-ray treatment in Paris. It was a story which she ‘hated writing’, though it is one which has produced a wealth of critical commentary, most notably in a series of articles in Essays in Criticism in 1962 and The Explicator rather earlier, in the 1940s. The Essays in Criticism series began with an article by F. W. Bateson and B. Shahevitch in which they argued that in “The Fly” Katherine Mansfield employed the techniques of narrative realism, using ‘irrelevant descriptive detail’ in order to make the external setting of the story seem ‘historically authentic’, thus causing the reader to suspend his disbelief and enter the world of the story. Examples of ‘irrelevant detail’ which they cited were the green chair on which Mr. Woodifield sits (why Mr. Woodifield?), and the minute description of the son’s photograph.
    This story is told in the 3rd person, but has a main focus on the boss. The narrator is not omniscient because the reader only knows what the boss is thinking and does not know what the old man is thinking.
    1. Mr. Woodsfield
    Mr. Woodsfield is an effective foil, some of his characteristics such as: his age, his economic status and his lack of control over is life help us understand the theme. These three things are what make Woodsfield a very efficient foil. He is five years younger than the boss. So they are not too distant apart in their age. This makes the boss listen to and be intrigued by the things that Woodsfield has to say.
    Actually, he is an old and infirm man, who has lost a son in World War I and is only allowed to leave his house on Tuesdays. He lives with his wife and daughters.

    2. A boss
    The boss is characterized as caring about the reputation of his business, not greedy and refined. He is a young man although he has older than Woodsfield. He is a well-off friend of his, who has also lost a son to World War I.
    Obviously the boss stands for a superior controlling power—God, destiny, or fate—which in capricious and impersonal cruelty tortures the little creature struggling under this hand until it lies still in death. At the same time the boss is presented as one who has himself received the blows of this superior power through the death of his only son in the war. Thus the functional role which the boss plays in the story does not fuse with the symbolic role. (Katherine Mansfield, 1960 : 68-74)
    It appears to me, however, that Professor Berkman fails to perceive the symbolic relationship between microcosm and macrocosm which makes the boss part in relation to whole and shows him acting both as father figure and God figure. In his symbolic role he may play as many parts as the symbol will extend to include, and the symbol will extend as far as the author sees…

    B. Characterization Analysis
    At first of story “ The Fly ” is exists two figures that variable. There is a the living one boss with various asset profusion whereas role which another character that greybeard has been stroke because life it with make party one time of its nonage. Mr. woodifield has made a habit of returning to visit his old boss on Tuesday afternoons-the only day of the week his wife and girls allow him out of the house. The boss, five years older, is stout and fit, a stark contrast to his enfeeble former employee. It does a man good, woodifield thinks, to see the boss going so strong. Woodifield admires the office and the boss explains, as he has done for several weeks now, that he has done it up lately. He points to the new carpet, new furniture, and new electric heating. Woodifield notices that the boss does not point to the photograph of a grave-looking boy in uniform. The photograph is not new; it has been there for the past six years.
    As the two men enjoy their surroundings and each other’s company, Woodifield says he cannot recall something he wanted to tell the boss. The boss feels sorry for the old man, thinking he is obviously “on his last pins”. He encourages Woodifield to drink some of his excellent whisky to restore his memory, even if it is against doctor’s orders. As they enjoy their drinks, Woodifield suddenly remembers what he had meant to tell the boss. His daughters had recently been in Belgium where they visited their brother Reggie’s gravesite.
    They noticed while there that the boss’s son’s gravesite was nearby. Both plots, the girls reported, were well cared for, and the gravesites were in a beautiful place, with broad paths and flowers growing on all the plots. The boss is visibly upset and distracted as Woodifield gives him the details. Woodifield ask if the boss has been there; the boss says he has not. Woodifield carries on about how expensive the jam was at the hotel where his girls stayed, but the boss respond without listening and hurries to end the conversation. He shows Woodifield out.
    The story ends without really resolving anything; there is no sense of closure at the end. At the end of the story after the boss has killed the fly, he forgets what he had been previously thinking about. He forgetd about how grievous he was over his son he lost in the war just a few moments before he began to torment the fly. The fact that he forgets about his son indicates to the reader that perhaps he wasn’t as overcome with grief as he lead on to be. The fact that “for the life of him he could not remember”, also leaves the reader wondering what will happen to him later.
    The boss, being the protagonist of this short story, is motivated by one thing only: his dead son. The boss decides to torment a helpless housefly in the latter half of the story because he sees the struggle the fly undergoes when it falls in his inkpot, and in turn feels the need to test the fly’s strength. In seeing the fly’s struggle and its ability to overcome it, the boss sees himself. He subconciously wonders if he will be able to overcome the struggle he has with his feelings concerning the death of his son. In comparing his struggle to the fly’s, he feels the need to test the fly to its limits. He says, “Come on, look sharp” almost as if he is talking to himself.

    Conclusion
    From the artistic of literature, The Fly is one story novel that tell about experience life between a father with his child. Related among child and father can’t be came to pieces although a child eventhough he have died in War World I. Here there is resemble between both of role player which is they all same look for his child lost. In the fact, this story also inform to contain about social and culture which bckground of own author’s life. It is conclude a lot of more society point of view to gets its story makings.

    References
    Roberts, Edgar V. 1997. Writing Themes About Literature, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
    “The Stories 1921-22: Sierre and Paris,” Katherine Mansfield, St. Martin’s Press, 1981, pp. 95-135.
    “Katherine Mansfield: ‘The Fly,’” in Hawthorne and the Modern Short Story, Mouton and Company, 1966, pp. 68-74.

  24. THE THEME ANALYSIS OF THE USE OF FORCE by WILLIAM CARLOS

    (Ignasia Anastasia/1012150026/VIIBS-A)

    A. Introduction

    Fiction is literature created from the imagination, not presented as fact, though it may be based on a true story or situation in the form of prose, especially novels, that describes imaginary events and people. Literacy analysis an exploration of one or more pieces of literature for a specific purpose. And it is indeed a complexs process because its need a good understanding of the works elements and how this element are combined to create a unified literary work. According to Robert literary analysis is the process of the breaking up a literary work into smaller unit so that each of the element nature, function, and meaning could be deeply discerned and the correlation among the element could be easily defined.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate short story in general and Forcing, a novelette by William Carlos in particular. William Carlos Williams was an American poet closely associated with modernism and imagism who is consider as a good novelist. The novelette is interesting to analyze due to two reasons. First, it was written by novelist who is considered as good writer in history. Second, the novelette does not merely tell an interesting story but also expresses a universal theme. Third, the novelette is brief because we know the conflict directly.
    This paper will deal with the theme of The Use of Force. Discussion are focused on the identification of the theme and the way how Carlos presents it. The analysis was crried out by the using of stuctural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology, i.e. a study aimed to nalyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of plot.

    B. Analysis
    1. Synopsis
    The Use of Force is a short story written by William Carlos. This is story of The parent’s worried towards their daughter and doctor’s responsibility toward his patient.
    The family called on doctor to their house and they found Mathilda in the kitchen where it is warm.She is sitting oh her father lap. She looked got fever for 3 days. The doctor diagnose her got sore throat, the doctor made sure it by asking her name, but she did nothing.Then doctor try to speak quietly and slowly.Suddenly, she is one catlike movement both her hands clawed instinctively for his eyes when doctor nearer with her.
    The father, though he is big and strong enough to hold onto his daughter, lets her squirm out of his hands before the doctor can pry her mouth open with a wooden tongue depressor because he is afraid of hurting her. He is near fainting when the doctor, angry, tells him to put Mathilda on his lap and hold her wrists. When the father does, the girl tries a new tactic: instead of keeping her mouth shut, she opens it and screams out that she is in pain, that the force her father is exerting is killing her. The doctor tries to ignore her words and go on with his examination.
    He is finally able to pry a wooden tongue depressor into her mouth, and is about to use it to pry her jaw open so that he can look at her throat when she brings her teeth together with enough ferocity to shatter the wooden tool into splinters. Once again, her mother tries to embarrass the girl, telling her that she ought to be ashamed to behave in such a way in front of the doctor. The doctor was successful and had saw the infection. The girl however was furious knowing that she had failed to keep the doctor from see it.

    2. Theme Identification

    After reading the novelette for several times, there’s no doubt that the main theme in this story is “ Doctor’s Responsibility” Carlos presented this theme through viewpoint.

    3. Theme Presentation
    The story “The Use of Force” written by William Carlos Williams. Williams who was a doctor in his hometown of Rutherford, New Jersey operated on people during the Great Depression. The story is about a doctor named Olson who has to help this girl named Mathilda. The parents decided that the doctor see her and make sure she doesn’t die from this disease. The doctor is about to examine the child’s throat for the disease but the child resists and fights the doctor from letting him see her throat. The doctor struggles to have the girl do it on her own. With no other way working the doctor decides to use force on the girl in order to diagnosis the girl and prevent from the child dying. The doctor was successful and had saw the infection. The girl however was furious knowing that she had failed to keep the doctor from see it.
    theme is ” stubborn child” Mathilda demonstrates this in several ways. Hiding her illness from her parents for approximately three days it cause most parents tell their children that if parents scold her sick child, proves that she is being stubborn towards her parents. She was well aware, and old enough to understand the seriousness of her sickness and what it could have potentially led to. Towards her doctor Olson, her stubborn fury took action. When the doctor asked several times to examine her throat, Mathilda refused. Eventually, Mathilda resorted to “catlike movement” and almost clawed his eyes. obviously, Mathilda proves that children are in fact capable of stubborn fur and Children maybe stubborn do to that they don’t understand what a doctor does and that is why they are the most stubborn than a teen, adult, and senior citizen.
    C. CONCLUSION
    The basic theme presented by Carlos in The Use of Force is what a doctor does and how sometimes force on a person just might save a person’s life, human actions must be within their responsibility to conduct the use of force.
    REFERENCES
    C. CONCLUSION
    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: Universitas Kristen Indonesia.
    http://leahkristinebeni.blogspot.com/

  25. Sir,
    This is my plot analysis of ‘The South’.
    Nim: 1012150057

    Introduction
    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense if offers. Compares to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experience, emotion and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to relity. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to see the relationship among the actions and events that develop the plot. Some others may find it intricate to make out the theme. Some others find it complicated to figure out the characters’ qualities. Satill some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented. The plot is how the author arranges events to develop his basic idea; It is the sequence of events in a story or play. The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle, and end. The short story usually has one plot so it can be read in one sitting. This paper deals with the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme. This analysis is aventure to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and The South, a short story by Jorge Luis Borges. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology, i.e. a study aimed to analyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis
    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The South
    The south by Jorge Luis Borges is a short story which tell about Juan dahlman was grandchildren from a German minister who emigrated to Argentina in 1871. His grandfather was a famous Argentine military man who suffered a violent death at the hands of Indians on the frontier. Although of German descent, he is proud of his Argentine maternal ancestors. In February 1939, he obtains a copy of the Arabian Nights. He takes the book home, and eager to examine it rushes up the stairs and gashes his forehead against a recently painted beam. The wound Dahlmann suffers forces him to lie bedridden with a very high fever. After a few days, his doctors move him to the hospital. On his way there, Dahlmann feels that perhaps the move will do him good. At the hospital, however, Dahlmann’s treatment for his injury causes him great pain and discomfort, causing him to feel humiliation and self-hatred almost as though he were in hell. After noticing symmetries between his time before and after his hospital stay, Dahlmann takes a trip to the South of Buenos Aires.
    2. Types of Plot
    The south is written by employing a chronological plot. From the begining until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of time they take place. The journey of dahlman to south tell dramatic story.
    3. Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot of The South has a regular structure so that it can be neatly divided in four stages : exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The first paragraph of the story explain as an exposition. This paragraph introduces to reader with the place and time settings and the two major characters. Johannes Dahlman and Juan Dahlmann are being introduced to the reader. Juan dahlman is a grandchildren of Johannes dahlaman. The author shows the first complication Late in February, 1939, something happened to Juan. The wound Dahlmann suffers forces him to lie bedridden with a very high fever. The climax of the story is At the hospital, however, Dahlmann’s treatment for his injury causes him great pain and discomfort, causing him to feel humiliation and self-hatred almost as though he were in hell. Soon after the climax, the story is also present the resolution, i.e. the author tell the feeling of death is coming near juan decides to go to south.

    4. The Use Of Plot to present The Theme
    Beside his success in making simple chronological plot interesting, another achievement of Jorge in writting. He successfully present his theme on the plot. The theme is “death and life”. When the death will come, he is not afraid an the rest of his life He wants to become useful person to other people .

    Conclusion
    Although the south is written in a simple chronological plot, It is really interesting due to borges started his story as a poet and he continued to pursue these forms brilliantly through his life. He made his most indelible mark on world literature. One is that he had had a near death experience that he latter brilliantly transformed into the unforgettable story. After reading The story of Borge one realizes that he is obsessed with discovering truth and reality.The story is fascinated with the idea of existing eternally. He also makes the story far from boring by varying the use of the summary and scenic methods to tell the story.

    Bibliography :
    Pardede, Parlindungan.2008. An Introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta

  26. An Analysis Setting of “The Tell-Tale Heart”

    • Introduction
    Literature is a term used to describe written or spoken material. Broadly speaking, “literature” is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works, but the term is most commonly used to refer to works of the creative imagination, including works of poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction.

    Literature represents a language or a people: culture and tradition. But, literature is more important than just a historical or cultural artifact. Literature introduces us to new worlds of experience. We learn about books and literature; we enjoy the comedies and the tragedies of poems, stories, and plays; and we may even grow and evolve through our literary journey with books.

    Ultimately, we may discover meaning in literature by looking at what the author says and how he/she says it. We may interpret the author’s message. In academic circles, this decoding of the text is often carried out through the use of literary theory, using a mythological, sociological, psychological, historical, or other approach.

    Whatever critical paradigm we use to discuss and analyze literature, there is still an artistic quality to the works. Literature is important to us because it speaks to us, it is universal, and it affects us. Even when it is ugly, literature is beautiful.
    • Synopsis
    The unnamed narrator of the story is a “dreadfully nervous” character who disputes the allegation that he might be crazy. He contends that his disposition arises from a heightening of the senses: “Above all was the sense of hearing acute” (74). The narrator provides care for a wealthy elderly man. For some inexplicable reason, the narrator becomes obsessed with the diseased eye of the old man. The narrator likens it to a vulture’s eye and is so haunted by the Evil Eye that he decides to murder the old man.
    He meticulously plans the murder. After one week of preparation, the narrator charges into the old man’s bedroom after midnight and kills him using the heavy bed the victim had been sleeping in to either crush or suffocate him. Even after the murder, the victim’s heart continues beating for many minutes. The narrator carefully dismembers the body in a tub. He conceals all the pieces under the floor boards.
    At four o’clock in the morning, three policemen arrive. A neighbor heard a scream and notified the police. They are here to investigate. The narrator maintains his composure and even entertains the police. After all, he has committed the perfect crime. Suddenly, he hears a repetitive noise like the ticking of a watch. At first soft, the sound grows louder and louder. No one else hears it. What is the cause of the noise–paranoia, his conscience, auditory hallucinations, a supernatural clue, or (most likely) the sound of his own pounding heart? The narrator can no longer tolerate the thumping and confesses to the murder: “I admit the deed!–tear up the planks!–here, here!–it is the beating of his hideous heart!” (78)

    • Setting: A House

    We don’t know where the narrator is while he’s telling the story of the old man’s murder. The story he tells us takes place inside a random old house about which few details are directly given. We are told that the old man keeps his shutters tightly locked. A neighbor hears at least one of the story’s two screams. The cops arrive promptly, just after the narrator has hidden the body. As such, the house might be in an urban area, possibly a high-crime one.

    As to the interior of the house, we only hear about the old man’s bedroom, which is the a place where horror plays in the dark while the old man sleeps, completely unaware. The room is all the more scary because it isn’t described, because we can’t see it. This story taps our fears of the dark, and what the dark might hold.

    In speech class you probably heard that a majority of people (in America) claim that public speaking is their number one fear. What about the fear of someone in your own house spying on you each night while you sleep, wanting to kill you, and then being totally friendly to you during the day? Even without the murder part, that kicks public speaking in the pants if you ask us.

    The “ideal” bedroom is supposed to be a fairly private place where we can rest and recuperate without fear. The narrator completely violates the sanctity of the bedroom in this story. The night spying is possibly more terrifying for our imaginations than the murder itself.

    As with many Poe stories, the landscape of the narrator’s mind is also a setting of the story, and it echoes the external or surface setting, the man’s bedroom. Just as we are unable to see the bedroom, the narrator is unable to see his own mind.
    Conclusion
    Before beginning his account, the unnamed narrator claims that he is nervous and oversensitive but not mad, and offers his calmness in the narration as proof of his sanity. He then explains how although he loved a certain old man who had never done him wrong and desired none of his money, the narrator could not stand the sight of the old man’s pale, filmy blue eye. The narrator claims that he was so afraid of the eye, which reminds him of a vulture’s, that he decided to kill the man so he would no longer have to see it. he explains that he cannot be mad because instead of being foolish about his desires, he went about murdering the old man with “caution” and “foresight.” In the week before the murder, the narrator is very kind to the old man, and every night around midnight, he sneaks into the old man’s room and cautiously shines a lantern onto the man’s eye. The narrator’s nerves are wracked by the sight, and he fancies that because of his oversensitivity, he has begun to hear the beating of the old man’s heart. When the narrator stops hearing the beating, he examines the corpse before dismembering it and concealing it beneath the floorboards. He laughs somewhat hysterically as he describes how the tub caught all the blood, leaving no stains on the floor. He shows the policemen the house and confidently allows them to search it before bringing out chairs which he, in his assurance, places on top of the floorboards that hide the corpse. Soon, the narrator begins to suspect that the pleasantries of the policemen are merely a ruse to ridicule his distress. However, he cannot stand the intensity of the beating and grows tired of what he perceives as the mockery of the policemen. He feels that he “must scream or die,” so he finally shrieks the truth, telling the policemen to tear up the floorboards and reveal the beating of the old man’s heart.
    References
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2013. Short Stories for Mid-Term Assignment.http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/poe/telltale.html
    Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia

  27. Sir, this is my revision for mid term test. Thank you in advance.

    NAME : JESSICA TALENTIA
    SRN : 11 121 500 39

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN THEME OF
    YIYUN LI’S “A MAN LIKE HIM”

    (Jessica Talentia)

    Introduction

    Generally, fiction is the form of any work that deals with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary and theoritical, invented by the author. Although the fiction describes a major branch of literary work, it may also refer to thearitrical, cinematic, or musical work. Fiction contrast with non fiction, which deals exclusively with factual events, descriptions, observations, etc. Because of that, many fictions is the events that imagery and hard to understand. Fiction is the implicit desire that is written by the author.
    Because fiction is hard to understand, many people do not like to read the fiction, they would rather to watch a drama than read a fiction book. Fiction has 8 elements that are supporting the content of one story. The 8 elements are : subject matter, character, point of view, action and plot, setting, atmosphere and tone, style, and theme. Each statements have their characteristics.
    This paper discusses a theme of “A Man like Him” by Yiyun Li. So, the reader feel excited to read this story more after reading this analysis theme. Theme is the central idea or ideas of exploration by a literary work. In fiction, the theme is not presented directly at all.Readers extract it from the characters, action, and setting that make up the story. In short, readers must figure out theme themselves. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology.

    Analysis

    1. Synopsis of A Man Like Him

    Teacher Fei is an art who never been married and did not have children. He had a dementia mother and father who killed himself. Teacher Fei had been retired since 6 years ago and only have 3 main schedule : writing journal in the Internet cafe, reading the magazine, and taking care his mother who had always remembering his father. Teacher Fei always suspected that his mother had agreed to see his father only to appease the scholar, actually they got married for a year and Fei’s mother unable to become pregnant.
    That afternoon, like his habitual, Fei red a magazine that contained the article “My father is less of creature than a pig or dog because he is an adulterer.” That article contained of a girl who had reverenged to her father because her father was an absent father. That article had written that the girl’s father was married again with his cousin and he was divorced her mother. Teacher Fei wanted to know so far and looked for that website and found out many photos that showed a harmonious family. The girl wrote down the biodata’s father overthere, started from his name, age, house telp, and work telp.
    Fei called the work number of the girl’s father and told with him. Fei gave some questions to the girl’s father about his family. Girl’s father had been falling in love with the sixteenth girl who is his cousin. This case is the same as his father’s problem. Now, Fei knew that a man who sat in front if him was lied like another man who did it when they are dishonestly. He conscioused that a man like him who has a mistress is like his father who unfaitfhful husband who had always appeased a scholar. The girl’s father life stories is the same as Fei’s father stories. Fei’s father likes a girl’s father.

    2. Theme Identification

    The author, Yiyun Li, showed the theme generally through characterization that aided by plot, style, and setting in this story. And there is no theme that can we summarize except “A misery life of children and wives that is caused by unfaithful husband”.

    3. Theme Presentation

    In the beginning from this story, the first misery that is caused from the unfaithful husband was presented in the fourth paragraph.
    What malice, Teacher Fei thought. He flung the magazine across the room, knocking a picture frame from the bookcase and surprising himself with this sudden burst of anger. At sixty-six, Teacher Fei had seen enough of the world to consider himself beyond the trap of pointless emotions. Was it the milkman, his mother asked from the living room. Milkmen had long ago ceased to exist in Beijing, milk being sold abundantly in stores now; still, approaching ninety, she was snatched from time to time by the old fear that a neighbor or a passerby would swipe their two rationed bottles. Remember how they had twice been fined for lost bottles, she asked as Teacher Fei entered the living room, where she sat in the old armchair that had been his father’s favorite spot in his last years. Teacher Fei hadn’t listened closely, but it was a question he knew by heart, and he said yes, he had remembered to pick up the bottles the moment they were delivered. Be sure to leave them in a basin of cold water so the milk does not turn sour, she urged. He stood before her and patted her hands, folded in her lap, and reassured her that there was no need for her to worry. She grabbed him then, curling her thin fingers around his. “I have nothing to say about this world,” she said slowly.
    In this conflict part implied that the Teacher Fei’s mother get the dementia that is caused by her unfaithful husband who killed himslef. She had always remembered the milkmen who exist had long time ago in Beijing and she remembered her husband’s spot. It showed that Teacher Fei’s mother had her other world.
    Teacher Fei is the main character in this story. He wanted to share his misery and his mother’s misery that is caused by his unfaithful father. Because of the figure of his father, Fei did not mary to a girl.
    Teacher Fei had never cursed at a woman, either in words or in any other form of expression, and he certainly did not want to begin with a young girl.
    The girl who is described from the Fei’s character who red the magazine that contents about the girl’s shared story about his unfaithful father cursed her father and made a blog with title “A Declaration of War on Unfaithful Father” which showed her father story and her demand on her father. Fei wanted to know her father past story of life. He was blogged and found out some biodata of the girl’s father. This part is the complication plot of this story. Fei and the girl in the magazine have the similar misery which is caused by their unfaithful father.
    The second background which presented the life story of the girl’s father who is described from the girl’s blog.
    Teacher Fei shook his head and scribbled on a scrap of paper the man’s name and address and home phone number, as well as the address and number of his work unit, which had all been listed by the girl. A scanned image of his resident’s I.D. was displayed, too. Teacher Fei calculated the man’s age, forty-six, and noted that on the paper. When he went to the message board on the girl’s Web site, Teacher Fei read a few of the most recent posts, left by sympathetic women claiming to have been similarly hurt by unfaithful husbands or absent fathers. “Dearest Child,” one message started, from a woman calling herself “Another Betrayed Wife,” who praised the young girl as an angel of justice and courage. Teacher Fei imagined these women dialling the father’s number at night, or showing up in front of his work unit to brandish cardboard signs covered with words of condemnation. “To all who support this young woman’s mission,” he typed in the box at the bottom of the Web page, “the world will be a better place when one learns to see through to the truth instead of making hasty and unfounded accusations.”
    When Fei wanted to meet with the girl’s father, the girl’s father rejected his coming. But after a while, they went to take a cup of coffee in the restaurant. This part is the climax plot when they had discussed about the girl’s father life.
    The man, who was about to leave some money on the table, tightened his fingers around the bills. Teacher Fei watched the college students take seats by the window, the boy covering the girl’s hands with his own on the table. When the man sat back down, Teacher Fei nodded gratefully. He did not want to look up, for fear that the man would see his moist eyes. “When I was twenty-four, I was accused of falling in love with a girl student,” he said. “Pedophile” had been the word used in the file at the school, the crime insinuated in the conversations taking place behind his back. The girl was ten and a half, an ordinary student, neither excelling among her classmates nor falling behind; one often encountered children like her in teaching, faces that blended into one another, names misrecalled from time to time, but there was something in the girl’s face, a quietness that did not originate from shyness or absent-mindedness, as it usually did in children of her age, that intrigued Teacher Fei. He envisioned her at different ages—fifteen, twenty, thirty—but there was little desire in that imagining other than the desire to understand a face that had moved him as no other face had. “No, don’t ask any questions, just as I won’t ask whether you indeed kept a mistress while being married to your wife. It doesn’t matter what happened between your cousin and you, or my girl student and me. You see, these accusations exist for the sake of those who feel the need to accuse. If it wasn’t your cousin, there would have been another woman to account for your not loving your wife enough, no?”
    We can know the denouement with the last paragraph.Yiyun Li presented the misery from the diction to support the condition, that the reader can imagine the story as fact as the true story, likes “Another Betrayed Wife” or “absent father”. All of plot, character, and seeting which presented in that story had supported the theme of this story “A Man Like Him”.

    Conclusion

    Yiyun Li’s story “A Man Like Him” is the story that tells about the misery of children and wives that is caused by unfaithful father. But, the author gives the story with another way that make this story more interested to read. Yiyun Li gives the character, plot, and setting in different way and it is very excited. The character, plot and setting make the theme visible to analysis.

    References

    Parlindungan, Pardede. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Jakarta

  28. CHARACTERIZATION IN O’CONOR’S
    “THE LAME SHALL ENTER FIRST”
    (Ita Suryani Sitepu)
    1012150042
    Introduction
    As with other works, “The Lame Shall Enter First” by Flanner O’Connor is the work of the author’s imagination. Usually the material from fiction stories is part of the author’s life story processed. Although sometimes part of a novel or short story there is a real story. But the author not posts that to the underlying reality. In the making of fiction in general, the author’s has a specific purpose to be conveyed through their work.
    Considering the fiction is based on the author’s experiences or observations on life. Or a true story, fiction seems more attractive. Sometimes, when reading fiction can makes the readers has felling in the story their read. And then, so many of the themes raised fiction. Which makes the reader does not get bored because there is always presented with new titles and attract readers. So it not surprised if so many people who love fiction.
    But do not be surprised if there are some readers who find it, hard to understand and comprehend fiction. So what is the purpose of the author or the moral values to be conveyed in the story cannot found by the reader.
    This paper is an attempt to help readers understand the story of “The Lame Shall Enter First” by Flannery O’Connor. The writer was very excited with this story, so when read this story the writer is interested to know the background of the author more closely. Born on March 25, 1925, in Savannah, Georgia, Flannery O’Connor is considered one of the greatest short story writers of the 2oth century. She faced some hardships growing up, losing her father as a teenager; he died of systemic lupus erythematosus. Early on, Flannery O’Connor demonstrated her literary talents for school publications. Studying at what is now the University of lowa for a master’s degree, O’Connor’s first story, “The Geranium,” was published in 1946. She had also begun what was to be first novel, Wise Blood, published in 1952. After graduating in 1947, Flannery O’Connor pursued her writing, spending time at several months at Yaddo, a Saratoga Springs, New York artists’ retreat. Her work was informed by her experiences growing up as a Catholic in the South. Religion was a recurring theme in her work, and the main characters of her first and second novels were preachers of sorts. O’Connor was best-known, however, for her short stories, which appeared in several collections, including A Good Man Is Hard to Find and Other Stories (1955) and Everything That Rises Must Converge (1965).
    The discussions in this paper, focused on the aspects of the characterizations. The entire analysis and discussions is based on the contents of stories. This paper is intended as the development of knowledge as well as the writer assignment in literature II class.
    Analysis
    A. Synopsis The Lame Shall Enter First
    This story begins when Sheppard and his son, Norton, are having breakfast. Sheppard tells Norton that he saw Rufus Johnson the day before, trying to eat out of a garbage can. Sheppard is the City Recreational Director, and he has tried to help Rufus at the reformatory where he works as a counselor once a week. He has given Rufus the key to their house with an open invitation. Over breakfast, he tries to impress on Norton how lucky he is, but only upsets his son when it comes up that Norton’s mother has been dead for over a year. Norton vomits up his breakfast and Sheppard tells him to go lie down, extremely disappointed with him.
    When he first met Rufus, he knew there was something special about the boy. Rufus is incredibly smart and has a club which he keeps in a battered old shoe. He met with him every week until he was released from the reformatory. Rufus’s father had died before he was born and his mother was in jail. When he was released from the reformatory, his grandfather got custody of him. But Sheppard hopes he will run away from home and come to stay at his house. But since Rufus live together Sheppard and Norton, Rufus has unfavorable behavior and he does not have a good relationship with Norton.
    After refusing several times that Rufus commit a crime by breaking into people’s homes, policemen arrive at the house again, with Rufus in their custody, and Rufus claims that he wanted to be caught. There is a reporter there, and Rufus tells the reporter that he rather go to jail than live in Sheppard’s house. Sheppard watches the police car drive away with Rufus inside it and tries to console himself that “I did more for him that I did for my own child.” But then he realizes that he has neglected Norton, and runs upstairs to hold his son, deciding to love him and treat him better. However, when he reaches Norton’s room, he finds that Norton has hung himself.
    B. Characterizations Analysis
    In the story the Lame Shall Enter First, consists of 4 figures. Namely: Sheppard, Rufus, Norton, Police and Grandfathers’ Rufus. Seen from the intensity of the role played in the development of the story, the main character in this short story is Sheppard, Rufus and Norton are figures that also took a lot of roles in this story. While the grandfather and the police presented to create a bustling atmosphere in order to keep the story seem more dramatic story. This analyzed in terms of characterization is the main character and the two figures also took a lot of roles in the story.
    1. Sheppard Figure (Norton’s Father)
    Sheppard is kind and humble towards children. This is seen when he first met Rufus. He is the city’s recreation director but volunteers on Saturdays at the reformatory, thinking he can make a difference in the lives of wayward children. And also defended and help Rufus, when the police came to their house and claimed that he was breaking into other people’s homes an atheist, he wants tp pass on his rationalist view of life to his child, and while he hopes to inspire empathy in him, he lacks the empathy to understand his son’s confusion and sadness over the death of his mother. He more cares to Rufus than his son (Norton). And he does not have an understanding of religion, because he felt that his attitude like Jesus. So with his character make him such a fake kindness.
    2. Rufus Figure
    He is intelligent but ultimately evil boy. Rufus was raised by his grandfather and has been poor throughout this life. He has clubfoot, covered by a worn shoe that accentuates the deformity. Rufus is who people do not to say thank you, when Sheppard defend him when the police come to their house, but he still did his crime, plus, when Sheppard bough shoes, but did not want to refuse to wear the shoes. He also very stubborn and likes interfere and make Norton angry or sad.
    “Leave her comb alone! The child said. He stood in the door, pale and breathing heavily as if he were watching sacrilege in a holy place.
    Jhonson put the comb down and picked up the brush and gave his hair a swipe with it.
    “She’s dead,” the child said.
    “I ain’t afraid of dead people’s things.” Jhonson said. He opened the top drawer and slid his hand in…
    3. Norton figure
    He was a poor child, as is so starved for affection and attention from her father. He was so fond of his mother, when Rufus touching her belongings he looks very angry. And also he is always starting at stars, as if looking for his mother. Since Rufus in their home, though her father as more love than her own Rufus. He had refused Rufus arrival to their home. But unfortunately, when his father realized his affection for Rufus wasted, but his father was not able to make amends to his son Norton, which he first saw deceased committed suicide.
    Conclusion
    Overall, the characterizations in the story elements of “The Lame Shall Enter First” used Flannery O’Connor presents the theme: a father should be able to share his love for his child either or to others. His father should have been aware of his position as a father. Were also replaced her mother amid the Norton family. This story is very interesting and the things that made the writer surprised, how religious values are also emphasized in this story.
    Sheppard believes himself to be Christ-like, but because he has no actual faith his is misguided. He compares himself in his son office at the reformatory to a priest in a confessional, but thinks that “his credentials were less dubious than priest; he had been trained for what he was doing,” Rufus also believes that Sheppard sees himself this way, declaring to Norton. Rufus tells the reporter that Sheppard” thinks he’s God.. The devil has him in power”
    In contrast, Rufus declares himself to be controlled by Satan on the very first day he meets Sheppard. However, unlike Sheppard, he actually believes in God and begins to teach Norton about heaven and hell. But instead of identifying himself in terms of faith, he identifies himself by his handicap: his club foot: “Jhonson was as touchy about the foot as if it were a sacred object.” Although Sheppard pays for him to have a special shoe that fixes his gait, he refuses to wear it. He needs to have his physical handicap to maintain his identity and perhaps to believe that he will get into heaven since, as he quotes the Bible, “The Lame Shall Enter First.” Rufus achieves Grace because he believes in Jesus and tries to share the trust of the Bible with Norton. He resents Sheppard for trying to act like Jesus Christ while lacking all faith, and tells him, “Satan has you on his power, not only me. You too.” Sheppard tells him he is too intelligent to believe in the Bible, but Rufus eats a page of it and tells him that he will never eat earthly food again.

    Reference
    O’Connor, Flannery. The Lame Shall Enter First. (In Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006.An Intoduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta:FKIP-UKI)

  29. AN ANALYSIS OF THE THEME OF FRANZ KAFKA’S
    “ IN THE PENAL COLONY”
    (Ribka Nasita Putri – 1112150002- VA)
    Introduction
    Inspite of the fact that fiction is the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers, readers often find it difficult to throughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by readers’ lack of literary analysis. Literary analysis is to consider a piece of literature from your own perspective. Rather than thinking about the author’s intentions, we can develop an argument based on any single term (or combination of terms). Literary analysis is understanding the techniques that make a literary work effective, identifying them in the books we read and writing a brief essay explaining what we’ve identified.
    In this paper will analyze the theme of “ In The Penal Colony”. Theme is the general vision of life or more explicit proposition about human that literature conveys (Parlin Pardede: Intoduction to Study Fiction). A theme may simply be a characteristic view of life that pervades a story. It may, without implying any specific proposition, suggest, for example the human life.
    The theme of a fable is its moral. The theme of a parable is its teaching. The theme of a piece of fiction is its view about life and how people behave. In fiction, the theme is not intended to teach or preach. In fact, it is not presented directly at all. The writer’s task is to communicate on a common ground with the reader. Although the particulars of your experience may be different from the details of the story, the general underlying truths behind the story may be just the connection that both you and the writer are seeking.
    Analysis
    1. Synopsis “In the Penal Colony”
    The Officer said to the Traveler, gazing with a certain admiration at the device, with which he was, of course, thoroughly familiar. It appeared that the Traveler had responded to the invitation of the Commandant only out of politeness, when he had been invited to attend the execution of a soldier condemned for disobeying and insulting his superior. Of course, interest in the execution was not very high, not even in the penal colony itself. At least, here in the small, deep, sandy valley, closed in on all sides by barren slopes, apart from the Officer and the Traveler there were present only the Condemned, a vacantlooking man with a broad mouth and dilapidated hair and face, and the Soldier, who held the heavy chain to which were connected the small chains which bound the Condemned Man by his feet and wrist bones, as well as by his neck, and which were also linked to each other by connecting chains.
    The Condemned Man had an expression of such dog-like resignation that it looked as if one could set him free to roam around the slopes. The apparatus, invented by the former Commandant of the colony, is what the colony’s justice system uses to punish people, in a rather unique way. It “writes” a commandment (in very complicated, illegible script) on the body of the condemned man, the very one he’s supposedly guilty of violating, and it does this by slowly rotating his body and cutting into it repeatedly with lots and lots of needles. The punishment is meant to “enlighten” the prisoner – as the machine works on him, he comes to learn what commandment he violated by feeling it on his body. This prisoner – “the condemned man” – for instance, was reported by his captain for being insubordinate, and without trial or even being questioned, he was put in chains. He’ll have “HONOR THY SUPERIORS” written on his body by the apparatus. The officer finds this form of punishment exquisite.
    The new Commandant does not like the “procedure,” and is hoping the explorer will disapprove of it, too. The traveling is apparently an important guest from a more “enlightened” part of the world, so if he doesn’t like the procedure, the new Commandant will seize the opportunity to take action against the officer. The officer hopes (and appears to believe) that the explorer is in favor of the procedure and will use his influence to defend it and save the legacy of the old Commandant.
    The result of his condemnation of the apparatus is the collapse of the entire system on which the penal colony is based. Hurt and disappointed by the explorer’s stand, the officer frees the prisoner with the ambiguous words “Then the time has come” and takes his place on the Bed of the apparatus himself. What happens is that the inhuman iron monster begins to collapse under the burden of the officer’s self-sacrifice: “the machine was obviously going to pieces.” What is more significant, the officer lying there with the big spike running through his forehead does not show the slightest trace of the transfiguration which every other dying man experienced under the grueling performance of the Harrow. A shortly story, the explorer goes with the other two to visits the teahouse in the colony where who the old Commandant lies buried. His grave is hidden, unceremoniously, under one of the teahouse tables, bearing an inscription that predicts he’ll return to lead his followers to triumph. Everybody in the teahouse just laughs at it. The explorer prepares to leave the colony in haste, getting in a ferry to return to his steamer. The condemned man and the soldier try to follow him, but he keeps them from jumping into his boat.
    2. Theme Identification
    There is no doubt that the main theme is “ System of punishment and justice strongly attached the tradition and religion”. Kafka present this theme through characterization by plot and irony.
    3. Theme Explaination
    The judicial system of this penal colony is based on the idea that, as one character says, “Guilt is never to be doubted.” The accused are never tried nor given an opportunity to defend themselves. Instead, they are simply put to death at the order of the judge in an elaborate and apparently brutal fashion. Ever since the time of the Greek political writer Polybius, human society has been confronted with the complex questions revolving around the apparently perennial alternation between tyranny and anarchy. In this case the punishment in the days when it was still held tightly in accordance with existing political. therefore this story also raised a very strongly tradition.
    In the story, his rule and his justice system are revered with religious zeal by an officer who served under him. In the officer’s eyes, the old Commandant becomes a god-figure, who brought perfect Justice to the penal colony and who deserves its continued reverence and submission. Much of the old Commandant’s system does indeed have strong resonances with religion. The religious emphasized that the story shows us life sebgai true nature and the suffering. Engine still executes people (up to a mess), but the motivation is gone and imposed moral code that lose their power when people lose confidence in the deity who had instituted them.
    The theme interpreted through view point of a comandant ,the traveling, the officer, soldier and the commened man with the system of punishment. As a conclusion, I think that the theme based of system of punishment and justice strongly attached the tradition and religion.

    Conclusion

    In short, this story gives the reader in many ways, the reader and the explorer share a similar position in this story: the position of watching the entire bloody spectacle unfold, and of doing so with (it’s presumed) a similar set of “humane,” “just,” “modern” eyes. Why should we expect that the explorer knows what to make of what he’s experienced any more than we do? Perhaps the safest way of explaining why he leaves is because he’s overwhelmed and horribly troubled by what he’s seen, in large part because he doesn’t know how to understand it. Just like we don’t. All we can say is that the ending is overwhelming. So the main theme of this story is to be strong and never give up hope. There’s always ways to overcome every problem we face, no matter how hard it is. So, the theme is “ System of punishment and justice strongly attached the tradition and religion”

    References
    http://www.shmoop.com/penal-colony/themes/html.
    Parlindungan, Pardede. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Jakarta

    1. This is my analysis Sir. sorry I write 2, but the one without conclusion and this is with conclusion. Thanks

  30. AN ANALYSIS OF THE THEME OF FRANZ KAFKA’S
    “ IN THE PENAL COLONY”
    (Ribka Nasita Putri – 1112150002- VA)

    Introduction
    Inspite of the fact that fiction is the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers, readers often find it difficult to throughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by readers’ lack of literary analysis. Literary analysis is to consider a piece of literature from your own perspective. Rather than thinking about the author’s intentions, we can develop an argument based on any single term (or combination of terms). Literary analysis is understanding the techniques that make a literary work effective, identifying them in the books we read and writing a brief essay explaining what we’ve identified.
    In this paper will analyze the theme of “ In The Penal Colony”. Theme is the general vision of life or more explicit proposition about human that literature conveys (Parlin Pardede: Intoduction to Study Fiction). A theme may simply be a characteristic view of life that pervades a story. It may, without implying any specific proposition, suggest, for example the human life.
    The theme of a fable is its moral. The theme of a parable is its teaching. The theme of a piece of fiction is its view about life and how people behave. In fiction, the theme is not intended to teach or preach. In fact, it is not presented directly at all. The writer’s task is to communicate on a common ground with the reader. Although the particulars of your experience may be different from the details of the story, the general underlying truths behind the story may be just the connection that both you and the writer are seeking.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis “In the Penal Colony”

    The Officer said to the Traveler, gazing with a certain admiration at the device, with which he was, of course, thoroughly familiar. It appeared that the Traveler had responded to the invitation of the Commandant only out of politeness, when he had been invited to attend the execution of a soldier condemned for disobeying and insulting his superior. Of course, interest in the execution was not very high, not even in the penal colony itself. At least, here in the small, deep, sandy valley, closed in on all sides by barren slopes, apart from the Officer and the Traveler there were present only the Condemned, a vacantlooking man with a broad mouth and dilapidated hair and face, and the Soldier, who held the heavy chain to which were connected the small chains which bound the Condemned Man by his feet and wrist bones, as well as by his neck, and which were also linked to each other by connecting chains.
    The Condemned Man had an expression of such dog-like resignation that it looked as if one could set him free to roam around the slopes. The apparatus, invented by the former Commandant of the colony, is what the colony’s justice system uses to punish people, in a rather unique way. It “writes” a commandment (in very complicated, illegible script) on the body of the condemned man, the very one he’s supposedly guilty of violating, and it does this by slowly rotating his body and cutting into it repeatedly with lots and lots of needles. The punishment is meant to “enlighten” the prisoner – as the machine works on him, he comes to learn what commandment he violated by feeling it on his body. This prisoner – “the condemned man” – for instance, was reported by his captain for being insubordinate, and without trial or even being questioned, he was put in chains. He’ll have “HONOR THY SUPERIORS” written on his body by the apparatus. The officer finds this form of punishment exquisite.
    The new Commandant does not like the “procedure,” and is hoping the explorer will disapprove of it, too. The traveling is apparently an important guest from a more “enlightened” part of the world, so if he doesn’t like the procedure, the new Commandant will seize the opportunity to take action against the officer. The officer hopes (and appears to believe) that the explorer is in favor of the procedure and will use his influence to defend it and save the legacy of the old Commandant.
    The result of his condemnation of the apparatus is the collapse of the entire system on which the penal colony is based. Hurt and disappointed by the explorer’s stand, the officer frees the prisoner with the ambiguous words “Then the time has come” and takes his place on the Bed of the apparatus himself. What happens is that the inhuman iron monster begins to collapse under the burden of the officer’s self-sacrifice: “the machine was obviously going to pieces.” What is more significant, the officer lying there with the big spike running through his forehead does not show the slightest trace of the transfiguration which every other dying man experienced under the grueling performance of the Harrow. A shortly story, the explorer goes with the other two to visits the teahouse in the colony where who the old Commandant lies buried. His grave is hidden, unceremoniously, under one of the teahouse tables, bearing an inscription that predicts he’ll return to lead his followers to triumph. Everybody in the teahouse just laughs at it. The explorer prepares to leave the colony in haste, getting in a ferry to return to his steamer. The condemned man and the soldier try to follow him, but he keeps them from jumping into his boat.
    2. Theme Identification

    There is no doubt that the main theme is “ System of punishment and justice strongly attached the tradition and religion”. Kafka present this theme through characterization by plot and irony.

    3. Theme Explaination

    The judicial system of this penal colony is based on the idea that, as one character says, “Guilt is never to be doubted.” The accused are never tried nor given an opportunity to defend themselves. Instead, they are simply put to death at the order of the judge in an elaborate and apparently brutal fashion. Ever since the time of the Greek political writer Polybius, human society has been confronted with the complex questions revolving around the apparently perennial alternation between tyranny and anarchy. In this case the punishment in the days when it was still held tightly in accordance with existing political. therefore this story also raised a very strongly tradition.
    In the story, his rule and his justice system are revered with religious zeal by an officer who served under him. In the officer’s eyes, the old Commandant becomes a god-figure, who brought perfect Justice to the penal colony and who deserves its continued reverence and submission. Much of the old Commandant’s system does indeed have strong resonances with religion. The religious emphasized that the story shows us life sebgai true nature and the suffering. Engine still executes people (up to a mess), but the motivation is gone and imposed moral code that lose their power when people lose confidence in the deity who had instituted them.
    The theme interpreted through view point of a comandant ,the traveling, the officer, soldier and the commened man with the system of punishment. As a conclusion, I think that the theme based of system of punishment and justice strongly attached the tradition and religion.

    References

    http://www.shmoop.com/penal-colony/themes/html.

    Parlindungan, Pardede. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Jakarta

  31. The Use of Force
    William Carlos Williams

    A. INTRODUCTION
    “The Use of Force” is a short story by the American author William Carlos Williams first published 1938.
    The story is written without the use of quotation marks, and the dialogue is not distinguished from the narrator’s comments. The story is rendered from the subjective point of view of the doctor, and explores his subdued enjoyment of forcefully subduing the stubborn child in an attempt to acquire the throat sample. The overall theme of the story revolves around power and submission and the doctor’s unnerved feeling following the forceful encounter.

    B. Analysis
    1. Synopsis “The Use of Force”
    The story is narrated in first person by a doctor, who is answering a house visit to see a sick girl. Fearing that she may have diphtheria, the doctor decides to check her throat. However, she refuses to open her mouth and the doctor uses force to restrain her and examine her throat with a spoon, which makes the girl very mad. The doctor finds that, against her own self-interest, the girl has hidden the symptoms of diphtheria from her parents and the doctor.

    2. Setting Analysis
    Even though some authors may not state directly when or where the story took place, there would always be some words or phrases that would give us a hint about the setting. We just have to read between the contexts. In the short story of William Carlos Williams, entitled “The Use of Force”, the place where the story happened was clearly stated. “They were new patients for me, all I had was the name, Olson” (Williams, 1963). Williams (1963) posited that the child was fully dresses and sitting on her father’s lap near the kitchen table. It was on the Olson’s house, specifically in their kitchen. But the time when it happened wasn’t so clear.
    William Carlos Williams takes a great care in creating a setting for the story because this focus is not in the setting, this story only tell a few movements by the character. He gives the reader a sense of comfort and stability from the very beginning. It begins when the doctor arrived at his patient house. It describe that he did not a doctor who sit behind her sit and open her own clinic or the doctor who works at the hospital. It shows that he is a called-doctor or doctor that you called when you get ill.
    The writer clearly said that the patient stayed in the kitchen, sitting on her father’s lap near the kitchen table and his patient do not move anywhere so that the setting of time is stay in the kitchen. The doctor visited his patient on Sunday that we know from Sunday papers there. The end of story also happened in the kitchen. But the writer did not show setting of time there, example: Night, snow, summer and etc.

    C. Conclusion
    The short story “The Use of Force” gives the reader a sense of strained that happened in the kitchen. He arrived to his patient’s house, met her mother and then went to the kitchen to meet her. She who has trouble on her throat or we called diphtheria. Then the story not moving anywhere and did not explain anytime. It is because William Carlos Williams want to be more focus on the problem and on the character in the story.
    D. Reference
    Cornell University Library PSEC Documentation Committee. November (2002).
    Revised April (2011). Retrieved November 17, 2013 from
    http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/apa
    Pardede, P. (2013). Retrieved November 17, 2013 from
    https://parlindunganpardede.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/apa-referencing-style/
    Williams W.C. (1963). Retrieved October 29, 2013 from
    http://www.classicshorts.com/stories/force.html

    Silva Hasianti Manalu
    1012150017

  32. Good afternoon sir
    this is the revision for my last assignment
    Thank You sir GBU 🙂

    YULIA LESTARI TARIHORAN
    111 121 500 41
    FKIP BS-B

    A PLOT ANALYSIS OF
    YIYUN LI “A MAN LIKE HIM”

    Introduction
    Fiction is the literary work based on the imagination and not necessarily on fact, which is consist of theme, chararters, plot and setting. Compared to other types of literary work, fiction is one of the literary work is closest with human life. It is because in fiction the writer explains the story involving the theme, character, plot and setting. So that the reader can go deep into the story as though it is real.
    Yet the readers often get the difficulties in understanding the story because of their lack literary analysis competence. Therefore it is useful to make the analysis of literature. because by analyzing the literary we can know what was the author trying to communicate and how did she/he do it clerly. Remember that the literary analysis is to consider a piece of literature from our own persepective. So that there is no true/false in analyzing the literary because everyone has own perspective and interpretation.
    This analysis is help the reader to appreciate ”A Man Like Him”, a short story by Yiyun Li. The short story is intriguing and interesting to analyzing because it dramatize the unfaithful husband and bad father which is often occured in life.
    The paper explains the plot of the story. Disscussion are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of A Man Like Him
    In this story, Teacher Fei , a sixty four years old retired art teacher lives and looks after his mother who is in her nineties. He is not married the reason for which is not told, at least not in the beginning. In the course of the story we know that he is adopted by his mother.
    His mother’s health is failing, so he spends a lot of time taking care of her.
    Whenever Teacher Fei gets the chance to get out and away from his mother, he goes to a local cafe to visit chat rooms and read articles. He comes across an article about a girl who believed her father has cheated on her mother.
    The father and mother have separated and the girl is seeking revenge on her father and suing him. Because of his extraordinary hate, she said there were three things she would do. Firts, she would sue his father and put him in prison. If that failed, she would find a way to let the whole world know his crme. And if that didn’t make his to her mother she would come with rat poison.

    Teacher Fei feels defensive for the father and seeks him out. He goes to his work and begs him to go to a nearby cafe to talk. We find out a lot about Teacher Fei during their discussion. (I won’t give away spoilers here). Teacher Fei encourages the father’s girl to fight back.

    2. Types of Plot
    A man like him is written by Yiyun Li. It is employing a chronological plot. The event from the beginning until the end of the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place. The teacher’s Fei habbit that is going to a local internet cafe to visit chat rooms and read articles and background of teacher Fei’s step parents (the exposition) is told in the beginning of the story.

    3. Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot of A Man like Him has a regular structure so that it can be divided into four stage : exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The first 20 paragraph of the story are employed as an exposition. These paragraphs introduces the readers with the place and time setting and the background family of the major character and his habit in leisure time. Teacher Fei has habit to read the article and follow the blog which called A Declaration of War on Unfaithful Husbands was made by the daughter who felt her father cheated on her mother.

    “Teacher’s Fei father had been the oldest and poorest of his mother’s suitors.” (p.16)
    “Unable to became pregnant, she had adopted a boy – Tacher Fei” (p.17)
    “He went to a nearby Internet cafe.” (p.7)

    The conflict is direcrly proceeded with the first complication, i.e. Teacher Fei came to the girl’s father institute. “It was a few minutes after five when Teacher Fei arrived at the Institute, betting that the girl’s father wan not the type to leave work early, since there would be little reason for him to hurry home.” (p.33). Other complication, such as when Teacher Fei said that the girl’s father should sue his daughter because of her effort to imprison her father.
    “I think you should sue your daughter,” Teacher Fei said. (p.40) .
    And also when the girl’s father flinched and tried to leave the Teacher’s Fei and went home.
    “I am not the kind of man you think I am,” he said. (p.42)
    “Who is waiting at home?” Teacher Fei asked, and the man, taken aback, stood up and said he really needed to leave. (p.45)

    The climax is reached when the girl’s father admited his mistake in the past that when he was twenty-four he was falling in love with a girl student, whereas he had married and had children in that time. “When I was twenty-four, I was accused of falling in love with a girl student, “he said. (p.46).

    Soon after the climax, Yiyun Li presents the resolution, When they shook hands as they parted. Teacher Fei thought that nothing would be changed by their brief meeting. Teacher Fei just feel that he needed to do something for the girl’s father that is to sue his daughter because of her effort to imprison him. The story of the girl’s father remind him about his father. Therefore he feel need to do something for him by their brief meeting.

    “just as his mother had outlived his fathe, their beauty and wisdom the saving grace for a man like him, a man like his father”. (p.55)

    Although A Man like Him is written using a chronological plotit is far from boring. He tells the event based on the chronology in order to make the readers have curiosity to finish reading the story.

    “Not that he could offer any legal help, Teacher Fei explained. He had been an art teacher in an elementary school before his retirement. He was in no position to do anything to hurt the girl’s father, nor did he have the power to help him in his situation. It was only that he had followed his daughter’s story in the media.” (p.41)

    The second reason why the use of the chronological plot is to make the story easy to understood by the readers. If the story arranged based on the order of the time they take place, it would make the readers have curiosity which will be happend in the next events.

    “One should never hope for the unseeing to see the truth, “ Teacher Fei said now. “I could’ve denied all the accusations, but what difference would it have mad? “
    “So there was no…. proof of any kind ?” the man said, looking interested for the first time.
    “Nothing to put me in jail for,” Teacher Fei said.
    “And someone just reported you?”
    “We can’t blame a young girl’s imagination, can we?” Teacher Fei said. (p.49)

    4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    Besides her success in making a simple chronological plot interesting, another achivement of Yiyun Li in writting A Man like Him is her ability to present the theme troghh plot. The theme of the story is “ A pain of the daughter and the wife because of the unfaithful husband and bad father.” Teacher Fei had always suspected that his mother had agreed to see his father cheated with the scolar. This is very painful for Teacher’s Fei mother but she didn’t hate him. In the other hand and with the same case a daughter has extraordinary hate to her father because of his unfaithfulness towards her mother and she also has plan of revenge. Therefore, Teacher Fei feel that he needed to do something for the girl’s father, that is to sue his daughter because of her effort to imprison him.

    “The girl was nineteen, Teacher Fei learned from the article. Her parents had divorced three years earlier, and she suspected that anothebwoman, a second cousin of her father’s , had seduced him. On her 18th birthday, the first permitted by law, the daughter had filed a lawsuit againts him. As she explained to the reporter, he was a member of Communist Party, and he should be punished for abandoning his family, and for the immoral act of taking misstress in the first place. When the effort to imprison her father failed, the girl started a blog and called it A Declaration of War on Unfaithful Husbands.” (p.2)

    The story of the girl’s father remind him about his father. Therefore he feel need to do something for him by their brief meeting. A Man like him, A man like his father. But the difference he didn’t hate his father eventhough is was painful for him and for his mother.

    Counclusion
    Yiyun Li has susseced in using the chronological plot in the short story of “A Man like Him”, it’s interesting and intriguing the readers to finish reading the story. Eventhough she uses chronological plot, the story is not boring. She uses the good arrangement of every events which is made the readers easy to understand the story. In addition. Yiyun Li also succeded involve the interesting plot to effective present the main theme of the story.

    References :
    “A Man like Him” (2008). Retrived November 17, 2013 it’s takenfrom http://www.newyorker.com/fiction/features/2008/05/12/080512fi_fiction_li
    Pardede Parlindungan. 2006. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI.

  33. AN ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN THEME OF AARON HELLEM’S
    ” Far from the eyes of the sun”

    By Erfina Theodalinda (1012150006)

    A. Introduction

    When we are talking about literature, one of the most important things we need to discuss is the “Theme” of the text. What exactly is theme? The Theme refers to the central idea or underlying message of the text. The Theme is rarely stated in the text –instead, the reader must usually consider the plot, characters, and setting in order to infer the theme. The theme of a fable is its moral. The theme of a parable is its teaching. The theme of a piece of fiction is its view about life and how people behave.
    In fiction, the theme is not intended to teach or preach. In fact, it is not presented directly at all. We extract it from the characters, action, and setting that make up the story. In other words, we must figure out the theme ourselves. Theme is often confused with other literary elements such as Plot or Topic. However, the Theme of a piece of literature is a message about people, life, and the world we live in that the author wants the reader to understand. The Topic, on the other hand, is the main idea or gist of the story.
    This paper deals with theme of Far from the eyes of the sun. Discussions are focused on the identification of the theme and the way how Hellem presents it. This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate short story in general and the Far from the eyes of the sun by Hellem in particular. The analysis is carried out by using the structural approach and is based on the transcendental phenomenology, i.e. a study aimed to analyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.

    B. Analysis

    1. Synopsis

    Far from the eyes off the sun is a story by Aaron Hellem which tell about the life of three men who trapped in a cabin which far away for the rest of civilization. The weather was blizzard-like and they were cooking a dog to keep from starving. They drank whiskey and dirty water from the creek. The night was coming and they were waiting for the dog to cook. Mince was in charge to cook the dog. He tried to cook well the dog because he was afraid the two other men ask him to sleep outside again. Len had always known he was going to die. Lately, he’d wondered if it had already happened, if the three men had somehow contracted the brucellosis that killed off the cattle and this was their purgatory, sitting around waiting for the dog to roast. Big Joe was not afraid of anything and was big enough to only be stopped by a bullet. He was sad though to think about dying without ever touching a woman again; to die amongst dogs with no woman to comfort him, to beckon him into the back bedroom with a sultry finger and an unbuttoned blouse; to die alone with two other men, watching each other from across the table, when the dog and the whiskey were all done.
    Len went to the creek to fetch water to the creek after using the water Big Joe fetched to wash his blood. Len’s shadow moved fast and low to the ground, his arm pulled down with the weight of the pail. There were shadows behind his, smaller horizontal shadows pursuing. Len emerged from the darkness, bent and moving fast across the terrain, up the path and to the porch. He hurried inside, and told Big Joe to shut the door. The three men could hear the wolves circling around the house. Wolves knew hunger better and longer than the three men ever had to. One of the wolves stood a few feet from the porch and howled a haunted caterwaul, wailing like a dead thing trapped between worlds. All three men were quiet as they strained to listen for the wolves, trying to hear them on the porch, at the door.

    2. Theme Identification

    After reading Far from the eyes of the sun thoroughly for several times, there is no doubt that the main theme is “Be strong and do not give up hope.” The theme is presented through plot and character.

    3. Theme Presentation

    The dog was stinking to all high heaven, and all the way back down to hell. Then, kitchen table, which is in another town, had been a church pew. Like the previous phrase, another strange posturing of heaven and hell at once, erring on the side of hell. The nightmare just gets worse. Three men are trapped in a cabin at side of mountain. The weather is blizzard-like and they are cooking a dog to keep from starving. They drank whiskey and contaminated water. Each man lived in his own personal hell, waiting what seemed an inevitable death.
    Big Joe is too strong for Len and Mince to kill without a bullet. Joe lamented the loss of his cattle, remembering their mass death. He seemed to be the only one of the three men who can still think outside their current surroundings, remembering colors of trees and lobster boats, pictures from a better life. He was sad though to think about dying without ever touching a woman again. To die amongst dogs with no woman to comfort him, to beckon him into the back bedroom with a sultry finger and an unbuttoned blouse. To die alone with two other men, watching each other from across the table, when the dog and the whiskey were all done. He reminisces about various sexual activities of the past and contemplates the possibility of one more, here in a doomed and freezing hell.
    Len seemed to have given up hope and was simply waiting, seeing a parallel between their waiting for the food to cook while waiting for their lives to end. He even wondered if they were dead if the three men had somehow contracted the brucellosis that killed off the cattle and this was their purgatory, sitting around waiting for the dog to roast. He was not religious, but thought it must be a purgatory: the house, the dog, and the wolves. He was reluctant when he was asked to fetch more water, but he finally went to the creek because he was afraid of Big Joe. He was skillful with a knife, but he knew the only thing that could stop Big Joe was a bullet, and he didn’t have a bullet or a gun to propel one.
    Mince’s hell seemed more horrifying than the others. He didn’t like the two other men talking about dying at the cabin in front of him. He preferred they spoke of it in hushed whispers when he was asleep. He knew that when the dog was gone, he’d be the first to get gutted and skinned. The lowest in pecking order, he had already been made to sleep outside and had heard the other two talking of his demise after the dog meat was gone. He only hoped they wouldn’t make him suffer. He envisioned terrible delusions of eyes squeezed shut while Big Joe descended on him from behind. He knew that they were all men of morals, but a place like that could change a man. Mince’s fear seemed the purest: His predators were all and everywhere.

    C. Conclusion

    In short, this story gives the reader a hands-on feeling of impending doom. The sight and smell of the baking dog, the taste of tainted water and the feel of freezing wind are all intensified as the sounds of the wolves outside draw closer. The story’s conclusion is anything, but the three men continue to wait. So the main theme of this story is to be strong and never give up hope. There’s always ways to overcome every problem we face, no matter how hard it is.

    Reference

    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: Universitas Kristen Indonesia.

  34. Name: Rosalina Silalahi (1112150026)
    Subject: Mid term test Literature 2
    FKIP BS-A

    analysis the setting of “FAR FROM THE SUN”

    Introduction

    A short story is fictional work of prose that is shorter in length than a novel. Edgar Allan Poe, in his essay “The Philosophy of Composition,” said that a short story should be read in one sitting, anywhere from a half hour to two hours. In contemporary fiction, a short story can range from 1,000 to 20,000 words. Because of the shorter length, a short story usually focuses on one plot, one main character (with a few additional minor characters), and one central theme, whereas a novel can tackle multiple plots and themes, with a variety of prominent characters.
    The setting of a short story is the time and place in which the story will take place. In some short stories the setting will be an important part of the story. In other stories, the setting will have no impact on the storyline at all. The mood of the story, the geographical location of the story, the weather conditions, and the social atmosphere are all aspects of the story to consider when thinking of a setting for a short story. Once you have the setting of your story figured out, you can then begin working on the plot of the story.
    Short stories also lend themselves more to experimentation — that is, using uncommon prose styles or literary devices to tell the story. Such uncommon styles or devices might get tedious, and downright annoying, in a novel, but they may work well in a short story. In this paper I’m going to analyze setting “From the Eyes of the Sun”. I’m focusing the settings only ) place – geographical location is in mountain with the weather conditions winter and cold. Far From the Sun also describe the condition in storm and famine everywhere. In this short story “Far from the Sun” there are three man Len, Mince, and Big Joe lost in the mountain contaminated. In the middle of that condition they were try to find way escape from this situation. They tried to survive which was eating the dog/ wolf. When there chose to eat the dog this is how the story begin because the herd of the dog want to eat them. Far from the Sun is the interesting story because there are many conflict. Conflict between the character each other and conflict between the character and nature. But I want to focus only setting in this paper.

    Analyze
    The most important reason for setting is to create a backdrop for the story–provide the story with a particular time and place. If the writer describes the setting with vivid descriptions and imagery, the writer can create a sense of believability in the mind of the reader. Sometimes, setting is the conflict of the story. The setting stresses the tension between the main character and the setting, usually nature. For instance, in Far From the Sun, the conflict is between the three man : Len, Mince, and Big Joe in weather the cold and snow of the winter. They try to survive from the famine. They must be facing the wolves. As if, there is no escape from the middle of the forest. Without whether and mountain setting there is no story. Because whether and forest is begun the conflicts.
    Sometimes, the writer describes a particular setting to create an atmosphere or mood. Such as Far From the Sun you will see the writer describe about anxious
    “The dog was in the oven because there weren’t any more hogs to be had and the cattle were all dead. It is happened that side of the mountains sometimes that a whole herd could catch something and all go at once. The herd had migrated to the river and died there. For days crows descended on them in a black wave of rippling claws and bloody beaks. They moved over and on top of the cows’ corpses in the strange animation of insect movement. It had made Mince throw up to see it. Big Joe cried. It was his herd and they had disappointed him in the worst way by dying inexplicably and all at once”.
    In short story, a writer can create a particular mood/atmosphere to help the reader feel the psychological state of the main character.
    Sometimes, the setting can act as a motive, driving the main character’s actions. In Far From the Sun Big Joe, Len, Mince, a story about how to escape from the difficult situation with the condition famine. They were also surrounded with the wolves. I can feel anxious, hopeless, no way out. As like life sometimes I feel an anxious like them hopeless when I was in trouble. the survive “mountain” is the motive for the story that is told by the main character. He tells a tale about a planned trip to Alaska, but the trip never occurs. The story begins with: when they caught dog for dinner “ the DOG WAS IN THE OVEN WITH ITS FUR STILL ON. It was stinking to all high heaven, and all the way back down to hell”. Finally the climax of the conflict is when the wolves is surrounded them in the front of house. They were very surrender because they did not have any weapon and none dare to face the wolves.
    “ It’s no use watching them, Len said to Mince, and drank long and pensive. Mince was looking for the flashes of faint white and gray circling in the night. It won’t slow them down, Len said. Or stop them at all. Mince came back to the table.
    Sat down and poured himself a tall one, too, like the other two men. All three men were quiet as they strained to listen for the wolves, trying to hear them on the porch, at the door.”

    Conclusion
    The conclusion is sometimes we can feel like the main character in that short story but anything happened in our life we have to survive, stronger and not hopeless.
    In the end of the story, they are only surrender with they destiny “Sat down and poured himself a tall one, too, like the other two men. All three men were quiet as they strained to listen for the wolves, trying to hear them on the porch, at the door”. Sometimes we are in this condition trapped in this condition and we want to give up but when we are depend in God and still fighting with the problem we will be the winner.
    “And, like an eye being born, covered by its lids, a pure mind
    grows under the rinds of stones.” — Gerard de Nerval

    References
    http://www.noojournal.com/view.php?mode=1&issue=six&id=111
    (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/cliffsnotes/literature/what-is-a-definition-of-short-story).
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Far_from_the_Sun

  35. hello sir,
    Sorry i’m late post this analysis

    Mikha Putri Sion (1012150054)

    THE LOTTERY
    by Shirley Jackson
    I . INTRODUCTION
    Fiction is the form of any work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary and theoretical—that is, invented by the author. Although fiction describes a major branch of literary work, it may also refer to theatrical, cinematic, or musical work. Fiction contrasts with non-fiction, which deals exclusively with factual (or, at least, assumed factual) events, descriptions, observations, etc. (e.g., biographies, histories). “The Lottery” is considered one of the most haunting and shocking short stories of modern American fiction and is one of the most frequently anthologized. The story takes place on a June morning in the town square of a small village. Amidst laughter and gossip, families draw slips of paper from a ballot box until housewife Tessie Hutchinson receives a slip with a black mark on it. The villagers then stone her to death as a ritual sacrifice despite her protests about the unfairness of the drawing. The impact of this unexpected ending is intensified by Shirley Jackson’s detached narrative style, the civility with which the cruelty is carried out by the villagers, and the serene setting in which the story takes place. After publishing the story, The New Yorker received hundreds of letters and telephone calls from readers expressing disgust, consternation, and curiosity, and Jackson herself received letters concerning ”The Lottery” until the time of her death. Most critics view the story as a modern-day parable or fable which addresses a variety of themes, including the dark side of human nature, the subjugation of women, the danger of ritualized behavior, and the potential for cruelty when the individual submits to the tyranny of the status quo.

    II . ANALYSIS
    Synopsis of The Lottery
    “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson opens on what can be described as an idyllic scene in a small village with green grass, budding flowers, and polite small town folks gathering in the town square. From this early point in the plot of “The Lottery” it would seem to the uninformed reader that we are about to encounter a happy story, perhaps about someone about to win some great prize. There are clues, also called foreshadowing, contained in this early part of “The Lottery” that stain the image of small town perfection we’re being asked to envision. For instance, we notice that there is a careful gathering of stones into a pile that the adult men, who are polite but we begin to notice, a bit restrained, wish to keep their distance from. It is clear from this point in the plot of “The Lottery” that the stones are the markers of something that reminds of them of a negative experience or event.
    Everyone is milling about in this “typical” small town when the lottery finally begins. According to the narrator of “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson, “The lottery was conducted—as were the square dances, the teenage club, the Halloween program—by Mr. Summers, who had time and energy to devote to civic activities”. This is one of the important quotes from “The Lottery” because it shows that this lottery is considered a civic or community activity by the people of the town, just as a dance or other club event might be. This fact becomes more chilling as the reader realizes what the lottery really is.
    To aid in the conducting of the lottery, the postmaster brings out a stool and an old black wooden box that is so aged that it is splintered and faded. The narrator tells us that the original box was itself also incredibly old, saying “the black box now resting on the stool had been put into use even before Old Man Warner, the oldest man in town, was born which indicates that the lottery has been going on for a very, very long time. Other clues throughout the next couple of pages show too that it is a long-standing tradition that dates back to the first settlers of the village. The lottery even has a bunch of rituals and traditions associated with it, including a formal swearing-in of the official. Despite the level of ritual and tradition with the lottery, the box itself never stays in the same place every year but is moved around, often carelessly, sent to barns and sometimes a shelf in the grocery store.
    The lottery begins with a great amount of ceremony and it is clear that the traditions and rituals surrounding the lottery are so old that only a few remember what things used to be like. The narrator tells us that “There was the proper swearing-in of Mr. Summers by the post-master as the official of the lottery at one time, some people remembered, there had been a recital of some sort, performed by the official of the lottery, a perfunctory, tuneless chant that had been rattled off duly each year”. There is also a great amount of detail given about heads of households and family members and customs about which genders draw for which in the absence of one or another. At this point in the plot of “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson, the description of the rituals ends and we are brought back to the present as a woman named Mrs. Hutchinson comes running in, late because she forgot the date. The crowd laughs politely—in fact, everyone is always softly, politely smiling or laughing, that is, until the formal process of drawing names begins.
    Types of plot
    The Lottery is a short story by Shirley Jackson. It was published in the issue of The New Yorker on June 26, 1948. Many people unsubscribed after it was included. Also, as a result, Shirley Jackson received a lot of hate mail. Today, it is regarded as one of the most famous short stories in the history of American literature. It has been taught in schools for decades. In 1951, a radio version was broadcasted with an expanded plot.

    Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot of The Lottery has a regular structure so that it can be nearly divided into four stages: exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The conflict is this small town has a very strange tradition called the lottery. The lottery occurs once a year and one family has pulled the slip of paper no one wants, the slip with the black dot. The Hutchinson family is now going to lose a family member because they have won the lottery. Tessie Hutchinson is the wife of this family and has gotten that cursed slip of paper. Now, the whole town is going to stone her to death while she cries and complains that her family getting the black dot was unfair.
    This complication is each member of the Hutchinson family nervously draws from the box. Things are starting to get fishy. Clearly, winning the lottery does not entail a trip to Hawaii. The plot thickens as we grow closer to discovering who wins the lottery.
    This climax is we’ve finally reached the climactic moment of the story, when we find out who has won this famous lottery – but we’re still left with several mysteries. What exactly is the prize, and why does Tess seem so unhappy about being selected to receive it?
    This resolution are :
    Ending-The story ends by Tessie being surrounded by all of the towns people ,who are holding stones and starting to throw them.
    Conflict resolved- The conflict is resolved by Tessie Hutchinson getting the black dot and dying.
    How is the main character changed- Mr. Summers is changed by choosing another innocent person from his black box and having her killed by her own family and friends.
    How are others changed-The Hutchinson family is changed because Bill loses his wife and their kids lose their mother.

    The Use of Plot to Present the Theme

    This story is that the message of the story teaches about life, and the reality of life. The ending of the story is quite unfair since Tessie is chosen by a complete random drawing to get stoned, and it shows the position of many scapegoats today. Corporations that fail most always find one person to blame for the entire failure of the company. It shows that in the future, blaming people without any basis should not be done, after seeing how many people today are being targeted.

    Conclusion

    Tessie is chosen as the sacrifice at the end of the story. At the beginning, she jokes about the lottery and carries on like all the other people in the town. However, when her family (and finally, her own name) is chosen, her lighthearted nature about this lottery sudden becomes very serious. It is interesting to note that one’s sense of justice is not active until one becomes the victim of injustice himself/herself.

    As she is being stoned, Tessie yells “It isn’t fair” – this is a clear example of dramatic irony.
    Peter Kosenko provides a Marxist interpretation of “The Lottery”, saying that the story is a critique of a capitalist society:

    “The actual theme of the short story is that man creates philosophical existences that he is unable to fulfill … While it is obvious that Tessie believes it was not fair that she was chosen, Jackson is also trying to express that human nature is unfair. It is in human nature to kill and that is unfair.”

    Reference
    Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia
    “The Lottery”. (2013, November 7). Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://sites.middlebury.edu/individualandthesociety/files/2010/09/jackson_lottery.pdf

  36. Happy Sunday Mr. Pardede. My name is Kristin Manullang. My SIN is 1012150035. Here is my Mid-Term Short Analysis. Hopefully it will make my score better 🙂 Thank you sir 🙂

    A CHARACTER ANALYSIS OF KATHERINE MANSFIELD “THE FLY“

    Introduction

    Fiction is the form of any work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary and theoretical—that is, invented by the author. It is also the class of literature comprising works of imaginative narration, especially in prose form. Although fiction describes a major branch of literary work, it may also refer to theatrical, cinematic, or musical work. Albemalre (2008, p. 1) confirmed that “Everything is a realistic fiction story could conceivably happen to real people living in today’s natural physical world.” Fiction contrasts with non-fiction, which deals exclusively with factual (or, at least, assumed factual) events, descriptions, observations, etc.

    The Fly is an interesting short story. That’s why the present writer is going to analyze the short story. The writer of The Fly is Katherine Mansfield. She was a prominent modernist writer of short fiction who was born and brought up in colonial New Zealand.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and “The Fly” a short story by Katherine Mansfield (1922) in particular. This short story is interesting to analyze. This paper deals with the characterization of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the characterization and the use if characterization to present theme. This paper is served as a midterm test of Literature II (Prose) subject of English Teaching Study Program at Christian University of Indonesia.

    Analysis

    1. Synopsis of The fly

    “The Fly” is a 1922 short story written by Katherine Mansfield. The text was first published in The Nation & Athenaeum on 18 March 1922 and it later appeared in The Dove’s Nest and Other Stories. The story begins with a retired man, old Mr. Woodifield, making his weekly visit to the office where he worked before suffering a stroke. He is an old and infirm man. Woodifield has made a habit of returning to visit his old boss on Tuesday afternoons—the only day of the week his wife and girls allow him out of the house. The boss, five years older, is stout and fit, a stark contrast to his enfeebled former employee. He is a protagonist character of this short story. The boss feels sorry for the old man, thinking he is obviously “on his last pins.” He encourages Woodifield to drink some of his excellent whisky to restore his memory, even if it is against doctor’s orders. As they enjoy their drinks, Woodifield suddenly remembers what he had meant to tell the boss. His daughters had recently been in Belgium where they visited their brother Reggie’s gravesite.
    The boss notices a fly has fallen into his inkpot, struggling to get free. The boss lifts the fly out of the inkpot with his pen and shakes it on some blotting paper, then watches as it begins to clean itself. The boss imagines that the fly must be joyful knowing it has narrowly escaped death. The boss then has an idea, and plunges his pen back into the pot and drops a blot of ink on the fly. The fly seems stunned, but eventually begins to clean itself again. The boss admires the creature’s fighting spirit, but then drops a second blot of ink. He is relieved when the fly again makes the effort to clean itself. He decides he will drop just one more blot of ink on the fly. But after a third ink drop, the fly does not stir. The boss tries to move it with his pen, telling it to “look sharp” but to no avail; it is dead. The boss lifts the corpse of the fly and throws it into the waste-paper. He feels wretched and frightened. He barks an order to his clerk to bring him fresh blotting paper, and to “look sharp” about it. Then he tries to recall what he was thinking about before the fly died and cannot.

    2. Analysis of Characterization

    In this short story, there are six characters. These are The boss, Mr. Woodifield, Macey, The Fly, Gertrude, and Reggie. The main characters are The boss and Mr. Woodifield. Mr. Woodifield is an old and infirm man, who has lost a son in World War I and is only allowed to leave his house on Tuesdays. He lives with his wife and daughters. He used to work for the company. He has a stroke and quit awhile ago. The boss, he is the boss of the company. He is a well-off friend of his, who has also lost a son to World War I. Macey is the Boss’s secretary/messenger. He treats her like crap. The fly is the symbol of the story. Gertrude, she is Mr. Woodifield’s daughter. Reggie, he is Mr. Woodifield’s son who had lost in World War I.

    1. Mr. Woodifield

    The main character is Mr. Woodifield. He is an old and infirm man, who has lost a son in World War I and is only allowed to leave his house on Tuesdays. He lives with his wife and daughters. He used to work for the company. He has a stroke and quit awhile ago. Mr. Woodifield is an effective foil, some of his characteristics such as: his age, his economic status and his lack of control. He aspires and envies to someone that in fact isn’t feeling well and that had a lot to do with the loss of his only son. Another simile showing Mr. Woodifield’s characteristics is “we cling to our last pleasures as the tree clings to its leaves,” (“The Fly,” P. 274).

    2. The boss

    The boss, being the protagonist of this short story, is motivated by one thing only: his dead son. The boss is presented as a regular business man, with a tortured past. Throughout the short story the boss’ life is revealed to the reader, who is able to see how regular of a character the boss is, a man with a job, family and dreams whose life is turned upside down when his son is killed. This type of character is easily related to by the reader because of the simplicity of the characters circumstances. Due to the conditions of the boss’ life, the reader is able to think of him as a real person.
    The boss decides to torment a helpless housefly in the latter half of the story because he sees the struggle the fly undergoes when it falls in his inkpot, and in turn feels the need to test the fly’s strength. In seeing the fly’s struggle and its ability to overcome it, the boss sees himself. He subconsciously wonders if he will be able to overcome the struggle he has with his feelings concerning the death of his son. In comparing his struggle to the fly’s, he feels the need to test the fly to its limits. He says, “Come on, look sharp” almost as if he is talking to himself. The writer thinks that the fly actually symbolizes the Boss who is fighting with his life. He has been seen as a symbol of malignant forces that are base and motiveless, a representative of the generation that sent its sons to their slaughter in a cruel war. There are many specific sentences, words, and phrases in the story to help understand the personality of the boss. The fact the boss “was proud of his room; he liked to have it admired, especially by the old Woodifield.” shows the reader that he feels a need to be looked upon and is quite arrogant in that sense. After Woodifield leaves, the boss says ‘My son!’ But no tears came yet’ causes the reader to question whether or not he is grievous over his son anymore. Finally, the repeating phrase, “Look sharp!”, indicates to the reader that the boss has a high expectation for people (and flies apparently), and hints that perhaps he had high expectations for his son to return home from the war and take over the family business. The Boss: an affluent friend of Mr. Woodifield who has also lost his son in the war. He is described as a stout, rosy and strong man for his age. He needs admiration of the things he had established perhaps to fill in the voids when his son died. He likes to showcase his room and have it admired

    3. The Fly

    The writer uses the metaphor of a fly to represent the memories and struggle of the boss. Dr. Hallet (2010, p. 8) claimed that “Animal characters personified create particular effects, especially when the animal characters contain connotative metaphoric connects to human traits, i.e., fox = sly, weasel = duplicity, swan = elegance”. This metaphor is used to extend meaning through the entire story and to help enhance the motivations and thoughts of the boss. By comparing the struggles of the fly to the struggles of the boss and the death of the fly to the death of the boss’ memories, the reader can more clearly understand how the death of his son in the war has affected the boss. I think this metaphor is a good comparison because it makes the reader think about what it means; as I find it can have various meanings, and it enhances the overall quality of the story. According to me, the Fly stands to bring out the symbolism in the short story “The Fly” by Katherine Mansfield. The fly in the story “The Fly” symbolizes helplessness of man before fate. Man may try hard to escape his death, but he is not given a chance to escape. Just like the fly, man tries hard and gets out of the grip of death for the time being, but fate again captures him. He has no power to defy fate and fall an easy prey to it. When we read the story, we find that the writer and all the characters in the story stand for the fly.

    4. Gertrude
    Gertrude is Mr. Woodifield’s daughter.
    5. Macey
    Macey is an office messenger that works for the boss, and scurries around running errands for him like a pet dog. He is described as graying. He treats her like crap. A simile that describes Macey’s character is he “dodged in and out of his cubby-hole like a dog that expects to be taken for a run.” He is often overlooked.

    6. Reggie

    He is Mr. Woodifield’s son who had lost in World War I.

    Conclusion

    “The Fly”, by Katherine Mansfield was written in order to teach the reader the importance of life, and how not to dwell on the past. In the short story, the boss wastes his life stuck in the past, which is filled with hurt and regret from the death of his son. Towards the end of the short story, the reader sees the boss progress into the future as he lets go of his forced feelings and begins to heal as an individual. “He fell to wondering what it was he had been thinking about before. What was it? It was…He took out his handkerchief and passed it inside his collar. For the life of him he could not remember.” This excerpt from the short story, “The Fly” displays the beginning of the boss’ healing process towards recovery from the loss of his son. This short story presents the idea that time, indeed does help in the healing process, however once something has been changed, things will never be as they were before.
    By analyzing this short story, the writer is allowed the ability to see how much the human population holds onto wicked events, and how holding onto such events can destroy one’s life. Through letting go of problems and not forcing feelings that are expected by society, “Something seemed to be wrong with him.”, he wasn’t feeling as he wanted to feel.” the person is able to be freed from the chains of the past and able to produce a new future.

    REFERENCES

    Albemare. (2008). Fiction. Genre definition of fiction , 1.

    Hallett, D. (2010). Characterization. Elements of fiction , 8.

  37. A Good Man is Hard to Find
    Nova Rina Lumban Gaol (1012150033)

    A. Introduction
    In literature we have known about the three kinds of fiction, they are novel and short story. All of kinds of fiction are the imagination of the writer. The writer creates the atmosphere and builds the character of each person or things in the story so the reader will get fun in reading the fiction. When the reader begins to enjoy the story and the people sink in the condition and atmosphere in the story, the writer success in making and creating the fiction.
    The writer sometimes uses his own experience, observation and even his real life in making the story, sometimes the reader will feel that the story is real or even get close with the real life near the society. This kind of situation is really good because in short story and novel tell about some aspects in our surrounding society. It makes the reader of fiction is more than the reader of non-fiction. A fiction is a kind of expression that is related with the real life/ real experience of life but sometimes the reader face the difficulties in understanding the story. It makes the reader doesn’t know the real meaning that is delivered by the writer. It may be the minimal ability to analyze the fiction. Some of the readers only know some of the information and they don’t go through inside of the story to get the detailed meaning and the general meaning.
    This paper discusses the setting of the short story “A Good Man is Hard to Find by Flannery O’Connor”. Flannery tells of a grandmother who was traveling to the East tenses and met with the Misfit a criminal who escaped from prison. This recounted the grandmother who wants to be killed by a misfit, but failed because the preaching of the gospel and the grandmother told him about Jesus. This paper made as the mid-term assignments for Literature II and the source and also to obtain information using the approach studied in the literature.
    B. Analysis
    a. Synopsis of A Good Man is Hard to Find
    The grandmother tries to convince her son, Bailey, and his wife to take the family to east Tennessee for vacation instead of Florida. She points out an article about the Misfit, an escaped convict heading toward Florida, and adds that the children have already been there. John Wesley, eight years old, suggests that the grandmother stay home, and his sister, June Star, says nastily that his grandmother would never do that.
    On the day of the trip, the grandmother hides her cat, Pitty Sing, in a basket in the car. She wears a dress and hat with flowers on it so that people will know she is “a lady” if there’s an accident. In the car, John Wesley says he doesn’t like Georgia, and the grandmother chastises him for not respecting his home state. When they pass a cotton field, she says there are graves in the middle of it that belonged to the plantation and jokes that the plantation has “Gone with the Wind.” Later, she tells a story about an old suitor, Edgar Atkins Teagarden. Edgar brought her a watermelon every week, into which he carved his initials, E. A. T. Once he left it on the porch and a black child ate it because he thought it said eat.
    The family stops at a restaurant called the Tower, owned by Red Sammy Butts. Red Sammy complains that people are untrustworthy, explaining that he recently let two men buy gasoline on credit. The grandmother tells him he’s a good man for doing it. Red Sam’s wife says she doesn’t trust anyone, including Red Sam. The grandmother asks her if she’s heard about the Misfit, and the woman worries that he’ll rob them. Red Sam says, “A good man is hard to find.” He and the grandmother lament the state of the world.
    Back in the car, the grandmother wakes from a nap and realizes that a plantation she once visited is nearby. She says that the house had six white columns and was at the end of an oak tree–lined driveway. She lies that the house had a secret panel to make the house seem more interesting. Excited, the children beg to go to the house until Bailey angrily gives in. The grandmother points him to a dirt road.
    The family drives deep into the woods. The grandmother suddenly remembers that the house was in Tennessee, not in Georgia. Horrified at her mistake, she jerks her feet. Pitty Sing escapes from the basket and startles Bailey, who wrecks the car. The children’s mother breaks her shoulder, but no one else is hurt. The grandmother decides not to tell Bailey about her mistake.
    A passing car stops, and three men get out, carrying guns. The grandmother thinks she recognizes one of them. One of the men, wearing glasses and no shirt, descends into the ditch. He tells the children’s mother to make the children sit down because they make him nervous. The grandmother suddenly screams because she realizes that he’s the Misfit. The man says it’s not good that she recognized him. Bailey curses violently, upsetting the grandmother. The grandmother asks the Misfit whether he’d shoot a lady, and the Misfit says he wouldn’t like to. The grandmother claims that she can tell he’s a good man and that he comes from “nice people.” The Misfit agrees and praises his parents.
    The grandmother continues telling him he’s a good man. The Misfit tells the other two men, Hiram and Bobby Lee, to take Bailey and John Wesley into the woods. The grandmother adjusts her hat, but the brim breaks off. The Misfit says he knows he isn’t good but that he isn’t the worst man either. He apologizes to the grandmother and the children’s mother for not wearing a shirt and says that he and the other men had to bury their clothes after they escaped. He says they borrowed the clothes they’re wearing from some people they met.
    The grandmother asks the Misfit whether he ever prays. Just as he says no, she hears two gunshots. The Misfit says he used to be a gospel singer, and the grandmother chants, “pray, pray.” He says he wasn’t a bad child but that at one point he went to prison for a crime he can’t remember committing. He says a psychiatrist told him he’d killed his father. The grandmother tells the Misfit to pray so that Jesus will help him. The Misfit says he’s fine on his own.
    Bobby Lee and Hiram come back from the woods, and Bobby Lee gives the Misfit the shirt Bailey had been wearing, but the grandmother doesn’t realize it’s Bailey’s. The Misfit tells the children’s mother to take the baby and June Star and go with Bobby Lee and Hiram into the woods. Bobby Lee tries to hold June Star’s hand, but she says he looks like a pig.
    The grandmother starts chanting, “Jesus, Jesus.” The Misfit says he’s like Jesus, except Jesus hadn’t committed a crime. He says he gave himself this name because his punishment doesn’t seem to fit the crime people said he committed. A gunshot comes from the woods. The grandmother begs the Misfit not to shoot a lady. Two more gunshots come from the woods, and the grandmother cries out for Bailey.
    The Misfit says that Jesus confused everything by raising the dead. He says that if what Jesus did is true, then everyone must follow him. But if he didn’t actually raise the dead, then all anyone can do is enjoy their time on earth by indulging in “meanness.” The grandmother agrees that perhaps Jesus didn’t raise the dead. The Misfit says he wishes he had been there so he could know for sure. The grandmother calls the Misfit “one of my own children,” and the Misfit shoots her in the chest three times.
    Bobby Lee and Hiram return, and they all look at the grandmother. The Misfit observes that the grandmother could have been a good woman if someone had been around “to shoot her every minute of her life.” The Misfit says life has no true pleasure.

    b. Setting analyze
    Where It All Goes Down
    Georgia, sometime in the 1940s or after
    The story takes place in Georgia. I do not have a lot of interpretation in describing the original settings. The story begins in a nameless town where the family lived, and brought us a variety of places along the way as a family trip. Lots of local color – no old plantations that can be transmitted, and roadside barbeque with Red Sammy.

    The second part of the story takes place in a ditch in the middle of a place where the family land after running off the road. I know that it is a hole ditch about ten feet below the road, and is located between the road and the “tall and dark and deep” forest. There is a forest on the other side of the road as well, so the forest “looms” threatens the entire scene on both sides. This part of the story as a drama staged: the site of action is not moving, gutters is a stage, and the woods are “backstage”, where the characters are drawn. I can only learn what is going on from the sound people make (usually screams or gunshots)

    As for the time , the era of the story is never explicitly defined , but given the car and the mention of Gone With the Wind ( published as a book in 1936 and released as a movie in 1939 ) , we can guess it was in the 1940s or later . Since there is no mention of the war, and the grandmother said that “the European way acting you would think we were made of money”, it is almost certainly after the war , means the late ’40s or early ’50s . That would be right about when O’Connor wrote the story (1953) remains.

    Particular time of the story is more interesting issue. We know that the family left their home in the morning, and that they left the Red Sammy in “a hot afternoon” (maybe it was summer). We do not really know how to end this, though, when they landed in a ditch. The narrator never said that night, and grandmother said it was a beautiful day. We also know that there is no sun in the sky. Does that mean it’s around sunset.

    C. Conclusion
    Although A Good Man is Hard to Find is written in a simple chronological, it is really interesting due to Flannery’s expertise in arranging the events that keeps the reader’s curiosity to finish reading the story. She also makes the story far for boring by varying situation to tell the story. In addition, Flannery also succeeds to employ the interesting plot to effectively present the main theme of the story.

    References
    Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia.
    “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”(1955) Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~surette/goodman.html

    1. Is that a setting analysis of ‘A Good Man Is Hard To Find?’

      It seems your analysis are similar with Thurma’s

  38. The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe
    (Merita Christiana) 1112150032 BS-B

    1 Introduction
    The Tell-Tale Heart follows an unnamed narrator who insist on his sanity after murdering an old man with “vulture eye” . the murder is carefully calculated, and the murderer hides the body by dismembering it and hiding it under the floorboards. Ultimately thr narrator’s guilt manifests itself in the hallucination that the man’s heart is still beating under the floorboards.
    It is unclear what relationship, if any the old man and his murderer share. It has been suggested that the old man is a fther figure, or that the narrator works for the old man as a servant , and the perhaps his vulture eye represents some sort of veiled secret, or power.
    The ambiguity and lack of details about the two main characters stand in strark contrast to the spesific plot details leading up to the murder.
    “ The Tell Tale Heart” was first published in 1834 and is widely considered a classic of the Gothic fiction genre and one of Poes’s most famous short story.
    2 Analysis
    The Tell-Tale Heart is short story written by Edgar Allan Poe, in this story the narrator goes to the old man’s room every night at 12am, for seven days. Each night the narrator opens the man’s door and puts in a lantern (the kind they don’t make anymore, with panels that can be adjusted to release more or less light). After the lantern, the narrator puts his head through the doorway, extremely slowly, and then opens the lantern so a tiny beam of light shines on the old man’s eye. Each night the old man doesn’t open his eye, so the narrator feels that he can’t kill him.

    On the eighth night, the old man hears the narrator at the door and wakes up. The narrator hangs out there in the dark for a long time, then, with a scream, plunges into the totally dark room, opening the lantern, and shining light on the old man’s eye. The narrator drags the old man, who has only screamed once, off the bed, and then pulls the bed on top of the man. When the narrator hears the man’s heart stop beating, he removes the bed and checks to make sure the old man is really dead, which he is. So the narrator cuts him up and hides his remains under the floor.

    Then three policemen come. A neighbor had heard a scream and called them. The narrator says he screamed while sleeping, and claims that the old man is out of town. After convincing the cops nothing bad is going down, the narrator brings them into the old man’s bedroom, and they all sit down to chat. While they are all shooting the breeze, the narrator starts hearing a terrible ticking noise, which gets louder and louder until the narrator freaks out, confesses, and points the police to the old man’s body, stating that the sound is coming from the old man’s heart.

    3 Stages and Elements of Plot
    The Tell-Tale Heart
    Most good stories start with a fundamental list of ingredients: the initial situation, conflict, complication, climax,and resolution . Great writers sometimes shake up the recipe and add some spice.
    • Initial Situation
    Not insane! and the “Evil Eye”
    The narrator wants to show that he is not insane, and offers a story as proof. In that story, the initial situation is the narrator’s decision to kill the old man so that the man’s eye will stop looking at the narrator.
    • Conflict
    Open your eye!
    The narrator goes to the old man’s room every night for a week, ready to do the dirty deed. But, the sleeping man won’t open his eye. Since the eye, not the man, is the problem, the narrator can’t kill him if the offending eye isn’t open.
    • Complication
    The narrator makes a noise while spying on the old man, and the man wakes up – and opens his eye.
    This isn’t much of a complication. The man has to wake up in order for the narrator to kill him. If the man still wouldn’t wake up after months and months of the narrator trying to kill him, now that would be a conflict.
    • Climax
    Murder…
    The narrator kills the old man with his own bed and then cuts up the body and hides it under the bedroom floor.
    • Resolution
    The narrator identifies the source of the sound.
    Up to this moment, the narrator doesn’t identify the sound. It’s described first as “a ringing,” and then as “a low, dull, quick sound much such a sound as a watch makes when enveloped in cotton” . Only in the very last line does the narrator conclude that the sound was “the beating of (the man’s) hideous hear
    4 Conclusion
    The conclusion of Poe story “The Tell-Tale Heart” is that the narrator indeed insane. In the opening paragraph of the story, the narrator goes out of his wayto ensure the reader that he is not mad. He then goes on to tell that the weird eye of the old man for whom he cares has caused him to want to kill him. He goes through with the murder and chops up his body into little pieces. He then proceeds to hide the pieces underneath the floorboards. As the days tick on, the man believe he has gotten away with the perfect murder. When the investigators come to question the man , he answer the question with no problems. They prolong they stay, and the manbecomes convinced that he can hear the old man’s hearth ticking. The ticking becomes progressively louder, until finnaly, the man breaks down and tells investigators what he has done. He is then arrested and taken away.
    5 Bibliography
    Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia

    Quinn, Arthur Hobson. Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998

    “The Tell-Tale Heart” in The Pioneer: A Literary and Critical Magazine, page 29

  39. Hello Sir, this is my analysis.
    A Plot Analysis of MR. James’s “A School Story”
    Devi Astuti Sitorus (1012150064)
    Class: B

    Introduction
    In general, we can say that the short story is similar to the novel, in all characteristics except that is limit it self to a single, complete episode and makes up in compression and intensity for what its lack in scope and breadth of vision. The short story is an outgrowth of the modern concern for the examination of artistic materials and forms. In it we see the basic unit or building block of the novel isolated for examination. Analysis is a trial to find truth. The process of analysis is divided a problem into various parts, which may then be examined more easily; their natures, function, and interrelationships may be more fully understood when they examined one by one. In this story, I will analyze the plot of “A School Story” by M.R James.
    Plot refers to the arrangement of the events in the story to what the author tells first, second, third, and etc. A well-made plot can be divided into four stages: exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The exposition, or the beginning of the story, introduces characters and their relationship to their environment. Although they may be involved in actions or events with which the reader is unfamiliar, the situation quickly develops into a hint of promise of conflict. Once of the conflict begins to develop, the largest section of the story begins: the complication. The complication continues until it reaches the climax, the point of greatest emotional impact, at which the outcome of the conflict is determined. Soon after the climax, the resolution (final proportion of the story) presents the solution to the problems raised, answers the questions posed and resolves the conflict.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of A School Story
    A School Story by James is a short story which tells the myth of a ghost story which at a time when it’s become things that is no longer strange by many people. In this story, the authors would like to share his story or experience about his ghost stories that exposed his curiosity by without trying to notice and investigate events that occurred in his school or his residence surroundings, so he took some of the students from the school decided to create a useful investigation team to prosecute these mythical ghost stories that exist in them. In these stories, the author describing how situations or circumstances where is the in that story. Setting of the story is a country London where many old buildings look his creepy and a lot mythically story the wraith.
    This story dates from the two who was talking about mythical ghost stories who described the foot-prints ghost square-shaped located in stairs school. Oddly enough not much man in the school familiar with myth story the boogeyman. The writer confides that on the first moment he came to school that, immediately he has a friend named McLeod. They like one staff master which simultaneously as a teacher Latin grammar named Mr. Sampson. At the Latin grammar lesson, McLeod sudden stop thinking and felt the strong energy derived from his teacher named Mr. Sampson. McLeod told the writer strange thing nothing he had ever natural former, namely one night he aimed his attention to the window Mr. Sampson and saw there is a man who sits down or kneeling in front of window sill Mr. Sampson, who statures and high and the man saw a rounding and whispered to herself. On the next caped Mr. Sampson has lost and can never found.

    2. Types of Plot
    A School Story by M.R James is written by using the logical-sequence plot. In a logical-sequence plot, the events are to arrange in a cause-effect relationship. It was from the beginning that the first actor is asking to his self “I really don’t know, but this is what was in my mind. It happened at my private school thirty odd years ago, and I haven’t any explanation of it”. That question is causes why the first actor wants to investigate the story and found the truth. The author as the first person begins knows what happened in his school when any something wrong with Mr. Sampson. Someone knees in front of Mr. Sampson’s window, and the next day, Mr. Sampson was gone: not to be found of all people.

    3. Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot of “A School Story has a regular structure so that it can be neatly divided into four stages: exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The 14 paragraphs of the story explain as an exposition. That paragraphs introduce to the reader with the place and time settings and the three major characters. The first character is the author as first person in this story who has curiosity character and want to find the answer of the mites, the second is friends of the author who name is McLeod has good personality and suited with the author and the last is Mr. Sampson who is the Latin Grammar teacher who has a good personality and attitude has mysterious attitude. When the author introduce his self, his friends and his teacher to the reader, actually on that parts, the author also share a little parts which show the conflict. It show when the author enter the first lesson which is name Latin Grammar.
    The author show the conflict with first complication, when he was entering the Latin Grammar’s class and Mr. Sampson teach them about the Latin sentence, it show when the author said that “Well, the first odd thing that happened was this. Sampson was doing Latin grammar with us”.
    The Climax is reached when the author know he and his friend who has name is McLeod slept on the dormitory at the main building, when McLeod feel something strange that he saw on the Mr. Sampson’s window. That’s showed when McLeod said that “What sort of man?” he mean that someone who is kneeling on the Mr. Sampson’ window and for next day Mr. Sampson is gone from the school. In this part, the author feels that the third person who is mysterious guy is Mr. Sampson, it can be showed on this part “one of the oddest things about it all has seemed to me to be the fact that neither McLeod nor I ever mentioned what we had seen to any third person whatever. Of course no questions were asked on the subject, and if they had been, I am inclined to believe that we could not have made any answer: we seemed unable to speak about it.”
    Soon after the climax, M.R James is also present the resolution, i.e. the author tell the sequel of this story which is related with the ghost story on that school at the (Par. 21). On that paragraph, the author wants to explain to the reader that before someone wants to judge the story only mites or true story, he has to survey that place where became the setting of the story, after that he can decide the story just a mites or true story.
    Although A School Story is written using logical sequence plot, the plot can give the answer from may question which the author is made on this story, so that the reader are not confusing with the story. For instance when he tells about the event which is happened before Mr. Sampson is gone. The author tries giving the easy explanation to the readers so that readers can guess what the story talking about, is the story can be impossible thing? On the (par. 18).
    The part story above is the answer of the Narrator’s question which is contained “I really don’t know, but this is what was in my mind. It happened at my private school thirty odd years ago, and I haven’t any explanation of it.” There is any possible thing that the ghost on the school is Mr. Sampson. Or may be Mr. Sampson is the ghost on that school.

    4. The use of plot to present the theme
    Besides the author is success in making a simple logical-sequence plot interesting, another achievement in writing A school story is in his ability to effectively present the theme through plot. The theme of the story is the idea that “don’t believe the mites if you never try to know the truth of the story”. As a boy, when the past time, the author may be is very curiosity with the mites of ghost story. To find out the truth of the story, the author invites McLeod who is his friend to investigate the story through the investigation about the sequence of the event. In this story, the author tells about the meeting with his Latin Grammar teacher who is name Mr. Sampson. He is good guy, but any something strange in his life.
    Basically, the character of the author is curiosity and never satisfied with the condition of his life. The author knows any mites of his school that someone had a ghost’s footmark on the staircase. Realizing the good nature of the author, the mites of ghost story make him try to find out the truth by the small investigation since the first time he in the school.

    Conclusion
    Although A School Story is written in a simple logical-sequence plot, it is really interesting due to James in giving the answering of the cases through sequence of the event which is happened on the story. The good value of the author is he can make the reader curiosity and want to try guessing the plot of the story, so that readers know the ending of story. In addition, James is also succeeds present the interesting plot to effectively present the main theme of the story.

    Bibliography
    James, M. (1911) A School Story. Retrieved November 8, 2013 from http://gaslight.mtroyal.ca/schoolst.htm.
    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: English Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Christian University of Indonesia.
    https://parlindunganpardede.wordpress.com/class-assignment/literature/literature-ii-fiction/literary-works-analysis/the-plot-of-buckley%E2%80%99s-%E2%80%9Cgold-mounted-gun%E2%80%9D/

  40. The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe
    (Merita Christiana) 1112150032 BS-B

    1 Introduction
    The tell-tale heart follows an unnamed narrator who insist on his sanity after murdering an old man with “vulture eye” . the murder is carefully calculated, and the murderer hides the body by dismembering it and hiding it under the floorboards. Ultimately thr narrator’s guilt manifests itself in the hallucination that the man’s heart is still beating under the floorboards.
    It is unclear what relationship, if any the old man and his murderer share. It has been suggested that the old man is a fther figure, or that the narrator works for the old man as a servant , and the perhaps his vulture eye represents some sort of veiled secret, or power.
    The ambiguity and lack of details about the two main characters stand in strark contrast to the spesific plot details leading up to the murder.
    “ The Tell Tale Heart” was first published in 1834 and is widely considered a classic of the Gothic fiction genre and one of Poes’s most famous short story.
    2 Analysis
    The Tell-Tale Heart is short story written by Edgar Allan Poe, in this story the narrator goes to the old man’s room every night at 12am, for seven days. Each night the narrator opens the man’s door and puts in a lantern (the kind they don’t make anymore, with panels that can be adjusted to release more or less light). After the lantern, the narrator puts his head through the doorway, extremely slowly, and then opens the lantern so a tiny beam of light shines on the old man’s eye. Each night the old man doesn’t open his eye, so the narrator feels that he can’t kill him.

    On the eighth night, the old man hears the narrator at the door and wakes up. The narrator hangs out there in the dark for a long time, then, with a scream, plunges into the totally dark room, opening the lantern, and shining light on the old man’s eye. The narrator drags the old man, who has only screamed once, off the bed, and then pulls the bed on top of the man. When the narrator hears the man’s heart stop beating, he removes the bed and checks to make sure the old man is really dead, which he is. So the narrator cuts him up and hides his remains under the floor.

    Then three policemen come. A neighbor had heard a scream and called them. The narrator says he screamed while sleeping, and claims that the old man is out of town. After convincing the cops nothing bad is going down, the narrator brings them into the old man’s bedroom, and they all sit down to chat. While they are all shooting the breeze, the narrator starts hearing a terrible ticking noise, which gets louder and louder until the narrator freaks out, confesses, and points the police to the old man’s body, stating that the sound is coming from the old man’s heart.

    3 Stages and Elements of Plot
    The Tell-Tale Heart
    Most good stories start with a fundamental list of ingredients: the initial situation, conflict, complication, climax,and resolution . Great writers sometimes shake up the recipe and add some spice.
    • Initial Situation
    Not insane! and the “Evil Eye”
    The narrator wants to show that he is not insane, and offers a story as proof. In that story, the initial situation is the narrator’s decision to kill the old man so that the man’s eye will stop looking at the narrator.
    • Conflict
    Open your eye!
    The narrator goes to the old man’s room every night for a week, ready to do the dirty deed. But, the sleeping man won’t open his eye. Since the eye, not the man, is the problem, the narrator can’t kill him if the offending eye isn’t open.
    • Complication
    The narrator makes a noise while spying on the old man, and the man wakes up – and opens his eye.
    This isn’t much of a complication. The man has to wake up in order for the narrator to kill him. If the man still wouldn’t wake up after months and months of the narrator trying to kill him, now that would be a conflict.
    • Climax
    Murder…
    The narrator kills the old man with his own bed and then cuts up the body and hides it under the bedroom floor.
    • Resolution
    The narrator identifies the source of the sound.
    Up to this moment, the narrator doesn’t identify the sound. It’s described first as “a ringing,” and then as “a low, dull, quick sound much such a sound as a watch makes when enveloped in cotton” . Only in the very last line does the narrator conclude that the sound was “the beating of (the man’s) hideous hear
    4 Conclusion
    The conclusion of Poe story “The Tell-Tale Heart” is that the narrator indeed insane. In the opening paragraph of the story, the narrator goes out of his wayto ensure the reader that he is not mad. He then goes on to tell that the weird eye of the old man for whom he cares has caused him to want to kill him. He goes through with the murder and chops up his body into little pieces. He then proceeds to hide the pieces underneath the floorboards. As the days tick on, the man believe he has gotten away with the perfect murder. When the investigators come to question the man , he answer the question with no problems. They prolong they stay, and the manbecomes convinced that he can hear the old man’s hearth ticking. The ticking becomes progressively louder, until finnaly, the man breaks down and tells investigators what he has done. He is then arrested and taken away.
    5 Bibliography
    “The Tales of Edgar Allan Poe” (index)”. eapoe.org. The Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore. September 30, 2007.
    Quinn, Arthur Hobson. Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998
    “The Tell-Tale Heart” in The Pioneer: A Literary and Critical Magazine, page 29

  41. The Analysis of Character “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”
    by Ernest Hemingway.
    Marlin B. Tambunan (1012150049)
    I. Introduction
    “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” is among Ernest Hemingway′s most impressive short stories. While the fascinating and mysterious African background forms an almost adventurous or dangerous setting, the story itself deals with the major motifs of human life: Love, death, loss, culture versus wilderness or self-realization and sense of life are just some of these. The existentialistic text about many secrets of human life with its ironic as well as deeply serious messages however reveals also the author behind the story, Ernest Hemingway.
    He himself called his literary works biographic and according to many critics, “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” can be seen as his most autobiographical one where he deals with issues having concerned him during all of his life. Not only his relationship to women but also topics like war, death, love, sex, nihilism, existentialism, travelling, hunting, wilderness and his fear of losing his talent are some of the themes Hemingway coped with during his adventurous and colourful life ¬ and they also play an important role in his African short story.
    This term paper firstly examines the main themes in “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”. Three themes will be considered, each theme followed by possible interpretations. The second part will then concentrate on symbols in the text and their possible meanings.
    However, the main focus of the term paper will be on the autobiographical elements in the story: It will bring out parallels between Hemingway′s real life and elements in “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”.
    II.Analysis of “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”
    1.Synopsis
    The story opens with a paragraph about Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa, which is also called the “House of God.” There is, we are told, the frozen carcass of a leopard near the summit. No one knows why it is there.
    Then we are introduced to Harry, a writer dying of gangrene, and his rich wife Helen, who are on safari in Africa. Harry’s situation makes him irritable, and he speaks about his own death in a matter-of-fact way that upsets his wife, predicting that a rescue plane will never come. He quarrels with her over everything, from whether he should drink a whiskey-and-soda to whether she should read to him. Helen is obviously concerned for his welfare, but self-pity and frustration make him unpleasant to her.
    He then begins to ruminate on his life experiences, which have been many and varied, and on the fact that he feels he has never reached his potential as a writer because he has chosen to make his living by marrying a series of wealthy women. In italicized portions of the text that are scattered throughout the story, Hemingway narrates some of Harry’s experiences in a stream-of-consciousness style.
    Harry’s first memories are of traveling around Europe following a battle, hiding a deserter in a cottage, hunting and skiing in the mountains, playing cards during a blizzard, and hearing about a bombing run on a train full of Austrian officers.
    Harry then falls asleep and wakes in the evening to find Helen returning from a shooting expedition. He meditates on how she is really thoughtful and a good wife to him, but how his life has been spent marrying a series of women who keep him as “a proud possession” and neglecting his true talent, writing. Helen, he remembers, is a rich widow who was bored by the series of lovers she took before she met him and who married him because she admired his writing and they had similar interests.
    Harry then recalls the process by which he developed gangrene two weeks before: he had been trying to get a picture of some water-buck and had scratched his knee on a thorn. He had not used iodine and it had become septic. As Helen returns to drink cocktails with Harry, they make up their quarrel.
    Harry’s second memory sequence then begins, and he recalls how he once patronized a series of prostitutes in Constantinople while pining for a woman in New York. Specifically, he had a fight with a British soldier over an Armenian prostitute and then left Constantinople for Anatolia, where he ran from an army of Turkish soldiers. Later, he recalls that he returned to Paris and to his then-wife.
    Helen and Harry eat dinner, and then Harry has another memory, this time of how his grandfather’s log house burned down. He then relates how he fished in the Black Forest and how he lived in a poor quarter of Paris and felt a kinship with his neighbors because they were poor. Next, he remembers a ranch and a boy he turned in to the authorities after the boy protected Harry’s horse feed by shooting a thief. Next, he remembers an officer named Williamson who was hit by a bomb and to whom Harry subsequently fed all his morphine tablets.
    As Harry lies on his cot remembering, he feels the presence of death and associates it with a hyena that is running around the edge of the campsite. Presently, Helen has Harry’s cot moved into the tent for the night, and just as she does, he feels death lying on his chest and is unable to speak.
    Harry dreams that it is the next morning and that a man called Compton has come with a plane to rescue him. He is lifted onto the plane and watches the landscape go by beneath him. Suddenly, he sees the snow-covered top of Mt. Kilimanjaro and knows that is where he is bound. Helen wakes up in the middle of the night to a strange hyena cry and sees Harry dead on his cot.
    2. Character
    Harry, the protagonist of the story, is a writer. As he lies near death on a cot in the African wilds, his thoughts go back to his life experiences. Hemingway skillfully develops Harry’s character by use of his cutting words to his wife, his memories of other women and other times, his attitude towards death, and his ceaseless drinking even when he knows it is harmful.
    The main character’s wife was loosely based on Hemingway’s second wife, Pauline. In the story, Harry feels that he has been bought by his wife’s money, and it is a feeling he can barely tolerate. Harry never calls Helen by her name, and it is only near the end of the story, during the plane trip episode in his mind, when she is named. Otherwise, he refers only to her as “she.”
    Helen is one of Hemingway’s more developed women Characters; he gave her a rounded background. She had been devoted to her first husband who died just as their two children had grown and left home, leaving her quite alone and needing to build a new life. She turned to drink, horses, and books. Then she took lovers. When one of her children was killed in a plane crash, she was devastated and scared. She no longer wanted lovers; she wanted a solid relationship, and she found Harry. She admired his books and thought his life exciting. She had started a new life with him, and in turn, he had lost his old life.
    There are many minor Characters in this story. At the African camp are the servants, and one is mentioned by name; Molo is called several times to prepare the ever present whisky-soda. Near the end of the story, the pilot Compton flies Harry off toward Mount Kilimanjaro. Other Characters are briefly mentioned in the flashbacks that take place in the many locations where Harry has lived.
    Hemingway’s hero, when faced with death, looks back on his life and tries to make sense of it. He sees a talent destroyed by not using it, by drinking too much. Most of all, he is filled with regret-some regret for being selfish in his dealings with others, but mostly regret that he will not be able to write all the stories he thought he had time to relegate to a later day. He had put away the most important parts of his life, waiting for another time to put the emotions and thoughts on paper, and now it is too late.
    III. Conclusion
    By this analysis, we can conclude that The snows of Kilimanjaro provides a reflection about altitude and attitude. The leopard has attitude, but Harry does not have enough attitude to reach the altitude he wanted in his life. It was easier for Harry to blame the environment, his wife and her money for his unsuccessfulness rather than try to correct his mistaken and perverted life. Only in the end of his life he realizes what he could have done in his life, but he does not have time anymore to do it.
    References
    Hemingway, E. 1936. The Snows of Kilimanjaro. <xroads.virginia.edu/ ~drbr/heming.html
    Pardede, P. (2008) An introduction to the study of fiction. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Christian University of Indonesia, Jakarta.
    Fiction (November 14, 2013). Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiction

    Thank you sir, Gbu

  42. Introduction
    As a work of literature, fiction (novel, novella, short story), is the result of the author’s imagination processed. Fiction material is usually based on experience or observation on life. Even as a novel or short story inspired by a true story. But the material is not presented exactly with the underlying reality. In the process of the creation story, the author chose and modify its content in accordance with its objectives.
    Fiction seems more realistic or close to real life, so it is more familiar to the public or readers. This impression is quite reasonable because the short stories and novels in general talk about certain aspects that are common in public life generally. Therefore, it is natural that interest in fiction far more than lovers of poetry or drama.
    Although fiction is an attempt disclosure of the experience of life, they often experience difficulty reading fiction. As a result, human values and artistic delivered authors often can’t be fully understood. The difficulty is most likely caused by the lack of literary analysis skills among readers.
    This story is an attempt to create an extremely brief piece packed with as much information as possible, though perhaps not the kind of information we get in many stories. No names. No locations. It’s as if the narrator meets you, by chance, in a dark café and tells you his darkest secrets, knowing he will never see you again. The information we get is secret information, the kind of things we don’t hear everyday.

    ANALYSIS
    1.Synopsis of The Tell-Tale Heart
    “The Tell-Tale Heart” is a story told in the first-person; meaning that the storyteller talks about his or her own feelings and actions. The story does not say if the narrator is male or female.
    The narrator is taking care of an old man with a clouded, vulture-like eye. The narrator has feelings of paranoia, and becomes afraid of the old man’s strange eye. The narrator becomes so bothered by the eye that he plots to murder the old man. For more than a week, the narrator sneaks into the old man’s room at night, watching and waiting for the right time to strike. However, the old man’s eyes are shut, hiding the clouded eye, and the narrator loses the urge to kill.
    One night, though, the old man awakens as the narrator watches, revealing the eye. The narrator strikes, smothering the old man with his own mattress. The narrator chops up the body, and hides the pieces under the floorboards. The narrator then cleans the place up to hide all signs of the crime. When the narrator reports that the police (whether a delusion or real is unclear) respond to a call placed by a neighbor who heard a distressful scream, the narrator invites them to look around, confident that they will not find any evidence of the murder. They sit around the old man’s room, right on top of the very hiding place of the dead body, yet suspect nothing.
    The narrator, however, begins to hear a faint noise. As the noise grows louder, the narrator hallucinates that it is the heartbeat of the old man coming from under the floorboards. This paranoia increases as the officers seem to pay no attention to the sound, which is loud enough for the narrator to admit having heard. Shocked by the constant beating of the heart and a feeling that the officers must be aware of the heartbeats, the narrator loses control and confesses to killing the old man and tells them to tear up the floorboards to reveal the body.
    Throughout the story the narrator insists on being sane, yet at the same time, giving the impression of serious hallucinations or paranoia, possibly caused by guilt from having murdered an elderly man.

    2.Characterization Analysis
    In The Tell-Tale Heart, there are two characters. They are an old man and the younger man who lives with him, it is really about a single character. An examination of the nature of the narrator’s obsession shows how Poe sets up this story about a split psyche. The narrator insists that he loves the old man, has no personal animosity toward him, does not want his money, and has not been injured by him. Instead, he says he wishes to kill the old man because of his eye! Although there is no way to understand this obsession, the reader must determine the method and meaning of the madness. For Poe, there is no such thing as meaningless madness in fiction.
    1.Narrator
    The narrator of ‘‘The Tell-Tale Heart’’ recounts his murder of an old man. Since he tells the story in first-person, the reader cannot determine how much of what he says is true; thus, he is an unreliable narrator. Though he repeatedly states that he is sane, the reader suspects otherwise from his bizarre reasoning, behavior, and speech. He speaks with trepidation from the famous first line of the story: ‘‘True—nervous—very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but why will you say that I am mad?” The reader soon realizes through Poe’s jolting description of the narrator’s state of mind that the protagonist has in fact descended into madness. The narrator claims that he loves the old man and has no motive for the murder other than growing dislike of a cloudy film over one of the old man’s eyes. Poe effectively conveys panic in the narrator’s voice, and the reader senses uneasiness and growing tension in the narrative. Through the first-person narrative of a madman, Poe effectively creates a gothic tale full of horror and psychological torment, a style he termed ‘‘arabesque.’’
    2.Old Man
    As to the Old Man, we have more knowledge of him physically and less psychologically. He has blue eyes, one of which is cloudy (probably due to cataracts) and their odd appearance makes the Narrator think he possesses some sort of evil intent. He is frail, sleeps a lot and deeply. He is appears to be wealthy, due to the Narrators descriptions of his “gold” and “treasures.” The Old Man is probably completely unaware of the Narrator’s burgeoning hatred.

    Conclusion
    The main conclusion of Poe’s short story, “The Tell-Tale Heart” is that the narrator is indeed insane. In the opening paragraphs of the story, the narrator goes out of his way to ensure the reader that he is not mad. He then goes on to tell that the weird eye of the old man for whom he cares has caused him to want to kill him. He goes through with the murder and chops up his body into little pieces. He then proceeds to hide the pieces underneath the floorboards. As the days tick on, the man believes he has gotten away with the perfect murder. When the investigators come to question the man, he answers their questions with no problems. They prolong their stay, and the man becomes convinced that he can hear the old man’s heart ticking. The ticking becomes progressively louder, until finally, the man breaks down and tells the investigators what he has done. He is then arrested and taken away.

    References
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI
    “Theme and Characters”. (2013). Retrieved November 17, 2013 http://www.enotes.com/topics/tell-tale-heart/characters
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2013. Short Stories for Mid-Term Assignment. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/poe/telltale.html

    1. A CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS OF EDGAR ALLAN POE’S “THE TELL-TALE HEART”
      (Naomi Anitasari Banjarnahor – 1112150034)

  43. A SETTING ANALYSIS OF OSCAR WILDE’S “THE NIGHTINGALE and THE ROSE”

    Devi Permata Yulita sari (devipermata10@gmail.com)
    Christian University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

    Introduction

    This paper aims to analyze setting of Wilde’s story The Nightingale and the Rose. Literary analysis looks critically at a work of fiction in order to understand how the settings contribute to the whole. It is not merely a summary or review, but rather an interpretation of the work and an argument about the settings based on the text.
    This story is written by Irish writer who has full name, Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wilde was born on 16 October 1854. The Nightingale and the Rose is a fiction story. The fiction is written about imaginary characters, events and setting, to disclose an idea (theme) of a story.
    Setting is required on a story because it describes where and when the story takes place. Some readers have difficult to find out setting time and place. Sometimes, readers miss some places and time the story takes place that may be important part of plot or theme. Moreover, the setting place and time is also just backdrop against the action of a story. The term “setting” is often used to refer to the social milieu in which the events of a short story occur. Then social milieu shapes the characters’ values.
    The Nightingale and the Rose has setting actually. It is interesting thing to analyze the setting of the story. This paper deals with the setting of the short story. Discussions are focused on the identification on the place and time, types of setting and how Wilde presents it.

    Synopsis of The Nightingale and the Rose
    The Nightingale and the Rose is a romantic short story. The main character is Nightingale that is a small brown European bird known especially for the beautiful song which is usually heard during the night. The Nightingale gave her life-blood to Young student who loved a woman. A Nightingale’s life-blood could crimson the heart of a rose that the Young student needed in order to he could dance with the woman. The grave that is near the young student’s garden is a main place in the story “The Nightingale and the Rose.”
    At the time, the winter has chilled tree-rose’s veins and the frost has nipped its buds, and the storm has broken its branches, and tree-rose shall have no roses. In this case, Nightingale flew over to find Rose-tree. She visited three places but she didn’t get the red-Rose. In the third place, Nightingale beg to Rose-tree gave its red rose for her. There is way to get a red rose. The nightingale must build the red rose out of music by moonlight, and stain it with her own heart’s-blood. Nightingale must sing to the Rose-tree with her breast against a thorn. At last, the Young student got and brought the red rose to the woman but she neglected the red rose. The Young student was broken heart he threw it away into street where it fell into gutter.

    Analysis

    1. Place Setting

    After reading the short story thoroughly for several times, there are many places that is taken Wilde. It aims to make the story naturally. This story takes main place on the grove. Wilde describes the grove – there are Holm-oak tree and the grass that is close to the Young student’s home. Moreover, to make as natural as the grove generally, he puts some animals in the grove. As the grove generally, there are some plants and animals live there.
    This story is relatively a simple story. It uses familiar word to describe the characters or settings of the story. It is a romantic story where the nightingale gives her life-blood – her death for a red rose which the young student needs. Before, the nightingale found the red rose, she flew over three places. The first one is the centre of grass-plot. In that place, the nightingale sees the white rose. Wilde puts the right place where the rose logically may live in there. In real life, rose can live on grass-plot. It makes the story be real appearance. The second, round the old sun-dial place is a choice place. He takes the place as the next rose is yellow rose. The sun-dial adjust to the yellow rose as the second rose which the nightingale finds. It shows that there is no doubt to the writer’s imagination. The place has taken is rhythm with the object. It can build beautiful place to the story.
    The last one is beneath the young student’s window. It interpret that the main place of this story is the grove where is near the Young student’s garden. The Young student’s house has the grave. He is owner of the grave. Wilde chooses the place where is beneath the young student’s window because it has related with the young student. He has the Young student see the red rose later when the Day comes. In generally, people open their window at the Day comes. It’s the reason why Wilde takes the third place, in order to the young student directly sees the marvelous red rose when he opens the window at the early morning. In the third place, the nightingale doesn’t fly over again because the rose has been finished by her heart’s-blood, her death. It’s obvious that the nightingale’s love towards the young student is so great. She used to sing for him at night after night though she knew he doesn’t understand.
    After getting the red rose, the young student went to the woman’s home. It is next setting place. When he comes to her home, there is her father who is sitting in the doorway winding blue silk on a reel, and her little dog is lying at her feet. The condition or action is formed in order to the story as natural as daily life in Ireland. Wilde wants to describe the Ireland culture through this story. Moreover, there is gutter around the woman’s house. It points out that he wants to tell the place of this story as usual as the real life. It is the way to revel the place setting of the story.

    2. Time Setting
    The one important part of a story is time – when did the story happen? The winter is the main setting time of this story. In the weather, there is no rose. Wilde builds dramatic on how to get the red rose for the woman who’s loved the Young student. Then, the Nightingale finds the red rose with her struggle. She flies to the Rose-tree and set her breast against the thorn. All night long she sings and the thorn goes deeper and deeper into her breast, and her life-blood ebb away from her. Then, the death costs the red rose. The time is also at night because the real is nightingale just sings at night.
    Furthermore, Wilde tells the events or actions chronologically. First, the Nightingale sees the sorrowful of the young student because the young student doesn’t have a red rose. Then, the nightingale decides to fly over finding the red rose. She visits three places where it is growing rose-tree. He describes each place briefly but he describes the rose that grows in each place very well. At last, the young student gets the red rose but he doesn’t know how the red rose comes up in the winter season.

    3. Types of Setting
    There are three types of setting; realistic setting, natural setting and artificial setting. Realistic setting is place and time setting that is real or happened in daily life. It’s like London, Indonesia, Gading park, etc. It is real setting place. Besides that, there is a real time. It may conclude when the event or action did happened actually.
    Natural setting is setting place and time that use geographical location or historical time. It makes the story has realistic but the story is not really happened. The last, artificial setting is unrealistic setting. The place is not available in this world. It is just the author’s imagination for example, Harry Potter, Mr.Black, Misteri Gunung Berapi, etc.
    Based on the text, the story “The Nightingale and the Rose” uses natural setting. Wilde takes the realistic place, like the grove, the house, the grass-plot, etc. He sets this story to become realistic happened, though it is not really happened. It is written in past form where Wilde let it go in order to The Nightingale and the Rose can be realistic story. He uses the natural setting in order to his idea is reached through this story. Readers become aware that never give up even on the worst condition. There is way, if there is great desire. Don’t let the condition lead your life.

    Conclusion

    Based on the analysis above, it can conclude that The Nightingale and the Rose is success to describe the setting place and time by using natural setting. The aspects reveal the idea or theme of the story – Don’t let the condition lead our live. Furthermore, it reveals the romantic and touched story. A bird is willing to give her heart to a man who loves a woman. The bird still loves him so much though the man doesn’t know it. The bird is the true lover of this story.
    On the other hand, this story is set in order to it is dramatic. It is not realistic that there is bird who loves a man. Then, she is willing to die for love. But, actually the nightingale is described someone who is willing to do anything for love.
    The theme or character above can be appeared caused by the good setting of the story. In sum, a good setting will disclose the good story. On the other way, the bad setting will defeat the good story appeared.

    Bibliography

    Wilde, O. (1890) The nightingale and the rose. Retrieved November 6, 2013 from http://www.literaturecollection.com/a/wilde/330.
    Pardede, P. (2008) An introduction to the study of fiction. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Christian University of Indonesia, Jakarta.

    (it’s taken from http://devi10.wordpress.com/2013/11/07/setting-analysis-of-the-nightingale-and-the-rose/)

  44. dear sir
    Analysis of the plot of Kurt Vonnegut’s “Harrison Bergeron” story

    by: Erika Magdalena Septiana (1112150901)

    Introduction
    Fiction is undoubtedly the most miserable, interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experiences, emotions, and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to relity. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to throughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for instance, find it difficult to see the relationship among the actions and events that develop the plot. Some others may find it intricated to make out the theme. Some others find it complicated to figure out the characters’ qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented.
    To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. Literary analysis is indeed an intricated process because it necessitates a good understanding of the works elements and how these elements are combined to create a unified literary work. Literary analysis is indeed an intricated process because it necessitates a good understanding of the works elements and how these elements are combined to create a unified literary work. Roberts (1977: 6) explains that literary analysis is the process of breaking up a literaty work into smaller units so that each of the elements nature, function, and meaning could be deeply discerned, and the corelation among the elements could be easily defined.
    This analysis is a misery to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and Harrison Bergeron, a short story bykurt vonnegut, jr in particular. The short story is interesting to analyze because it miserable to dramatize one stage of the process of autonomy among teenagers in bring to reveal the importance of feeling by deffering in one’s life.
    This paper deals with the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology, i.e. a study aimed to analyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.
    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of Harrison Bergeron
    Harrison Bergeron is a short story written by using the colonial of American life-style as a background.. It starts whenOne April, 14 year old Harrison Bergeron, an extremely handsome teenage genius, is taken away from his parents, George and Hazel, by the government. George and Hazel are not fully aware of the tragedy. Hazel’s lack of awareness is due to “average” intelligence, which in 2081, is the politically correct way of referring to someone of well-below-average intelligence. George does not comprehend the tragedy since the law requires him to wear the radio ear piece for twenty-four hours a day because he is of above-average intelligence.
    In April, H-G men takeHarrison Bergeronson of George and Hazel Bergeronto jail on suspicion of plotting to overthrow the government. At the age of fourteen, seven-foot-tall Harrison is a genius and an athlete who bears heavier handicaps and more grotesque masking devices than anyone else. George and Hazel are watching a dance program on television and discussing George’s handicaps, especially the different sounds transmitted to his mental handicap radio and the forty-seven pounds of birdshot in a canvas bag he wears around his neck. As a normal person who wears no handicaps, Hazel takes interest in the various sounds transmitted through George’s radio. She also encourages George to remove a few lead balls from his handicap bag, at least just when he is home from work, to lighten his load. Hazel’s suggestion to bend the rules leads George to defend their society and its laws.
    A news bulletin announcing Harrison’s escape from jail interrupts the dance program, followed soon there after by a live shot of Harrison breaking down the television studio door and addressing the dancers, musicians, and audience. He tears off his handicaps, chooses one of the ballerinas as his empress, and proceeds, with her, to show people the meaning of the word dance.In the process, they defy the laws of the land, the laws of gravity, and the laws of motion by leaping high enough to kiss the thirty-foot high ceiling. Remaining suspended in air a few inches below the ceiling, they linger over a long kiss which is interrupted by Handicapper General Diana Moon Glampers, who kills Harrison and the ballerina instantly with a double-blast of her shotgun.

    2. Plot Types
    Harrison Bergeron is written by employing a chronological plot. From the beginning until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place. The journey to Bergeron is taken away from his parents, George and Hazel, by the government 14 year old. Kurt informs thatGeorge and Hazel are not fully aware of the tragedy. After that the H-G men required that he wear at all times a red rubber ball for a nose, keep his eye brows shaved off, and cover his even white teeth with black caps at snaggle-tooth random.

    3. Plot Stages and Elements
    The plot of Harrison Bergeron has a regular structure so that it can be neatly divided into four stages: exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The conflict is directly proceeded with the first complications, i.e April for instance, still drove people crazy by not being springtime. And it was in that clammy month that the H-G men took George and Hazel Bergeron’s fourteen-year-old son, Harrison, away. Other complication is It was tragic, all right, but George and Hazel couldn’t think about it very hard. Hazel had a perfectly average intelligence, which meant she couldn’t think about anything except in short bursts. And George, while his intelligence was way above normal, had a little mental handicap radio in his ear. He was required by law to wear it at all times. It was tuned to a government transmitter. Every twenty seconds or so, the transmitter would send out some sharp noise to keep people like George from taking unfair advantage of their brains.
    The climax is “Harrison Bergeron, age fourteen,” he said in a grackle squawk, “has just escaped from jail, where he was held on suspicion of plotting to overthrow the government. He is a genius and an athlete, is under-handicapped, and should be regarded as extremely dangerous.”
    A police photograph of Harrison Bergeron was flashed on the screen-upside down, then sideways, upside down again, then right side up. The picture showed the full length of Harrison against a background calibrated in feet and inches. He was exactly seven feet tall. Soon after the climax, kurt presents the resolution, i.e. The rest of Harrison’s appearance was Halloween and hardware. Nobody had ever born heavier handicaps. He had outgrown hindrances faster than the H-G men could think them up. Instead of a little ear radio for a mental handicap, he wore a tremendous pair of earphones, and spectacles with thick wavy lenses. The spectacles were intended to make him not only half blind, but to give him whanging headaches besides.
    Scrap metal was hung all over him. Ordinarily, there was a certain symmetry, a military neatness to the handicaps issued to strong people, but Harrison looked like a walking junkyard. In the race of life, Harrison carried three hundred pounds.
    And to offset his good looks, the H-G men required that he wear at all times a red rubber ball for a nose, keep his eyebrows shaved off, and cover his even white teeth with black caps at snaggle-tooth random.

    4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    Besides his success in making a simple chronological plot interesting, another achievement of Buckley in writing Harrison Bergeron is his ability to effectively present the theme through plot. The theme of the story is the idea that “freedom”. As a teenager, Harrison Bergeron, an extremely handsome teenage genius, is taken away from his parents, George and Hazel, by the government. George and Hazel are not fully aware of the tragedy. emerging when Harrison escapes from jail. In the story’s futuristic society, freedom is no longer a bedrock American value; enforcing the law that makes those who are “above normal” equal to those who are “normal” has become the major social value. Forced equality by handicapping the above-normal individuals evolved as a response to the demonized concept of competition (which existed in ‘‘the dark ages’’) in all its possible forms. Vonnegut suggests that freedom can be taken away relatively easily, especially since the forced equality in the story has been authorized by Amendments to the Constitution.

    Conclusion
    Although Harrison Bergeron is written in a simple chronological plot, it is really miserable due to Kurt’s expertise in arranging the events that keeps the reader’s symphathy to finish reading the story. He also makes the story far from boring by varying the use of the summary and scenic methods to tell the story. In addition, Kurt also succeeds to employ the interesting plot to establish the main theme of the story.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI
    The harrison bergeron (1961). Retrieved November 17, 2013 from
    http://www.sparknotes.com/short-stories/harrison-bergeron/canalysis.html

    thank you sir 🙂
    God bless you

  45. Dear Sir,
    here’s my plot analysis of ‘The Pit and the Pendulum
    thank you, Sir

    Introduction
    Fiction is a major brands of literary work which refers to theathrical and musical works. In contrast with non-fiction, the story in fiction doesn’t actually happen. Yet, fiction has become an essential mode in people’s daily life. Unfortunately, readers often find it difficult to throughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Many readers find that characteristics of fiction is quite difficult because it varies. Depending on personal opinion, but the usual elements different people will list are character, plot and point of view. Setting, style and theme are additional characteristics of fiction.
    Literary analysis then is needed to help readers to understand the story deeper. As it is said that literary analysis is understanding thae techniques that make a literary work effectively and identifying them in the books you read and writing a brief essay exlplaining what you have identified. (Bauer, 2013)
    This analysis is a way for readers to explore more about fiction in general and The pit and The Pendullum by Edgar Allan Poe, one of a famous author. The short story is interesting to analyze because it The plot is the action, or sequence of events, that makes up the story; main elements of a typical plot include conflict, climax and resolution.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Pit and The Pendullum
    The story starts when a narrator reveals that he has been sentenced to death. Upon receiving his death sentence, the narrator swoons, losing consciousness. When he wakes, he faces complete darkness. He is afraid that he has been locked in a tomb, but he gets up and walks a few paces and realizes that he isn’t in a tomb, rather in a dungeon at Toledo. Then he decides to explore the prison. However, he soon stumbles and collapese to the ground where he falls asleep.
    When he wakes up, after who knows how long, the narrator finds a loaf of bread and a pitcher of water next to him. He chows down and then decides to walk straight across it in order to measure its diameter. But shortly after he begins walking, he trips and falls at the edge of what he realizes is a deep pit. He makes his way back to the cell wall and, soon enough, he falls asleep again. When he wakes up, he finds his cell has been illuminated. Also, he’s been tied down to a strange contraption, a sort of wooden rack that allows him use of only his left hand.
    Next to him, there’s a plate of heavily-spiced meat, which is being gnawed at by tons of rats that have come up from the pit. Above, he notices that there is a pendulum descending toward him. As the pendulum comes closer, it somehow manages to get worse: he realizes that the bottom edge of the pendulum is razor sharp. This means it’s meant to cut him in half. After much worrying and more than one bout of fainting, he comes up with an escape plan. He rubs the spiced meat all over the bands that are tying him down and allows the rats to chew him out of captivity. He escapes. Though he may be freed from his bonds, he knows he is not free. The point is really driven home when the walls begin to glow and the shape of the room changes; he realizes, then, that he’s slowly being pushed into the pit by walls that are caving in. Just when it seems like all is lost, when it appears that his only choice is to fall in the pit or throw himself against the burning hot walls, he gets rescued: he’s pulled from the brink by the hand of General Lasalle, leader of the victorious French Army. The Inquisition and our narrator’s torture are both finished.

    2. Plot Types
    The pit and the pendulum is written by employing dramatic plot. Journey of the narrator from the begining until the end is told chronologically. He wakes, falls asleep, wakes, walks, sleeps, wakes again and finds a pit, falls again, wakes and gets tighten to wood and almost gets slashed by a pendulum before the Army resque him.

    3. Plot Stage and Elements
    The plot of The Pit and The Pendulum can be divided into four stages: exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. Five paragraphs in the beginning are employed as exposition. This paragraph introduces the reader the time and place settings. It might be day or night, but it is absolutely in a kind of dark prison. Preceding the introduction, some complications derive: “…lest I should be impeded by the walls of a TOMB.” (Par. 6). He desperately thinks that he’s in a tomb. Next, he almost slips unto a pit (par. 15). At last, he sees a sharp pendulum which frightened him a lot because it can slice him into two (Par. 22).
    The climax is reached when he is pushed to the wall and gets closer to the pendulum. “I shrank back — but the closing walls pressed me resist onward. At length for my seared and writhing body there was no longer an inch of foothold on the firm floor of the prison. I struggled no more, but the agony of my soul found vent in one loud, long, and final scream of despair. I felt that I tottered upon the brink — I averted my eyes”. This represents the terrible feeling of death coming closer to him. Soon after the climax, an army comes and saves him which employ us a resolution (last par).

    4. The use of Plot to Present the Theme
    Poe successfully present his theme on the plot. The theme is “death and life”. In the end, we must think of the narrator’s experience less as a horrible tale and more as a profound learning experience. Even as Poe horrifies us – or perhaps because he does – he forces us to consider how such experiences would change our outlook on life and our notion of existence.

    Conclusion
    Although the pit and the pendulum is written in a simple chronological plot, Poe successfully makes the readers feel curious to read more about the story. Moreover, Poe has made the plot represents the theme.

    Bibliography
    Bauer, S. W. (2013). The Well-Trained Mind. Retrieved from http://www.welltrainedmind.com/what-is-literary-analysis-and-when-to-teach-it/

  46. A PLOT ANALYSIS OF WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS
    “THE USE OF FORCE”
    (Rusnita Agustina 1012150052)

    Introduction
    Fiction is the form of any work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary and theoretical—that is, invented by the author. A story is essentially the relating of sequence of events. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experiences, emotions, and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to relity. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to throughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for instance, find it difficult to see the relationship among actions and events that develop the plot. Some others may find it intricated to make out the theme. Some others find it complicated to figure out the characters’ qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented.
    To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. Literary anslysis is indeed an intricated process because it necessitates a good understanding of the works elements and how these elements are combined to create a unified literary work. Roberts (1977:6) explains that literary analysis is the process of breaking up a literary work into smaller units so that each of the elements nature, function, and meaning could be deeply discerned, and the correlation among the elements could be easily defined.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and The Use Of Force, a short story by William Carlos Williams in particular. The short story is interesting analyze because it manges to dramatize one stage of the process of growing up among parents in order to reveal the importance of learning-by-experience in one’ life.
    This paper deals with the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based the transcendental phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Use Of Force

    The Use Of Force is short story written by using a disease of patient as a background. It starts when Mithalda, Olson’s daughter has had a high fever for three days. Since no medicine worked, her parents called the doctor. When the doctor came to the kitchen, he saw the child was fairly eating him up with her cold, steady eyes, and no expression to her face whatever. She did not move and seemed, inwardly, quiet; an unusually attractive little thing, and as strong as a heifer in appearance. Her face was flushed, she was breathing rapidly. Being fearful that the girl may be suffering from diphtheria, the doctor asked her parents if she had sore throat. The parents had not taken a look at her throat because they did not want to hurt her.
    The doctor asks Mithalda to open her mouth but suddenly the girl attacks his eyes with her nails. The doctor hates the parents when they say that doctor is a nice man and will not hurt her. Then the doctor decides to use force than to leave her die.
    When the doctor is about to look into her throat, her father suddenly releases her. The parents are restless and fearful that the doctor may harm her child. On next attempt he grasps the child’s head and tries to get the wooden depressor into her mouth. The girl breaks it with her molars. The child’s mouth starts bleeding. Later he forces the spoon back of her teeth and throat. He finds that she has a sore throat and is suffering from diphtheria.

    2. Types of plot
    The Use Of Force is written by employing a chronological plot. From the beginning until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place. The doctor came to Olson’s family house because their children was sick. The force to the daughter is happened because the doctor want to save daughter’s life from diphtheria.

    3. Stages and Elements of plot
    The plot of The Use Of Force has regular structure so that it can be neatly divided into four stages: exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The first paragraph of the story are employed as an exposition. These paragraphs introduce the reader with the place and three major characters. While doctor, Olson, and daughter are being introduced to the reader, the conflict of the story is also initiated, when Olson came to the doctor:
    ‘Please come down as soon as you can; my daughter is very sick’. (line 1)
    The conflict is directly proceeded with the first complication, i.e. Doctor asked Mathilda (daughter) to open her mouth to check her throat: ‘I said, come on, Mathilda, open your mouth and let’s take a look at your throat’. (line 21). Other complication, such as when the mother asked mathilda to open her mouth, she attacked the doctor: both her hands clawed instinctively for my eyes and she almost reached them too. In fact she knocked my glasses flying and they fell, though unbroken, several feet away from me on the kitchen floor. (line 28-29)
    The climax is reached when the doctor force mathilda to open her mouth using wooden spatula behind last teeth: Then I grasped the child’s head with my left hand and tried to get the wooden tongue depressor between her teeth. When finally I got the wooden spatula behind the last teeth and just the point of it into the mouth cavity, she opened up for an instant but before I could see anything she came down again and gripping the wooden blade between her molars she reduced it to splinters before I could get it out again. Get me a smooth-handled spoon of some sort, I told the mother. We’re going through with this. The child’s mouth was already bleeding. Her tongue was cut and she was screaming in wild hysterical shrieks. (line 49-55).
    Soon after climax, William presents the resulotion, i.e. doctor tell to the mother that it was fine: Perhaps I should have desisted and come back in an hour or more. No doubt it would have been better.
    Altough The Use Of Force is written using a chronological plot it is far from boring. William varies the use of summary method to tell about the actions. For instance, when he tells the scene of the process the doctor came to the Olson’s family and do the action to check the daughter’s condition, William uses the summary method. This is very appropriate because such a long action needs to be condensed. curiosity makes the reader eager to know how the story will come out.
    The second reason why the use of the chronological plot does not make it boring is William’s great experties in presenting a suspense right in the beginning of the story. Soon after being introduced to both characters, the reader’s mind is quickly loaded with curiosity on whether mathilda will open her mouth or not. This curiosity makes the reader eager to know how the story will come out.

    4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    Besides his success in making a simple chroological plot interesting, another achievement of William in The use Of Force is his ability to effectively present theme trough plot. The theme of the story is the idea that “force is useful in certain time”. As parents, olson’s family should act firmly against the daughter because it concerns of life and death of their child. Not because they have excessive affection or do not want to hurt her, the parents allow their child do like that. It actually kills their daughter:
    Put her in front of you on your lap, I ordered, and hold both her wrists.
    But as soon as he did the child let out a scream. Don’t, you’re hurting me. Let go of my hands. Let them go I tell you. Then she shrieked terrifyingly, hysterically. Stop it! Stop it! You’re killing me!
    Do you think she can stand it, doctor! said the mother.
    You get out, said the husband to his wife. Do you want her to die of diphtheria?
    Come on now, hold her, I said.
    Fortunately, the doctor is wise. He acts using force although it hurts the daughter but he saves her life.
    Then I grasped the child’s head with my left hand and tried to get the wooden tongue depressor between her teeth. She fought, with clenched teeth, desperately! But now I also had grown furious–at a child. I tried to hold myself down but I couldn’t. I know how to expose a throat for inspection. And I did my best. When finally I got the wooden spatula behind the last teeth and just the point of it into the mouth cavity, she opened up for an instant but before I could see anything she came down again and gripping the wooden blade between her molars she reduced it to splinters before I could get it out again.
    The doctor’s action produce good result. The doctor become know that she has diphtheria and that disease is deadly. Finally, the parents realize that force is useful in certain time although it hurts.
    I forced the heavy silver spoon back of her teeth and down her throat till she gagged. And there it was–both tonsils covered with membrane. She had fought valiantly to keep me from knowing her secret. She had been hiding that sore throat for three days at least and lying to her parents in order to escape just such an outcome as this.

    Conclusion
    Although The Use Of Force is written in a simple chronological plot, it is really interesting due to William’s expertise in arranging the events that keep the reader’s curiosity to finish reading the story. He also makes this story brief and to the point. In addition, William also succeeds to employ the interesting plot to employ the interesting plot effectively present the main theme of the story.

    Bibliography

    Pardede, P. (2008). An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI.
    taken from https://parlindunganpardede.wordpress.com/2013/10/23/short-stories-for-mid-term-assignment/
    taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiction

    thank you, Gbu

  47. AN ANALYSIS THE MAIN THEME OF FLANNERY O’CONNOR
    “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”
    (Debora Murniasih Siregar)

    Introduction

    Fiction is the form of any work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary and theoretical—that is, invented by the author. Although fiction describes a major branch of literary work, it may also refer to theatrical, cinematic, or musical work. Fiction contrasts with non-fiction, which deals exclusively with factual (or, at least, assumed factual) events, descriptions, observations, etc. (e.g., biographies, histories).
    Readers often find difficult to thoroughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. The readers should be critic to the literary. Based on Wikipedia explains that Literary criticism is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often informed by literary theory, which is the philosophical discussion of its methods and goals. Though the two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, and have not always been, theorists.
    This analysis is a venture of the readers to know the short story in general. A Good Man is Hard to Find has been Flannery O’Connor’s best-known story in 1953. O’Connor saw all of her fiction, certainly including this story, as realistic, demandingly unsentimental, but ultimately hopeful. Her inspiration as a writer came from a deeply felt faith in Roman Catholicism. A recurrent theme throughout her writings was the action of divine grace in the horribly imperfect, often revolting, generally funny world of human beings, a theme very much present in “A Good Man is Hard to Find.” This story affords perhaps the best place to start in exploring the work of this rather eccentric, certainly unique literary voice. This analysis focused on the identification of the theme and the way how O’Connor presents it and the analysis using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.

    Synopsis of A Good Man Is Hard To Find

    A family plans a vacation. Everyone wants to drive down to Florida. The grandmother wants to go to Tennessee. She tries to get the family to not go to Florida by telling them there is a killer on the loose down there (The Misfit). The family doesn’t listen to her and they drive to Florida. The grandmother brings her cat on the trip but hides it under the seat. The road trip is like any other road trip: the kids fight, they play games, etc. Then they stop at some barbecue joint called Red Sammy’s. The grandmother and Red talk about how people are not nice anymore. Red says that “good men are hard to find”, then he talks about how Europe is to blame for everything that is wrong in the world.
    As the road trip continues, the grandmother wants to stop at some plantation in Georgia. But then she remembers the plantation is in Tennessee. She gets upset, and shakes her seat. The cat jumps out on Bailey (driver) and he loses control of the car and they go into a ditch. Then a hearse pulls up and 3 guys get out. The grandmother recognizes one as The Misfit. She is scared shitless and tries to persuade him not to kill her. She tries to kiss up to him, ask him why he is doing this, bribe him but nothing works. The other men take the rest of the family and kill them. Then the grandmother talks to The Misfit. She gets all religious on him. The Misfit believes that before a person dies he should have the most fun he can, doing whatever. He says there is “no pleasure but meanness”. Then the grandmother has a moment of clarity and reaches out to The Misfit in a religious way, calling him “one of her babies”. He shoots her. Then he talks about how killing isn’t fun anymore after listening to the grandmother.

    Theme Identification

    After reading the short story thoroughly for several time, there is no doubt that the theme is grace. O’Connor presents this theme through characterization, imagery, and view point.

    Theme Presentation

    The theme is grace, according to the author the idea that nothing we do can save ourselves from our own faults, that only God’s grace can do it.
    Thinking specifically of the story, characterization each member of the family has specific faults. It could even be argued that they have specific sins–the mother has sloth, the father anger, the grandmother vanity, the children envy, etc all except the baby and nothing any of them do in the end saves them from the place their combined actions have brought them especially the grandmother, who has the most obvious faults of character and who tries the hardest to save herself by pleading, reasoning, etc. Notice the way the grandmother reaches for The Misfit at the end? This is not some desperate attempt to save her skin but is actually the moment of grace, the act of love that will save her. This is what The Misfit means when he says she would have been a good woman if she’d had someone there to point a gun at her all her life.
    Of the images in the short story, the one that stands out the most for me is Bailey’s shirt. It was yellow with bright blue birds and was occasionally compared to Bailey’s appearance. After the crash, Bailey was, “as yellow as the shirt” and later it was said that his eyes were, “as blue and intense as the parrots on his shirt”. The author used these images to get the shirt stuck in the readers’ minds so they would realize the irony of the situation – two pistol shots and Bobby Lee dragging the same yellow shirt out of the woods, then the mother and daughter were glad to into the woods to where they believe the rest of their family is. This was an example of dramatic irony that left the image of the shirt, and even the family walking into the woods, stuck in the readers’ minds.
    The last, it is interesting to perceive the use of viewpoint to express the theme. In this story the Grandmother is never given a name, it is a technique that keeps readers from identifying too closely with her, or recognizing her as an individual. She is simply a “type” of person. This tactic allowed O’Connor to present characters who must be judged by their actions, rather than on some criteria that O’Connor would have deemed “less objective.

    Conclusion

    As a conclusion, we can say the basic theme presented by O’Connor in A Good Man Is Hard To Find is that no matter how rotten your spirit is, redemption is possible through the grace and love of God.

    References

    Fiction (November 14, 2013). Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiction
    Literary Criticism (November 14, 2013). Retrieved November 15, 2013 from https://www.google.com/#q=Literary+criticism+

  48. The Stylistic Analysis of “Three Questions “ by Leo Tolstoy
    [Maria Rimelda Pasaribu-1012150031]

    Introduction

    Literature is the art of written work. It means the things made from letters. Literature is commonly classified as having two majors form; fiction and non-fiction and two major techniques; poetry and prose (Wikipedia). One of literature categorized in fiction is short story. For example, The Three Questions is a short story by Russian author Leo Tolstoy first published in 1885 as part of the collection What Men Live By and other tales. The story takes the form of a parable, and it concerns a king who wants to find the answers to what he considers the three most important questions in life.

    The Synopsis of Three Questions

    This is the story about a king who seeks the answer to three questions which he feels will help him be the master of all his affairs. He puts out the word and offers great riches to anyone who can provide satisfactory answers to his questions:
    1.When is the best time to do each thing?
    2.Who are the most important people to work with?
    3.What is the most important thing to do at all time?
    Many educated men attempted to answer the king’s questions but they all came up with different answers. The king decided that he needed to ask a wise hermit in a nearby village. The hermit would only see common folk. However, the king disguised himself as a peasant and left his guards behind to see the hermit. The hermit was digging flower beds when the king arrived. The king asked his questions, but the hermit went on digging rather laboriously. The king offered to dig for him for a while. After digging for some time, the king again asked his questions. Before the hermit could answer, a man emerged from the woods. He was bleeding from a terrible stomach wound. The king tended to him, and they stayed the night in the hermit’s hut. By the next day the wounded man was doing better, but was incredulous at the help he had received. The man confessed that he knew who the king was and that the king had executed his brother and seized his property. He had come to kill the king, but the guards wounded him in the stomach. The man pledged allegiance to the king, and he went on his way.
    The king asked the hermit again for his answers and the hermit responded that he had just had his questions answered.
    1. The most important time is now! The present is the only time over which we have power.
    2. The most important person is whoever you are with.
    3. The most important thing is to do good to the person you are with.(Wikipedia)

    The Stylistic Analysis
    After reading this short story thoroughly for several times, there is no doubt that the main stylistic is “There is only one time that is important—Now! It is the most important time because it is the only time when we have any power.”
    In this short story, everything reads easily. It is simple, flows unburdened by unnecessary descriptions or flashy adjectives and adverbs. The story is short and to the point and I know if I ever attempt to write any fables or instructive tales for they are some of my favorite stories I will be revisiting this as an example. In the vein of simplicity, there was also no difficult or extraordinary vocabulary. The point of tales such as this is not to be whimsical or eloquent; it is to communicate, and most often to communicate to an audience composed of or including children. Using language which is accessible to all ages is not just wise but necessary if you want all ages to be receptive to your story.

    In conclusion, Three Questions is different from one of my deepest impressions of fables, which is that usually the characters are animals. In this story the subjects are human through and through—but it is still effective. I highly recommend reading at least the last paragraph of the story to see those answers in their whole context as the hermit presents them.

    References
    Literature (November 14, 2013). Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literature
    The three questions (2013). Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Three_Questions
    The three questions- based on a story by leo tolstoy
    .http://www.goodreadingguide.com/Three-Questions-Based-Story-Leo-Tolstoy-Muth-Jon-J/9780439199964

    Thank you, Mr. Pardede.
    Jesus bless us 🙂

  49. Analysis of the Setting of Kurt Vonnegut’s “Harrison Bergeron” story

    by: Jennifer Gloria Pongallo (1012150034)

    Introduction
    ‘‘Harrison Bergeron’’ was first published in the October, 1961, issue of the Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction. It was Vonnegut’s third publication in a science fiction magazine following the drying up of the once-lucrative weekly family magazine market where he had published more than twenty stories between 1950 and 1961. The story did not receive any critical attention, however, until 1968 when it appeared in Vonnegut’s collection Welcome to the Monkey House. Initial reviews of the collection generally were less than favorable, with even more positive reviewers, such as Mitchel Levitas in the New York Times and Charles Nicol in the Atlantic Monthly, commenting negatively on the commercial quality of many of the stories. By the late 1980s, however, ‘‘Harrison Bergeron’’ was being reprinted in high school and college literature.
    Harrison Bergeron is included of fiction. Pardede (2008, p. 4) argued that “fiction is an imaginary but usually plausible and ultimately truthful prose narrative which dramatizes changes in human relationship”. Pardede (2008, 20) claimed that there are some elements of fiction. Those are subject matter, style, setting, theme, character, point of view, action and plot, as well as atmosphere and tone.
    Based on the elements, the writer has chosen one of those to be analyzed. It is setting. Therefore, in this paper the writer aims to analyze the setting of “Harrison Bergeron”.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of Harrison Bergeron
    It was the year 2081 and everyone was finally equal. A few amendments to the Constitution have made everyone equal. A Government agency enforces this and is the most powerful force in the country. Anyone that is considered above average is given a handicap so it makes them equal with the rest of the population. This ranges from carrying heavy bags to having mental devices that limit and control thought. Hazel and George are some of the main characters. They are watching the news one day when a story comes on about Harrison escaping from jail and interrupting a dance program. He breaks down the studio door and commands that everyone watch as he removes his handicaps to become leader of the world. He dances better than anyone has every seen and he kisses one of the ballerinas that were performing when he broke down the door. He is killed by the agency and everyone watching the program has their memories of the event erased. Hazel and George witness their son’s death and are extremely sad, but they don’t remember what they’re sad about. They go on and continue to live their lives as extremely average people.

    2. Setting
    Generally, most people don’t know that such things as the time of the day and the consequent amount of light at which an event occurs, the flora and fauna, the sounds described, the smells, and the weather are also part of the setting. Besides, of course generally, setting is known to have two kinds. Those are time and place. The settings of Harrison Bergeron are explained below:

    a. Time
    Time setting of the story which is 68 years in the future allows readers to more easily accept some of the more absurd events in ‘‘Harrison Bergeron.’’

    b. Place
    The actual physical location of the story does not matter and, therefore, is unknown. Nonetheless, the unknown place setting makes this story becomes little bit difficult to analyze. One glaring anachronism—a concept or an object not known or invented at the time of the story; or an object that belongs to a previous era—should be noted: the use of a shotgun. Readers might expect that some exotic form of weaponry would have been developed and used that far into the future. Similarly, the idea that 213 Amendments to the Constitution would have been ratified predicts a radical change in American legislation. At the time the story was written, only twenty-four amendments had been passed by the Congress and ratified by the states, the first ten of which (known as the Bill of Rights) became law in 1791. In the 170 years between 1791 and the time the story was written, only fourteen additional amendments had been ratified. Ironically, the 211th, 212th, and 213th Amendments of the story restrict the civil rights of most people, as opposed to the amendments over the first two hundred years of the nation.

    3. Types of Setting
    There are two major types of setting of fiction. Those are natural setting and artificial setting. The Kurt Vonnegut’s Harrison Bergeron is included of story which uses natural setting or realistic setting. It can be seen in the sentence “George and Hazel were watching television”. It can mean that they were at home, but it’s not obvious. It might occur in another place where television can exist, such as in a café or a bar. The point is the setting of place in this story is unknown. Nevertheless, the existence of the phrase “watching television” is the point which shows that this story uses natural setting.

    4. Uses of Setting
    Generally, there are two uses of setting. First, setting is usually used to reveal the characters. In story “Harrison Bergeron” for example, the character of George Bergeron can be seen from the thing that he used, it is mental handicap radio in which its function is to send out some sharp noise to disrupt George’s mind so that his brain can’t work greatly. From the function of the thing (mental handicap radio), it is known that George has special ability about his brain. Second, setting is also used to establish the atmosphere which can create the tone and mood. The time setting that is set in 2081 that is introduced in the beginning of the story “The year was 2081” may make the readers curious about what would happen next, exactly what would happen in that year in which 68 years to go from now (2013) and because of their curiosity, they will have a desire to continue to read “Harrison Bergeron” until the end.

    Conclusion
    Although Harrison Bergeron story was written by using simple language, the setting of the story is little bit difficult to analyze. The setting that is used in the story is just clear in “time” part, but in “place” part, it was not explained clearly, thus in the beginning it’s difficult to determine what type of setting of Harrison Bergeron.

    References
    Cengage, G. (2002). Harrison Bergeron. Enotes. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from: http://stories.snowotherway.org/wpcontent/uploads/sites/8/2011/09/Harrison_Bergeron_eNotes.pdf

    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: English Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Christian University of Indonesia.

    Schatt, S. (1975). The short stories, in Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Boston: Twayne.

  50. A PLOT ANALYSIS OF
    D.H. LAWRENCE’S “THE ROCKING HORSE WINNER”
    (Rahelia Eta) (1112150033)
    Introduction
    Fiction is containing the antecedent of stories that created by fantasy or imagination o the writers. Usually a fiction story booked and collected as a novel. Fiction stories usually try to demonstrate portray of fictions idea to their reader. Fiction consist of character, theme, setting and plot.
    The reader usually get difficulties to understand the whole of the story. It caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. In this paper will be focus on plot of the story. Plot concerns the organization of the main events of a work of fiction. Plot differs from story in that plot is concerned with how events are related, how they are structured, and how they enact change in the major characters. Most plots will trace some process of change in which characters are caught up in a conflict that is eventually resolved.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and The Rocking Horse Winner, a short story by D.H. LAWRENCE . The short story is interesting to analyze because the story teach us about the lesson of the story for everyone in order to be grateful what we have achieved.
    This paper deals with the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme.
    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Rocking Horse Winner
    This kid Paul lives in a family that is poor. The mother is always bitching about how they don’t have money. Paul loves to ride his rocking horse and fantasizes about the horse races. Then his Uncle Oscar takes him to the races. Paul tells him what horses to bet on. He tells his Uncle that he and his friend Bassett bet all the time and have lots of money. Uncle Oscar doesn’t believe him (because he is just a young kid). Then they go to the races and Paul picks the winners and he, Bassett and his uncle become stinkin rich. Paul wants to give the money to his mom, but doesn’t want her to know that it is from him. So Uncle Oscar deposits it into the family bank account as a birthday gift and says it is from a distant relative. Uncle Oscar set it up so she would receive 1000 pounds ($2,000 roughly) every year for 5 years. But when Paul’s mom finds out about it, she asks for it all upfront because she is in debt. Throughout this whole thing Paul hears voices coming from the house. The voices yell about how the family needs more money (the kid is a little psycho). Paul goes to boarding school and in the summer he returns. Then he goes a bit nuts. His mom wants to send him to the beach, but Paul doesn’t want to go to the beach until after the Derby (big horse race). Paul still rides his rocking horse (even though he’s a bit too old for it). He has to ride it to pick a winner in the Derby. Then Paul gets sick (mentally and physically). Paul’s mom worries about him. One day at a party she feels like something is wrong back home (motherly instinct). She goes home and catches Paul riding the rocking horse in the dark. Then he shouts out the name of the horse he will bet on (Malabar). Then he, Bassett and Uncle Oscar put tons of money on Malabar. Malabar wins the race and Paul is a rich dude. He then goes absolutely nuts and starts yelling about how he needed his rocking horse to pick the winner. He also babbles on about luck and money. Unfortunately, he dies in the end.
    2. Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot of The Rocking Horse Winner has a regular structure so that it can be neatly divided into four stages : exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. In the first and the second pharagraph (line 1 – 8) of the story are employed as an exposition. These paragraphs introduce the reader with the characters. While the character (a woman, her husband and her children, a boy named Paul and two little children) are being introduced to the reader the conflict of the story is also initiated, to prove the conflict : “Although they lived in style, they felt always an anxiety in the house. There was never enough money. The mother had a small income, and the father had a small income, but not nearly enough for the social position which they had to keep up. The father went into town to some office. But though he had good prospects, these prospects never materialized”.
    The climax is when Paul’s mother did not know how to solve her problem. She think hard and tried this thing and the other, but she could not ind anything successful. Paul constantly and perpetually hears repetitive sounds of whispering in the walls of his house as “There must be more money. There must be more money”. The overwhelming obsession with which he hears the whispering and his understanding of the fact that his family lacked wealth considerably, forces him to ask his mother why they did not have car and why they were the poor member of the family. The answer that he gets from his mother is “its because your father has no luck”.
    Soon after the climax, Laurence presents the resolution.
    Having correlated the word “luck” with “wealth” Paul decides rather with an air of desperation and declares that he is “lucky”. He winning horses in the races and he decides with the help of the attorney that his family be given a sum of one thousand pounds each year for five years.
    3. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    Beside he success in making a simple chronological plot interesting, another achievement of Lawrence in writing The Rocking Horse Winner is he can present the theme through plot. The theme of the story is the idea that “be grateful of what you are for good”. Paul’s family never be grateful of what they have. They have willingness to get the luxurious in their life. They are never enough money. Her children were growing up, they have to go to school, so there must be more money.
    “Although they lived in style, they felt always an anxiety in the house. There was never enough money. The mother had a small income, and the father had a small income, but not nearly enough for the social position which they had to keep up. And so the house came to be haunted by the unspoken phrase: There must be more money! There must be more money! The children could hear it all the time though nobody said it aloud”.
    Lawrence makes an interesting thing to solve the problem. Paul is the little boy who posted with all racing news, and he know would be the winner although he never known it about racing before. The end of the story is Paul died after he said to his mother that he is a lucky person .
    “I never told you, mother, that if I can ride my horse, and get there, then I’m absolutely sure – oh, absolutely! Mother, did I ever tell you? I am lucky!”
    Conclusion
    The story of “The Rocking Horse Winner” is written in simple chronological plot. Lawrence is arranged the event that keeps the reader’s curiosity to finished reading the story. He also makes the story far from boring by adding the summary to tell the story.

    References :
    “The Rocking Horse Winner (1930). Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://www.schoolbytes.com/english/lawrence/rocking-horse-winner/
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI

    1. I’m sorry sir for my post comment, it was incomplete so i will try to revise it. thank you 🙂

  51. A PLOT ANALYSIS OF
    D.H. LAWRENCE’S “THE ROCKING HORSE WINNER”

    (Rahelia Eta) (1112150033)

    Introduction
    Fiction is containing the antecedent of stories that created by fantasy or imagination o the writers. Usually a fiction story booked and collected as a novel. Fiction stories usually try to demonstrate portray of fictions idea to their reader. Fiction consist of character, theme, setting and plot.
    The reader usually get difficulties to understand the whole of the story. It caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. In this paper will be focus on plot of the story. Plot concerns the organization of the main events of a work of fiction. Plot differs from story in that plot is concerned with how events are related, how they are structured, and how they enact change in the major characters. Most plots will trace some process of change in which characters are caught up in a conflict that is eventually resolved.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and The Rocking Horse Winner, a short story by D.H. LAWRENCE . The short story is interesting to analyze because the story teach us about the lesson of the story for everyone in order to be grateful what we have achieved.
    This paper deals with the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme.
    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Rocking Horse Winner
    This kid Paul lives in a family that is poor. The mother is always bitching about how they don’t have money. Paul loves to ride his rocking horse and fantasizes about the horse races. Then his Uncle Oscar takes him to the races. Paul tells him what horses to bet on. He tells his Uncle that he and his friend Bassett bet all the time and have lots of money. Uncle Oscar doesn’t believe him (because he is just a young kid). Then they go to the races and Paul picks the winners and he, Bassett and his uncle become stinkin rich. Paul wants to give the money to his mom, but doesn’t want her to know that it is from him. So Uncle Oscar deposits it into the family bank account as a birthday gift and says it is from a distant relative. Uncle Oscar set it up so she would receive 1000 pounds ($2,000 roughly) every year for 5 years. But when Paul’s mom finds out about it, she asks for it all upfront because she is in debt. Throughout this whole thing Paul hears voices coming from the house. The voices yell about how the family needs more money (the kid is a little psycho). Paul goes to boarding school and in the summer he returns. Then he goes a bit nuts. His mom wants to send him to the beach, but Paul doesn’t want to go to the beach until after the Derby (big horse race). Paul still rides his rocking horse (even though he’s a bit too old for it). He has to ride it to pick a winner in the Derby. Then Paul gets sick (mentally and physically). Paul’s mom worries about him. One day at a party she feels like something is wrong back home (motherly instinct). She goes home and catches Paul riding the rocking horse in the dark. Then he shouts out the name of the horse he will bet on (Malabar). Then he, Bassett and Uncle Oscar put tons of money on Malabar. Malabar wins the race and Paul is a rich dude. He then goes absolutely nuts and starts yelling about how he needed his rocking horse to pick the winner. He also babbles on about luck and money. Unfortunately, he dies in the end.

    2. Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot of The Rocking Horse Winner has a regular structure so that it can be neatly divided into four stages : exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. In the first and the second pharagraph (line 1 – 8) of the story are employed as an exposition. These paragraphs introduce the reader with the characters. While the character (a woman, her husband and her children, a boy named Paul and two little children) are being introduced to the reader the conflict of the story is also initiated, to prove the conflict : “Although they lived in style, they felt always an anxiety in the house. There was never enough money. The mother had a small income, and the father had a small income, but not nearly enough for the social position which they had to keep up. The father went into town to some office. But though he had good prospects, these prospects never materialized”.
    The climax is when Paul’s mother did not know how to solve her problem. She think hard and tried this thing and the other, but she could not ind anything successful. Paul constantly and perpetually hears repetitive sounds of whispering in the walls of his house as “There must be more money. There must be more money”. The overwhelming obsession with which he hears the whispering and his understanding of the fact that his family lacked wealth considerably, forces him to ask his mother why they did not have car and why they were the poor member of the family. The answer that he gets from his mother is “its because your father has no luck”.
    Soon after the climax, Laurence presents the resolution.
    Having correlated the word “luck” with “wealth” Paul decides rather with an air of desperation and declares that he is “lucky”. He winning horses in the races and he decides with the help of the attorney that his family be given a sum of one thousand pounds each year for five years.
    3. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    Beside he success in making a simple chronological plot interesting, another achievement of Lawrence in writing The Rocking Horse Winner is he can present the theme through plot. The theme of the story is the idea that “be grateful of what you are for good”. Paul’s family never be grateful of what they have. They have willingness to get the luxurious in their life. They are never enough money. Her children were growing up, they have to go to school, so there must be more money.
    “Although they lived in style, they felt always an anxiety in the house. There was never enough money. The mother had a small income, and the father had a small income, but not nearly enough for the social position which they had to keep up. And so the house came to be haunted by the unspoken phrase: There must be more money! There must be more money! The children could hear it all the time though nobody said it aloud”.
    Lawrence makes an interesting thing to solve the problem. Paul is the little boy who posted with all racing news, and he know would be the winner although he never known it about racing before. The end of the story is Paul died after he said to his mother that he is a lucky person .
    “I never told you, mother, that if I can ride my horse, and get there, then I’m absolutely sure – oh, absolutely! Mother, did I ever tell you? I am lucky!”

    Conclusion
    The story of “The Rocking Horse Winner” is written in simple chronological plot. Lawrence is arranged the event that keeps the reader’s curiosity to finished reading the story. He also makes the story far from boring by adding the summary to tell the story.
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    “The Rocking Horse Winner (1930). Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://www.schoolbytes.com/english/lawrence/rocking-horse-winner/
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI

  52. Yuni Sarah
    FKIP BS.B

    The characterization of “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

    Introduction

    Short story is a fictional short story essay that contains most of one’s life or the life that is told briefly that focuses on a character. A short story will usually lead directly to the main topic of the story because the story line just once and immediately finished. The short story is a fictional narrative prose. Short stories tend to be solid and to the point than the works of longer fiction, such as novellas (in the modern sense) and novels. Due to the short, short stories are successful rely on literary techniques such as character, plot, theme, language and insights more broadly than longer fiction.
    This paper is one of the means to help us proud of short story generally, and particularly short story of “The Lottery”. The writer is interested in analyzing this short story because of the author; Shirley Jackson was an American author. She was a popular writer in her time, and her work has received increasing attention from literary critics in recent years. She is best known for the short story “The Lottery” (1948), which suggests a secret, sinister underside to bucolic small-town America.
    This paper is focused on the characterization. Characters are always of high interest in fiction, often its most important element. In fiction, the methods of characterization can be broadly classified as expository and dramatic. The expository method of characterization describes us about a figure: he is discussed or described either by the author or by another character. Besides, dramatic characterization shows us the character in action. It is from, his behaviour, his speech, his conduct, and his recorded thoughts that we make deductions about his personality, his attitudes, and his relationship with other characters.

    Analysis

    A. Synopsis of The Lottery
    The story took place in a small town, striking with a population of around three hundred people. On a sunny morning, June 27, a resident of the city of children, began to gather for the lottery beginning at ten in the morning. The lottery will be concluded in time for lunch. While the girls chatted with the other children, including Bobby Martin, Harry Jones and Dickie Delacroix, began collecting a pile of stones in one corner of the village and keep it with alacrity to stymie the other boys not to steal stones from their rock pile pocket. Shortly thereafter, the men and women began to gather, chat amongst themselves before standing together as a family.
    This lottery conducted by Mr. Summers, who does not have children and a wife who is not pleasant. He was assisted by Mr. Graves, who followed him to bring benches where Mr. Summers put the black box is very worn. Black box that is used for the lottery is even older than the oldest Old Man Warner is one of the residents there. Mr. Summers stirred the papers in the black box. Initially, the wood chips are used, because the population of the city increased, Mr. Summers thought to switch to paper to fit all slip in the box.
    Before starting the lottery, Mr. Summers did a list: head of the family, the head of the family, and each member of the family. Mr. Summers was very meticulous in all details and prepare to start the lottery. Tess Hutchinson almost too late, but she arrived just in time to join her family in the crowd. She stood beside her husband, Bill, and their children.
    Mr. Summers began calling each family name in alphabetical order, and every head of household, usually the husband or father, came forward to take the paper out of the black box. After all families received slip, they are simultaneously checking their papers. Bill Hutchinson has chosen special slip, and his family was selected. Tess Hutchinson expressed dissatisfaction and alleges that Mrs. Summers did not give her enough time to choose. Even so, Mr. Summers compose box that only holds five slips for the Hutchinson family. In his family there are Mr and Mrs. Hutchinson and their three children, choose one of the five slips in the box.
    One by one, the children Mr. Hutchinson revealed that slip of paper that they were open, was empty. The city residents Tess realized that holds the rest of the paper with the black dot. “It’s not fair” she said hoarsely. Between rocks thrown from the crowd and hit her head on the side.

    B. Analyzing of characterization
    “The Lottery” consists of the Boys (Bobby Martin, Dickie Delacroix, Harry and Bobby Jones), Mr. (Harry) Graves, Mr. Summers, Old Man Warner, Tess Hutchinson, Mr. and Mrs. Adams, The Delacroix Family, The Watsons and the Dunbars, Mrs. Graves, Mr. (Bill) Hutchinson, The Hutchinson Children, Baxter Martin, Mr. and Mrs. Martin. We can see from any roles played in the development of the story, the main character in this short story is Tess Hutchinson, Mr. Summers, and Old Man Warner. Mr. (Harry) and Mr. Graves. (Bill) Hutchinson is a minor character who serve to support the main roles and some roles as extras are presented to create a bustling atmosphere to keep the story seem more real or realistic. In this paper, we analyzed only the main character characterizations and minor characters.
    1. Characterization of Tess Hutchinson
    The figure of Tess Hutchinson is a very passionate person, it can be seen in her desire to see the tradition of the lottery event. The narrator notes that the people stood together, away from the pile of stones in the corner , and their jokes quiet and they smiled rather than laughed. Compare with Tess Hutchinson, who came hurriedly along the path to the square and assured them that he came just in time, though the other women waited and watched their husbands. Tess Hutchinson also included people who are brave. This is seen when she protested the injustice she received because of the lottery. She shouted in front of many people, she looks very brave in doing it in public:
    “It wasn’t fair,” Tess said (p. 5)
    Tess perceived injustice has been seen from the words above. She feels neglected her family rights and the absence of support from her husband over the injustice of it. Even so she still protested it. She also included a very stubborn person when her husband and her children can receive that.

    2. Characterization of Old Man Warner
    Old Man Warner is the oldest in the city, has participated in the lottery for seventy-seven and he is a staunch advocate for keeping things exactly as they are. He refused to young people who have stopped following the lottery as “stupid and crazy things,” and they are threatened by the idea of change. He thinks that people who want to stop following the lottery is not logical and they will be living in caves. He also kept commitment to what appears to have been done in the days of yore. Because he thought it’s a tradition that should be run. He easily accept everything that exists because this is how they always do. Of this way of thinking, he is seen as a very loyal and honor his ancestors where he’s been following the lottery for seventy-seven years or seventy-seven times:
    “Seventy-seventh year I been in the lottery,” Old Man Warner said as he went through the crowd. “Seventy-seventh time.”(p.4)

    His loyalty in any he had experienced, and he’s also very shy as well as any respect any tradition that has been regarded as a form of tribute.

    3. Characterization of Mr. Summers
    Unlike the other characters, Mr. Summers are very quiet in every role. He is also always stable, it looks at every demeanor in response to the way the lottery and citizens’ ritual. And he also has leadership skills in leading the ritual. He was a coal businessman, a businessman and even includes a busy man but he would do this:
    The lottery was conducted as were the square dances, the teen club, the Halloween program by Mr. Summers who had time and energy to devote to civic activities. (p.1)

    Whatever the case, he now has full control. Mr Summers believed to lead this ritual. He also has substantial powers, but he remains a very friendly person. Mr. Summers also quite an innovator, he wanted to create a new black box because the old one is getting worse. He has been more successful using strips of paper instead of wood chips when drawing for the lottery. He introduced the idea of this as progress, but now that the population is growing, they need to use something that would fit more easily into the box.

    4. Characterization of Mr. Graves
    Mr . Graves was never explained , and he never had a line of dialogue , which in a short story but rich dialogue. Mr. Graves was postmaster of the village, a position which gave him great power, because he controls the communication with the outside world city. Maybe it was the importance of his work that makes him, literally has the support of the villagers. Assume that it was Mr. Graves who took three-legged stool to prop up the black box lottery, and it was Mr. Graves who gave Mr. Summers the right to conduct the lottery in the first place.
    Because the only thing we really know about Mr. Graves is the name and title or that he was married, a prerequisite looked homage in this city, they should be important. Even more fun is the appearance of Mr. Graves in the final paragraph of the story. Just as we learn that the Hutchinson have “won” the lottery Tess Hutchinson really do not want, suddenly, there was Mr. Graves again, Dave Hutchinson take a small paper from his hand and opened it. From that Mr . Graves is very docile and friendly in responding to the task given Mr. Summers. And he’s also very loyal to accompany Mr. Summers from the beginning until the ritual is complete:

    “All right,” Mr. Summers said. “Open the papers. Harry, you open little Dave’s.” Mr. Graves opened the slip of paper and there was a general sigh through the crowd as he held it up and everyone could see that it was blank. (p.6)

    His presence in this ritual is very helpful Mr. Summers and citizens in running the lottery. Although he rarely has a role in which he argues is extraordinary that makes everyone needs it.

    5. Characterization of Mr. Hutchinson
    Bill Hutchinson was the husband of Tess Hutchinson. When his wife protested the selection in the lottery, he said to shut up. It is unclear why he did maybe he believes in the lottery, or maybe he did not want his family to be humiliated in front of all citizens of the city:
    “Shut up, Tess,” Bill Hutchinson said (p.5)
    He was a husband of a very firm and very sporty. He can do the firm because he felt what he saw was true and even detrimental. He also could act decisively on his own because his wife made it very unsporting and embarrassing. Therefore he still runs it with his family ritual.

    Closing
    Overall, through the characterization in “The Lottery” Shirley Jackson presents the theme is about different characters. The most prominent character of all characters is Tess Hutchinson. She is a woman who does not receive a decision on the lottery. She felt the injustice she received, despite the fact that her husband and her children had received the decision. Because of her bad behavior, so a lot of neighbors who could not accept her behavior and they throw stones on Tess Hutchinson. In this story the author wants to explain the character of Tess Hutchinson. Tess Hutchinson, in beginning of a story that is not too important, but the character looks at every story and her character is very prominent at the end of the story.

    Reference
    Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia
    “The Lottery”. (2013, November 7). Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://sites.middlebury.edu/individualandthesociety/files/2010/09/jackson_lottery.pdf

  53. THE ANALYSIS OF CHARACTER IN SHORT STORY
    “A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND” BY MARY FLANNERY O’CONNOR

    Introduction
    According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literature literature (from Latin litterae (plural); letter) is the art of written work. The word literature literally means: “things made from letters”. Literature is commonly classified as having two major forms—fiction and non-fiction—and two major techniques—poetry and prose. Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction) or it may consist of texts based on imagination (such as fiction, poetry, or drama). But the material is not presented directly to the underlying reality. In the process of the creation story, the author selects and modifies her/his own material in accordance with her/his purpose.
    Remember that the story in fiction based on the author’s experiences and observations of life or real story, fiction impressed more realistic or close to real life, so it is more familiar to the public or readers. This impression is well-grounded, for either a short story or novel in General tell you about certain aspects which are customarily found in ordinary people’s lives.
    Although fiction is an attempt the disclosure back life experience, the readers often have difficulty understanding the fiction to read. As a result, the humanitarian values that conveyed the author can not be understood as a whole. Most likely the trouble was caused by the lack of literary analysis capabilities among readers.
    This paper is one of the efforts to help community members appreciated the short stories in General, and the short story A Good Man is Hard to Find specifically. The writer feels interested because the author Mary Flannery O’Connor was an American writer and essayist. An important voice in American literature, O’Connor wrote two novels and 32 short stories, as well as a number of reviews and commentaries. She was a Southern writer who often wrote in a Southern Gothic style and relied heavily on regional settings and grotesque characters. O’Connor’s writing also reflected her own Roman Catholic faith, and frequently examined questions of morality and ethics. Her skill as a writer is evident from her Complete Stories won the 1972 U.S. National Book Award for Fiction and was named the
    “Best of the National Book Awards” by internet visitors in 2009
    [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flannery_O%27Connor].
    The discussion in this paper is focused on aspects of the characterizations and analyzed based on the contents of the short story. Characterization is a valuable tool that can be used by authors in minor or extraordinary ways to enlighten readers in both their works of fiction and in the real world around us. Character types, changes, and parallels are only a few ways that characterization can be used to its full potential in works of literary fiction, as they are used in Flannery O’Connor’s short story.
    Analysis
    A. Synopsis A Good Man is Hard to Find
    The story A Good Man is Hard to Find begins with the family is planning a vacation in Florida, but the grandmother points out that there is an escaped murderer loose there, and she wouldn’t take her family to such a place, East Tennessee. The grandmother sits in the back between John Wesley and June Star. In the Journey to go to Tennessee, they stop for lunch at a roadside place, the tower. The owner, a man with a pot belly named Red Sammy and his wife, a tall burnt woman, takes their order. After lunch in the barbecue restaurant. The grandmother tells to the children that the house (place) had a secret panel. They want to see the secret panel, they never get to see anything, the baby starts fussing, and Bailey pulls over. In the journey, the grandmother suddenly remembers that house was in Tennessee. Bailey loses control of the car and they roll over off the road and the mother and the baby fall out.
    B. The analysis of character
    There are ten characters in A Good Man is Hard to Find consists of characters the Grandmother, The Misfit, Bailey, June Star, John Wesley, The Mother, Bobby Lee, Hiram, Red Sammy, Red Sammy’s wife. While the story has many supporting characters, the main character is the Grandmother and the Misfit. The Grandmother easily meets the criteria of an acceptable character within literary fiction. She is easy to relate to, partly because of the fact that she is a stock character: a typical grandmotherly figure. The Misfit is an unprecedented person, most likely not like anyone you or I would encounter in real life. While the Grandmother is easy to predict from the beginning of the story, the Misfit is more mysterious. While another characters are foil to create lively atmosphere to make the story seem more realistic.
    1. The Grandmother
    An irksome woman who lives with Bailey and his family. The first thing we learn about her is that she doesn’t want to go to Florida because she’s got relatives to see in Tennessee. The second thing we learn about her? “She was seizing every chance to try to change Bailey’s mind”. Whenever something runs up against the grandmother’s will, she tries to have it her way. Her style is always a bit more subtle. Before she is killed, the grandmother remembers that the house is actually in Tennessee, nowhere near where she said it was. She tries to reason with the Misfit but only enrages him. She experiences a moment of grace right before the Misfit shoots her.
    2. The Misfit
    His character is very different from Grandma’s at some point of view. He’s a mysterious, consistent, apathy towards his victim. His character still relatable bitterness and anger.
    3. Bailey
    Bailey is the grandmother’s only son, and the father of June Star and John Wesley. Bailey seems to love his mother, but her needling behavior sometimes gets the best of him. He is also the driver for the family trip. A guy who tries to maintain the illusion of being in control but really isn’t. Although it’s his idea to go to Florida, it’s unclear why he wants to go on a vacation at all, since, “He didn’t have a naturally sunny disposition and trips made him nervous”. He gives in to the grandmother’s request to visit the old plantation house that she remembers only because the children are driving him crazy. When the grandmother’s cat jumps onto his shoulder, he wrecks the car. He tries to quiet the grandmother and stop her from provoking the three criminals, but he is ineffective. He and John Wesley are the first to be killed by the Misfit.
    4. June Star
    June Star is Bailey’s daughter, and the grandmother’s granddaughter. Though she’s cute, she’s just plan nasty to everybody. June Star loudly speaks her mind and makes cutting observations about those around her.
    5. John Wesley
    June Star’s eight-year-old brother, John Wesley is almost as nasty as she is, though not quite as bad. This might be due to the fact that he doesn’t get the opportunity to say as much. His hobbies include tormenting his grandmother and kicking his father in the kidney through the car seat to get what he wants. Like June Star, he is also very excited by car accidents, though disappointed when there are no fatalities.
    6. The Mother
    Bailey’s wife and the mother of John Wesley, June Star, and a baby is a bland character who barely says or does anything in this story. Sadly, she does not play much of a role in the story until she dies. Most of the time she’s just taking care of the baby. Her only really notable moments come towards the end of the story. When Bailey is taken into the woods, she becomes horribly upset.
    7. Bobby Lee
    Bobby Lee is the boy who smiles noticeably and apparently thinks killing people is “some fun”. He’s young, though beyond that we really know how old he is. Bobby Lee is fat and, according to June Star, looks like a pig. Bobby Lee was dragging a yellow shirt with bright blue parrots in it.
    8. Hiram
    Hiram is the skinnier of The Misfit’s two “boy” accomplices. Apparently, he’s the one who knows something about cars, since The Misfit asks him if the family’s car is easily reparable. He doesn’t say much, which gives him a slightly better personality than Bobby Lee. Like Bobby Lee, though, his primary purpose in the story is to take the family into the woods and shoot them.

    9. Red Sammy
    Red Sammy, “the fat man with the happy laugh” is a veteran and the owner of The Tower, the barbecue restaurant where the family stops for lunch. Red Sammy is a good man according to the grandmother, trusting and even gullible to a fault. He has a monkey. He’s sad that people aren’t trustworthy like they used to these days, he says, “a good man is hard to find”. He encounters a person of like mind in the grandmother. He appears to be the only person in the story who enjoys her conversation.
    10. Red Sammy’s wife
    Red Sammy’s wife is a “tall burnt-brown woman with hair and eyes lighter than her skin”. She helps Red Sammy run The Tower restaurant and is apparently responsible for taking people’s orders and preparing them.
    Conclusion
    “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” is a short story that starts out somewhat humorous but foreshadows a tragic ending. The story contains elements of southern “Gothic Tradition”, a fictional setting that fills its stories with foreshadowing and replaces the wondering thoughts with reality. A southern-Gothic story may call up ghosts of the past, as Bailey’s mother does when she dresses in her Sunday best so she be identified as a lady when she is found dead on the side of the road, and when she persuades her family to visit an old run-down plantation with a secret panel of a family’s hidden silver.
    The behavior of the characters shows how the values of the world are breaking down. John Wesley and June Star are brats with smart mouths, but their parents do nothing to discipline them. Although Bailey’s mother realizes that the world is not the same, “People are certainly not nice like they used to be” (O’Conner paragraph 35) she is oblivious of her own issues: She nags, she lies, she is too focused on her looks, and she uses offensive terms such as “nigger” and “pickaninny.”

    References

    O’Connor, M. F. A good Man is hard to find. (in Parlindunganpardede.wordpress.com) Jakarta: FKIP-UKI.
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta:FKIP-UKI
    Retrieved on November, 6th 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literature.
    Pardede,(2011), Anlyzing Fiction retrieved November 14, 2011 from https://parlindunganpardede.wordpress.com/2011/11/14/analyzing-fictions/

  54. The Rocking Horse Winner
    By. DH Lawrence
    I. Introduction

    Fiction is the form of any work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary and theoretical—that is, invented by the author. Although fiction describes a major branch of literary work, it may also refer to theatrical, cinematic, or musical work. Fiction contrasts with non-fiction, which deals exclusively with factual (or, at least, assumed factual) events, descriptions, observations, etc. (e.g., biographies, histories). There are three types of fiction, namely realistic fiction, non realistic fiction and semi fiction.

    Realistic fiction, although untrue, could actually happen. Some events, the people, and the places may even be real. It can be possible that in the future imagined events could physically happen. For example, Jules Verne’s novel From The Earth To The Moon was proven possible in 1969, when Neil Armstrong landed on the Moon. Another sub-genre that may be included in this is crime fiction like: Sherlock Holmes by Arthur Conan Doyle, Hercule Poirot by Agatha Christie, Gremlin Greaves by Svaj Darwin and so on. All these works depict a fictional but plausible story.
    Non-realistic fiction is that in which the story’s events could not happen in real life, which involve an alternate form of history of mankind other than that recorded, or need impossible technology. A good deal of fiction books are like this, including works by Lewis Carroll (Alice In Wonderland), J. K. Rowling (Harry Potter), and J. R. R. Tolkien (The Lord of the Rings). However, even fantastic literature is bidimensional: it is situated between the poles of realism and the marvelous or mythic.
    Semi-fiction is fiction implementing a great deal of non-fiction, for example: a fictional depiction “based on a true story”, or a fictionalized account, or a reconstructed biography. Often, even when the author claims the story is true, there may be significant additions and subtractions from the true story to make it more suitable for storytelling.
    For more specify the short stories that I analysis titled the rocking horse winner, written by DH Lawrence . This story is very interesting me because it is about a boy who is looking for justification. The author was born in 1885 in Eastwood, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. He is well known for his poems, notably Birds, Beast and Flowers (1923), and in his Letters (7 vols, 1979–93). His novels include Aaron’s Rod (1922), Kangaroo (1923), and The Plumed Serpent (1926).
    This paper deals with the setting of the short story. Setting is the place where the events occur and the time or age of the action. Sometimes setting is referred to as milieu, to include a context (such as society) beyond the immediate surroundings of the story. In some cases, setting becomes a character itself and can set the tone of a story (Rozelle 2005, p. 2). It include what in the theater would be called props and properties – the implements employed by the character in various activity. In short, the setting of a work is the sum total of references to physical and temporal objects and artifacts (Roberts, 1977:75). The setting of fiction could be classfield into two major types: natural setting and artificial (manufactured) setting.

    II. Analysis

    A. Synopsis of the rocking horse winner

    Based on the stories that I read, I can conclude that the story tells about a family that looks lived in luxury, have a luxurious appearance but keep the problem in it. Problems that plagued the family is financial. Where they do not have enough money to be able to send to school their children. One day when their child was opening his Christmas gift, he heard that his parents need a lot of money. And with his innocence the boy asked his mother about the problems that occur. But she did not answer truthfully. His mother just said luck is not solely money. Since he was little, he was looking for what his mother exactly mean with “luck”. He asked his uncle who worked in his home. But he still did not understand all of it. Then his uncle invited him to go to a church. Then those who were in the church explained with reasoning of children. Until finally the boy understood.

    B. Setting of the rocking horse winner

    The rocking horse winner has some settings in the story, namely house, town, horse riding, car, church, christmas, need to have a lot of money (sound describe), playroom, afternoon (the smell), heaven (artificial setting), turf commission deposit.

    House. There are many stories in the short story that the setting is in the house. Starting from the beginning of the story, when the author tells the life story of a woman who is unhappy with her marriage, until he was told about the state of the house.

    Town. Stories relating to the town is not explained in the story. Because the author only describe the state of her husband when looking for a job in the town but he does not get it.

    Horse riding. Described when a boy who was looking for an answer, and then he invited his uncle went to the church by using horse who he was driving alone.

    Car. Car that meant in the story is not the physical form. But it is only spoken by the boy Paul. He asked his mother why he did not use the car like other families.

    Church. This setting used when a boy asked by someone in the church about the meaning of “luck” that spoken by his mother.

    Christmas. Christmas is a time that is expressed in the story. Where there is told that when a boy is opening his Christmas gifts, he heard a voice that said, “There must be more money!”

    “Need to have a lot of money” is a voice that sounded by a boy in the story. And the word that is included in the sound describe, which have meaning in story the winner horse riding.

    Playroom is the setting which a boy was being opened christmas gift given by his parents, and that place also he heard a voice saying “need to have a lot of money”

    Afternoon is a time in the story which at the time was one men of the church who promised a child to meet.

    Heaven. Heaven is an artificial setting contained in the story. Where a little boy named Paul imagining he was there.

    Turf deposit commission is a place where a boy named Paul took the money, and to be used for combined, so that he got amount of money he wants.

    III. Conclusion

    The riding horse winner that written by D. H lawrence, written with some settings, starting from natural settings such as house, town, horse riding, car, church, christmas and playroom until artificial (manufactured) setting such as “need to have a lot of money” (sound describe), afternoon (the smell), and heaven. This story was made with a very interesting, which he can bring readers into the story. And with a series of words that he made the reader can easily understand the content of reading. And can take a message that is implied in the story.

    REFERENCES

    pardede, p. (2008). An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction (p. 34).
    Wikipedia foundation, Inc. (2013). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiction

  55. The plot of the Far from the eyes of the sun_Aaron Hellem

    (Tuti Sihite)

    ANALISYS
    Introduction
    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experiences, emotions, and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to relity. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to throughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for instance, find it difficult to see the relationship among the actions and events that develop the plot. Some others may find it intricated to make out the theme. Some others find it complicated to figure out the characters’ qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented.
    To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. Literary analysis is indeed an intricated process because it necessitates a good understanding of the works elements and how these elements are combined to create a unified literary work. Roberts (1977: 6) explains that literary analysis is the process of breaking up a literaty work into smaller units so that each of the elements nature, function, and meaning could be deeply discerned, and the corelation among the elements could be easily defined.
    This paper deals with the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology, i.e. a study aimed to analyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.

    1. Synopsis of “Far from the eyes of the sun”
    Far from the eyes of the sun is a story about three man; : Len, Mince, and Big Joe, who in a very danger and tighten situation. The quite and dibble place with the roar of the wolves outsite the home where they stay. The lonelyness that never ending be the part of their life.this three man can’t do anything and can’t go anywhere because outside is very danger,there’s so many hungry wolves that waiting for them. No clear water,no food,they’re hungry just like the wolves outside.so everyday they just drink the dirty water that they take from outside, The water wasn’t any good, but none of them had gotten the dysentery yet.so they just mix it with the whiskey. Big joe did the pouring half whiskey, a quarter water, and then they drink it.
    Every night the shawdow always come oround their house where they live and the roar of the wolves always comes in the middle of the night in the darkness. The three men could hear the wolves circling around the house. Some of the wolves barked, yelped. Others howled and others answered, farther away in the darkness. Mince watched them from the window, and the other two men listened from the table. They poured drinks, but only Len drank his. Big Joe kept his ears cocked for the sounds outside. He said he thought the wolves would surround the place and wait them out. Wolves knew hunger better and longer than the three men ever had to. All three men were quiet as they strained to listen for the wolves, trying to hear them on the porch, at the door. So the ending of the story,they can doing nothing.and they will be die sadden there,in the house that sorounded by the hungry wolves.

    2. plot types
    Far From the Eyes of the Sun is written by employing a chronological plot. From the beginning until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place,where the way the three man give up at the end of the story that they sat down and All three men were quiet as they strained to listen for the wolves, trying to hear the hungry wolves on the porch, at the door. It is told after told the three man effort in that situation to keep alive and go away from the hungry and dangerous wolves.

    3. Plot Stages and Elements
    The plot of Far From the Eyes of the Sun devoted the exposition, begins by introducing. These paragraphs introduce the reader with the place and time settings and the three major characters. Len, Mince, and Big Joe are being introduced to the reader, it briefly describes in the text ”They sat around the kitchen table, which, in another town, in another time, had been a church pew.Two church pews.They were three:Len,Mince,and Big Joe.”
    The conflict of the story is they are suffer to keep alive because they’re hungry and no food avaliable in the house “the dog was in the oven with its fur still on. It was stinking to all high heaven, and all the way back down to hell” (paragraph.1) “Big Joe fetched water from the creek and Mince opened a new bottle. The dog was in the oven because there weren’t any more hogs to be had and the cattle were all dead.” (paragraph.2) other complications such as when “Mince watched the dog in the oven closely, his chair turned so he could see into it. The dog stank like Death’s dirty laundry even though Mince had rubbed it with butter and sage” (paragraph 3).
    And then they suffer it describe in “alone felt the vulnerability” (7) “Len had always known he was going to die”(8). “Big Joe was not afraid of anything and was big enough to only be stopped by a bullet. He was sad though to think about dying without ever touching a woman again. To die among dogs with no woman to comfort him” (p.9)
    The climax is reached when the wolves come to circling their house and want to attact the three man,and actually the wolves want the dog that they saved in oven. “What are they? Mince asked. He was still watching out the window.
    Wolves.Out there? Big Joe said.
    They’re circling the porch, Mince said.
    They surrounded me at the creek. What about the dog?
    What do they want? Mince said. He watched the shadows of the wolves move around them, move around the house in the night.
    “The dog, maybe, Big Joe said.”
    After the climax there’s no solution because at the end they are all can’t go out from the house and at the end there’s a silent situation where they just quite and and wait their time,no hope anymore because they’ll die in that house.they’re give up.
    The three men could hear the wolves circling around the house. Some of the wolves barked, yelped. Others howled and others answered, farther away in the darkness.They poured drinks, but only Len drank his. Big Joe kept his ears cocked for the sounds outside. He said he thought the wolves would surround the place and wait them out. Wolves knew hunger better and longer than the three men ever had to.
    They’ll wait us out, Big Joe said. They can last three days. Three whole days ”
    Sat down and poured himself a tall one, too, like the other two men. All three men were quiet as they strained to listen for the wolves, trying to hear them on the porch, at the door. There’s no hope in them in that time, where they feel give up, because there’s nothing that they can hope anymore.And at the time the wolves circling the house and the wolves want to revenge to them. it decribed in “I told you we shouldn’t have eaten mongrel, he said. They’re here for revenge.” “It’s no use watching them, Len said to Mince, and drank long and pensive. Mince was looking for the flashes of faint white and gray circling in the night. It won’t slow them down, Len said. Or stop them at all. Mince came back to the table.” And than “Sat down and poured himself a tall one, too, like the other two men. All three men were quiet as they strained to listen for the wolves, trying to hear them on the porch, at the door.”

    4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    The Far From the Eyes of the Sun had chronological plot interesting. The use of plot to present the theme, Aaron Hellem ability to effectively present the theme through plot. The theme of the story is the idea that the three man try to keep their life from the attract of the wolves outside the house, it’s begin from their effort to take the water from outside the house however the water is not good enough,but that’s the way their effort to keep alive. “Big Joe came back with the water. The water wasn’t any good, but none of them had gotten the dysentery yet. Big Joe did the pouring: half whiskey, a quarter water.” And the other is the dog in the oven, they don’t like it but they keep it.that show that they try to do something that can help them to keep alive in the middle of the hungry wolves without foods around them, but al last fate said that they’ll die poorly there,in the house which there are so many hungry wolves,there’s the darkness,lonlyness,and the misery.
    Conclusion
    The Far From the Eyes of the Sun his written in a simple cronological plot,and the story , it is really interesting due to Aao Hellem’s expertise in arranging the events that keeps the reader’s curiosity to finish reading the story. He also makes the story far from boring by varying the use of the summary and scenic methods to tell the story. In addition, Aao Hellem also succeeds to employ the interesting plot to effectively present the main theme of the story.
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Aaron Hellem The plot of the Far from the eyes of the sun. (in Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI).

  56. MID TERM PROSE
    A SETTING ANALYSYS OF “THE LOTTERY” SHIRLEY JACKSON
    INTRODUCTION
    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experience, emotions, and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to reality. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to thoroughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for instance, find it difficult to see the relationship among the actions and events that develop the setting. Some others may find it intricate to make out the characters’ qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented,
    To higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. Literary analysis is indeed an intricate process because it necessitates a good understanding of the works elements and how these elements are combined to create a unified literary work. Roberts (1977:6) explains that literary analysis is the process of breaking p a literary work into smaller units so that each of the elements nature, function, and meaning could be deeply discerned, and the correlation among the elements could be easily defined.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate “The Lottery” a short story by Shirley Jackson “The Lottery”, aroused much controversy and criticism in 1948, following its debut publication, in the New Yorker. Jackson uses irony and comedy to suggest an underlying evil, hypocrisy, and weakness of human kind.
    This paper deals with the setting of the short story. Discussion are focused on the identification of setting, The analysis carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology, i.e. a study aimed to analysis a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.
    ANALYSIS
    1. Synopsis of “The Lottery”
    “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson on a warm June day in a town of about three hundred people and describes an annual event in the town, a tradition that is apparently widespread among surrounding villages as well. Children arrive in the town square first and engage in “boisterous play.” Some of the boys create a “great pile of stones in one corner of the square.”
    When the men of the village arrive they stand away from the stones, joke quietly, and smile instead of laugh.
    The women arrive next. As they join their husbands, they call to their children. One mother’s voice carries no weight, and it is her husband that commands Bobby Martin’s attention.
    The event for which they gather is a lottery conducted by Mr. Summers, a neatly dressed, jovial business man with a wife but no children. Although many traditional customs associated with the lottery seemed to have been lost over time, Mr. Summers still has ”a great deal of fussing to be done” before he declares the lottery open. He has created lists of households, their heads, and their members. He and Mr. Graves, the postmaster, have spent the previous night making up slips of paper to be placed in a shabby black box that has been used for the lottery for as long as Mr. Summers can remember.
    As Mr. Summers is about to begin the drawing, Tessie Hutchinson hurries to join the crowd. She had forgotten that today was the lottery and remembered while she was washing dishes. She speaks briefly with Mrs. Delacroix about her forgetfulness and makes her way to stand beside her husband. Mr. Summers then begins to call off the names of each family in the village. As the household name is called, the male head of the family steps up to Mr. Summers and draws a slip of paper from the box. All are told not to look at the slip until after the last name has been called. During the time it takes to complete the drawing, Mr. Adams notes that some towns have started to talk about doing away with the lottery. Old Man Warner, participating in his seventy-seventh lottery, snorts at the idea and says that would only cause trouble.
    After the last name has been drawn, there is a long pause before Mr. Summers tells the men to look at their slips of paper. When Tessie Hutchinson realizes that her husband holds the marked slip, she cries out that the process was not fair. The reader learns at this moment that the lottery does not offer a reward or prize in the traditional sense. Tessie claims her husband had to rush to choose the slip of paper and that her daughter and son-in-law should be included in the next round. Her husband tells her to be quiet as Mr. Graves puts only five slips of paper into the box, one for each family member who lives in the Hutchinson household.
    The Hutchinson children pick first, followed by Bill and then Tessie. The two older children look at their slips and rejoice. Mr. Hutchinson looks at his and shows the blank paper to Mr. Summers. It is then clear that Tessie has drawn the unfortunate slip and Mr. Summers asks the townspeople to complete the lottery quickly. They begin to gather up stones and throw them at Tessie.
    B. SETTING OF “THE LOTTERY”
    Setting refers to the location of a story or novel in terms of place, time
    a. The setting of place
    This story takes setting in the some places such as the people of the village began to gather in the square between the post office and the bank, School was recently over for the summer, and the feeling of liberty sat uneasily on most of them.
    b. The setting of time
    This story takes setting time in the morning of June 27th was clear and sunny, with the fresh warmth of a full-summer day; the flowers were blossoming profusely and the grass was richly green, where there were only about three hundred people, the whole lottery took less than two hours, at ten o’clock in the morning and still be through in time to allow the villagers to get home for noon dinner.
    CONCLUSION
    When I first read this story, I thought it would be a about a struggle in the person life and survival. The story was about survival but I never thought that it would turn out like this. It shocked me when one of the villagers handed Bill’s youngest a stone to throw at his mom. How horrible could this story get but I must say it’s one of the best short stories I’ve ever read
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Jackson, Shirley. The Lottery.(Pardede,Parlindingan.2006.An Introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI).
    Retrieved from http://www.sparknotes.com/short-stories/the-lottery/section1.rhtm

    CIANLY

  57. THE PLOT OF “SIGN AND SYMBOLS”

    Introduction

    Fiction is literary work based on the imagination and not necessarily on fact. The author write his material from experience and observation of life, the author selects and shapes them to his purposes, which includes entertainment and the illumination of human experience. It represents human beings performing certain possible actions. Usually the author does not tell us directly the purpose of the story. The author have the reader discovering the meaning by reflecting on the action itself and the meaning of life which is supported by evidence, allusions, and current event. By reading fiction/ short-story, we could broad our experience and extend our sympathies, furthermore, it helps us to understand life and humanize ourselves. (Pardede, 2008)

    By analyzing a short story or novel, you gain a better understanding of the story. You also acquire a better appreciation of fiction and literature. And, you can learn how the writer used the elements of fiction and various literary techniques, such as simile, metaphor, and imagery to create a memorable story. Analyzing fiction will also help you learn how to write your own stories. There are some elements there are some elements that can help us to get the purpose of the text, plots, setting, characters, theme, point of view, symbolism, and style and tone. Plots refers to the main event that take place throughout the story. Setting refers to the time, place, and social and historical context. Characters refers to the protagonist, villain, and secondary characters in the story. The writer develop a character by what the character thinks, what the character does, what the character says, what the character looks like, and by what others say about the character. All stories include a protagonist. Many stories include an antagonist or villain. Many stories also include secondary or minor characters. Theme refers to the main idea of the story. It is the truth the writer reveals. Often, the writer doesn’t explicitly reveal the theme. Some stories don’t have a theme. In this stage, we can use some questions like, what is the theme of the story? Is it implicit or explicit? does the theme offer a new insight into the human condition or human experience? Point of view, it refers to the person who is telling the story. This is the narrator of the story. For instance, the story can be told from the first-person perspective, such as the protagonist or eye witness. Or, the story can be told from the third-person perspective, which means the narrator is not a character in the story. Remember that the author and narrator are not the same. The narrator is the person who is telling the story. Symbolism refers to the symbol to mean something other than its literal meaning. For instance, an owl can represent wisdom. There are some questions that we can use to analyze the symbolism like, what sort of symbols are used by the writer? Do any characters acts as a symbols? Style and tone refers to the writer’s choice of language and the sentence types and structures. The tone refers to writer’s attitude toward the subject and readers. (Hood, 2010)

    In this paper I try to analyze the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of Signs and Symbols
    It is a stroy about couple who has a kid and they were in problem since they didn’t know what they should give to their child for his birthday’s present. They knew they can’t give their child any gadget that might offend him or frighten him because, for their son, man-made objects were either hives of evil, vibrant with a malignant activity that he could perceive. So they have decided to give him a basket with ten different fruit jellies.
    At his birthday, their parents confronted with contretemps, the subway train lost its life current between two stations, the bus they had take was late and when the bus come, it was crammed with high-school children, rain drop as they walked, and the worse part is when a nurse forbid them to meet their son. They returned home and she paged through their photo albums–their lives in Germany and Russia, Minsk, the Revolution, Leipzig, Berlin. And the photographs reveal the onset of this mania: the boy at eight afraid of the wallpaper. Then she reflects on the ugly, vicious, backward children he was placed with when they arrived in America. But she had accepted this for, “living does mean accepting the loss of one joy after another.”
    Then, around midnight, her husband awoke, moaning. He felt sick that his son was in the sanitarium and not with them. They simply must bring him home. She agrees and they are looking forward to the morning.
    Then the phone rings (at midnight!) and a girl’s voices asked to speak to Charlie. The woman explains it’s the wrong number and hangs up. She admits she was frightened by the phone, but they settle down to their tea. The phone rings again, It is the same girl. The woman again says it is the wrong number. And the phone rings another time.

    2. Plot Types
    Signs and symbols is written with logical-sequence plot. Since the author use flashback in the middle of the story. The woman remembered when she and her husband figured out about their son’s disease. She also remebered her German maid that she had in Liepzig, her aunt, a slanting house.

    3. Use of Plot to heighthen suspense
    Another achievement that Nabukov gets is the way he make readers feel what the characters feel in this story. As a parents it must be hard if we can’t live together with our son. We also could feel how was that couples felt when they couldn’t meet with their boy. The author also give some element to draw a grief condition.

    “ Every time she glanced at his old hands, clasped and twitching upon the handle of his umbrella, and saw their swollen veins and brown-spotted skin, she felt the mounting pressure of tears.”

    In this part, Vladimir show some movement, gesture of sadness from the old woman. The writer also show what was her husband felt in this story.

    “ It was nearly midnight when, from the living room, she heard her husband moan and presently he staggered in.”

    “No doctors, no doctors,” he moaned. “to the devil with doctors! We must get him out of there quick. Otherwise, we’ll be responsible… responsible!”

    4. Stages and Elements of Plot
    Signs and Symbols has four stage of plot, exposition, complication, climax and resolution. In first and second paragraph, the author introduce character and place setting of this story. (Pardede, 2008 : 30) There is a couple who has been married for a long time and their son. This couple lived in New York. The author also try to draw the old woman from her physical appereance. In the first paragraph, the reader will see a conflict that the author give. a conflict between the old man and woman who want to give a birthday present to their son.

    “For the fourth time in as many years, they were confronted with the problems of what present to take to a young man who was incurably deranged in his mind.”

    “Man-made objects were to him either hives of evil, vibrant with a malignant activity that he alone could perceive, or gross comforts for which no use could be found in his abstract world.”

    In third paragraph, the author proceeded the conflict with complication. In their son’s birthday, everything went wrong, the train broke down, the bus was late, and when they reached in sanitarium where their son stay, nurse that they knew disallow them to meet with their son because of his son tried to take his life. In paragraph six, the old woman remembered the last time the boy had tried to do it. It is a conflict between the boy and his will. He want to tear a hole in his world and escape.

    Climax that the author created in this story is when he wanted to take his son back to home. In midnight, the old woman heard her husband moan and staggered in, and he started to cry and want to take back his son.

    “I can’t sleep!”
    “Why you can’t sleep?” she asked “you were so tired.”
    “I can’t sleep because I am dying,” he said, and lay down on the couch.
    “ Is it your stomach? Do you want me to call Dr. Solov?”
    “No doctors, no doctors,” he moaned. “to the devil with doctors! We must get him out of there quick other wise we’ll be responsible … responsible!”

    Soon after climax, Vladimir presents the resolutions, the husband have figured it out, he will prepared a bedroom for him and each of them will spend part of the night near him and the other part on couch. And he will have the doctor see him a least twice a week.

    Vladimir also used a device to shift to an earlier time and action to provide an explanation for the present situation or we called it flashback. In some paragraph, the author used it to explain about the condition of the boy and the memory of the old woman with her previous life.

    Conclusion
    Signs and Symbols is an interesting short-story. Vladimir try to expose the old woman feeling to her son. It makes the reader could feel the same like the old woman. He also expose all things that the old woman accepted through the device that the author used in this short-story.

    Bibliography
    Hood, D. (2010, January 28). Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http://davehood59.wordpress.com/2010/01/28/how-to-analyze-fiction/

    Nabokov, V. (1948, May 15). Newyorker. Retrieved november 07, 2013, from Newyorker: http://www.newyorker.com

    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta.

  58. CHARACTERIZATION OF “A HUNGER ARTISTS” by: Franz Kafka
    Dina M. Sitorus / 1012150003

    A. Introduction
    Fiction is a story about something which is just creativity of writer with purpose to console the readers. “Fiction is a particularly rewarding form of literature”. (Pardede P 2008: 3). So, this is usually the result of imagination colored by culture, personal experiences or others, educational, moral and others. Author modifies the story with the purpose of attracting the attention of the reader and invites the reader reasoning. This is supported by style of writer in language, especially in fable. In addition, the author also varies or enriches the story with elements of intrinsic elements of literature including fiction, for example, theme, plot, setting, style, characterization, etc.
    Fiction, especially short storiesare veryfamiliarto the publicbecause it relates toeveryday life. Topicstorythat the public’s interestedis alsovaried; it is dependingonpersonalinterests. “Beautiful words are something objective, people can understand or confuse about it” (Lockcman, 1965: 16).However, theseare usually moreaffected byage, for example:childrenare more interested inshort storiesaboutanimals, teensare more interested inromance,whileadults are moreinterestedabout thefamily, etc. Manyreaders find the difficulties tounderstand the purposeorthe message contained of story. These are caused of the powerof reasoningoranalysis ofeveryreaderis different andlimited.
    One purposeofthis paperistohelp the publicorthe readers in understandingoranalyzing theshort story, especiallyin terms ofcharacterizationof “HungerArtist”. The discussion inthis paperincludesallthe characters inbothstoriesthe main character, as well astheextrasorextrascharactersthathave thereasonablesupportfor thestory. Characterizationscan be describedthroughdialogueamong actress, another characterresponseto themain character, orcharacterthoughts. Throughcharacterizations, it is known thatthe characterisagood, evil, orbe responsible. Analysis thecharacterizationin this paperbasedonthe contentof thefictioninshortstoryofHungerArtistbyKafka.

    B. Analysis
    1. SynopsisofHungerArtist
    Thehungerartistisashort storythat tells about thelife ofcircusperformers. In the beginning of story, he is storied as a rich artist who works in his own management. Each his show is always success and all of tickets are in demand. However,there arethings that makethe audiencecuriousandmore interested towatchthecircusperformersactsareritualfastingof the artistisinthecage. Spectatorsalsochoosetoobserversobservehungerartistasevidencetoconvincethepublicwill befasting. Theobserverdepressedandcouldnotsleepin peaceevencould notsleepat all.
    Another factisthat heisa famous artist,whotouredeverywherebuthe was nothappy. Moreover, hecannotenjoy his lifebecausehecould notevenenjoyhis favorite foodand gofreely. He lived in cage, without eating and friends. In poor conditiondue tonoteatingorin a state ofstarvation, he wasstill forcedhimself todo theshowandhefinallycollapsed. Impresariotrying todivertthe attention ofthe audiencebutthe audienceactuallybrokeandno one carestocondition ofhungerartist. Thissituationmadehimmakethe decisionto rest.
    After some time resting, hunger artist toured Europe, but no one was interested in watching it. The hunger artist fires his manager and signs on as an act in a large circus. At the circus, the hunger artist is just a sideshow. His cage is placed in between the main and the animal circus menagerie, roommates’ sounds rather embarrassing. Circus-goers stream past his cage on the way to the menagerie of exotic animals, and they barely notice his existence. This makes the hunger artist locked himself in the cage and continue fasting, until one day, the cage supervisor attention to be moved. Finally, one of the staff was given the hunger artist who was holed up in a cage and does it fast.
    Actually, the condition of hunger artist was very bad. He was sorry to impresario and finally he told about his fast reason. The first reason was that he wanted to get admirable from his impresario, and the second is that the hunger artist is miserable artist. It was because he knew that he could have fasted longer and that his supposed fans actually hate him. This sentence was the last words from the hunger artist before he died. They buried the hunger artist along with the straw; even in his cage, they put a young panther. Without thinking about it for any length of time, the guards brought the animal food whose taste it enjoyed. It never seemed once to miss its freedom. Moreover, the people who were bored to watch hunger artist, were more interested to watch the panther. So, the popular history of hunger artist had pasted which related to his life.

    2. Analyzing of Characters
    Character is figures which represent persons in a literary work” (Pardede P, 2008). The characteristics of each character can we see from perform of each artist. For example, a bed character: as human beings, we see people hungry, but do nothing. Moreover, force the other (hunger artist) to work. This story draws the situation in entertainment management. There is exploitation or careless from management of artist for the condition or problems of artist. They just think about job and money, beside of that Kafka by writing the hunger artist story wants to open the life of artist. In entertainment word, the popular of artist is for a short time because after that they will see unpopular time. So, they need to save their money but care of our live is most important. Another thing is about character of hunger artist who is crazy of honour.
    Grouping of characterization, we can see from their actor which in this story, the major actor is hunger artist. The characters of story only refer to the characters by their occupation – artist, impresario (manager), supervisor, escort, and overseer – and never by their proper name. This mode of characterization tends to give the story an allegorical quality, like a parable. Allegory involves using many interconnected symbols or allegorical figures in such a way that in nearly every element of the narrative has a meaning beyond the literal level, i.e., everything in the narrative is a symbol that relates to occupation in entertainment word.
    In this article, the characterization of each actor will be discussed in specific analysis based on the plot of story. There are major and minor characters. The explaining of each characteris below:

    1. Hunger artist
    Hunger artist is a protagonist in short story of “Hunger Artist”. He is a center actor in story from star up to the end of story. In the beginning of story, hunger artist is drawn as a popular artist and professional faster: “there was good money to be earned putting on major productions of this sort under one’s own management … From day to day while the fasting lasted, participation increased. Everyone wanted to see the hunger artist at least once a day.” (Kafka, 19: paragraph 1)
    He does the past with patient: “It was, however, merely a formality, introduced to reassure the masses, for those who understood knew well enough that during the period of fasting the hunger artist would never, under any circumstances, have eaten the slightest thing, not even if compelled by force” (Kafka, paragraph2 ). However, a professional faster character is just a liesbecause the reason of hunger artist to do past is not devotion of his professionalism:“I always wanted you to admire my fasting,” said the hunger artist.” (Kafka, paragraph9 ). The destination or the end of his past is no one know, moreover himself; this is as a prove of his lies that he is not a professional circus artist: “And so the hunger artist kept fasting on and on, as he once had dreamed about in earlier times, and he had no difficulty at all managing to achieve what he had predicted back then, but no one was counting the days—no one, not even the hunger artist himself, knew how great his achievement was by this point.” (Kafka, paragraph 8) .
    In the end of the story, the character of hunger artist is drawn as an unsuccessful artist: “They depressed him. They made his fasting terribly difficult …. In order to spare his own feelings, he didn’t even look at the terms of his contract at all” (Kafka, paragraph 2). His final words indicate that, above all, he has unsuccessfully sought to give and receive love through his body, not merely suffer.
    Based on above analysis, the Character of Hunger artist is dynamic. A dynamic character is a person who changes over time, usually as a result of resolving a central conflict or facing a major crisis. Most dynamic characters tend to be central rather than peripheral characters, because resolving the conflict is the major role of central characters. In this story for the first, hunger artist’s characters is a popular and professional artist: “Whereas in earlier days there was good money to be earned putting on major productions of this sort under one’s own management” ….“From day to day while the fasting lasted, participation increased. Everyone wanted to see the hunger artist at least once a day” (Kafka, paragraph 1).
    Then, the character of hunger artist is a failed or un-success artist: “During the intervals in the main performance, when the general public pushed out towards the menagerie in order to see the animals, they could hardly avoid moving past the hunger artist and stopping there a moment (Kafka, paragraph7 ). Thissentence shows that the position of hunger artist in show has changed, from central show to be side show. The other sentence, that proves him as a failed artist is when he never felt the delight of life: “because I couldn’t find a food which tasted good to me. If had found that, believe me, I would not have made a spectacle of myself and would have eaten to my heart’s content, like you and everyone else” (Kafka, paragraph 9).

    2. Impresario
    The impresario is a minor character, who serves to complement the major characters and help move the plot events forward. The impresario’s character is drawn as a symbol of the corruptive forces of capitalism. He restricts the hunger artist’s free will and creativity, limiting his fasts to forty days and humiliating the hunger artist in public by shaking him and lying about his lack of endure. He is a careless person because he exploits his artist without sees the condition of artist: “The impresario came forward without a word…. The impresario put a little food into the mouth of the hunger artist, now dozing as if he were fainting, and kept up a cheerful patter designed to divert attention away from the hunger artist’s condition” (Kafka, paragraph 9), “Nobody knew, until one man, with the help of the table with the number on it, remembered the hunger artist. ….And they buried the hunger artist along with the straw. But in his cage they put a young panther” (Kafka, paragraph10 ).

    3. Audience
    People are the hunger artist’s fans and fascinated by watching the hunger artist fast. They are interested to see the horror attraction of hunger artist as a result of his fast, and also to notice his fast proven. “Apart from the changing groups of spectators there were also constant observers chosen by the public—strangely enough they were usually butchers—who, always three at a time, were given the task of observing the hunger artist day and night, so that he didn’t get anything to eat in some secret manner” (Kafka, paragraph 3 ).
    However, they are bored to watch his performance and change his fans circus artist. And also, They desert the hunger artist without notice one day, entranced instead by his opposite, the vital, appetitive panther. “The impresario chased around half of Europe one more time with him, to see whether he could still re-discover the old interest here and there. It was all futile.”
    “. And they buried the hunger artist along with the straw. But in his cage they put a young panther” (Kafka, paragraph 10).

    4. Panther
    Panther is an animal, which is as a symbol of vitality, freedom, and appetite. This animal replaces the hunger artist in his cage after he dies. It hypnotizes the audience as a new spectacle of horror without remembers of hunger artist as a spectacular circus artist in this cage. “Even for a person with the dullest mind it was clearly refreshing to see this wild animal prowling around in this cage, which had been dreary for such a long time. It lacked nothing” (Kafka, paragraph 10)

    5. Escorts
    The young ladies escort the hunger artist out of his cage at the end of his fasts. They appear kind, but are cruel and repulsed by the hunger artist; one cries when she touches him
    “…finally two young ladies arrived, happy about the fact that they were the ones who had just been selected by lot, and sought to lead the hunger artist down a couple of steps out of the cage, where on a small table a carefully chosen hospital meal was laid out. And at this moment the hunger artist always fought back” (Kafka, paragraph 3 ).

    C. Conclusion
    Based on the above analysis of characterization, the writer thinks that the author was success to draw the artist’ management. This is full of exploitation and corruptive forces of capitalism. He uses the characters of profession and animal to make this story is near to reader, because most of people are familiar to infotainment word. After reading this story, we will get information about infotainment word and the condition of artist. That characters are usually happened in our entertainment life, it is proven by many artists who claim their management.
    Kafka describes the Hunger Artist story from many sides. The first is about artist side, who is Hunger artist. He is a symbol of misery artist, who didn’t think his life or his body. He just wants to get the popularity or people appreciate, so he signs the contract without many considerations. The second is impresario, which does exploitation and corruption for artist. The third is audiences, who need new and interesting relaxations. All of those help the reader to imagine and understand the story.

    D. Suggestion
    Characterization of this story is complex because it draws the real life especially in entertainment word. It teaches us to think before our ambition to achieve something that no one has ever achieved before and also to delight our life. So, the writer suggestseach person to read this story.

    References
    academia. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/2567437/franz-kafk...
    chekhov, a. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.writework.com/essay/theme-misery-anton-checkov.theme of fiction.
    cyntia, r. (2013, 06). Retrieved 06 2013, from rahelcynthia.wordpress.com.
    pardede, p. (2008). An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. In An Introduction to The Study of Fiction (p. 3).
    pardede, p. (2011, 10). Retrieved from parlindunganpardede.wordpress.com.
    twenymarch. (2013). Retrieved from twenymarch.wordpress.com.
    war, p. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/adventure_time.

  59. An Analysis of Characterization of “Harrison Bergeron” by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.

    Introduction

    Pardede (2011), claimed that Fiction is literature that tells stories which are imagined by the writer or author. It is an imaginary but usually plausible and ultimately truthful prose narrative which dramatizes changes in human relationship. The writer/author draws his material from experience and observation of life. Hence it will include representations of human beings, or characters. Characters are always of high interest in fiction, often its most important element. Even the characters are animals, they almost invariably represent human beings.
    In relation to this, (Karen Bernardo”n.d”), has confirmed that: In fictional literature, authors use many different types of characters to tell their stories. Different types of characters fulfill different roles in the narrative process, and with a little bit of analysis, you can usually detect some or all of the types namely: Major or central characters are vital to the development and resolution of the conflict. In other words, the plot and resolution of conflict revolves around these characters. Minor characters serve to complement the major characters and help move the plot events forward. Dynamic – A dynamic character is a person who changes over time, usually as a result of resolving a central conflict or facing a major crisis. Most dynamic characters tend to be central rather than peripheral characters, because resolving the conflict is the major role of central characters. Static – A static character is someone who does not change over time; his or her personality does not transform or evolve.
    According to Pardede (2011), mentioned that Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experiences, emotions, and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to reality. Even fiction is a work of retelling of life experience, the readers often face difficulty to comprehend the fiction. Consequently, the values of humanism and art which given by the author often can not be understood fully. Most likely the difficulty is caused by lack of literature analysis ability among the readers.
    This analysis is attempt to help the readers to appreciate fiction in general and “Harrison Bergeron”, a short story by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr in particular. This short story is interesting to analyze because the story presents good character aspect and can be applied in life in order to reveal the importance of learning by experience in one’s life.
    This paper is focused on character aspect. The analysis is carried out by using the structural approach because all discussions only based on the content of the short story. The presentation of analysis result uses conventions of academic writing.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of “Harrison Bergeron” by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.

    In the year 2081, everybody was finally equal and George and Hazel Bergeron is a couple that have a son, they called him as Harrison. In relation to this, Unfortunately for them, the government took him away when he was fourteen years old. Because George Bergeron is of above-average intelligence, so someone decided put on a radio in his ear. Piercing sirens, crashes, and booms go off periodically to hinder his thought process. His wife, Hazel, on the other hand, is spectacularly average. But no handicaps on her.

    One night, the Bergerons are sitting in front of the TV watching ballet dance, with ballerinas wearing masks to hide their beauty and weights to hinder their grace and strength. The Ballet is interrupted when one of the ballerinas has an urgent government news announcement to make Harrison Bergeron has escaped. An escaped convict is just what any boring ballet, opera, or interpretive dance routine needs to live things up a bit, and boy does it get lively when Harrison himself rips off the door to the stage and storms on screen.

    He declares himself Emperor and takes one of the ballerinas as his Empress. Just what this society needs to pull it from its homogenized doldrums: a crazed monarchy. Anyway, the two of them dance, fly through the air, kiss the ceiling, then kiss each other. There’s a whole lot of kissing. But the Handicapper General, Diana Moon Glampers, doesn’t seem to care much for kissing (in addition to discouraging strength, intelligence, and beauty), since she shoots them both dead with a shotgun.

    2. Analysis of Characters

    There are five characters in this story. They are consist of human figures: Harrison Bergeron, George Bergeron, Hazel Bergeron, Diana Moon Glampers, and Ballerina. By seeing development of the story, the major character of this story is Harrison Bergeron. George Bergeron and Hazel Bergeron as Harrison’s parent are the minor characters, they function is to support the presence of Harrison Bergeron. Diana Moon Glampers and Ballerina are foil, they are presented only to create bustling atmosphere in order to the story seems more realistic. Based on the characterization of the story, Harrison is dynamic character because he changes over time. “The rest of Harrison’s appearance was Halloween and hardware. Nobody had ever born heavier handicaps. He had outgrown hindrances faster than the H-G men could think them up.” George Bargeron has static character because he just thought and winced until the end of story. “He tried to think a little about the ballerinas, He winced. There was the sound of a rivetting gun in his head.”

    A. Harrison Bergeron
    Harrison Bergeron is protagonist in this story because he is a hero who uphold justice in his country. He is the fourteen-year-old son, who is a genius, and an extraordinarily handsome, athletic, strong and brave person. “Harrison Bergeron, age fourteen,” she said in a grackle squawk, “has just escaped from jail, where he was held on suspicion of plotting to overthrow the government. He is a genius and an athlete, is under-handicapped, and should be regarded as extremely dangerous.” He wants to live as an unimpeded human being and does not want to obey the government’s laws, which has taken on the responsibility of creating equality for the whole American society. He has been jailed by the Handicapper General’s office for planning to overthrow the government. To eliminate any “unfair advantages”, the Handicapper General forces him to wear the most extreme handicaps: huge earphones and spectacles intended to make him half blind and give him tremendous headaches. Harrison, being so large, has to have metal attached to him, making him look more like a junk yard than a man. He also has to wear a red rubber nose and have blackened teeth to make him less handsome. When he escapes from jail, the government describes him as “a genius and an athlete” and tells people that he should be regarded as extremely dangerous. When Harrison enters the television studio, he is convinced that he can overthrow the government. In addition to this talent and egotism, he also possesses artistic and romantic characteristics. He sings and dances with his empress, seemingly able to defy gravity. Tragically, despite Harrison’s superior physical prowess and genius, he is stopped when the Handicapper General, Diana Moon Glampers, shoots him down with a shotgun.

    B. George Bergeron
    George Bergeron is Harrison’s father and Hazel’s husband. A very smart and sensitive character, he is handicapped artificially by the government. Like his son, he has to wear mental handicap radios in his ears to keep him from thinking intensely and analytically. Because he is stronger than average, he has to wear weights around his neck. “And George, while his intelligence was way above normal, had a little mental handicap radio in his ear.” When his wife Hazel suggests that he could take these weights off for a while to relax, he rejects the idea. He wants to obey the laws and is unwilling to risk punishment for a little comfort. He believes that the situation in 2081 is better than it had been back in the days when there was still competition in society. He has much respect for the rules and represents the common passive citizen who does not critique a government that manipulates individuals. Obeying the rules, he is even incapable of recognizing the tragic situation when his son has been shot to death – a harsh critique of passiveness towards authority.
    C. Hazel Bergeron
    Hazel Bergeron is Harrison’s mother and George’s wife. Hazel has perfectly average intelligence, which means that she cannot think deeply about anything. “Hazel had a perfectly average intelligence, which meant she couldn’t think about anything except in short bursts” However, she is a well intention character, a loving wife, who tries to comfort her husband by suggesting he removes his handicap weights. “Why don’t you stretch out on the sofa, so’s you can rest your handicap bag on the pillows, honeybunch.”She cries when she sees what happens to her son but her brain does not allow her to recall what she was crying about. In the end all her kindness counts for nothing as her stupidity outruns her good intentions. Hazel has much in common with the Handicapper General, Diana Moon Glampers. This seems to symbolize that America is ruled by persons of average intelligence, a comment on the competence of those running government.
    D. Diana Moon Glampers
    Despite appearing in person for only four sentences, Handicapper General Diana Moon Glampers represents the oppressive government. It is mentioned early on that Hazel resembles Diana, and Hazel mentions improvements she would make to Diana’s handicap regulations. “Only, if I was Handicapper General, you know what I would do?” said Hazel. Hazel, as a matter of fact, bore a strong resemblance to the Handicapper General, a woman named Diana Moon Glampers”. She appears ruthless when she kills Harrison and his Empress without warning, and threatens the musicians with a similar fate before the broadcast is interrupted, leaving their future ambiguous. Diana’s first and middle names are possibly a reference to Diana, the Roman huntress, virgin goddess of the moon.
    E. Ballerina
    Ballerina is a beautiful dancer who was burdened with an especially ugly mask and excessive weights (“as big as those worn by two hundred pound men”), as she is the fairest, most beautiful and most graceful of the dancers.” their faces were masked, so that no one, seeing a free and graceful gesture or a pretty face,” She reads an announcement card after the stammering announcer is unable to. It is likely, but not stated, that she is the same dancer who Harrison Bergeron takes as his Empress, who is later shot by Diana Moon Glampers for not wearing her handicaps.
    Conclusion
    The Harrison Bergeron by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr, story was success to persuade the reader to do what the author suggested. He were able to persuade the reader to know that in this world so many problems that we are facing. So, if we are burdened with it, so every day we will cry. The author reveals that this story illustrates many unfair government regulations, which make people suffer. as experienced bargeron family. Because the average above normal intelligence of George, so that the government slipped in radio in George Bagerson’s ear. And the most tragic is when government took George and Hazel Bergeron’s fourteen-year-old son, Harrison, away. But, Hazel, the Harrison Bergeron’s mother couldn’t think about it very hard. She couldn’t think about anything except in short bursts. The character of Harrison teach us to strive to get the right that we should have. The message in this story is we should be able to brave in the face of problems and struggle for to get our rights.
    There most interesting thing in this story is when Harrison plucked the mental handicap from her ear, snapped off her physical handicaps with marvelous delicacy. Last of all he removed her mask. He fought to uphold justice in his country.
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI.
    Pardede,(2011), Anlyzing Fiction retrieved November 14, 2011 from https://parlindunganpardede.wordpress.com/2011/11/14/analyzing-fictions/
    Karen Bernardo (”n.d”), retrieved from http://learn.lexiconic.net/characters.htm
    Sarahfaulk ,(”n.d”), retrieved from http://quizlet.com/26908865/unit-i-the-power-of-the-individual-flash-cards/#

    1. An Analysis of Characterization of “Harrison Bergeron” by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.
      Roky Linawaty P (1012150015), Class A

  60. AN ANALYSIS OF SETTING “GOOSEBERRIES” by Anton Chekhov
    MITA WAHYUNI (1012150009)/BS-A

    Background
    Fiction is a processed product of someone’s imagination into the short true storyFictionbasedonexperienceorsurroundingsoflifethatthe author looks.This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in Gooseberries, a short story by Anton Chekhov. The story is interesting to analyze because words is using in this story is simple and easy to understand. Of course this is interesting to read because the title is unique in our hearing.More over the writer this story is famous person, this proved tothat he considered to be the father of the modern short story and play. He put Fiction is a processed product of someone’s imagination or are being written to the author of a short story into the story as if it were real. Fiction based on experience or surroundings of life that the author looks. He makes the reader curious to read it such in this story, he make the title Gooseberries.
    This paper deals with the setting of the short story. It focused on the stages of the setting. This analysis is for take home test Literature class. So,the presentationresultsin theattempt to use therules ofacademicwriting.

    Analysis
    A. Synopsis of Gooseberries
    Gooseberries is short story written towards the end of Chekhov’s life and was first published as the middle story of The Little Trilogy in 1898. It starts when in early morning the sky is overcast with heavy clouds, but it does not rain. There are two old men, Ivan is the veterinary surgeon and Burkin is the schoolmaster, walk across the fields. Ivan prepares to tell his friend a story and lights his pipe in preparation.
    At this point a storm breaks and the men run to shelter at their friend Aliokhin’s estate. They find the forty year-old standing in one of his barns near a winnowing machine. Aliokhin is dirty from his work, and he invites his friends into the main house to bathe. A beautiful young girl named Pelageia brings the men towels and some soap, and all three start to wash. Ivan and Burkin are shocked when the water around Aliokhin turns brown, but Aliokhin makes the excuse that he has not washed for a long while. Unexpectedly, Ivan rushes outside and flings himself into the wide expanse of water in front of the house, flinging his arms around and asking god for mercy.
    The men return to the house, and the Aliokhin ‘sdaugherserves them tea. Ivan recounts the story he had intended to tell Burkin. He explains how he and his younger brother Nikolai spent their childhood “running wild in the country” after their dead father’s estate was liquidated to pay debts and legal bills. Nikolai hated his job as a government official, which he found too restrictive, and yearned to buy himself a country estate. He then became “fearfully avaricious” and married a rich widow whom he did not love in order to raise capital. Nothing deterred the young man from his ambition to buy a townhouse where he could grow gooseberries.
    After the Nikolai’s wife death, he purchased an estate where he planted twenty gooseberry bushes. On a visit to see his brother some years later, Ivan found that Nikolai had become insufferably supercilious. His brother Nikolai likes gooseberries. Ivan left his brother early the next morning, and from that time on he found it impossible to live in town. The peace and quiet of it oppresses him. He was an old man now and no good for the struggle.

    Analysis
    B. Setting of Gooseberries
    Setting refers to the location of a story or novel in terms of place, time, social environment, and physical environment.

    a. The setting of place
    This story takes setting in the some places such as the right stretched away to disappear behind the village a line of hills, the bank of the river, in clear weather, in the calm weather when all Nature seemed gentle and melancholy.

    b. The setting of time
    This story takes setting time in the early morning, when the sky is overcast with heavy clouds. Where there are two old men, Ivan and Burkin , walk across the fields.

    c. The setting of social environment
    The setting in “Gooseberries” deals the social environment of family relationship. For example, IvanIvanich told Bourkin about his brother who was died. He felt sorrow for the death his brother. In this short story tell about Ivan Ivanich and Nicholai Ivanich have different manner. IvanIvanich went in for study and became a veterinary surgeon, while Nicholai was at the Exchequer Court when he was nineteen. He said that his father, Tchimsha-Himalaysky, was a cantonist, but he died with an officer’s rank and left us his title of nobility and a small estate. After his father death the estate went to pay his debts. However, they spent their childhood there in the country. They were just like peasant’s children, spent days and nights in the fields and the woods, minded the horses, and barked the lime-trees, fished, and so on.

    d. The setting of physical environment.
    This story take setting of physical environment place in the field of Russia outside a village. Where in this part includenatural setting such as (both friend and hostile), beautiful and inspiring until rain begins technology (man-made) is in the background for example train and telegraph wire. And then this story also took place in the Aliokhin’shouse. It includes man-made, big, warm, carpeted and so on.

    CONCLUSION
    The whole of this story is interesting, Gooseberries is written in a simple story. Anton Chekhov presents the unique title. So, the reader is curious to read it. Gooseberries in this story means the realization of a dream of wealth, bitter and unripe, savored in spite of this.And of course this story givesa moral message to the reader.

    References
    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta
    Retrieved from http://www.eldritchpress.org/ac/gooseb.html
    Retrieved from http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/chekhov/section8.rhtml

  61. THE PLOT OF ANTON CHEKHOV “GOOSEBERRIES”
    By: Evi Carina br Bangun / 1012150021

    Introduction
    Fiction is the form of any work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary and theoretical—that is, invented by the author. Although fiction describes a major branch of literary work, it may also refer to theatrical, cinematic, or musical. Fiction contrasts with non-fiction, which deals exclusively with factual (or, at least, assumed factual) events, descriptions, observations, etc

    Genre fiction, also known as popular fiction, is plot-driven fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre, in order to appeal to readers and fans already familiar with that genre. Genre fiction is generally distinguished from literary fiction
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiction_genre

    Genre fiction, also known as popular fiction, is plot-driven fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre, in order to appeal to readers and fans already familiar with that genre.[1] Genre fiction is generally distinguished from fiction. Screenwriting teacher Robert McKee defines genre conventions as the “specific settings, roles, events, and values that define individual genres and their subgenres”.[2] These conventions, always fluid, are usually implicit, but sometimes are made into explicit requirements by publishers of fiction as a guide to authors seeking publication. There is no consensus as to exactly what the conventions of any genre are, or even what the genres themselves are; assigning of works to genres is to some extent arbitrary and subjective.

    Plot is a literary term defined as the events that make up a story, particularly as they relate to one another in a pattern, in a sequence, through cause and effect, how the reader views the story, or simply by coincidence.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plot_of_a_story

    A plot is a causal sequence of events in a story or play. It has a beginning, middle, and end and is used by writers and authors to draw the reader into the character’s lives in such a way as to understand the choices the character makes.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and Gooseberries, a short story by Anton Chekhov in particular. The short story is interesting to analyze because it mange’s to dramatize one stage of the process of growing up among teenagers in order to reveal the importance of learning-by-experience in one’s life.
    This paper deals with the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology, i.e. a study aimed to analyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of Gooseberries
    Gooseberries is a short story written by using sweet fruit, fresh and colorful make everyone happy with gooseberries including Nicholay very like gooseberries to somehow there is always a gooseberry – shrub in each one. not a house, not a romantic place he could imagine without its gooseberry – bush.
    He always said “‘Country life has its advantages,’ he used to say. ‘You sit on the veranda drinking tea and your ducklings swim on the pond, and everything smells good. . . and there are gooseberries.’
    “I, Ivan Ivanich, and Nicholai Ivanich, two years younger. I went in for study and became a veterinary surgeon, while Nicholai was at the Exchequer Court when he was nineteen. Our father, Tchimsha-Himalaysky, was a cantonist, but he died with an officer’s rank and left us his title of nobility and a small estate “
    “Years passed; he was transferred to another province. He completed his fortieth year and was still reading advertisements in the papers and saving up his money. Then I heard he was married. Still with the same idea of buying a farmhouse with a gooseberry-bush, he married an elderly, ugly widow, not out of any feeling for her, but because she had money.

    2. Plot Types
    Gooseberries are written by employing a chronological plot. From the beginning until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of the time. The journey to Bourkin to tell a story about the life of the brother of Ivan Ivanich.

    3. Plot Stages and Elements
    Plot Gooseberries have a regular structure that can be neatly divided into four stages: exposes, complication, climax, and resolution. This paragraph introduces the reader to the setting and time as well as the main character, while Ivan Bourkin telling and listening to stories
    “Last time, when we stopped in Prokofyi’s shed,” said Bourkin, “you were going to tell me a story.”
    “Yes. I wanted to tell you about my brother.”
    Inner conflicts Aliokhin wanted very much to go to bed; he had to get up for his work very early, about two in the morning, and now his eyes were closing, but he was afraid of his guests saying something interesting without his hearing it, so he would not go. He did not trouble to think whether what Ivan Ivanich had been saying was clever or right; his guests were talking of neither groats, nor hay, nor tar, but of something which had no bearing on his life, and he liked it and wanted them to go on. . . .
    “However, it’s time to go to bed,” said Bourkin, getting up. “I will wish you good night.”
    The second reason why the use of chronological plot in the short story does not make it boring because Ivan tells the events from the beginning of their lives Nicholai Ivanich “We are two brothers,” he began, “I, Ivan Ivanich, and Nicholai Ivanich, two years younger. I went in for study and became a veterinary surgeon, while Nicholai was at the Exchequer Court when he was nineteen. Our father, Tchimsha-Himalaysky, was a cantonist, but he died with an officer’s rank and left us his title of nobility and a small estate. After his death the estate went to pay his debts. However, we spent our childhood there in the country. We were just like peasant’s children, spent days and nights in the fields and the woods, minded the horses, barked the lime-trees, fished, and so on. . . And you know once a man has fished, or watched the thrushes hovering in flocks over the village in the bright, cool, autumn days, he can never really be a townsman, and to the day of his death he will be drawn to the country. My brother pined away in the Exchequer. Years passed and he sat in the same place, wrote out the same documents, and thought of one thing, how to get back to the country. And little by little his distress became a definite disorder, a fixed idea — to buy a small farm somewhere by the bank of a river or a lake.

    4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    In addition to success in making a simple chronological plot is interesting, the other achievements of Anton checkhov Gooseberries in writing is the ability to effectively present the theme through the groove. The theme of this story is the idea that ” experience is an effective way to learn to be more mature” when young Nicholai time when he was destitute and homeless so he got up and want to be rich, though he must marry a rich old widow in order to pursue his dream to have a garden gooseberries
    “Years passed; he was transferred to another province. He completed his fortieth year and was still reading advertisements in the papers and saving up his money. Then I heard he was married. Still with the same idea of buying a farmhouse with a gooseberry-bush, he married an elderly, ugly widow, not out of any feeling for her, but because she had money.

    Conclusion
    Although Gooseberries is written in a simple chronological plot, it is really interesting due to Chekhov expertise in arranging the events that keeps the reader’s curiosity to finish reading the story. He also makes the story far from boring by varying the use of the summary and scenic methods to tell the story. In addition, Chekhov also succeeds to employ the interesting plot to effectively present the main theme of the story.

    References
    Chekhov Anton . Gooseberries. (in Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI).
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiction_genre
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plot_of_a_story

    THE PLOT OF ANTON CHEKHOV “GOOSEBERRIES”
    TAKE HOME TEST
    LITERATURE II
    By
    Evi Carina Br Bangun
    1012150021

  62. 1. Introduction
    Fiction is a literary work that is a story written based on the experience or the imagination of a writer or author . Fiction is usually written as well based on the true story a writer has ever experienced . When we read a fiction , as if the reader into the story . But sometimes a reader had difficulty in reading a fiction . That which resulted in the readers do not get the values and norms of humanity contained in a fiction . In this paper will describe a novel by Edgar Allan Poe in his story ” The Pit and The Pendulum ” which was published in 1842 in the annual event : christmas and new year . author tells of torment suffered by prisoners of the Spanish inquisition . This story is very effective for readers who cause fear readers will voice or text that emphasizes the actual reality . Discussion in this paper describes an analysis of the characterizations in the story “ The Pit and The Pendulum ” . Analysis was conducted to determine the character contained in the story .
    ANALYSIS
    A. Synopsis The Pit and The Pendulum
    This in a story of the Spanish inquisition . At the beginning of the story there is no clarity about poe brought to a court . The court in poe felt his hopes have been reduced to living . Poe was sentenced to death and she finds herself in a completely dark room . The inmates there thinking that he is locked in a tomb , but the prisoner is found poe locked inside the cell . When all the prisoners woke up , he found food and water are nearby . After finding her food back upstairs to measure the prison again . When poe across the room , he slips and falls caused by the robes he wears. and finally, poe fell into the hole and the water contained in it .
    After the poe experienced loss of consciousness while in the hole . He found that in prison there is little information or there is a light that illuminated him and he found that he had tied on a wooden board with a rope . When he was bound , he wanted to look up to see a giant painting on the wall like a pendulum swinging slowly . Then he also saw that the walls turn red and hot and encourage poe to get into the hole . Poe when he saw a hole into thinking that there is no worse fate than falling into the hole . He saw a red – hot walls and leave no foothold . The prisoners began to fall into the hole and he heard human voices . And in the end the French army had taken taledo and inquisition were enemies in his hand .
    B. Characterization Analysis
    In The Pit and The Pendulum, there are three figures that include the narrator, the inquisition, and general lasalle. Seen from the intensity of the run in the development of the story, the main character in this short story is the narrator. The inquisition is a character who is never mentioned by name in the short story. While the other figures are extras, which is presented to create a bustling atmosphere that the story would seem to be realistic.
    1. The Narator
    Many people were tortured during the time of the reformation, when the Catholic Church tried people for going against their beliefs or practicing religions other than Catholicism. During these unjust times scores of people were tried and tortured. Such unforgiving tortures as being starved to death or being burned alive were often implemented. “The pit and the pendulum,” a short story written by Edgar Allan Poe tells of an account. In this story, the narrator guides you through the experiences of his unnerving tortures. This account takes place after the court of the church sentences him to death. One must think the narrator clever, resourceful, and no doubt optimistic; having endured such hardships and came through it all as he did.
    The narrator was a very clever person. Throughout the story he always seemed to pull through. A good example would be when he managed to free his bonds and escape the swinging pendulum. Although this cleverness often helps him to escape his torment, it also speeds up the plot to the almost inevitable. As seen toward the end of the story, the narrator escapes and there is a mad rush of the tormenters to bring him to his final fate. In the end this is something that develops into a platform for his rescue.
    Resourcefulness was certainly something the narrator had no lack of. Such instances as the manor in which he measured the wall and the way he cut his bonds were relevant. Without this resourcefulness of his he would have most likely fallen into the pit; or even worse, sliced in half by the traversing pendulum. His resourcefulness seems to help stall him for time, until the time of which he either dies or is rescued. However, while it was good in that sense it also acted as an indication to his torturers to turn up the torture. His resourcefulness is the sole thing that ensured his optimistic views.
    The narrator was very optimistic in the way he did things. This trait strongly shows in his thoughts displayed to the reader. There are such instances as the plotting of his escape from the cold shadow of the pendulum and the hope that somehow he would not face the impending fiery walls. These instances show his will and hope that drive him toward the things he does thought the story. This is a bit complicated :
    • The Punishment
    Even though the trials and tribulations the narrator goes through are right there on the page, screaming for our attention, we have to do a little sleuthing if we want to figure out what makes this guy tick.
    A good place to start is with his punishment: if his torture is unique and undeniably special, then, we must assume, he is himself unique andspecial. Our narrator gives us a clue while puzzling over his fate:
    My cognizance of the pit had become known to the inquisitorial agents – the pit, whose horrors had been destined for so bold a recusant as myself – the pit, typical of hell and regarded by rumor as the Ultima Thule of all their punishments. (22)
    Whatever this guy did was pretty darn bad, because he’s getting a punishment that’s barely ever used. (If you want to really prove your literary dorkiness, bring this up at your next dinner party: the phrase ultima thule was coined by Virgil – it basically means the farthest reaches of the known world.) So yeah, our guy’s a total rebel.
    • The Crime
    Now, in the Inquisition, people were punished (i.e. tortured and killed) for being heretics. This means they did, said, wrote, thought, or sneezed something that was anti-Catholic Church or anti-God. So can we assume that our narrator has done something blasphemous? That he’s not a faithful Catholic man?
    Well, not quite. If we look closely, he hasn’t totally renounced his belief in God. As he writes early in the story, “…even in the grave all is not lost. Else there is no immortality for man” (3).
    What, then, has gotten him in trouble with the Inquisition if he still believes in the afterlife? Perhaps it’s precisely the thing that best defines his character: his ability to think deeply about issues of life and death, his ability to question, and his desire to understand. Even in the middle of all the horror, our narrator seeks to find fragments of truth. And during the Inquisition, that kind of mentality could get you into quite a bit of trouble.
    2. The Inquisition (Judges)
    For most of the story, they’re faceless torturers; they express themselves via their gruesome contraptions. We know them through the pit, the pendulum, and the contracting cell. And we know them through what the narrator calls their “monkish ingenuity,” the little devious flourishes that they apply to their methods of execution: the painting of Father Time that complements the deadly pendulum, the demonic designs they’ve added to the dungeon walls. These are the hallmarks of true evil; they show us that the inquisitors do not punish simply because they feel it is right, but because they take pleasure in causing pain.
    3. General Lasalle
    Lasalle’s here to do one thing and one thing only: save our narrator. And save him he does, pulling the narrator back from the very edge of the pit as he’s about to fall in. Sure, he has less than a walk-on role – you only ever get to “see” his arm – but without Lasalle, the narrator wouldn’t be telling his story at all.
    2. Conclusion
    As a whole, elements of characterization in The Pit and The Pendulum used Edgar Allan Poe presents the theme “will teach the nature of death and contemplating death to the make life more meaningful”. In this story illustrated how peo fell into a hole and lost consciousness. Poe thinking that he was dead. He never felt locked in the tomb. poe feel frightened red-hot form the wall. On at the beginning of the paragraph poe feel the fear of death. An interesting thing in this story is the fact that the character narrator here is not named and the name poe which is the name of the author of the short story. With this, the narrator’s character can appear on anyone when obtaining or experience things like that contained in the story “The Pit and The Pendulum”.

    1. A CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS OF “THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM” BY EDGAR ALLAN POE

      (Mega Intan Sari-1112150012)

      1. I’m sorry sir, I was wrong in writing the title. this is a correct reference.

        References :
        Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia.
        “The Pit and The Pendulum” retrived november 16, 2013 from
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pit_and_the_Pendulum

  63. A STYLE ANALYSIS OF EDGAR ALLAN POE’S “THE TELL-TALE HEART”

    (Gladys Yusiva Doane – 1112150046)

    A. Introduction
    Literature is a term used to describe written or spoken material. The term is most commonly used to refer to words of the creative imagination including works of poetry, drama, fiction and non-fiction. Literature is the art of written works. It is the body of written works of a language period or culture. Literature is published in written works in a particular style or particular subject. Literature is the mirror of life. Our lives and all the subjects that are related to our lives can be the subject matters or elements of literature. So we can get the touch with our lives through literature.
    This analysis helps the reader to be understood the style of “The Tell-Tale Heart”. This study deals with the style of the short story. Discussions are focused on the style. The writer will try to analyze the style on Edgar’s story “The Tell-Tale Heart”.

    B. Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Tell-Tale Heart
    “The Tell-Tale Heart” follows an unnamed narrator who insists on his sanity after murdering an old man with a “vulture eye”. The murder is carefully calculated, and the murderer hides the body by dismembering it and hiding it under the floorboards. Ultimately the narrator’s guilt manifests itself in the hallucination that the man’s heart is still beating under the floorboards. It is unclear what relationship, if any, the old man and his murderer share. It has been suggested that the old man is a father figure, or that the narrator works for the old man as a servant, and that perhaps his vulture eye represents some sort of veiled secret, or power. The ambiguity and lack of details about the two main characters stand in stark contrast to the specific plot details leading up to the murder.
    Poe uses his words economically in the “Tell-Tale Heart”—it is one of his shortest stories—to provide a study of paranoia and mental deterioration. Poe strips the story of excess detail as a way to heighten the murderer’s obsession with specific and unadorned entities: the old man’s eye, the heartbeat, and his own claim to sanity. Poe’s economic style and pointed language thus contribute to the narrative content, and perhaps this association of form and content truly exemplifies paranoia. Even Poe himself, like the beating heart, is complicit in the plot to catch the narrator in his evil game.
    As a study in paranoia, this story illuminates the psychological contradictions that contribute to a murderous profile. For example, the narrator admits, in the first sentence, to being dreadfully nervous, yet he is unable to comprehend why he should be thought mad. He articulates his self-defense against madness in terms of heightened sensory capacity. Unlike the similarly nervous and hypersensitive Roderick Usher in “The Fall of the House of Usher,” who admits that he feels mentally unwell, the narrator of “The Tell-Tale Heart” views his hypersensitivity as proof of his sanity, not a symptom of madness. This special knowledge enables the narrator to tell this tale in a precise and complete manner, and he uses the stylistic tools of narration for the purposes of his own sanity plea. However, what makes this narrator mad—and most unlike Poe—is that he fails to comprehend the coupling of narrative form and content. He masters precise form, but he unwittingly lays out a tale of murder that betrays the madness he wants to deny.
    Another contradiction central to the story involves the tension between the narrator’s capacities for love and hate. Poe explores here a psychological mystery—that people sometimes harm those whom they love or need in their lives. Poe examines this paradox half a century before Sigmund Freud made it a leading concept in his theories of the mind. Poe’s narrator loves the old man. He is not greedy for the old man’s wealth, nor vengeful because of any slight. The narrator thus eliminates motives that might normally inspire such a violent murder. As he proclaims his own sanity, the narrator fixates on the old man’s vulture-eye. He reduces the old man to the pale blue of his eye in obsessive fashion. He wants to separate the man from his “Evil Eye” so he can spare the man the burden of guilt that he attributes to the eye itself. The narrator fails to see that the eye is the “I” of the old man, an inherent part of his identity that cannot be isolated as the narrator perversely imagines. The murder of the old man illustrates the extent to which the narrator separates the old man’s identity from his physical eye. The narrator sees the eye as completely separate from the man, and as a result, he is capable of murdering him while maintaining that he loves him. The narrator’s desire to eradicate the man’s eye motivates his murder, but the narrator does not acknowledge that this act will end the man’s life. By dismembering his victim, the narrator further deprives the old man of his humanity. The narrator confirms his conception of the old man’s eye as separate from the man by ending the man altogether and turning him into so many parts. That strategy turns against him when his mind imagines other parts of the old man’s body working against him.
    2. An Analysis of Style
    The Tell-Tale Heart: Style
    In this story, he uses his style to truly bring out what he intended for the story – a study of paranoia. In example, “I loved the old man. He had never wronged me. He had never given me insult. For his gold I had no desire. I think it was his eye! Yes, it was this! One of his eyes resembled that of a vulture — a pale blue eye with a film over it. Whenever it fell upon me my blood ran cold, and so by degrees, very gradually, I made up my mind to take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of the eye for ever. ” it is easy to see that Poe used short sentences, to capture the rapid thoughts of a twisted mind.
    A notable aspect of ‘‘The Tell-Tale Heart’’ is that the story is told from the first-person point of view. The story is a monologue of a nervous narrator telling the reader how he murdered someone. He is eventually driven to confess to the police. The entire straightforward narrative is told from his point of view in a nervous tone. Through Poe’s masterful and inventive writing, the narrator’s twisted logic increasingly reveals that he is insane. By using a first-person narrative, Poe heightens the tension and fear running through the mind of the narrator. There is a clear connection between the language used by the narrator and his psychological state. The narrator switches between calm, logical statements and quick, irrational outbursts. His use of frequent exclamations reveals his extreme nervousness. The first-person point of view draws the reader into the mind of the insane narrator, enabling one to ironically sympathize with his wretched state of mind. Some critics suggest that the entire narrative represents a kind of confession, as at a trial or police station. Others consider the first-person point of view as a logical way to present a parable of self-betrayal by the criminal’s conscience—a remarkable record of the voice of a guilty mind.

    Denouement
    The denouement, or the resolution, of the narrative occurs in ‘‘The Tell-Tale Heart’’ when the narrator, prompted by the incessant sound of a beating heart, can no longer contain his ever-increasing sense of guilt. Poe is regarded by literary critics as having helped define the architecture of the modern short story, in which its brevity requires an economical use of sentences and paragraphs and the climactic ending often occurs in the last paragraph. The abrupt ending in this story is calculated to concentrate an effect on the reader. In ‘‘The Tell-Tale Heart’’ the crisis of conscience is resolved when the murderer shrieks the last lines of the story: ‘‘I admit the deed!—tear up the planks!—here, here!—it is the beating of his hideous heart!’’ This abrupt outburst is a shock to the reader, a sudden bursting of the tension that has filled the story, and it provides the dramatic, emotional conclusion to the story.

    Aestheticism and Arabesque
    Poe was a writer concerned more with style and mood than his American contemporaries were, like James Fenimore Cooper whose fiction was often morally didactic. Poe believed that a story should create a mood in a reader, or evoke emotions in order to be successful, and that it should not try to teach the reader a lesson. He called his style ‘‘arabesque,’’ and it was notable for its ornate, intricate prose that sought to create a feeling of unsettlement in the reader. This arabesque prose became a primary component of the ‘‘art for art’s sake’’ movement, known as Aestheticism, that began in France in the nineteenth century. Poe’s works were highly esteemed by French writers, like the poet Charles Baudelaire, and their emulation of his style eventually influenced the Symbolists and helped bring an end to the Victorian age in literature. In ‘‘The Tell-Tale Heart,’’ an example of arabesque prose is when the narrator describes sneaking into the old man’s room in the middle of the night: ‘‘I heard a slight groan, and I knew it was the groan of mortal terror. It was not a groan of pain or of grief—oh no!—it was the low stifled sound that arises from the bottom of the soul when overcharged with awe.’’ Instead of simply stating that he had heard a groan, the narrator describes the sound in detail, creating in the reader a sense of suspense and foreboding.

    Doppelganger
    In literature, a doppelganger is a character that functions as the main character’s double in order to highlight the main character’s personality or act as a foil to it. Some critics have maintained that in ‘‘The Tell-Tale Heart,’’ the old man functions as a doppelganger to the narrator. Thus, the narrator is truly mad, and he kills the old man because he cannot stand himself, perhaps fearing becoming old or disfigured like him. The narrator recounts evidence to support this idea: he does not hate the man, in fact, he professes to love him; on the eighth night when the narrator sneaks into his room, the old man awakens, sits bolt upright in bed and listens in silence for an hour in the darkness, as does the narrator. Most notably, when the old man begins to moan, the narrator admits that the same sound had ‘‘welled up from my own bosom’’ many nights. When he hears the man’s heart quicken with terror, he admits that he is nervous, too. Other critics have maintained that the old man does not exist. After all, the narrator tells police that it was he who screamed, and it is not stated that the police actually found a body. According to this viewpoint, the old man’s cloudy eye is nothing more than a twisted fixation of the narrator’s own mind, and the relentless heartbeat is not the old man’s, but the narrator’s.

    C. Conclusion
    ‘‘The Tell-Tale Heart’’ begins with the famous line ‘‘True!—nervous—very, very nervous I had been and am; but why will you say that I am mad?’’ The narrator insists that his disease has sharpened, not dulled, his senses. He tells the tale of how an old man who lives in his house has never wronged him. For an unknown
    reason, the old man’s cloudy, pale blue eye has incited madness in the narrator. Whenever the old man looks at him, his blood turns cold. Thus, he is determined to kill him to get rid of this curse. Again, the narrator argues that he is not mad. He claims the fact that he has proceeded cautiously indicates that he is sane. For a whole week, he has snuck into the man’s room every night, but the victim has been sound asleep with his eyes closed each time. The narrator cannot bring himself to kill the man without seeing his ‘‘Evil Eye.’’ On the eighth night, however, the man springs up and cries ‘‘Who’s there?’’ In the dark room, the narrator waits silently for an hour. The man does not go back to sleep; instead, he gives out a slight groan, realizing that ‘‘Death’’ is approaching. Eventually, the narrator shines his lamp on the old man’s eye. The narrator immediately becomes furious at the ‘‘damned spot,’’ but he soon hears the beating of a heart so loud that he fears the neighbors will hear it. With a yell, he leaps into the room and kills the old man.
    Despite the murder, he continues to hear the man’s relentless heartbeat. He dismembers the corpse and hides the body parts beneath the floorboards. There is a knock on the front door; the police have come to investigate a shriek the neighbors have reported. The narrator invites them to search the premises. He blames his scream on a bad dream and explains that the old man is not home. The officers are satisfied but refuse to leave. Soon the sound of the heartbeat resumes, growing more and more distinct. The narrator grows pale and raises his voice to muffle the sound. At last, unable to stand it anyl onger, the narrator screams: ‘‘I admit the deed!—tear up the planks!—here, here!—it is the beating of his hideous heart!’’

    D. Bibliography
    Pardede, P. (2008). An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia
    “The Tell-Tale Heart”. (2013, October 14). Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://www.eastoftheweb.com/short-stories/UBooks/TelTal.shtml

  64. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SETTING OF YIYUN LI’S
    “A MAN LIKE HIM”
    By Hardianti Aprilianing Tias
    11 121 500 49 (BS-B)

    Introduction
    Fiction is the form of any work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary and theoretical—that is, invented by the author. Although fiction describes major branch of literary work, it may also refer to theatrical, cinematic, or musical work. Fiction contrasts with non-fiction, which deals exclusively with factual (or, at least, assumed factual) events, descriptions, observations, etc. (e.g., biographies, histories).
    In fiction, setting provides a world to play your story out in – its not just important, it’s vital. Fiction is the place where the events occur and the time or age of the action. It includes what in the theater would be called props and properties-the implements employed by the characters in various activities. The action of story, especially of novel, may occur in more than one place. Setting is also usually used to reveal the characters. The details of setting can reveal their personality traits, personal habits, social status, and interests. Another important fiction of setting is to establish the atmosphere, which helps create the tone and mood.
    This analysis helps the reader to be understood the setting of “A Man Like Him”. Discussion in this paper focuses on the analysis of settings. Analysis is performed by using a purely structural approach or contextual, because the whole discussion is done only based on the content of this short story.
    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of A Man Like Him
    Teacher Fei is an unusual man. He is a 64 year old retired elementary school art teacher who lives at home with his mother. He has never been married nor has he had sexual relations with a female. Teacher Fei adopted from his father’s family because her mother unable to become pregnant. Her mother did not cover this; even convince him that having two parents is a good fortune. Even though he was not a child of the father and mother who cared for him, he was very fond of his mother. This is evidenced by his concern for his mother. His mother’s health is failing so he spends a lot of time taking care of her. And his mother was cared by Mrs. Luo. Thee times a week, Mrs. Luo bathed Teacher Fei’s mother.
    Whenever Teacher Fei gets the chance to get out and away from his mother, he goes to a local internet cafe to visit chat rooms and read articles. He comes across an article about a girl who believed her father has cheated on her mother. The father and mother have separated and the girl is seeking revenge on her father and suing him. Teacher Fei feels defensive for the father and seeks him out. He intends to visit the girl’s father. And he did it with the intention of helping the girl’s father. He goes to his work and begs him to go to a nearby cafe to talk.

    2. An Analysis of Setting
    “A Man Like Him” uses natural setting. The natural setting refers to realistic-event factual location and time. A Man Like Him is a short story is taken place in Beijing, China. This is described in the fourth paragraph. Although it does not describe in detail about the place, but it can be concluded from the following sentence:
    … At sixty-six, Teacher Fei had seen enough of the world to consider himself beyond the trap of pointless emotions. Was it the milkman, his mother asked from the living room. Milkmen had long ago ceased to exist in Beijing, milk being sold abundantly in stores now; still, approaching ninety, she was snatched from time to time by the old fear that a neighbor or a passerby would swipe their two rationed bottles.
    Milkmen had long ago ceased to exist in Beijing, from this sentence, we can conclude that this story was taken from Beijing, China. Teacher fei lives in Beijing with his Mother.
    And no change of venue in this story, it’s just that there are different places in the home and in other places such as internet café and restaurant. Teacher Fei lived in his apartment with his mother. Living in apartment, it mentioned in the last part of the fifth paragraph.
    … A few years ago, the limit of her world had been the park two blocks down the street, and later the stone bench across the street from their apartment; now it was their fifth-floor balcony. Teacher Fei knew that in time he would let his mother die in peace in this apartment. She disliked strangers, and he couldn’t imagine her in a cold bed in a crowded hospital ward.
    In the paragraph above, it mentioned their apartment. It was clearly the story taken place in Teacher Fei apartment in Beijing. Many of the events in this story are taken from the same place. It is in his apartment. From the fourth paragraph, Across the room and living room are the parts of his apartment. It mention in the fourth paragraph:
    … What malice, Teacher Fei thought. He flung the magazine across the room, knocking a picture frame from the bookcase and surprising himself with this sudden burst of anger. At sixty-six, Teacher Fei had seen enough of the world to consider himself beyond the trap of pointless emotions. Was it the milkman, his mother asked from the living room.

    And the other paragraph, that is in bedroom. It mention in last paragraph of fourth page. In this part, the time also mention in evening. It mention in twelfth paragraph. It is important to show the atmosphere when it done.
    Later that evening, when Teacher Fei had wrung a warm towel to the perfect stage of moistness and passed it to his mother, who sat on another towel on her bed, a curtain separating her partly undressed body from him, he thought about the two girls and their youthful indifference.
    And the other place is in Internet café. He went to local internet cafe to visit chat rooms and read articles. On the internet café, it happens a few times.
    This is a habit of Teacher Fei to go to internet café. It mention in eighth paragraph.
    Later, when Mrs. Luo, a neighbor in her late forties who had been laid off by the local electronics factory, came to sit with Teacher Fei’s mother, he went to a nearby Internet café. …
    And in twenty- two paragraph, It mention that taken place in internet café :
    The message that Teacher Fei had left on the girl’s Web site was not there when he checked the next day at the Internet café.

    The place which also mention is in the bedroom. The conversation with his mother that occurred in the bedroom is mention in the eighteenth paragraph.

    It’s the innocent ones who are often preyed upon by life’s cruelty, Teacher Fei replied, and when his mother did not speak he recounted the girl’s story from the magazine. He paused when his mother, dressed in her pajamas, pulled the curtain aside. All set for the dreamland, she said. He did not know if she had heard him, but when he tucked her in she looked up from the pillow. “You should not feel upset by the girl,” she said.
    And the last place is in the institute. It happened when Teacher Fei visited the girl’s father. It is show the situation in this story, it support the situation or atmosphere in this part when he visited the girl’s father.
    It was a few minutes after five when Teacher Fei arrived at the institute, betting that the girl’s father was not the type to leave work early, since there would be little reason for him to hurry home. While Teacher Fei waited for a guard to inform the man of his arrival, he studied the plaque at the entrance to the institute. “The Association of Marxist Dialectical Materialism,” it said, and it occurred to Teacher Fei that had his father been alive he would have said that it was the parasites in these institutes who had ended hope for Chinese philosophers.
    And after that, the taking place is in restaurant that no far from the institute. It mention in the thirty-five paragraph. And the time is a few minutes after five when Teacher Fei arrived at institute.
    They could go to the man’s office for a chat, Teacher Fei offered, knowing that this was the last thing he would want. The father hurriedly agreed to go to a nearby diner instead. He was the kind of man who was easily bullied by the world, Teacher Fei thought, realizing with satisfaction that he had not sought out the wrong person.
    In this paragraph, it mentions that a nearby diner instead, it means that the place is in restaurant. And the time when in the restaurant is at the dinner, it means that is an afternoon. And it is also mention in the next paragraph.
    At the diner, the girl’s father chose a table in the corner farthest from the entrance, and in the dim light he squinted at the bench, wiping off some grease before he sat down.
    And more specifically, it mention where they sat down for a chat. There is in the corner farthest from the entrance. It shows the atmosphere in this situation. The atmosphere is so striking when Teacher Fei talking with the girl’s father. it is because they are not yet known.

    Conclution
    A Man Like Him is the story that taken place in Beijing, China. And there are some places such as in Teacher Fei’s apartment, restaurant, internet café, etc. It shows the situation that happen in this story. Setting is greatly affected for the atmosphere of the story and one of parts of the story that is very important. And Yiyun Li used the good setting to describe the situation or atmosphere in this story. So the reader is not boring. In addition, Yiyun li succeeds to employ the interesting place to support the atmosphere from A Man Like Him. The atmosphere is so striking when Teacher Fei talking with the girl’s father. it is because they have different opinions. The places where they sit down, it support the situation that is so tense and stressful.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia
    “A Man Like Him”(2008) Retrieved November 12, 2013 from http://www.bookrags.com/studyguide-gold-boy-emerald-girl/chapanal002.html

  65. SETTING ANALYSIS OF “A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND” BY FLANNERY O’CONNOR’S
    Thurma Mayasari / 1112150030
    FKIP BS-B
    Introduction
    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experiences, emotions and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to reality.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and A Good Man is Hard to find, a short story by Flannery O’ Connor’s in particular. This short story to analyze the setting because it to know where the action are.
    This paper deals with the setting of short story. Discussion are focused on the stages of setting and use of the setting.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of A Good Man is Hard to Find
    A Good Man is Hard to Find is short story written came from a deeply felt faith in Roman Catholicism. She wrote, “The stories are hard but they are hard because there is nothing harder or less sentimental than Christian realism” (source: The Habit of Being, p. 90). A recurrent theme throughout her writings was the action of divine grace in the horribly imperfect, often revolting, generally funny world of human beings, a theme very much present in “A Good Man is Hard to Find.” A family plans a vacation. Everyone wants to drive down to Florida. The grandmother wants to go to Tennessee. She tries to get the family to not go to Florida by telling them there is a killer on the loose down there (The Misfit). The family doesn’t listen to her and they drive to Florida. The grandmother brings her cat on the trip but hides it under the seat. The road trip is like any other road trip: the kids fight, they play games, etc. Then they stop at some barbecue joint called Red Sammy’s. The grandmother and Red talk about how people are not nice anymore. Red says that “good men are hard to find”, then he talks about how Europe is to blame for everything that is wrong in the world.
    As the road trip continues, the grandmother wants to stop at some plantation in Georgia. But then she remembers the plantation is in Tennessee. She gets upset, and shakes her seat. The cat jumps out on Bailey (driver) and he loses control of the car and they go into a ditch. Then a hearse pulls up and 3 guys get out. The grandmother recognizes one as The Misfit. She is scared shitless and tries to persuade him not to kill her. She tries to kiss up to him, ask him why he is doing this, bribe him but nothing works. The other men take the rest of the family and kill them. Then the grandmother talks to The Misfit. She gets all religious on him. The Misfit believes that before a person dies he should have the most fun he can, doing whatever. He says there is “no pleasure but meanness”. Then the grandmother has a moment of clarity and reaches out to The Misfit in a religious way, calling him “one of her babies”. He shoots her. Then he talks about how killing isn’t fun anymore after listening to the grandmother.
    2. Types of Setting is Man-Made Setting
    Man made setting :
    The story takes place in Georgia. We don’t have much in the way of a description of the original setting. This tale begins in a nameless city where the family lives, and takes us various places along the road as the family travels. Plenty of local color – there are the old plantations that get passed, and Red Sammy’s roadside barbeque joint.
    The second half of the story takes place in the ditch in the middle of nowhere where the family lands after running off the road. We’re told the ditch is about ten feet below the road, and lies between the road and a “tall and dark and deep” forest. There’s forest on the other side of the road too, so the forest “looms” menacingly over the scene on both sides. This part of the story is like a staged play: the site of the action doesn’t move, the ditch is the stage, and the forest is “backstage,” where characters are taken. We only learn what’s going happening from the noises people make (usually screams or gunshots).

    3. Uses of Setting :
    In Flannery O’Connor’s “A Good Man is Hard to Find”, setting is used as a way to predict the tragic outcome of the story. The story’s end is unexpected when first read, but upon closer inspection one can see several clues and foreshadowing techniques O’Connor used to hint at what would eventually happen, specifically in her use of setting. The outcome of the story is hinted at through the description of the family’s scenic drive through Georgia, Red Sammy’s, and the deserted road they travel on
    4. Conclusion
    The ending of the story depends just as much on what’s believable to you as a reader as it does on the story itself. If you believe that a miraculous moment of grace is possible, O’Connor’s interpretation might be the most compelling one. If you don’t, you will come to your own interpretation. Whatever the case may be, there’s a lot to unpack from the ending of this story.
    5. References
    Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia.
    A Good Man is Hard to find retrived november 16, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Good_Man_Is_Hard_to_Find_(short_story)

  66. A PLOT ANAYLSIS OF KATHERINE MANSFIELD “THE FLY”
    (Melva Melisa Tambunan – 1112150016)

    Introduction

    Literature is a term used to describe written or spoken material. Broadly speaking, “literature” is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works, but the term is most commonly used to refer to works of the creative imagination, including works of poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction. Fiction is a work of the imagination or invention, which contrasts with non-fiction (which is usually thought to be based on facts). Written works like novels, short stories, plays, and poems are fictional. A work of fiction is a work of literature, but the term “literature” encompasses far more than just fiction. Literature also refers to non-fiction (memoirs, biography, and other works that are factual in scope).

    In many fictional narratives, especially shorter ones, the plot exists in tension with a very different and powerful dynamic that runs at a deeper and hidden level throughout the text. Plot concerns the organization of the main events of a work of fiction. This paper deals with the plot of the short story. I designate this undercurrent as “covert progression” and investigate how the implied author creates it for thematic purposes. Being characteristically ironic in nature, covert progression is first distinguished from known types of irony, then from other types of covert meaning. This is followed by an analysis of the covert progression in Katherine Mansfield’s “The Fly.” The analysis shows that to miss the covert progression is to get only a partial picture of the text’s thematic, a partial image of the characters, and a partial appreciation of the aesthetic values implied.

    Analysis

    1.Synopsis of The Fly
    The story begins with a retired man, an old and rather infirm gentleman, Woodifield, is talking to his friend, “the boss”, five years older, is stout and fit. The boss enjoys showing off his redecorated office to Woodifield, with its new carpet, new furniture, and new electric heating (with an old picture of a young man, whom we learn is his deceased son). Woodifield wants to tell the boss something, but is struggling to remember what it was, when the boss offers him some fine whisky. After drinking, his memory is refreshed and Woodifield talks about a recent visit that his two daughters made to his son’s grave, saying that they had come across the boss’s son’s grave as well. We now come to know that the boss’s son had died in the war six years ago, a loss that affected the boss heavily. After Woodifield leaves, the boss sits down at his table and informs his clerk that he does not want to be disturbed. He is extremely perturbed at the sudden reference to his dead son, and expects to weep but is surprised to find that he can’t. He looks at his son’s photo, and thinks it bears little resemblance to his son, as he looks stern in the photo, whereas the boss remembers him to be bright and friendly.

    At that moment, a fly has fallen into inkpot, struggling to get free. The boss lifts the fly out of the inkpot with his pen and shakes it on some blotting paper, then watches as it begins to clean itself. The boss imagines that the fly must be joyful knowing it has narrowly escaped death. Then he has an idea, and plunges his pen back into the pot and drops a blot of ink on the fly. The fly seems stunned, but eventually begins to clean itself again. The boss admires the creature’s fighting spirit, but then drops a second blot of ink. He is relieved when the fly again makes the effort to clean itself. He decides he will drop just one more blot of ink on the fly. But after a third ink drop, the fly does not stir. The boss tries to move it with his pen, telling it to “look sharp” but to no avail; it is dead. The boss lifts the corpse of the fly and throws it into the waste-paper. He feels wretched and frightened. Then he tries to recall what he was thinking about before the fly died and cannot.

    2. Plot Types
    Plot can be classified into two types, there are chronological plot and logical – sequence plot. The Fly is written by employing a logical – sequence plot, the events are arranged in a cause-effect relationship. The reader is moved through a series of incidents, carried along with the action. It is no more than action until the reader discovers causal relationships. The events surround a boss who is reminded of his son’s death during a visit from an old friend. The man then rescues and causes the death of a common housefly. By comparing the struggles of the fly to the struggles of the boss and the death of the fly to the death of the boss’ memories, the reader can more clearly understand how the death of his son in the war has affected the boss.

    3. Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot is how the author arranges events to develop her basic idea; it is the sequence of events in a story. The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle, and end. There are four essential parts of plot: exposition, complication, climax, and resolution.

    a.Exposition
    The first eight paragraphs of the story are employed as an exposition. These paragraphs introduce the reader with the basic situation and the characters. While the Boss is the main character of the story. The Boss is given no name – he is known simply as ‘Boss’. He is the boss of the company. The fact the boss was proud of his room; he liked to have it admired, especially by the old Woodifield. shows the reader that he feels a need to be looked upon and is quite arrogant in that sense. The Boss is immensely proud of all his possessions, most of them recently obtained. His geniality is an expression of his feelings of superiority. This statement can be proved:”Yes, it’s comfortable enough,” agreed the boss, and he flipped the Financial Times with a paper-knife. As a matter of fact he was proud of his room; he liked to have it admired, especially by old Woodifield.(p. 46)
    The situation was dynamic. Because there were some bad things happened unexpectedly that made the situations more complicated. Its gives it a sense of melancholy, hopelessness, resentment, and anger. Katherine Mansfield’s The Fly takes place in an office. This statement can be proved:
    “New carpet” and he pointed to the bright red carpet with a pattern of large white rings. ”New furniture,” and he nodded towards the massive bookcase and the table with legs like twisted treacle.(p. 46)

    b. Complication
    Conflict is essential to plot. Without conflict there is no plot. The conflict in “The Fly” is Man vs. Himself (psychological) – The leading character struggles with himself; with his own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc. The boss struggles with his own thoughts feelings, memories and in the end chooses, unconsciously to repress them. The conflict is directly preceded with the first complications; i. e. the Boss offers whiskey to the Woodifield, but Woodifield trying to resist it. It can be proved:
    “It’s whisky, ain’t it?” he piped feebly.
    The boss turned the bottle and lovingly showed him the label. Whisky it was.
    “Do you know,” said he, peering up at the boss wonderingly, “they won’t let me touch it at home.” And he looked as though he was going to cry.
    The old man swallowed, was silent a moment, and then said faintly, “It’s nutty!” (p. 47)
    Other complications, when he was sad as he remembered his boy was an only son who had died over six years ago. It can be proved:
    Although over six years had passed away, the boss never thought of the boy except as lying unchanged, unblemished in his uniform, asleep for ever. “My son!” groaned the boss. But no tears came yet. In the past, in the first few months and even years after the boy’s death, he had only to say those words to be overcome by such grief that nothing short of a violent fit of weeping could relieve him.(p. 50)

    c. Climax
    Climax is the highest point of interest and the turning point of the story. The reader wonders what will happen next; will the conflict be resolved or not? The climax is after Woodifields departure from his office he finds a fly in his broad inkpot, takes it out and places it on a piece of blotting paper, lets drop on it blots of ink from his pen repeatedly to watch its successive attempts to cleanse itself and come back life until dies into the process. He is seized by “such a grinding feeling of wretchedness that he fells positively frightened. He finds himself unable to recall what he has been thinking of. The nervous tension inside the individual so character is tics of much modern costing and reflecting so truly much modern experience is intensely present in “The Fly”. Form of grief experienced by the boss can be seen the following statement:
    “At that moment the boss noticed that a fly had fallen into his broad inkpot, and was trying feebly but desperately to clamber out again. Help! help! said those struggling legs. But the sides of the inkpot were wet and slippery; it fell back again and began to swim. The boss took up a pen, picked the fly out of the ink, and shook it on to a piece of blotting-paper. For a fraction of a second it lay still on the dark patch that oozed round it. Then the front legs waved, took hold, and, pulling its small, sodden body up, it began the immense task of cleaning the ink from its wings. Over and under, over and under, went a leg along a wing, as the stone goes over and under the scythe. Then there was a pause, while the fly, seeming to stand on the tips of its toes, tried to expand first one wing and then the other. It succeeded at last, and, sitting down, it began, like a minute cat, to clean its face. Now one could imagine that the little front legs rubbed against each other lightly, joyfully. The horrible danger was over; it had escaped; it was ready for life again”.(p. 52)

    d. Resolution
    Soon after climax, Katherine Mansfield presents the resolution. The boss, being the protagonist of this short story, is motivated by one thing only: his dead son. The boss decides to torment a helpless housefly in the latter half of the story because he sees the struggle the fly undergoes when it falls in his inkpot, and in turn feels the need to test the fly’s strength. In seeing the fly’s struggle and its ability to overcome it, the boss sees himself. He subconsciously wonders if he will be able to overcome the struggle he has with his feelings concerning the death of his son. In comparing his struggle to the fly, he feels the need to test the fly to its limits. He says, “Come on, look sharp” (p. 53) almost as if he is talking to himself. But In the ending of story, the Boss wants to save the fly. It can be proved:
    “But just then the boss had an idea. He plunged his pen back into the ink, leaned his thick wrist on the blotting-paper, and as the fly tried its wings down came a great heavy blot. What would it make of that? What indeed! The little beggar seemed absolutely cowed, stunned, and afraid to move because of what would happen next. But then, as if painfully, it dragged itself forward. The front legs waved, caught hold, and, more slowly this time, the task began from the beginning.”(p. 52)
    The boss has killed the fly, he forgets what he had been previously thinking about. He forgets about how grievous he was over his son he lost in the war just a few moments before he began to torment the fly. The fact that he forgets about his son indicates to the reader that perhaps he wasn’t as overcome with grief as he lead on to be. The fact that “for the life of him he could not remember”, also leaves the reader wondering what will happen to him later
    The second reason why the use logical – sequence plot in this story does not make it boring is Katherine Mansfield in the beginning story. Thus Mansfield’s technique in the short story is to describe something while really indicating another. When the story begins the Boss appears to be very comfortable and confident looking. But as the story proceeds the tragic aspects of life underneath his self-complacence becomes to light. In fact he is much more pitiable in his private life than Woodifield whom he pities. This is an irony. The earlier part of the story it re-read in the light of the fly episode will appear more meaningful and suggestive.

    4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    Besides her success in making a simple logical – sequence plot interesting, another achievement of Katherine Mansfield in writing The Fly is her ability to effectively present the theme through plot. The theme of the story is the idea that “Death is inevitable, but we always want the people we love to fight to avoid it.” In the story not only does the fly have to find the strength to keep on living after he has the incident with the ink, but also the Boss needs to find a cope with the death of his son, and he needs to find a way to keep on living, after the world just came crashing down around him.
    To fly episode is surcharged with immense symbolic suggestion. Until the fly dies the Boss looks at the little creature with wonders and admiration. He fully appreciates the fly’s courage the fly shows how to tackle the odds in life. One should not the overawed by danger and surrender to it passively. No one in this world is ready to part with fly which is very dear without offering, any resistance. The little creature in the process of fight dies a valiant death. The Boss becomes the instrument in bringing about the death of the fly. He becomes to the fly the veritable agent of fate. The fly symbolizes the tragic helplessness of man in struggle against all powerful fate. The role of the Boss in respect of the death of the fly in not much different from the role of the all powerful fate which had snatched away his son.
    The author uses the metaphor of a fly to represent the memories and struggle of the boss. This metaphor is used to extend meaning through the entire story and to help enhance the motivations and thoughts of the boss. By comparing the struggles of the fly to the struggles of the boss and the death of the fly to the death of the boss’ memories, the reader can more clearly understand how the death of his son in the war has affected the boss. I think this metaphor is a good comparison because it makes the reader think about what it means; as I find it can have various meanings, and it enhances the overall quality of the story.

    Conclusion

    Although The Fly is written in a simple logical – sequence plot, it is really interesting due to Mansfield’s expertise in arranging the events that keeps the reader’s curiosity to finish reading the story. In addition, Katherine Mansfield also succeeds to employ the interesting plot to effectively present the main theme of the story. This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and The Fly, a short story by Katherine Mansfield in particular. The short story is interesting to analyze because it flys also ‘fly’. They can soar through the heavens, escaping earth-bound reality. But eventually flies die too. There is the ordinary lifecycle: birth, youth, old age, death. There is struggle. But along with the struggle there are moments of flight, desires, hopes, aspirations. The short story is to reveal the importance of learning-by-experience in one’s life.

    Bibliography

    Pardede, P. (2008). An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia
    “The Fly”. (2013, October 14). Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fly_%28short_story%29

  67. AN ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN THEME OF EDGAR ALLAN POE’S “THE TELL-TALE HEART”
    THE TELL – TALE HEART

    Introduction
    Inspite of the fact that fiction is the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers, readers often find it difficult to throughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for instance, may find it intricated to make out the theme. Some others find it difficult to figure out the characters’ qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented.
    To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. Literary analysis is indeed an intricated process because it necessitates a good understanding of the works elements and how these elements are combined to create a unified literary work. Roberts (1977: 6) explains that literary analysis is the process of breaking up a literaty work into smaller units so that each of the elements nature, function, and meaning could be deeply discerned, and the corelation among the elements could be easily defined.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate short story in general and The Tell-Tale Heart, a short story by Edgar Allan Poe in particular. Poe is now considered a forefather of two literary gnres, detective stories and science fiction, and is regarded as an important writer of psychological thrillers and horror.‘‘The Tell-Tale Heart’’ is simultaneously a horror story and psychological thriller told from a first-person perspective. It is admired as an excellent example of how a short story can produce an effect on the reader. Poe believed that all good literature must create a unity of effect on the reader and this effect must reveal truth or evoke emotions. ‘‘The Tell-Tale Heart’’ exemplifies Poe’s ability to expose the dark side of humankind and is a harbinger of novels and films dealing with psychological realism. Poe’s work has influenced genres as diverse as French symbolist poetry and Hollywood horror films, and writers as diverse as Ambrose Bierce and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
    This paper deals with the theme of the short story. Discussions are focused on the identification of the theme and the way how Edgar Allan Poe presents it. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology, a study aimed to analyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Tell- Tale Heart
    The Tell-Tale Heart has several themes. The first, and arguably most important, is guilt. The narrator has killed his elderly male companion, whom he loved, for reasons even he can’t fully comprehend. Throughout the story, he fully admits to the murder and never tries to justify it with a logical explanation. We can assume that the narrator does not attempt to give a reason for his actions because he feels, in one way or another, guilty for doing what he did.
    A secondary theme is the narrator’s insanity, which he vehemently denies. In the very first sentence of the story, he attempts to rebuke his questioner’s claim that he is mad. He does it in a loud, forceful and somewhat panicky manner. Judging from this alone, we are led to believe that he has truly lost his mind. Our suspicions are solidified by the end of the story when the narrator reveals that he can hear the sounds of heaven and hell, killed his companion because of his scary-looking pale blue eye, and believes that the fact he dismembered and hid his companion’s body proves he is sane.
    The third, and most underlying, theme is time. The narrator is clearly obsessed with it, describing in detail how he tried to kill his companion for seven days before the night he was able to commit the deed. He also makes it a point to say how long it took to actually commit the murder as well as the hour he saw on the clock after he was done concealing the corpse. It seems that the narrator has a habit of linking death and time. He uses terms such as “the old man’s hour had come” and “for many minutes the heart beat on”. It is unknown why the narrator feels the way that he does about time, but this can possibly be attributed to whatever mental illness he has.
    2.Theme Identification
    The theme of Edgar Allan Poe’s story “The Tell Tale Heart” would most definitly be guilt, insanity, time of the narrator. The story is about a mad man who, after killing the old man he watches over, hears an interminable heartbeat and releases his overwhelming sense of guilt by shouting his confession to the police. The human heart cannon stand the burden of guilt, especially in the case of murder. Guilty people must confess somehow or be consumed by their own conscience

    3.Theme Presentation
    Poe uses his words economically in the “Tell-Tale Heart”—it is one of his shortest stories—to provide a study of paranoia and mental deterioration. Poe strips the story of excess detail as a way to heighten the murderer’s obsession with specific and unadorned entities: the old man’s eye, the heartbeat, and his own claim to sanity. Poe’s economic style and pointed language thus contribute to the narrative content, and perhaps this association of form and content truly exemplifies paranoia. Even Poe himself, like the beating heart, is complicit in the plot to catch the narrator in his evil game.
    As a study in paranoia, this story illuminates the psychological contradictions that contribute to a murderous profile. For example, the narrator admits, in the first sentence, to being dreadfully nervous, yet he is unable to comprehend why he should be thought mad. He articulates his self-defense against madness in terms of heightened sensory capacity. Unlike the similarly nervous and hypersensitive Roderick Usher in “The Fall of the House of Usher,” who admits that he feels mentally unwell, the narrator of “The Tell-Tale Heart” views his hypersensitivity as proof of his sanity, not a symptom of madness. This special knowledge enables the narrator to tell this tale in a precise and complete manner, and he uses the stylistic tools of narration for the purposes of his own sanity plea. However, what makes this narrator mad—and most unlike Poe—is that he fails to comprehend the coupling of narrative form and content. He masters precise form, but he unwittingly lays out a tale of murder that betrays the madness he wants to deny.
    Another contradiction central to the story involves the tension between the narrator’s capacities for love and hate. Poe explores here a psychological mystery—that people sometimes harm those whom they love or need in their lives. Poe examines this paradox half a century before Sigmund Freud made it a leading concept in his theories of the mind. Poe’s narrator loves the old man. He is not greedy for the old man’s wealth, nor vengeful because of any slight. The narrator thus eliminates motives that might normally inspire such a violent murder. As he proclaims his own sanity, the narrator fixates on the old man’s vulture-eye. He reduces the old man to the pale blue of his eye in obsessive fashion. He wants to separate the man from his “Evil Eye” so he can spare the man the burden of guilt that he attributes to the eye itself. The narrator fails to see that the eye is the “I” of the old man, an inherent part of his identity that cannot be isolated as the narrator perversely imagines.
    The murder of the old man illustrates the extent to which the narrator separates the old man’s identity from his physical eye. The narrator sees the eye as completely separate from the man, and as a result, he is capable of murdering him while maintaining that he loves him. The narrator’s desire to eradicate the man’s eye motivates his murder, but the narrator does not acknowledge that this act will end the man’s life. By dismembering his victim, the narrator further deprives the old man of his humanity. The narrator confirms his conception of the old man’s eye as separate from the man by ending the man altogether and turning him into so many parts. That strategy turns against him when his mind imagines other parts of the old man’s body working against him.
    The narrator’s newly heightened sensitivity to sound ultimately overcomes him, as he proves unwilling or unable to distinguish between real and imagined sounds. Because of his warped sense of reality, he obsesses over the low beats of the man’s heart yet shows little concern about the man’s shrieks, which are loud enough both to attract a neighbor’s attention and to draw the police to the scene of the crime. The police do not perform a traditional, judgmental role in this story. Ironically, they aren’t terrifying agents of authority or brutality. Poe’s interest is less in external forms of power than in the power that pathologies of the mind can hold over an individual. The narrator’s paranoia and guilt make it inevitable that he will give himself away. The police arrive on the scene to give him the opportunity to betray himself. The more the narrator proclaims his own cool manner, the more he cannot escape the beating of his own heart, which he mistakes for the beating of the old man’s heart. As he confesses to the crime in the final sentence, he addresses the policemen as “[v]illains,” indicating his inability to distinguish between their real identity and his own villainy.

    References
    Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia.
    “The Tell-Tale Heart”(1843) Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/poestories/section6.rhtml

    1. Hello sir, I am Mei Pangaribuan ( 1112150015). This is my assignment mid-term short story analysis the theme of ”The Tell -Tale Heart” by Edgar Allan Poe ,thank you.

  68. A PLOT ANALYSIS OF
    FLANNERY O’CONNOR’S “A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND”

    by : Gloria Grace Yohana (1012150014)

    A. Introduction

    Literature comes from Latin litterae (plural). It means ‘letter’. The word literature literally means “things made from letters”. Literature can be non-fiction and fiction. Some of literature categorized in non-fiction is polemical works, biography, and reflective essays (Wikipedia). One of literature categorized in fiction is novel. Another fiction is short story.
    Short story is a short piece of fiction written in narrative prose. Some short stories the writer knows are ‘Cat in the Rain’ by Ernest Hemingway, ‘A Man Who Had No Eyes’ by McKinley Kantor, and ‘True Love’ by Isaac Asimov. Pardede, (2008) emphasized that there are 8 elements of literature that we can analyze in short story. They are subject matter, character, point of view, action and plot, setting, atmosphere and tone, style, as well as theme.
    However, this paper deals with the plot of ‘A Good Man Is Hard To Find’ written by Flannery O’Connor. The writer analyses the type of plot used in the short story, stages and elements of plot. The use of Plot to present the theme is also a part of this paper discussion.

    B. Analysis

    1. Synopsis of A Good Man Is Hard to Find
    A Good Man Is Hard To Find is a short story about a family problem. Bailey, his wife, and his children (John Wesley and June Star) wanted to go to Florida. However, Bailey’s mother (the grandmother) didn’t want to go to Florida. She was afraid of seeing someone in her past (read: the Misfit). So, she gave a reason that she wanted to go to Tennessee to meet her connections. She tried to persuade Bailey.
    After discussing, they finally went to Florida. They went through some cities such as Atlanta and Georgia. They enjoyed their journey going through Atlanta. However, when they went through Georgia, they found some problems. First, the roads were dangerous for vehicle. Second, when they continued their journey after having barbequed sandwiches, the grandmother recalled her neighborhood and really wanted to go an old house. Since she was eager to go there, she told a lie to make Bailey’s children were interested to go the house. They went through the hilly dirt road with high speed. Suddenly, the grandmother realized that the old house was in Tennessee. Bailey lose his focus and they had an accident.
    The situation became worse when they asked for help. Out of sudden, there were three men coming to them. Bailey and his family didn’t notice one of them. However, the grandmother recognized him. He was the Misfit.

    2. Types of Plot
    Flannery O’Connor wrote ‘A Good Hard Is Hard To Find’ by employing logical sequence plot. The events were arranged in cause effect relationship. First, they went to the old house because the grandmother remembered her past neighborhood. Second, they were killed by the Misfit because of the Misfit’s avenge in his past to the grandmother.

    3. Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot of A Good Ma Is Hard To Find has four stages which they are exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The situation was dynamic. Because there were some bad things happened unexpectedly that made the situations more complicated.
    A. Exposition & Conflicts
    The first nine paragraphs of the story is categorized an exposition. The writer introduced place, time setting and the major characters: grandmother and the Misfit. He also introduced the relationship of the characters. There was a grandmother living with her son (Bailey) who had a wife and 2 children (John Wesley and June Star). They were in living room. It can be seen by this situation told by Flanney O’Connor:
    ‘He (Bailey) was sitting on the edge of his chair at the table, bent over the orange sports section of the Journal.’
    ‘She (Bailey’s wife) was sitting on the sofa, feeding the baby his apricots out of a jar.’
    ‘He (John Wesley) and the little girl, June Star, were reading the funny papers on the floor.’
    While the place setting and characters were introduced, the conflict also emerged. The grandmother didn’t want to go to Florida.
    “The children have been to Florida before,” the old lady said. “You all ought to take them somewhere else for a change so they would see different parts of the world and be broad. They never have been to east Tennessee.”
    But the children against by saying:
    “If you don’t want to go to Florida, why dontcha stay at home?” He and the little girl, June Star, were reading the funny papers on the floor.
    “She wouldn’t stay at home to be queen for a day,” June Star said without raising her yellow head.
    The introduction of characters, interrelationship in character’s environment and place, time setting also happened until twenty sixth paragraphs. Other conflicts also happened while they were introduced. There were some conflicts before complication happened. Other conflicts are:
    The conflict existed in paragraph 10:
    ‘She didn’t intend for the cat to be left alone in the house for three days because he would miss her too much and she was afraid he might brush against one of her gas burners and accidentally asphyxiate himself. Her son, Bailey, didn’t like to arrive at a motel with a cat.’
    The conflict happened in paragraph 11:
    ‘She said she thought it was going to be a good day for driving, neither too hot nor too cold, and she cautioned Bailey that the speed limit was fifty-five miles an hour..’
    Then, the conflict happened again in paragraph 45:
    The grandmother recalled an old house related to her past. She forced Bailey to drive off there.
    ‘She knew that Bailey would not be willing to lose any time looking at an old house, but the more she talked about it, the more she wanted to see it once again and find out if the little twin harbors were still standing.’
    Then, she made a lie to interest her grandchildren to see ‘the secret panel’
    “There was a secret panel in this house,” she said craftily, not telling the truth but wishing that she were, “and the story went that all the family silver was hidden in it when Sherman came through but it was never found . . .”

    B. Complication
    The complication happened when they had an accident in the middle of journey to go to the old house. The grandmother had realized that she told the wrong house. The house she meant was in Tennessee not in Georgia. However, again, she didn’t want to tell the truth to Bailey and his family. Her surprising expression had made Bailey lose focus on driving and the accident happened.
    C. Climax
    The climax is reached when they asked for help after the accident. They tried to stop car to give them ride. Then, there was a car coming forward to them. Out of sudden, there were 3 scary men coming out of the car. One of them was The Misfit, someone who was jealous and had vengeance to Bailey and the grandmother. There are some points why this part became the climax. First, the grandmother recognized The Misfit. The grandmother’s The Misfit mother. He had vengeance to his mom since his mom manipulated the truth that he didn’t kill his father. It made him be sentenced for the mistakes he didn’t do. Second, the Misfit remembered that he was treated badly because of Bailey. He was jealous with Bailey. He said:
    “My daddy said I was a different breed of dog from my brothers and sisters…”
    Then, the third thing which made him really upset was the grandmother manipulated by preaching the Misfit to prevent him killing her. The Misfit really hated it. It’s as if he had been the worst man in the world.
    D. Resolution
    After the climax emerged, Flannery gave the resolution. He killed all of the family. However, he felt sorrowful after doing it:
    “Shut up, Bobby Lee,” The Misfit said. “It’s no real pleasure in life.”
    It means that he actually realized that doing vengeance wasn’t the way to give him a satisfaction after being treated unfairly and badly. It sounds that he also felt regret doing it.

    4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    Flannery O’Connor lifted up the topic about selfishness through this story. Through this story, he actually wants to say that human beings are often selfish. For example, the grandmother was selfish because she forced others to reach her desire. Then, she told lie to get desire. Second example, the Misfit killed Bailey and his family because there’s something in the past that they did that he couldn’t tolerate: (Lawson) (Lawson) (Lawson)
    ‘’My daddy said I was a different breed of dog from my brothers and sisters.’’
    “It was a head-doctor at the penitentiary said what I had done was kill my daddy but I known that for a lie. My daddy died in nineteen ought nineteen of the epidemic flu and I never had a thing to do with it.”
    So, Flannery used cause effect relationship plot to present the theme. Selfishness can lead to vengeance if it’s not handled well soon. It also leads to regret as The Misfit said:
    “It’s no real pleasure in life.”

    5. Conclusion
    A Good Man Is Hard To Find is a complicated story because it’s little bit hard to comprehend. The way he employed a flashback to provide background and explanation for the present situation was confusing because it’s stated implicitly. So, the reader should read this story many times to get the comprehension. However, his ideas are brilliant in presenting the theme in this story.

    6. Bibliography

    Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta.
    (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literature
    (n.d.). Retrieved from http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~surette/goodman.html

    1. A PLOT ANALYSIS OF
      FLANNERY O’CONNOR’S “A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND”
      by : Gloria Grace Yohana (1012150014)
      A. Introduction
      Literature comes from Latin litterae (plural). It means ‘letter’. The word literature literally means “things made from letters”. Literature can be non-fiction and fiction. Some of literature categorized in non-fiction is polemical works, biography, and reflective essays (Wikipedia). One of literature categorized in fiction is novel. Another fiction is short story.
      Short story is a short piece of fiction written in narrative prose. Some short stories the writer knows are ‘Cat in the Rain’ by Ernest Hemingway, ‘A Man Who Had No Eyes’ by McKinley Kantor, and ‘True Love’ by Isaac Asimov. Pardede, (2008) emphasized that there are 8 elements of literature that we can analyze in short story. They are subject matter, character, point of view, action and plot, setting, atmosphere and tone, style, as well as theme.
      However, this paper deals with the plot of ‘A Good Man Is Hard To Find’ written by Flannery O’Connor. The writer analyses the type of plot used in the short story, stages and elements of plot. The use of Plot to present the theme is also a part of this paper discussion.
      B. Analysis
      1. Synopsis of A Good Man Is Hard to Find
      A Good Man Is Hard To Find is a short story about a family problem. Bailey, his wife, and his children (John Wesley and June Star) wanted to go to Florida. However, Bailey’s mother (the grandmother) didn’t want to go there. She was afraid of seeing someone in her past (read: the Misfit). So, she gave a reason that she wanted to go to Tennessee to meet her connections. She tried to persuade Bailey.
      After discussing, they finally went to Florida. They went through some cities such as Atlanta and Georgia. They enjoyed their journey going through Atlanta. However, when they went through Georgia, they found some problems. First, the roads were dangerous for vehicle. Second, when they continued their journey after having barbequed sandwiches, the grandmother recalled her neighborhood and really wanted to go an old house. Since she was eager to go there, she told a lie to make Bailey’s children were interested to go the house. They went through the hilly dirt road with high speed. Suddenly, the grandmother realized that the old house was in Tennessee. Bailey lose his focus and they had an accident.
      The situation became worse when they asked for help. Out of sudden, there were three men coming to them. Bailey and his family didn’t notice one of them. However, the grandmother recognized him. He was the Misfit.
      2. Types of Plot
      Flannery O’Connor wrote ‘A Good Hard Is Hard To Find’ by employing logical sequence plot. The events were arranged in cause effect relationship. First, they went to the old house because the grandmother remembered her past neighborhood. Second, they were killed by the Misfit because of the Misfit’s avenge in his past to the grandmother.
      3. Stages and Elements of Plot
      The plot of A Good Ma Is Hard To Find has four stages which they are exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The situation was dynamic. Because there were some bad things happened unexpectedly that made the situations more complicated.
      A. Exposition & Conflicts
      The first nine paragraphs of the story is categorized an exposition. The writer introduced place, time setting and the major characters: grandmother and the Misfit. He also introduced the relationship of the characters. There was a grandmother living with her son (Bailey) who had a wife and 2 children (John Wesley and June Star). They were in living room. It can be seen by this situation told by Flanney O’Connor:
      ‘He (Bailey) was sitting on the edge of his chair at the table, bent over the orange sports section of the Journal.’
      ‘She (Bailey’s wife) was sitting on the sofa, feeding the baby his apricots out of a jar.’
      ‘He (John Wesley) and the little girl, June Star, were reading the funny papers on the floor.’
      While the place setting and characters were introduced, the conflict also emerged. The grandmother didn’t want to go to Florida.
      “The children have been to Florida before,” the old lady said. “You all ought to take them somewhere else for a change so they would see different parts of the world and be broad. They never have been to east Tennessee.”
      But the children against by saying:
      “If you don’t want to go to Florida, why dontcha stay at home?” He and the little girl, June Star, were reading the funny papers on the floor.
      “She wouldn’t stay at home to be queen for a day,” June Star said without raising her yellow head.
      The introduction of characters, interrelationship in character’s environment and place, time setting also happened until twenty sixth paragraphs. Other conflicts also happened while they were introduced. There were some conflicts before complication happened. Other conflicts are:
      The conflict existed in paragraph 10:
      ‘She didn’t intend for the cat to be left alone in the house for three days because he would miss her too much and she was afraid he might brush against one of her gas burners and accidentally asphyxiate himself. Her son, Bailey, didn’t like to arrive at a motel with a cat.’
      The conflict happened in paragraph 11:
      ‘She said she thought it was going to be a good day for driving, neither too hot nor too cold, and she cautioned Bailey that the speed limit was fifty-five miles an hour..’
      Then, the conflict happened again in paragraph 45:
      The grandmother recalled an old house related to her past. She forced Bailey to drive off there.
      ‘She knew that Bailey would not be willing to lose any time looking at an old house, but the more she talked about it, the more she wanted to see it once again and find out if the little twin harbors were still standing.’
      Then, she made a lie to interest her grandchildren to see ‘the secret panel’
      “There was a secret panel in this house,” she said craftily, not telling the truth but wishing that she were, “and the story went that all the family silver was hidden in it when Sherman came through but it was never found . . .”
      B. Complication
      The complication happened when they had an accident in the middle of journey to go to the old house. The grandmother had realized that she told the wrong house. The house she meant was in Tennessee not in Georgia. However, again, she didn’t want to tell the truth to Bailey and his family. Her surprising expression had made Bailey lose focus on driving and the accident happened.
      C. Climax
      The climax is reached when they asked for help after the accident. They tried to stop car to give them ride. Then, there was a car coming forward to them. Out of sudden, there were 3 scary men coming out of the car. One of them was The Misfit, someone who was jealous and had vengeance to Bailey and the grandmother. There are some points why this part became the climax. First, the grandmother recognized the Misfit. The grandmother’s the Misfit mother. He had vengeance to his mom since his mom manipulated the truth that he didn’t kill his father. It made him be sentenced for the mistakes he didn’t do. Second, the Misfit remembered that he was treated badly because of Bailey. He was jealous with Bailey. He said:
      “My daddy said I was a different breed of dog from my brothers and sisters…”
      Then, the third thing which made him really upset was the grandmother manipulated by preaching the Misfit to prevent him killing her. The Misfit really hated it. It’s as if he had been the worst man in the world.
      D. Resolution
      After the climax emerged, Flannery gave the resolution. The Misfit killed all of the family. However, he felt sorrowful after doing it:
      “Shut up, Bobby Lee,” The Misfit said. “It’s no real pleasure in life.”
      It means that he actually realized that doing vengeance wasn’t the way to give him a satisfaction after being treated unfairly and badly. It sounds that he also felt regret doing it.
      4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
      Flannery O’Connor lifted up the topic about selfishness through this story. Through this story, he actually wants to say that human beings are often selfish. For example, the grandmother was selfish because she forced others to reach her desire. Then, she told lie to get desire. Second example, the Misfit killed Bailey and his family because there’s something in the past that they did that he couldn’t tolerate:
      ‘’My daddy said I was a different breed of dog from my brothers and sisters.’’
      “It was a head-doctor at the penitentiary said what I had done was kill my daddy but I known that for a lie. My daddy died in nineteen ought nineteen of the epidemic flu and I never had a thing to do with it.”
      So, Flannery used cause effect relationship plot to present the theme. Selfishness can lead to vengeance if it’s not handled well soon. It also leads to regret as The Misfit said:
      “It’s no real pleasure in life.”
      5. Conclusion
      A Good Man Is Hard To Find is a complicated story because it’s little bit hard to comprehend. The way he employed a flashback to provide background and explanation for the present situation was confusing because it’s stated implicitly. So, the reader should read this story many times to get the comprehension. However, his ideas are brilliant in presenting the theme in this story.
      6. Bibliography
      Pardede, P. (2008). An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta.
      (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literature
      (n.d.). Retrieved from http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~surette/goodman.html

  69. A CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS OF
    LEO TOLSTOY’S “THREE QUESTIONS”

    (Annery Fienta)

    Introduction
    As literary genre, fiction is a product of the author’s imagination. The content of fiction is usually based on the experience and observation of the author. In fact, most of fiction is inspired from the reality. But, the content is not strictly the same as the reality which is referred. On the process of creating the story, the author chooses and modifies the content appropriate with his/her purpose.
    Considering that the story of fiction based on the experience and/or observation of the author about life, or the reality, fiction is impressed more realistic or closer to the real life, so that it is more intimate to society or readers. This impression is quite excusable; it is because short story, in general, telling about specific aspects which is common in society’s life. Thus, it makes sense if the devotee of fiction is much more than the devotee of poetry or drama.
    Although fiction is an effort of re-expressing life experience (which is not really different from the reality of the readers), they often find it difficult to understand the fiction they read. As a consequence, the values of humanity or artistic that is expressed by the author often cannot be comprehended as a whole. To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence.
    This analysis is one of the efforts to appreciate short story in general, and Three Questions, a short story by Leo Tolstoy in particular. The short story is interesting to analyze due to two reasons. First, it was written by one of the world’s greatest writers, is equally known for his complicated and paradoxical persona and for his extreme moralistic and ascetic views, which he adopted after a moral crisis and spiritual awakening in the 1870s in Russia, after which he also became noted as a moral thinker and social reformer. Leo Tolstoy was one of the great rebels of all time, a man who during a long and stormy life was at odds with Church, government, literary tradition, and his own family. Yet he was a conservative, obsessed by the idea of God in an age of scientific positivism. He brought the art of the realistic novel to its highest development. Tolstoy’s brooding concern for death made him one of the precursors of existentialism. Yet the bustling spirit that animates his novels conveys, perhaps, more of life than life itself. Second, the short story does not merely tell an interesting story but also has characters that are often found in the real life and deep-rooted principles that are trying to tell everyone how to live a good life.
    This study deals with the characterization of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the characters to present the theme. The writer will try to analyze the characterization on Tolstoy’s story Three Questions, a story of a king who was puzzled by three questions and only the poor hermit was able to answer it with sense.

    Analysis
    A. Synopsis of Three Questions
    The thought came to a certain king that he would never fail if he knew three things. These three things were:
    1. When is the best time to do each thing?
    2. Who are the most important people to work with?
    3. What is the most important thing to do at all times?
    Many educated men attempted to answer the king’s questions, but they all came up with different answers. The king decided that he needed to ask a wise hermit in a nearby village. The hermit would only see common folk, however, so the king disguised himself as a peasant and left his guards behind to see the hermit. The hermit was digging flower beds when the king arrived. The king asked his questions, but the hermit went on digging rather laboriously. The king offered to dig for him for a while. After digging for some time, the king again asked his questions. Before the hermit could answer, a man emerged from the woods. He was bleeding from a terrible stomach wound. The king tended to him, and they stayed the night in the hermit’s hut. By the next day the wounded man was doing better, but was incredulous at the help he had received. The man confessed that he knew who the king was, and that the king had executed his brother and seized his property. He had come to kill the king, but the guards wounded him in the stomach. The man pledged allegiance to the king, and he went on his way. The king asked the hermit again for his answers, and the hermit responded that he had just had his questions answered.
    1. The most important time is now. The present is the only time over which we have power.
    2. The most important person is whoever you are with.
    3. The most important thing is to do good to the person you are with.

    B. Characterization Analysis
    In Three Questions, there are five characters. They are the king, the learned men, the hermit, the king’s bodyguard, and the bearded man. Seen from the intensity of the characters played in the development of the story, the main character in this short story is the king. The hermit and the bearded man are minor characters who serve to support the presence of the king. While the other figures (learned men and the king’s bodyguard) are extras, which are presented only to create interesting atmosphere so that the story seems more realistic. In this paper, only the main character and two minor figures are going to be analyzed.

    1. The King
    From the beginning of the story, the king is illustrated as a perfectionist man and he is afraid to fail. It is proved by his demand to know the answers of three questions which are haunting him and his effort as much as possible to avoid failures that may occur to him:
    … that if he always knew the right time to begin everything; if he knew who were the right people to listen to, and whom to avoid; and, above all, if he always knew what was the most important thing to do, he would never fail in anything he might undertake. (p. 1)

    Having received responses about the three questions from many learned men, the king seems not to easily accept others’ suggestion and not to easily be satisfied, until he decides to consult a hermit to get the right answer:
    All the answers being different, the King agreed with none of them, and gave the reward to none. But still wishing to find the right answers to his questions, he decided to consult a hermit, widely renowned for his wisdom. (p. 1)

    Besides that, the king has a kind heart and he wants to help others. It is proved when he helps the hermit digging the ground, when he saves the bearded man’s life from his death by dressing his wound many times, and when he carries the wounded man lying on the bed in the hermit’s hut:
    “You are tired,” said the King, “let me take the spade and work awhile for you.” (p. 2)
    But the King did not give him the spade, and continued to dig. One hour passed, and another. The sun began to sink behind the trees, and the King at last stuck the spade into the ground. (p. 2)

    The King and the hermit unfastened the man’s clothing. There was a large wound in his stomach. The King washed it as best he could, and bandaged it with his handkerchief and with a towel the hermit had. But the blood would not stop flowing and the King again and again removed the bandage soaked with warm blood, and washed and re-bandaged the wound. When at last the blood ceased flowing, the man revived and asked for something to drink. The King brought fresh water and gave it to him. Meanwhile the sun had set, and it had become cool. So the King, with the hermit’s help, carried the wounded man into the hut and laid him on the bed. (p. 2)

    The king also has forgiving characteristic. When he knows that the bearded man has wanted to kill him, he forgives the bearded man, sends his servants and his own physician to attend him and restores his property.
    The King was very glad to have made peace with his enemy so easily, and to have gained him for a friend, and he not only forgave him, but said he would send his servants and his own physician to attend him, and promised to restore his property. (p. 3)

    One characteristic of the king that is implicitly visible is a little impatient and insensitive. He asks the hermit to answer his questions three times but the hermit does not answer him. In addition, he is not conscious that what just happens is the answer of his questions and until he asks for the fourth time, the hermit answers it clearly.
    The King went up to him and said: “I have come to you, wise hermit, to ask you to answer three questions: How can I learn to do the right thing at the right time? Who are the people I most need, and to whom should I, therefore, pay more attention than to the rest? And, what affairs are the most important, and need my first attention?”
    The hermit listened to the King, but answered nothing. (p. 2)

    When he had dug two beds, the King stopped and repeated his questions. The hermit again gave no answer,… (p. 2)

    “I came to you, wise man, for an answer to my questions. If you can give me none, tell me so, and I will return home.” (p. 2)

    “For the last time, I pray you to answer my questions, wise man.” (p.3)

    2. The Hermit
    The story explicitly says that the hermit is the wise man and widely renowned for his wisdom. From the story, we know that he lives alone and separately from other people. He never quitted from wood he lives, it means that he comes from that wood. Besides that, he only receives common folk. It implies that he never views people from their outside (wealth, occupation, or appearance). The hermit assumes that everybody is the same.
    The hermit lived in a wood which he never quitted, and he received none but common folk. So the King put on simple clothes, and before reaching the hermit’s cell dismounted from his horse, and, leaving his body-guard behind, went on alone. (p. 1)

    His wisdom is proved when he does not answer the king’s questions and still digs the ground.
    The hermit listened to the King, but answered nothing. He just spat on his hand and recommenced digging. (p. 2)

    When he had dug two beds, the King stopped and repeated his questions. The hermit again gave no answer,… (p. 2)

    Certainly, he does it for a purpose which is to wait the bearded man comes and the king will get the answers through what is going to happen after the bearded man arrives. From his action, it is implied that he already knows what the answers are and the best time to answer the king’s questions so he is reluctant to answer it until the bearded man comes. He really knows what the answers are, what will happen and how to fulfill the king’s curiosity about his questions in the best way.
    “Here comes someone running,” said the hermit, “let us see who it is.” (p. 2)

    “Do you not see,” replied the hermit. “If you had not pitied my weakness yesterday, and had not dug those beds for me, but had gone your way, that man would have attacked you, and you would have repented of not having stayed with me. So the most important time was when you were digging the beds; and I was the most important man; and to do me good was your most important business. Afterwards when that man ran to us, the most important time was when you were attending to him, for if you had not bound up his wounds he would have died without having made peace with you. So he was the most important man, and what you did for him was your most important business. Remember then: there is only one time that is important– Now! It is the most important time because it is the only time when we have any power. The most necessary man is he with whom you are, for no man knows whether he will ever have dealings with anyone else: and the most important affair is, to do him good, because for that purpose alone was man sent into this life!” (p.3)

    3. The Bearded Man
    The bearded man is the key of the king’s questions. From what happen to the king and him, the king gets the answers. He who comes when the king asks the answers of his questions to the hermit for the third time is the man who has revenge to the king. It means he is a spiteful man. He is the king’s enemy and wants to kill him because the king has executed his brother and has seized his property. However, his desire to kill the king fails to be realized. The king’s bodyguard who keep vigil outside the wood recognized him and wounded him. He succeeds to escape from them, but he is seriously injured. Because of the king’s kindness to save his life, he apologizes and is ready to be the king’s most faithful slave.
    “… I am that enemy of yours who swore to revenge himself on you, because you executed his brother and seized his property. I knew you had gone alone to see the hermit, and I resolved to kill you on your way back. But the day passed and you did not return. So I came out from my ambush to find you, and I came upon your bodyguard, and they recognized me, and wounded me. I escaped from them, but should have bled to death had you not dressed my wound. I wished to kill you, and you have saved my life. Now, if I live, and if you wish it, I will serve you as your most faithful slave, and will bid my sons do the same. Forgive me!” (p. 3)

    Conclusion
    As a whole, the characterization of Three Questions used by Leo is to present a theme: “Human should always do good things to everyone around now”. The king is described as a human being. A human is a king or a leader for himself. He is who has full right to make decision for his own life. But, in fact, even though he is a leader, he is afraid to fail and often faces the three questions which are the most crucial in doing his life and difficult to be answered by himself. Those three questions are often appeared to us as human being. Many learned people also cannot answer the questions correctly. Thus, the king decides to consult a hermit, a wise man. From this, we see that the hermit is described as God who knows everything. Human comes to Him to know all answers about life which often appear. But, human often place God as the last choice, not the first one. God really knows the answer of all human’s questions and the time when He should answer it. However, rarely, human is conscious about it. Human is often impatient to know the answer. And the bearded man is also described as human. He is described as people around us. We are often hostile with others, mostly, because of property, which the king seizes from the bearded man. In addition, we often plan to revenge whereas doing good to others is the best thing.
    It is interesting because this story does not use certain names for every character. It means the author emphasizes the universality of those characters. Talking about the answers, the first answer for the most important time is now. So, we have to use our time wisely and not waste it for unimportant things. Besides that, the hermit says “…So the most important time was when you were digging the beds; … the most important time was when you were attending to him,” It means that we have to be patient because when we are waiting is the best time to us and we have to welcome anybody who comes to us to ask for help. The second answer for the most important question is whomever you are with. It means God and people around us are the most important persons in our life. The third answer for the most important thing is to do good to the person you are with. Based on the story, the king saves the bearded man’s life so that they make peace (no more revenge). So, we as human being have to treat whomever we are with well and peace in the world will always be there.

    References
    Pardede, P. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Paper presented as instructional material for FKIP-UKI. Jakarta: Christian University of Indonesia
    “The Three Questions”. (2013, October 14). Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Three_Questions

  70. Morning sir, sorry for my mistake last mid-term test,,
    so, i have already found my new title for this task.
    I am going to analyze setting of ”The Pit and The Pendulum”
    thank you sir,,

    1. A CHARACTERIZATION OF AARON HELLEM
      “FAR FROM THE EYES OF THE SUN”
      (Jeny Maria- 1012150062)

      Introduction

      Fiction is the hardest kind of writing to do well. It challenges even the most competent professionals. But with the right tools, even fearful fiction writers can give it a good shot. Fiction is writing that describes invented people and events, not real ones. It is story or statement that is not true. Traditionally, fiction includes novels, short stories, fables, fairy tales, plays, poetry, but it now also encompasses films, comic books, and video games. Professional wrestling is a scripted show that mimics fighting competitions.

      The story in fiction based on the author’s experiences and observations on life, or true story, fiction impressed more realistic or close to real life, so it is more familiar to the public or readers. This impression is well-grounded, for either a short story or novel in General tell you about certain aspects which were common in the lives of ordinary people, therefore, it is reasonable when the devotee of fiction is far more than a connoisseur of poetry or drama

      Far from the Eyes of the Sun is a short story who was made by Aaron Hellem. It’s different than much short stories. This story usually short, clever, sharp punchers of surprising images and strokes of phrase, sad and hilarious in blistering tandem. Many nominating short stories that was given. Cake for Breakfast, Tennis in the Rain and Wolves in the Parade were written by Aaron. This writing is a effort to help readers appreciate the short story generally.

      The discussion in this writing is focused on aspects of characterizations. In this analysis is performed using the discussion ever described earlier. The result presentation of the analysis attempted by using the norms of academic writing.

      Analysis

      A. Synopsis of Far from the Eyes of the Sun
      Far from the Eyes of the Sun told about three men who got lost in the mountain. Len, Mince and Big Joe came there to do their jobs. They lived in the house that didn’t know who own house was. There are only available goods course in the house. They were difficult to get food because there weren’t any more hogs to be had and the cattle were all dead. It happened because the herd migrated to the river and died there. They had only a mongrel to be eaten. Not only food was difficult to find it but also water. The water wasn’t any good and dysentery yet. If they wanted to find food and water, they should be go to outside that were wolves there. All of them were going to hunger and thirsty when they did not get out of the house. If they were out, wolves had been waiting to eat all of them.

      In the house, while they had been waiting a mongrel be done into the oven, they talked more about dying. Mince was the most fearful from them despite of Big Joe. Big Joe was not afraid of anything. They only stayed in the house because wolves were also hungry like them.

      B. Analyzing Characterization
      In this writing, there are three characters such as: Len, Mince, and Big Joe. The main character in this story is Big Joe. Len and Mince are the minor characters that support Big Joe in the story. While the other characters are the featured extras just to lively atmosphere to make the story seem more realistic. In this writing that are analyzed is just the main characters and characterizations of both minor figures.

      1. Big Joe
      First, Big Joe was careful to the friends. He served his friends water that would be drink by them.. Then, when their water had been done, Joe said “get yourself a drink first” (p.3) and “we’re going to need more water” (p.2)

      Actually, Joe is someone who wasn’t affraid of them. It was proved when he was talking to his friends “Big Joe was not affraid of anything and was big enough to only be stopped by a bullet. He wasn’t affraid, just sad”. (p.2)

      In this story, Joe was sad because he would die in the house without ever touching woman again. That was thought in his mind: “to die amongst dogs with no woman to comfort him, to beckon him in the back bedroom with a sultry finger and an unbuttoned blouse” (p.3)

      He was also fearful to Maria who was the last girlfriend. It was proved when he shared to Mince: “Her name was Maria. She had golden skin and a salamander tongue. If I’m going to die, I’d rather it happen inside her” (p.3) he said.

      2. Mince
      Here there are three behaviors in the Mince in a story Far from the Eyes of the Sun that are unbeliever, fearful, and faithful.

      Mince is fearful of dying. While he was waiting the dog until fragrant, he heard his friends’ talking about dying: “Mince didn’t like to hear the other men talk about it out loud in front of him”. (p.2)

      Mince was an unbeliever person. When his friends said that they smell the dog which was done:
      “Will you let it alone? We’ll smell it when it’s done.” Len told him
      “ I’m just making sure” Mince said. (p.1)
      Mince didn’t believe his friends. Although they were partners’ job and friends.

      Mince is someone who faithful on a woman. He had been ever fall in love to a woman. Her name is Becky Jackson. That can be proved from his sharing to Joe:
      “Backy Jackson was my first. She was my babysitter” Mince said.
      “You never forget your first” Joe said. (p.3)

      3. Len
      Len is like bossy, he asked his friends to something for them. Mince prepared the food and Joe served the drink. When he asked to Joe “how much is left of the bottle”, Joe answered “Go on and fetch it then”. Len had not work yet for them.
      Like Mince, Len was also worried about his life. He was afraid of dying. This his worry: “He would wondered if it had already happened, if the three men had contracted the brucellosis”.

      He was skillful with a knife. This was proved when he wanted to cut something: “Len glanced at the things spread out on the table: the cups, the bottle, the bowie knife”.

      Conclusion
      Overall, element characterizations in a Far from the Eyes of the Sun that was used Hellem to present theme: if want to go somewhere that doesn’t know or deepening, do not forget to prepare for needs ranging from food, beverages, or a tool to keep yourself (guns, knives, and others). The tool applies at the moment we are in the woods, the mountains, or a place rarely visited by other people. Here, we learn where the need for self preparation if want to travel a one of places. Moreover, if we do not recognize the place. It’s good to find out what kind of that location. This avoids the things that we do not want at a time when we are to the venue, work, or study tour place seldom visited need also to us carefully.

      Hellem, Aaeron. Far from the eyes of the sun. (Dalam Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI)
      Manser, H.M. (1995). Oxford learner’s pocket dictionary. NewYork: Oxford University of Press.

      1. The FLY by Katherine Masfield
        I. Introduction
        Although every work of fiction is unique in the sense that the elements contained by every work vary from one to another, as it has been implied by our definition, they still share certain similar elements. We have said that fiction is a prose narrative that dramatizes changes in humans relationships. hence it will include representations of human beings, or characters. It will deal about something, or plot. It willdepict a sequence of events characters, and will be presented in major as the medium. These are among the elements of fiction.
        II. Analyssis
        a. synopsis of The Flying
        This is quite established fact that the story “The Fly” is about the conquest of time over grief. This is the first theme of the story.
        To show that time conquers grief the writer presents two characters, Mr. Woodifield and his ex-boss. Both of them lost their only sons six years ago. It was a long period and it had healed up their grief.
        First, the writer tells us about the state of grief of Mr. Woodifield. He has forgotten everything. He is able to remember about the grave of his some after drinking whisky. He talks about his son and his grave, but does not feel any pang of grief. This clearly shows that the time has made him forget his grief.
        Then the writer talks about the state of grief of the boss. The Boss believed that time would not make any difference to his grief. Now his present state of grief is different. After the departure of old Woodifield, he sits in the chair. He wants to feel the same pang of grief that he used to feel. The writer expresses his feelings very beautifully: “He wanted, he intended, he arranged to weep…. But no tears came yet.” This is the present condition of his grief. Time has conquered his grief.
        He wants to feel the pang of grief. As a last try, he decides to get up and have a look at his son’s photograph. However, a fly in the inkpot attracts his attention and he forgets about his son and the grief in a moment. He starts dropping drops of ink on the fly to enjoy its struggle. After the death of the fly, he tries to remember what he was thinking, but cannot. This clearly shows that time has conquered his grief.
        b. plot
        Woodifield, an old and rather infirm gentleman, is talking to his friend, “the boss”, a well-to-do man five years older than he is and “still going strong”. The boss enjoys showing off his redecorated office to Woodifield, with its new furniture and electric heating (with an old picture of a young man, whom we learn is his deceased son). Woodifield wants to tell the boss something, but is struggling to remember what it was, when the boss offers him some fine whisky. After drinking, his memory is refreshed and Woodifield talks about a recent visit that his two daughters made to his son’s grave, saying that they had come across the boss’s son’s grave as well. We now come to know that the boss’s son had died in the war six years ago, a loss that affected the boss heavily.
        After Woodifield leaves, the boss sits down at his table and informs his clerk that he does not want to be disturbed. He is extremely perturbed at the sudden reference to his dead son, and expects to weep but is surprised to find that he can’t. He looks at his son’s photo, and thinks it bears little resemblance to his son, as he looks stern in the photo, whereas the boss remembers him to be bright and friendly. The boss then notices a fly struggling to get out of the inkpot on his desk. The boss helps it out of the inkpot and observes how it dries itself. When the fly is dry and safe, the boss has an idea and starts playing with the fly by dropping ink on it. He admires the fly’s courage and continues dropping ink on it, watching it dry itself continuously. By this time, the fly is weak and dies. The boss throws the dead fly, along with the blotting paper, into the wastepaper basket, and asks his clerk for fresh blotting paper. He suddenly feels a wretchedness that frightens him and finds himself bereft. He tries to remember what it was he had been thinking about before, but has no recollection of what he was thinking about before the fly.
        c. characters
        Mr. Woodifield, an old and infirm man, who has lost a son in World War I and is only allowed to leave his house on Tuesdays. He lives with his wife and daughters.
        The boss, a well-off friend of his, who has also lost a son to World War I.
        Macey, the office clerk.
        The fly the symbol of the story
        Gertrude, Mr. Woodifield’s daughter
        d. major themes
        The inevitability of death and man’s unwillingness to accept this truth. The story can also be read as an indictment of the brutal horror of World War I. Much attention has been paid to the central character of the boss.Many of the critics think that the fly actually symbolizes the Boss who is fighting with his life. He has been seen as a symbol of malignant forces that are base and motiveless, a representative of the generation that sent its sons to their slaughter in a cruel war. The Other Major Theme: Time is a great healer, vanquisher of all the griefs and sorrows of man; six years have passed since the death of the boss’ son, and he has now lost his acute emotions and memories.
        Reggie, Mr. Woodifield’s son whom he had lost in World War I
        III. Conclusion
        The story “Fly” throws light on the fact that time is a great healer and it conquers grief.
        Mr. Woodifield comes to see his ex-boss. He is retired and is a heart patient. He praises the new setting and furniture of the office. Then the boss offers him whisky. After drinking it, Mr. Woodifield remembers what he has forgotten. He tells the boss that his daughters have visited the graves of the boss’s as well as Mr. Woodsfield’s son. Actually, they have died in a war.
        When Mr. Woodifield has gone, the boss remembers his dead son. He tries to have the same feelings of grief as he felt on the day of his death. However, he fails. For the last try, he decides to go to the photograph of his son, but a fly in an inkpot attracts his attention. He forgets all about his son.
        He takes the fly out of the inkpot and puts it on a blotting paper. As soon as the fly is about to fly, he drops a drop of ink on it and enjoys its struggle. At last, the fly dies of drops of ink. The boss throws it away and orders for a fresh blotting paper. Then he tries to remember what he was thinking before attending to the fly. It means he forgets his dead son again.

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