Final Assignment for Literature I Class (Group A)


Instruction

To fulfill the final requirement for finishing the class of Literature I, write an analysis on the poem selected for you in the following lists.  Include the general meaning, detailed meaning, intention, connotation, imagery and figurative language in your work analysis. However, you don’t need to put sub-headings. Just write in continuous essay form. You can use my analysis on Wordsworth’s I wandered Lonely as a Cloud as a model.

To get the poem you should analyze, just click the title put right after your name in the following lists.

Post your analysis on the reply section below not later than July 11, 2012. Don’t forget to put your student I.D. on top of your post.

Good luck!

List of Students and Poems to analyze

  1. Ian Fraskah Siallagan –> Langston Hughes’ As I Grew Older
  2. Nova Novita –> Pablo Neruda’s I Do Not Love You Except Because I Love You
  3. Weina Agnestya F.S.P. –> Jenny Joseph’s Warning
  4. Berthon Wendyven –> Emily Dickinson’s Hope” is the thing with feathers
  5. Sayrona Sybtabama –> Joyce Kilmer’s Trees
  6. Ribka Sima Erlin –> Roger McGough’s First Day at School
  7. Evyona Br. Sinulingga –> Paul Laurence Dunbar’s We Wear the Mask
  8. Louisa Novita –> J. Patrick Lewis’ First Men on the Moon
  9. Aprina Crysanti Girsang –> Amy Lowell’s The Letter
  10. Margaretha –> William Henry Davies’s Leisure
  11. Tri Retno Widayati –> Sherbanu Molu’s Happiness
  12. Feryanto Hasudungan S. –> Rabindranath Tagore’s Closed Path
  13. Norman Hamonangan –> Amy Lowell’s The Lamp of Life
  14. Listra Lesna Sinurat –> Lewis Carroll’s Dreamland
  15. Ronald –> Jack Prelutsky’s Be Glad Your Nose is on Your Face
  16. Olivia Floren Sebayang –> Dorothy Parker’s Condolence
  17. Agnes patricia –> Amy Lowell’s A Little Song
  18. Julio Petrus –>William Wordsworth’s British Freedom
  19. Juliana Christine –> Robert Frost’s A Soldier
  20. Meirina Putri Malau –> Rabindranath Tagore’s Chain Of Pearls
  21. Cesario Octavianus –> William Henry Davies’ Money
  22. Eny Haryati –> Rabindranath Tagore’s Freedom
  23. Van Henrikh –> William Butler Yeats’ When You Are Old
  24. Susan –> Amy Lowell’s Absence

29 Comments

  1. The general meaning of the poet is explain about the life that we have is such a temporary thing that must be over in the end. The poet wants to share a message that tell life is a very valuable thing that we ever had. Thus, we need to appreciate every second and all gifts that God had given to us.

    the detail meaning of this poem explores the idea that happiness, perfection, bliss (all symbolized by gold) cannot and will not endure

    The intention of this poem to remind us to take advantage of the time we have living. Like nature – we also begin this world green with a unique and innocent freshness which is indeed difficult to hold onto in this day and age

  2. Trees
    By: Joyce Kilmer

    I think that I shall never see
    A poem lovely as a tree.

    A tree whose hungry mouth is priest
    Against the sweet earths flowing breast;

    A tree that looks at God all day,
    And lifts her leafy arms to pray;

    A tree that may in summer wear
    A nest of robins in her hair;

    Upon whose bosom snow has lain;
    Who intimately lives with rain.

    Poems are made by fools like me,
    But only God can make a tree.

    General Meaning
    The meaning of this poem is nothing that can compete with God’s creation. God’s creation is the most perfect in this world. For example just a tree, tree, whose mouth is like the Reverend continue to give thanks to God. And his hand is raised to pray to him. In summer a tree in use by another of God’s creation to a shelter, which is a bird make a nest in the tree leaves. Trees in Winter and persisted even when the cold waiting for the rain.

    Detailed Meaning and Connotation
    A tree whose hungry mouth is priest
    That means a man who is hungry for faith, someone who wants to have more faith in God again.
    A tree that looks at God all day,
    And lifts her leafy arms to pray;
    That means someone who always remember God, and always prayed to God for help.
    A tree that may in summer wear
    A nest of robins in her hair;
    When a human in trouble, God will help her, like a tree in the summer is protected by a nest in the leaves.

    Intention
    The author wanted to convey to the reader that we as humans should not forget the Lord, we must always remember him and plead or believe in him. For all that believe and ask God, surely God will help him.

    Imagery and Figurative
    There are two imageries in this poem, Visual imagery and Kinesthetic imagery. Visual imagery by the use of words “tree, leafy arms , earths, nest”
    Kinesthetic of feeling by words like “whose hungry , has lain”

  3. When You Are Old
    By : William Butler Yeats

    WHEN you are old and grey and full of sleep,
    And nodding by the fire, take down this book,
    And slowly read, and dream of the soft look
    Your eyes had once, and of their shadows deep;
    How many loved your moments of glad grace,
    And loved your beauty with love false or true,
    But one man loved the pilgrim Soul in you,
    And loved the sorrows of your changing face;
    And bending down beside the glowing bars,
    Murmur, a little sadly, how Love fled
    And paced upon the mountains overhead
    And hid his face amid a crowd of stars.

    ‘When you are old’ is a descriptive poem in which the author expresses about love, the meaning of this poem is conveyed in a descriptive way through the use of figurative language and the careful selection of words and imagery. Also ‘When you are old’ is one of the poems that dedicated to the woman who rejected him many times. With this poem, Yeats was trying to persuade and seduce her to be with him. That if she changes her mind she will not be alone in her old age. He is telling her that if she doesn’t wake up and realize that superficial things as beauty, parties and others, go away, the time will pass and will be so late. He wants her to notice he is the one who loves her for what she really is. Many people adored her, but only one man loved her completely. The others don’t love you as I do. Now is the time for you to realize I’m the one, don’t let our happiness go away without giving a second thought. There will be no opportunities when time has passed. That’s what we feel and image as we read this Yeats’ poem.
    To persuade her he uses a sad and melancholic tone in the poem which implies that he’ll be loving her constantly even when years have passed away and he wanted her to feel these emotions. Yeats’ poem is a lyric since the lyric poetry is distinguished as poetry of emotion and song. ‘when you are old’ is a memorable poem because of the beautiful and sad images the poet creates for us that has two spondees on the second line of the first stanza “take down this book”, the author gives emphasis trying that woman take an action now, right away from the slow image of the first line “when you are old and grey and full of sleep”. There are other two spondees on the third line of the second stanza “but one man loved” giving strength to the emotion that he is the only one who is going to love her truly. In the first line of the poem “when you are old and grey and full of sleep”, Yeats tries to put her mind in the future, when she’ll be old and near death. He is telling her now, in the present, so she’d better change her mind and realize that if she don’t take action and choose him, who loves her, when in the future, she’ll be old, feeling the pain of being without the real love, and regret all her life for it. The phrase “full of sleep” has the connotation that we can feel and image her tiredness in that time and she is going to die in a soon future. He aware this woman he is the one that loves her for what she really is, this is argued in the third line of the second stanza “but one man loved the pilgrim soul in you”. This word “pilgrim” refers to the long walk that her soul has had searching for real happiness, but really being alone. So many can loved her for how she looks because she was a beautiful actress, but only he can love her for who she really is.
    Another argument that support this thesis and give us this feeling, is the alliteration “glad grace”, expressing that when she is young, beautiful and in her best moments of life many will be interested in her, but they can love her just with false or superficial love. He will love her anyway no matter what happens. When we read the line “and loved the sorrows of your changing face” it has the connotation of when she gets old and her face gets shrink, so her face looks different he will just love her with the same strong love he always did. As we can see, he is strongly trying to persuade her there is no one for her like he is. In addition, there’s a contrast between “glad grace” and “sorrows of your changing face”, trying to say that while the others love her on her happy times, he will love her every time, including the worst ones. He is telling her she is not returning love to the right one and, as we know, the woman rejected him in different occasions and gets married with another man. Yeats tells her she will be repentant in her latest years of life remembering and dreaming of her best years when she was younger.
    He wrote in the third and fourth line of first stanza “and slowly read, and dream of the soft look your eyes had once, and their shadows deep”. The word “dream” is a very powerful one, this is because illusions and beauty are identified with dreams; with things that we wish to have whether we can have them or not and with this line he is telling her that illusions, beauty and youth will pass away and she’ll remember them in the future. The phrase “shadows deep” is to express the difficulties and sadness hidden in the look of the eyes that can only be seen by someone who really cares and really observes that look with the interest that love can do and, of course, Yeats is the only one who can see through her eyes and she’d better know that now to take the appropriate action. “The soft look your eyes had once” has the connotation to the time when she was young enough to have innocence in her eyes and the way she perceived life when she was younger, trying to establish that youth is not coming back and she will see bitterly that if she didn’t choose him now she’ll be sorry.
    The central purpose of this poem is to tell the beloved one how important is to recognize a true love when one is young, because things change when one grows old and one will feel regretful.
    This poem is full of emotion and passion. Yeats uses the word love in all lines in second stanza and in the third stanza, second line he capitalize this word giving it so much intensity. That demonstrate he wants to express the strength of his love for her and it can be seen as ethereal, because it fled over the mountains and hides in a crowd of stars. That love goes up and high like if it is increasing, unreachable and untouchable. It can also be seen like even when he will be dead, his love will be alive. Here, we can see that he wants her to know the magnitude of his love for her. The author personifies the love in the lines “and paced upon the mountains overhead”, “and hid his face amid a crowd of stars”. The word “paced” seems to me like going from one place to another without being stable and choosing the right thing or the right person. We can also see alliteration in the words “hid”, “his”. He establishes again the urgent need that woman chooses him now. I also see as if nature plays an important role in his way to express how pure his love was for her. The author tends to use these elements of nature in many of his poetry like in the poem.
    I interpret the words “glowing bars” as the prison of love and illusions or the enthusiastic obstacles to give and receive love because the time for it will be gone away. This is seen in the first line of the third stanza; “And bending down beside the glowing bars”. He’s imploring her love, bending down and beside every obstacle, which are her love and the other men, to let her know he is perseverant and has an unconditional love for her.
    Other clues I found to reach this conclusion are that if we put together some words that rhyme like “sleep” and “deep”, on the first stanza, we can see the image of a dead person. If we do the same with words “grace”, “face”, on the second stanza, we imagine and feel the beauty; the same happens if we put together the words “true” and “you” on the second stanza too, we can feel that it is what he really loves; the true you, the true self, woman’s soul. And, finally, if we put together the words “fled” and “overhead”, on the third stanza, we have the imagery, the feeling of something that has gone away. This all shows that Yeats is giving her the subliminal mandate inside the clear and direct message to love him now, that he is the only one who really loves her and to not let time walk against their happiness.
    In this poem Yeats masterfully uses many elements perfect and harmoniously correlated and concentrated in an extremely short poem such as alliterations, perfect metric, spondees, symbols and personification of love to give her the right message persuading to reach her change of mind and reciprocal love to him.

  4. First, the poem tells the closed path about the life of the author’s life journey has ended and that feeling has to limit the power of the possessed, and also see the road in front of the lid has to take its own steps, that is the power of life and the journey has ended and has done his best to the extent that possessed the power to pass through her journey of life and a case of passing through a very difficult path in the past, and for a small path that must be done with enormous power, as well as own life. Second, the poem is also seen that the author explains that a life’s journey was ended and he also has the power limit on the possessed, and pointed out that the way he sees before him have been closed, but he found that thy will knows no end in me, and when old words die on the tongue, new melodies break out of the heart, and where tracks are lost, a new country is revealed by a miracle, that is on a journey must come to an end, limit the power was certainly there, but the author points out that there is still the Lord’s will that knows no end in a life of each one of us, when old words die on the tongue, new melodies break away from the heart, that is the part that has long existed in ourselves we’re replaced with something new, and where tracks are lost, that is when we have gone through the journey we have been through will be lost and become memories, and the latter is a new country is revealed by a miracle, that is after we go through all of them for sure we will see countries new miraculous in our lives. The last, then In this poem the author would like to tell that to the reader that sometimes a journey that we have definitely have an end, and through them we also need to limit our own strength, it is the same as if we are to pass through a small path must accordance with the limits on our own strength, but do not despair was when we pass through our lives like a small road that is difficult to go through, and the author also tells us that each of us wanted to pass through our lives like a small road that is difficult for us overshoots, believes there must be the will of the Lord who will not know the final in each of our lives, and his will is what will help us to go beyond it.

    Closed Path in the poem has some Connotation, such connotation: the first is the “Power”, the connotation is something that is owned by everyone, the second is “Thy Will”, the connotation is a wonderful gift from God to each person, the third is “Revealed”, the connotation is something that has been known by many people, the fourth is the “Wonders”, the connotation is a wonderful gift from God to each person who received it.

    In the poem has some imagery such as: thought (Kinesthetic imagery), which means it is a broad term used to describe That Is Various emotion, power (Kinesthetic imagery), which means it is a broad term used to describe That Is Various emotions exhausted, (gustatory image), which means it is something you can taste, country (visual image), which describes the meaning is something you can see.

    Closed Path in the poem there are some figurative language, namely: That first one is I thought my voyage had come to its end at the last limit of my power (understatement) is an expression the which shows a situation seems a less Important or serious than it is, the second is That the path before me was closed, that provisions were exhausted (Irony) is the expression of one’s meaning by using words That mean the direct opposite of what ine really intend to Convey, and the last is But I find That thy will knows no end in me (Personification) is giving human characteristics.

  5. The Letter
    By Amy Lowell
    Little cramped words scrawling all over
    the paper
    Like draggled fly’s legs,
    What can you tell of the flaring moon
    Through the oak leaves?
    Or of my uncertain window and the
    bare floor

    Spattered with moonlight?
    Your silly quirks and twists have nothing
    in them
    Of blossoming hawthorns,
    And this paper is dull, crisp, smooth,
    virgin of loveliness
    Beneath my hand.

    I am tired, Beloved, of chafing my heart
    against
    The want of you;
    Of squeezing it into little inkdrops,
    And posting it.
    And I scald alone, here, under the fire
    Of the great moon.

    This poem has some great images and it really jumped out at me when I read it. I liked all the poems by Amy Lowell in this book. They were frank, direct love poems and elegantly delivered. Here is the first one. The first stanza is all about writing to the beloved, with the words being incapable of conveying to her the place where the speaker is alone in her room with the “uncontained window” “the bare floor” that has moonlight inked on it in white. The speaker can’t send her the vivacity of the “blossoming hawthorns” in the incapable scrawl of the fly-like drag of figures and smear of words on the dull paper.

    The second stanza is direct, painful and honest. In this stanza, the speaker is saying she is tired of wanting her that she has been “chafing” against “The want of you,” and I’m charmed.
    I had to go look up the word “chafe” since I wasn’t quite sure what it meant and I put it at the end of the post she says she is tired of rubbing her heart against her necessity for the beloved and wearing it out–and I like the feeling of rightness here. It does feel like this when you miss your beloved doesn’t it? As if your heart was rubbing and rubbing against the absence, and being fractioned away to nothing.

    Then she says that her heart is being made into “ink-drops “or at least the organ’s blood is being squeezed out of it to make the ink for the words that she writes in the letter. Then with her heart’s blood-ink the letter is sent to her–and meanwhile the speaker sits in the glare of the moon–being burnt scalded to black in her need for her. So neat. I liked all the poems by Amy Lowell in this book. They were frank, direct love poems and elegantly delivered. Here is the first one.
    The poem consists of two stanzas. The first one speaks of a letter with “little cramped words” messily delivered to the “dull, crisp, smooth, virgin of loveliness” paper and the message on it cannot send anything to the beloved about the sender’s situation.

    What situation is this? As always, when the beloved is not around, the lover is awry and the loneliness extreme. But the neat thing about this poem is that the speaker doesn’t go into rambling dissertations about the beloved’s features, or even about her internal mess and loneliness but focuses on the landscape and how words “draggled fly’s legs,” on the sheet of paper cannot convey meaning–to the beloved. For as the speaker points out to us words are useless at times like this “Your silly quirks and twists have nothing in them/ Of blossoming hawthorns,” isn’t that a neat set of lines? It says that words don’t answer to our needs for true expression of our emotions. And the poet-says this entirely indirectly using “blossoming hawthorns” “the flaring moon/ through the oak leaves?” “The bare floor/ Spattered with moonlight?”To show us the Readers how useless words are in pushing through what is in her out to the beloved. Even the paper she is using is unresponsive to her force “And this paper is dull, crisp, smooth, and virgin of loveliness / beneath my hand.”

  6. British Freedom
    It is not to be thought of that the Flood
    Of British freedom, which, to the open sea
    Of the world’s praise, from dark antiquity
    Hath flowed, ‘with pomp of waters, unwithstood,’
    Roused though it be full often to a mood
    Which spurns the check of salutary bands,
    That this most famous Stream in bogs and sands
    Should perish; and to evil and to good
    Be lost for ever. In our halls is hung
    Armoury of the invincible Knights of old:
    We must be free or die, who speak the tongue
    That Shakespeare spake; the faith and morals hold
    Which Milton held.-In every thing we are sprung
    Of Earth’s first blood, have titles manifold.

    British Freedom is one of historical poems that written by Wordsworth that story about freedom of the Britain countries of some period that compares with our freedom in the present time. In these 14 lines of poet he wants to tell about the liberty that British had is just unreal condition at that time. He beginning this poet with a lyric that say about the flood of British freedom that conveys an independence of his lives is seems got freely. Actually, the liberty that he got is must be pay for a lot of struggling and forcing. It can be seen on the third line that picture how is the sacrifice of many people on that time “Hath flowed, ‘with pomp of waters, unwithstood,” . He images the storm and stress that people did in the past with pomp of waters that known as something that always people search and reach in this life.

    Afterward, the poet tells the truth of freedom that he had on that time was got from the situation that did very defensively. It can clearly seemed on the rhyme that said “that this most famous Stream in bogs and sands” (line 7). The poet images this line as a picture of the liberty that the British had including him is not the real meaning of liberation as itself. However, the freedom which they had is just a circumstance that many people urge to develop their country to become a great nation that feared by the others. It emphasized with the next lyric that said “should perish; and to evil and to good” (line 8). On this rhyme the poet is convey that the freedom that they had was drowned into the hand of people that always think about a glorious that they could had from a war or invasion to another region. In one side it was good for the prosperity of the nation but on the other hand it always made a victim because of the war and fighting is always had a damaged that often very serious. On the two next lines “be lost forever ….. knights of old” the speaker constantly picture about the liberty that they had is fake and vague because of the war that always did by the nation which always thirsty of glorify and wealthy.

    Actually, the subject matter of this old historical poem could lines out with two views. Truly, he is wants to remind the readers about the freedom that they had must be used very well. From the historical view, the poet has pictured the readers about the freedom that got by a nation is always full of buffeting which might have spent a lot of sweats, bloods, even souls by the people in the past. The readers have to appreciating everything that they had spent just for the independence of the country that he own. On the other side, the poet gives a political view message which sound that a liberation that some nation got was got from the struggling of many people of their country not just by the author or some people that have a rule to run the nation.

    Moreover, this poem is containing some connotation elements in order to make this poem seems more dramatic. “Flood” at the first line has connotative meaning that is a source. The poet images the liberty that British have is like a river that will be flowed into the sea (line 2). The connotative elements also could be found by the readers on word “antiquity” which has a deeply meaning something that vague. At the second line the poet shares about his opinion that the freedom that he got is still looked unreal and tend to be fake. Next, at the fifth line there is “mood” word that used by the poet to explain about the passion to be a free human which he has is seems always changing anytime like a feeling of heart. Furthermore, the poet also used the word “Stream” (line 7) that conveys his own nation. He wants to express his feeling about the liberty that his nation gave is still looks unreal. Next, at the tenth line the poet used word “armoury” which in this poet has a deeply meaning as a war. Thus, the poet expressed about the freedom that his country had in past was got from a very difficult way.

    Furthermore, British Freedom poem is containing some elements of Imagery. Indeed, the poet has a purpose to use the imagery element that is to make this poet become more real and the readers could feel the intention of the poem that he wants to share. There are two kinds of imagery that can be found in this poet. And those two imageries are represented by seven words that exist in this poem. Firstly, the poet used the visual imagery at the words such as “flood” (line 1), “sea” (line 2), waters (line 4), “bogs”, “sands” (line 7), and “blood” (line 14). Secondly, the poet also used the function of kinesthetic imagery in this poem. The words such as “roused” (line 4), “hung” (line 9), and “speak” (line 11). Therefore, all those words is supposed to evoke the poet`s feeling and make this poet more communicative.

    In this poem, it also contains some elements of figurative way. There are four kinds of figurative that exist in this classic poem such as allusion, synecdoche, symbol, and irony. Those four figurative ways are represented with five lyrics in this poem. First, from the allusion figurative is represented by lyric that said “That Shakespeare spake; the faith and morals hold”, “Which Milton held.-In every thing we are sprung” (line 12-13). Second, “Should perish; and to evil and to good” (line 8) is the lyric of the poem which have a synecdoche meaning. Third, the line that representing symbol`s is the lyric that said “Armoury of the invincible Knights of old:” (line 10). The last kinds of figurative in this poem is irony that pictured by the lyric that said” Of Earth’s first blood, have titles manifold” (line 14). Indeed, all those kinds of figurative have their own function in this poem. For example, the allusion is conveying expression that the poet wants to share just with a simple picture of the lyric. Next, the poet used the synecdoche way to his poem in order to make this poem looks more beautiful and interesting. After that, for the symbol figurative is used by the poet to make this poem is easier to understand by the readers. For the last, the poet is used the irony`s element to his poem that purposed to make this poem seems crucial and to get the exciting feeling of the readers.

  7. REVISION

    Condolence
    They hurried here, as soon as you had died,
    Their faces damp with haste and sympathy,
    And pressed my hand in theirs, and smoothed my knee,
    And clicked their tongues, and watched me, mournful-eyed.
    Gently they told me of that Other Side-
    How, even then, you waited there for me,
    And what ecstatic meeting ours would be.
    Moved by the lovely tale, they broke, and cried.

    And when I smiled, they told me I was brave,
    And they rejoiced that I was comforted,
    And left to tell of all the help they gave.
    But I had smiled to think how you, the dead,
    So curiously preoccupied and grave,
    Would laugh, could you have heard the things they said.
    Dorothy Parker

    I have read this poem and try to analyze it. According to me this poem tells about some people show their condolence to someone who is grieving because he/she lost of someone who loved/cared. They try to amuse him/her with reinforcement so, he/she could be the strong one and can receive the situation. Next, I’ll try to analyze the detailed meaning of this poem. I’ll analyze one by one in detail. “They hurried here, as soon as you had died” this sentence show “They” in this poem are the care persons because when they knew about death of the one in this poem they will be there as soon as possible (come to him/her) to amuse him/her.“And pressed my hand in theirs, and smoothed my knee,” in this sentence they try to give reinforcement with hold his/her hand and smoothed my knee, in this poem means they shore his/her knee so that he/she will not droop because of his/she sadness. “And clicked their tongues, and watched me, mournful-eyed.” It means that they feel the sadness that very deep, so they are not authorized to reveal anything, they just looked at him with a wistful gaze. Their gaze represent of their grief or a sense of deep sorrow. “Gently they told me of that Other Side- How, even then, you waited there for me,” this sentence tells about their caring, from this sentence we can know that “they” think about him/her, how about his/her life after this incident. “Moved by the lovely tale, they broke, and cried”. They remembered about the beautiful story of them, then they could not help weeping, tears eventually they could not be stopped and they were crying. “And when I smiled, they told me I was brave”, after he/she hear about their reinforcement suddenly he/she smile and they told him/her that he/she was the strong one. ” But I had smiled to think how you, the dead,” it means that when he/she smiled he/she was thinking about his/her someone the dead how about he/she (the dead) there. “Would laugh, could you have heard the things they said”. It means he/she wants to know if the dead heard about “they” saying to amuse him/her. This poems aims to show the reader that there are some people that care with others if someone “others” is grieving. Next, I’ll analyze about imageries in this poem. “They hurried here,” is kinesthetic imagery. “And pressed my hand in theirs, is kinesthetic imagery/ “and smoothed my knee,” is tactile image. “And clicked their tongues” is kinesthetic imagery. “and watched me, mournful-eyed.” are visual imagery. Moved by the lovely tale, is kinesthetic imagery. And they rejoiced that I was comforted, is kinesthetic imagery, sense of feeling. “But I had smiled to think how you, would laugh” are kinesthetic images. “Could you have heard the things they said” is auditory imagery. Then, I will analyze about connotative meaning in the poem. “damp” is denotative, connotative is sweating. ”pressed” is connotative/ denotative is hold the hand. “watched” is connotative/ denotative is look at him/her. “Broke” connotative meaning/ denotative is hurt. “brave” is connotative/denotative is strong. “Rejoiced” is connotative/ denotative is happy. The last I’ll analyze about figurative meaning. “They hurried here, as soon as you had died,” is figurative simile. “Their faces damp with haste and sympathy” is literal. “And pressed my hand in theirs, and smoothed my knee”,
    is literal “clicked their tongues” is figurative metaphor click should be for button. “Gently they told me of that Other Side- How, even then, you waited there for me, And what ecstatic meeting ours would be” are literal. “lovely tale” is figurative metaphor lovely should be for view. “They broke” is figurative synecdoche “broke” should be for glass materials. And when I smiled, they told me I was brave, And they rejoiced that I was comforted, And left to tell of all the help they gave. But I had smiled to think how you, the dead, So curiously preoccupied and grave, Would laugh, could you have heard the things they said are literal.

  8. Hope is the thing with feathers
    That perches in the soul,
    And sings the tune–without the words,
    And never stops at all,
    And sweetest in the gale is heard;
    And sore must be the storm
    That could abash the little bird
    That kept so many warm.
    I’ve heard it in the chilliest land,
    And on the strangest sea;
    Yet, never, in extremity,
    It asked a crumb of me.

    Hope is a “thing” because it is a feeling; the thing/feeling is like a bird. Dickinson uses the standard dictionary format for a definition; first she places the word in a general category (“thing”), and then she differentiates it from everything else in that category. For instance, the definition of a cat would run something like this: a cat is a mammal (the first part of the definition places it in a category); the rest of the definition would be “which is nocturnal, fur-bearing, hunts at night, has pointed ears, etc. (the second part of the definition differentiates the cat from other all mammals). How would hope “perch,” and why does it perch in the soul? As you read this poem, keep in mind that the subject is hope and that the bird metaphor is only defining hope. Whatever is being said of the bird applies to hope, and the application to hope is Dickinson’s point in this poem. The bird “sings.” Is this a good or a bad thing? The tune is “without words.” Is hope a matter of words, or is it a feeling about the future, a feeling which consists both of desire and expectation? Psychologically, is it true that hope never fails us, that hope is always possible? Why is hope “sweetest” during a storm? When do we most need hope, when things are going well or when they are going badly? Sore is being used in the sense of very great or severe; abash means to make ashamed, embarrassed, or self-conscious. Essentially only the most extreme or impossible-to-escape storm would affect the bird/hope. If the bird is “abashed” what would happen to the individual’s hope? In a storm, would being “kept warm” be a plus or a minus, an advantage or a disadvantage? What kind of place would “chillest” land be?  Would you want to vacation there, for instance? Yet in this coldest land, hope kept the individual warm. Is keeping the speaker warm a desirable or an undesirable act in these circumstances? Is “the strangest sea” a desirable or undesirable place to be? Would you need hope there? The bird, faithful and unabashed, follows and sings to the speaker (“I’ve heard it”) under the worst, the most threatening of circumstances. The last two lines are introduced by “Yet.” What kind of connection does “yet” establish with the preceding ideas/stanzas? Does it lead you to expect similarity, contrast, an example, an irrelevancy, a joke? Even in the most critical circumstances the bird never asked for even a “crumb” in return for its support. What are the associations with “crumb”? would you be satisfied if your employer offered you “a crumb” in payment for your work? Also, is “a crumb” appropriate for a bird?
    “Hope” uses figures of speech, primarily metaphors, to convey its message. The entire poem is, in fact, an extended metaphor. Dickinson begins the poem comparing hope to a bird, “Hope is the thing with feathers/ that perches in the soul,” (lines 1-2). These lines serve as a metaphor which describes hope as a winged creature which lives in the human soul. A bird is used as something uplifting, a symbol of good. By saying “perched in the soul”, Dickinson means that hope is a living quality or emotion. The following lines extend the metaphor by comparing the feeling of hope to the song of the bird, by saying, “And sings the tune – without the words, / And never stops at all,” (3-4). This metaphor compares the feeling of hope to the song of the bird. Then the poem continues to say that the bird never stops singing, meaning that hope is felt at all times, even the best and the worst. This is a key part of the theme as it shows that hope continues on forever. The next line states, “And sweetest in the gale is heard;” (5). This line is metaphorically saying that hope is felt strongest, and greeted most happily, in the gale, or in the worst of times
    The latter part of the poem elaborates on the former, continuing the extended metaphor, as well as providing imagery, to create more detailed descriptions. “And sore must be the storm / That could abash the little bird” (6-8). This passage is saying that only in the worst situation can hope be damaged. Dickinson has created a sense that hope is always there and then also creates a feeling of its being everywhere. “I’ve heard it in the chillest land, / And on the strangest sea” (9-10). This passage creates an idea of hope being everywhere at all times. In the final lines of the poem Dickinson writes, “Yet, never, in extremity, / It asked a crumb of me” (11-12). In this final passage Dickinson personifies hope as a selfless friend who provides goodness and warmth and asks nothing in return.

  9. As I Grew Older
    It was a long time ago.
    I have almost forgotten my dream.
    But it was there then,
    In front of me,
    Bright like a sun–
    My dream.
    And then the wall rose,
    Rose slowly,
    Slowly,
    Between me and my dream.
    Rose until it touched the sky–
    The wall.
    Shadow.
    I am black.
    I lie down in the shadow.
    No longer the light of my dream before me,
    Above me.
    Only the thick wall.
    Only the shadow.
    My hands!
    My dark hands!
    Break through the wall!
    Find my dream!
    Help me to shatter this darkness,
    To smash this night,
    To break this shadow
    Into a thousand lights of sun,
    Into a thousand whirling dreams
    Of sun!
    Langston Hughes

    Langston Hughes’ poem, “As I Grew Older,” tells a great story in just a few short stanzas. Hughes puts words to the experience of the years going by slowly then eventually faster and faster in human life. As young children, people cannot wait to get older to be able to realize all of our vivid dreams. There is so much that is possible and so much they can do. The future is so bright and seems to be full of endless possibilities. Unfortunately, at this stage of life, the years seem to crawl by and time seems to go so slow. It seems they will never reach the point in life where dreams can potentially become reality. The following words of Hughes’ depict this,
    “Bright like a sun
    My dream.
    And then the wall rose,
    Rose slowly,
    Slowly,
    Between me and my dream.”
    Later on in life, as people come to the point where they are more in control of what they do and when they do it, they realize all that gets in the way of dreams. The dreams are still there but they start to fade as they realize that there are limitations and obstacles that separate responsibilities from dreams. They learn that they must put their responsibilities first and dreams on hold, in many cases. This can become frustrating. The great dreams of the past do not disappear completely, but they are further from consciousness than they ever were before. Soon, the years start going by more swiftly and they get older. It seems sometimes there isn’t even time to blink time goes so fast. Lives change and eventually dreams are not as important as they once were.
    Hughes highlights the idea that there comes a time in life as people get older and time on Earth is almost complete that dreams have faded to the point that they really have to think to remember them. What seemed possible so many years ago is no longer anything that can be possible. It’s no longer something that they desire or need in life. Early dreams were replaced with a new reality that they never imagined. This new reality is sometimes better than they ever dreamed or could have dreamed at a young age.
    With this poem, Hughes seems to be saying that dreams are important. They motivate us and give us purpose. However, people should not be dejected if they do not become reality. Even though life goes by fast, it is full of surprises. These surprises and new realities can eventually replace dreams. This is not a bad thing, just the way life is, perceptions change as people grow older and time moves on.

  10. Langston Hughes’ poem, “As I Grew Older,” tells a great story in just a few short stanzas. Hughes puts words to the experience of the years going by slowly then eventually faster and faster in human life. As young children, people cannot wait to get older to be able to realize all of our vivid dreams. There is so much that is possible and so much they can do. The future is so bright and seems to be full of endless possibilities. Unfortunately, at this stage of life, the years seem to crawl by and time seems to go so slow. It seems they will never reach the point in life where dreams can potentially become reality. The following words of Hughes’ depict this,
    “Bright like a sun
    My dream.
    And then the wall rose,
    Rose slowly,
    Slowly,
    Between me and my dream.”
    Later on in life, as people come to the point where they are more in control of what they do and when they do it, they realize all that gets in the way of dreams. The dreams are still there but they start to fade as they realize that there are limitations and obstacles that separate responsibilities from dreams. They learn that they must put their responsibilities first and dreams on hold, in many cases. This can become frustrating. The great dreams of the past do not disappear completely, but they are further from consciousness than they ever were before. Soon, the years start going by more swiftly and they get older. It seems sometimes there isn’t even time to blink time goes so fast. Lives change and eventually dreams are not as important as they once were.
    Hughes highlights the idea that there comes a time in life as people get older and time on Earth is almost complete that dreams have faded to the point that they really have to think to remember them. What seemed possible so many years ago is no longer anything that can be possible. It’s no longer something that they desire or need in life. Early dreams were replaced with a new reality that they never imagined. This new reality is sometimes better than they ever dreamed or could have dreamed at a young age.
    With this poem, Hughes seems to be saying that dreams are important. They motivate us and give us purpose. However, people should not be dejected if they do not become reality. Even though life goes by fast, it is full of surprises. These surprises and new realities can eventually replace dreams. This is not a bad thing, just the way life is, perceptions change as people grow older and time moves on.

  11. A Soldier

    He is that fallen lance that lies as hurled,
    That lies un lifted now, come dew, come rust,
    But still lies pointed as it plowed the dust.
    If we who sight along it round the world,
    See nothing worthy to have been its mark,
    It is because like men we look too near,
    Forgetting that as fitted to the sphere,
    Our missiles always make too short an arc.
    They fall, they rip the grass, they intersect
    The curve of earth, and striking, break their own;
    They make us cringe for metal-point on stone.
    But this we know, the obstacle that checked
    And tripped the body, shot the spirit on
    Further than target ever showed or shone.

    Robert Frost

    I. Type of poet

    “A Soldier” by Robert Frost is a lyric poem. As the characteristic of lyric poems, this poetry expresses the real situation of the soldiers (the work, duties, responsibilities and circumstances experienced by the soldiers).

    II. Meaning

    General Meaning:
    This poem is about the work, duties, responsibilities and circumstances experienced the soldiers of they life.

    Detailed meaning:
    In this poem the poet wants to tell the real situation experienced by the soldiers. Which their work is not an easy job, have a high risk, choose a heavy responsibility. And they must be willing and want to be assigned anywhere and anytime, even around the world were they to be ready. Those who fought against the enemy or opponent, working up to the death last. In fact, until their bodies were falling, tripping and also even hurt. But they keep the spirit, even if the alternating current, the great warriors who had fallen and was lying under the fall.
    Intention. The poet wants to tell the reader that reality experienced by the soldiers, in their working lives, which is hard work and risk. Yet they remain excited and carry out their duties, even if they have to be placed anywhere and anytime.

    III. Connotation

    Robert Frost is one of greatest poet. It is proved on this poem that he made. “A Soldier” is a poem which is very rich in connotative meaning. Most of words in this poem are connotation. The choosing of connotation in order to take the reader to feel the same feeling like the poet felt. He also tried to figure out his feeling with anything that can be seen so the readers can take their imagination and relate the word into the feeling that the poet want to share with them.
    The first connotation can be seen on the first line “fallen lance”. The word “fallen lance” does not refer to the real lance that fall un lifted, but it refers to the person. A soldier who fought in his time, and now has fallen or fall. In this poem, the poet wants the reader could imagine the situation of the fallen lance and relate it with the job, it is a soldier. Then connotation on the second lines “un lifted now, come dew, come rust,” the word train is a way to describe That the lance or the person now un lifted, much time has passed. And all of them one after another, his time has been different this time, come the dew, the rust which means that the person has passed through a variety of circumstances or situations. But now the spear or the person has been placed or put down just like that, the intention is already fallen.
    Next connotation can be seen on the third lines “plowed the dust”. As we know, dust is the dirt that is not good, and everyone tried to remove and clean the dust or dirt even eradicate it. Dust here means that opponents must be destroyed or eradicated by the lance (soldiers). Then connotation is “fitted to the sphere” on the seven lines. The ball is a tool that was thrown everywhere and must reach the final destination (goal). People are taught and equipped science to be assigned everywhere and achieve desired goals.
    “The curve of earth, and striking, break their own” on the ten lines, it means that the point is the judgment of the people against them, which is very striking. The curve of the earth means that the assessment of the community or the people around. And they are living or resting environment devoted to them-they are. “Cringe for metal-point on stone” means that the work they are at high risk, meaning the metal is a bullet point.
    Furthermore, he emphasizes the situation of the real fact that they happened (a soldier). We can Imagine that situation describes how the situation, job, the responsibility of the soldiers. The poet wants to tell the real situation experienced by the soldiers, their duties and responsibilities are very heavy and high risk as well as their willingness to be placed and deployed anywhere, anytime.

    IV. Imagery
    There are thirteen imageries are appeared in this poem, they are :

    1. Fallen lance that lies as hurled it means the person who works as a soldier. Lance in fact is a tool that is used for war, the spear used to fight because of a spear made of iron. Imagery is visual, because the spear is a tool made of iron, which is used when at war and in this poem is thrown spear has fallen or uprooted (not useful anymore). But in this poem, the purpose of the spear is actually one soldier who is always ready for battle. But this time the person has collapsed or is not at war anymore.

    2. Un lifted now, come dew, come rust, it is the mean period has been different this time, come the dew, the rust which means that the person has passed through a variety of circumstances or situations. But now the spear or the person has been placed or put down just like that, the intention is already fallen. Imagery is visual imagery.

    3. Lies pointed as it plowed the dust, that is a situation that is done in a desperate situation. Dust here means that opponents must be destroyed. Conducted a lie that means his position is hijacked by a herd of opponents there. Keep in ways that are less good, because the position and the situations they face, crushed by opponents who try to attack. The visual imagery.

    4. Round the world, it means their jobs as a soldier who is ready to work and be placed anytime and anywhere. Even had to travel around the world, must do their duty even where they are going through so much, even at great risk to move from one city to another, to say the world round about, because they must be willing to work and be assigned anywhere. It is visual imagery.

    5. Have been its mark it means to be his opponent, the opponent who becomes the target of the tasks assigned to them, is the visual imagery.

    6. Like men we look too near, the imagery in this word is visual imagery. Such as men who see or observe too closely, look carefully

    7. Fiftted to the sphere means that the visual imagery. The ball is an object that is used to achieve a goal (a goal). The meaning of this word that are these people or the army is a force which is owned by a country to achieve the desired final destination.

    8. Our intention missiles is a tool used by the soldiers. Missiles are weapons for them. Imagery is visual.

    9. They fall, they rip the grass, they intersect intention is in charge of their struggle and to work as a soldier. Their task is very heavy, they drop, tear grass and willing to hurt in doing their duty as a soldier. Kinesthetic imagery is the imagery, because it is a condition that they experience.

    10. The curve of earth, and striking, break its mean Their Own That the judgment of the people against them, a very striking and they are staying or resting environment devoted to them-they are.

    11. Cringe for metal-point on stone means that the work they are at high risk and very worrisome, a feeling worried and afraid because of the metal or a bullet point in the rock (ground or place of duty).

    12. Tripped the body, shot the spirit is the kinesthetic imagery. Is a situation that they feel when on duty, they are filled with the spirit of the work even if the body falls and feel the emotion of pain. However, due to the fighting spirit they have, they are willing to feel distress.

    13. The target ever showed or shone goal or intention is the opposite of them. They never show themselves targets or even better than them.

    V. Figurative
    Figurative in the poem makes the poem become more good and as if the reader when reading the poem the poet’s drift in the atmosphere. Sometimes when reading a figure of speech is never linked with real meaning, because when we digesting the meaning directly without filtering out the real meaning in the figure of speech meaning it would be weird and the statement seemed absurd, but after examining it imaginatively you got the message. And you can understand the meaning and the message from the poem. This is typical of figurative language which is often found in literary works, especially in poetry. In this figure of speech often we find in a poem to make the reader get the meaning of the poem in a figure of speech itself. There are various kinds of figurative such as simile, metaphor, allusion, metonymy, synecdoche, allegory, symbol, personification, overstatement (hyperbole), understatement, paradox (oxymoron), and irony. Have individual characteristics and has the each purpose.
    In a poem titled “A Soldier” by Robert Frost using some figurative. The first figurative which caused is personification, because in this poem is an object that is intended to be a person or a lance soldier. In the figure of speech personification, inanimate objects regarded as a living thing. This means that here is a lance was intended as a person (living things). Moreover the word hijacked dust, fitted to the sphere also a personification figure of speech. That is turn off diff. Dust the intention is the enemy or opponent.
    And then in this figurative the poet declares a statement or situation that happened by the soldier in they work, according to the real situation . The poet also uses simile in his poetry. A simile is a comparison of two things of different categories. It is usually introduced by like, as, as…so, than, similar to, or resembles. We can see in lines we can see in six lines said “like men we look too near” and “target ever showed or shone” on fourteen lines. In that the sentence the poet using the word “like” and “or” as the comparison and wants to compare.
    Next figurative is hyperbole, we can seen on thirdteen lines, there is “shot the spirit on”. Why the hyperbole, because the spirit that seemed to be a jump, such as throwing or remove the bullet from a pistol.

  12. Dreamland

    When midnight mists are creeping,
    And all the land is sleeping,
    Around me tread the mighty dead,
    And slowly pass away.
    Lo, warriors, saints, and sages,
    From out the vanished ages,
    With solemn pace and reverend face
    Appear and pass away.
    The blaze of noonday splendour,
    The twilight soft and tender,
    May charm the eye: yet they shall die,
    Shall die and pass away.
    But here, in Dreamland’s centre,
    No spoiler’s hand may enter,
    These visions fair, this radiance rare,
    Shall never pass away.
    I see the shadows falling,
    The forms of old recalling;
    Around me tread the mighty dead,
    And slowly pass away.

    By Lewis Carroll (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898 / Cheshire.

    Dreamland by Lewis Carrol express about how can we escape from the real world is horrible, which can destroy our lives. This world is sometimes unfair, but the dreams we can struggle against terrible living in this world. Because this poem describes how to realize our dream of making dreams come true we want. Sometimes when we have dreamed, other people around us do not support, therefore we must make our dreams come true for us to be fascinated, and the dreams we are increasingly able to make good decisions for ourselves and others. Who makes dreams come true is our own. In detail, the poem consists of five stanzas, and each verse are explained to be able to see a detailed understanding of poems.

    When midnight mists are creeping,
    And all the land is sleeping,
    Around me tread the mighty dead,
    And slowly pass away.

    The first stanza of this poem describing about how to realize the dream we dream in spite of extremely difficult. Because every day we living his life from morning till night. Sometimes we complain with that life, but we are such as to be able to get a decent fight for ourselves. When a dream is sure to have a shadow image of the sleeping who ruled our minds and the beauty of fog that occurs at night, so it feels wonderful dream, despite all it is slowly deteriorates.

    Lo, warriors, saints, and sages,
    From out the vanished ages,
    With solemn pace and reverend face
    Appear and pass away.

    The second stanza of this poem describes how we learned of the dreams. People like pastor, soldiers had their lives were derived from dreamland. Dream regardless of age, occupation, physical or anything else, but that dream came from our own.

    The blaze of noonday splendour,
    The twilight soft and tender,
    May charm the eye: yet they shall die,
    Shall die and pass away.

    The third stanza of this poem describes the writer’s feelings about that dream was going to end up with that though there is fire proof splendor during the day or at night, dusk is soft and tender, beautiful eyes charm, but all of them will die and pass away.

    But here, in Dreamland’s centre,
    No spoiler’s hand may enter,
    These visions fair, this radiance rare,
    Shall never pass away.

    The fourth stanza of this poem describes a dream that will never come to an end and a moment later a fair life will come to us. What we want through dreams, will never disappear and end up as a dream that there will always be in each of our lives today, tomorrow and forever.

    I see the shadows falling,
    The forms of old recalling;
    Around me tread the mighty dead,
    And slowly pass away.

    The last stanza of this poem illustrates that if our dreams come true, we live our lives, then we will leave this world and say to the people who are around us goodbye for good. Dreams can indeed be realized, but age does anyone know when we leave this world, and all we’ve got for life will vanish quickly or slowly, because nothing is eternal in this world.

    The intention of the writer of this poem is make the dream become a benchmark for our lives to achieve what we want. When we want something that is important to our lives, trust me that dream would happen because when we dreamed of it is a major part of achieving goals that are in our lives.

    In this poem there are denotations and connotations:“Midnight” air temperature can be decreased and most of the water vapor will condense, a result scattered droplets of water which is very smooth in the air (denotation), terrible word ( connotations), ”creeping” swarm (denotation), unfair (connotations), “land” open ground (denotation), human (connotations).

    There are four imageries of this poem. When midnight mists are creeping ( Kinesthetic imagery) because in this poem illustrates that there is a profound sense of a world that is horrible or destroyed. And all the land is sleeping ( Auditory images) because the ambiance is quiet. The twilight soft and tender (Tactile images) describes the state of calm from the horrible life that what’s in this world will disappear instantly. These visions fair, this radiance rare ( Visual Images) because with the dream, there is light we can dream it means that we can achieve by working hard, despite what we’ve got it all with a dream, did not rule it will disappear.

    In a poem usually there is figurative. There are four figurative. The first is personification (When midnight mists are creeping) because it shows the fog was as though there are in the middle of human life which means that the world is horrible. The second is metaphor (and all the land is sleeping) because indicates that the property is said to be as a human being, human sleep. The third is overstatement (The blaze of noonday splendour, and The twilight soft and tender) because showing excessive dreams despite all the dreams that we can be able to vanish gradually with a pleasant atmosphere. The fourth is allegory (I see the shadows falling) because indicates if the shadow is falling it is someday we’re going to leave this world.

  13. Be Glad Your Nose is on Your Face

    Be glad your nose is on your face,
    not pasted on some other place,
    for if it were where it is not,
    you might dislike your nose a lot.

    Imagine if your precious nose
    were sandwiched in between your toes,
    that clearly would not be a treat,
    for you’d be forced to smell your feet.

    Your nose would be a source of dread
    were it attached atop your head,
    it soon would drive you to despair,
    forever tickled by your hair.

    Within your ear, your nose would be
    an absolute catastrophe,
    for when you were obliged to sneeze,
    your brain would rattle from the breeze.

    Your nose, instead, through thick and thin,
    remains between your eyes and chin,
    not pasted on some other place–
    be glad your nose is on your face!

    In my opinion the poem tells about one of the body part is nose. How does the author describe a nose that we have to the reader. The author can describe the position of the nose and its functions. Here I will analyze the poem at the top of the line by line.

    Line 1 and 2

    Be glad your nose is on your face,
    not pasted on some other place,
    for if it were where it is not,
    you might dislike your nose a lot.

    Imagine if your precious nose
    were sandwiched in between your toes,
    that clearly would not be a treat,
    for you’d be forced to smell your feet.

    on lines 1 and 2 the authors start with the location or placement of the nose which is located on the face and as human beings have only one nose. Imagine if in our faces all contain two or more of the three nose. Where is the location of the eyes as a vision, where is the location of the mouth to speak, if we have the whole face of the nose? If the nose is in the position of the feet, legs not only flavor that always smelled by the nose, but the nose will also experience the things that interfere with both feet to make walking and other activities.

    Line 3 and 4

    Your nose would be a source of dread
    were it attached atop your head,
    it soon would drive you to despair,
    forever tickled by your hair.

    Within your ear, your nose would be
    an absolute catastrophe,
    for when you were obliged to sneeze,
    your brain would rattle from the breeze.

    If the position of the nose is above his head, then imagine if your hair into the nose and make the nose becomes uncomfortable. Not to mention when you have respiratory problems that make you should always wipe your nose bowing his head or looks into the mirror what happened to your nose. and when the nose is in the ear, then the difficulty would be the more natural you to wipe your nose. other than that where the nose is in the ear, also makes the brain and nervous balance does not perform its functions well even interfere with the workings of the brain to move the whole body function.

    Line 5
    Your nose, instead, through thick and thin,
    remains between your eyes and chin,
    not pasted on some other place–
    be glad your nose is on your face!

    Nose, whatever its form, is located between the eyes and the chin has a specific function and purpose. Close to the eye so you can easily smell the things we see. And are near the mouth to help us eat something that we have a good smell. Placement of the nose on his face is something to be grateful. When the nose no longer work, how mugkin we could smell something and we may not know whether it was good to eat or not.

    The essence of this poem in my understanding is, we should be grateful because God gave the members of the body where its function may help people to perform activities properly. Placement of the body in the human body must have a good purpose for mankind.

  14. Money
    (By William Henry Davies)
    When I had money, money, O!
    I knew no joy till I went poor;
    For many a false man as a friend
    Came knocking all day at my door.
    Then felt I like a child that holds
    A trumpet that he must not blow
    Because a man is dead; I dared
    Not speak to let this false world know.
    Much have I thought of life, and seen
    How poor men’s hearts are ever light;
    And how their wives do hum like bees
    About their work from morn till night.
    So, when I hear these poor ones laugh,
    And see the rich ones coldly frown—
    Poor men, think I, need not go up
    So much as rich men should come down.
    When I had money, money, O!
    My many friends proved all untrue;
    But now I have no money, O!
    My friends are real, though very few.
    Analysis of poem:
    The poem “Money,” by William H. Davies contains a very strong message as well as provide unique insight into the life that is hard to understand. Where, a person who has less economic, so that people know that life is very hard to see the money. For example in the second stanza “I knew no joy till I went poor.” And at that time also became a close friend to leave him because his life is now difficult. However, when viewed from the first orag the next life can afford, “For many a false man as a friend”. The speaker also mentioned how difficult the person giving assistance to someone in need. Whether it’s closest friends and relatives, “For many a false man as a friend” and ” Much have I thought of life”, and” seen
    How poor men’s hearts are ever light”. So also in the middle stanza illustrates how difficult it is human life so that his wife worked hard from morning until night, who do not know the origin of his job. ” And how their wives do hum like bees About their work from morning till night “. This poem continues to describe the suffering of someone who is experiencing an economic problem in this life and the cause is money. Seen from the final verse of the poem seems to be very apprehensive.

    Then, the general meaning of this poem is to explain about the life we have is a temporary thing that must be over eventually. So, we should be grateful. At a time when our lives on the people to respect and seek, and where we’ve been hard to find any money even our closest friends were in fact away, do not even care at all. The poem wants to share a message that tells of life in a very precious thing we have ever had. That is, with us working hard and not arrogant at all the life is prosperous.

    After that, the detail meaning of this poem is exploring the idea that money is essential for life. Although a lot of money does not give a positive thing for us that there is even triumphant. Seen in line 1 & 2 “When I had money, money, O!”, “I knew no joy till I went poor”. On the line to the 3 & 4 of the poem, “For many a false man as a friend”, “Came knocking all day at my door”. Expressed about the sadness of the stretcher, where a friend did not care for him when he lived in poverty. that describes the falseness of a deep friendship. So also in the middle stanza illustrates how difficult it is human life so that his wife worked hard from morning until night, who do not know the origin of his job”. And how their wives do hum like bees “,” About their work from morning till night “. This poem continues to describe the suffering of someone who is experiencing an economic problem in this life and the cause is money. Seen from the final verse of the poem seems very concern. We can see at the line to 16-19 explains that life in today’s very alarming when we prosper or be successful people looking for us, and at a difficult economic life, friends and even people closest we actually do not help and it does not matter at all. This is proof that the popularity of the person who was once very famous even known by all his people are not necessarily happy because in the next life will be inversely proportional affluent. That is, why money is important in this mortal life.
    Furthermore, for the purpose of this poem is William wants to remind us to always give thanks in our economic life, and not arrogant at the time of our success. Like when I have money, money, O!, I knew no joy till I went poor. Because, the people who have money do not necessarily have joy in his life. That is, when he successfully many friends or people nearby who are close in him when he collapsed while only a few friends or people nearby to help. William used the word “false” to describe that world is false in the presence of a nearby friend than nothing at all when he fell and collapsed their economy. Therefore, this poem may indicate that it is part of the life cycle where we face a lot of money has always given us an ordeal that is very meaningful.
    In terms of denotation and connotation are some words that connote meanings beyond the dictionary meaning. The word “money” stands for “something valuable” because it precedes the “first” This clearly shows that generous talk about life, happiness in the word “joy.”. By being “poor” meaning “short life”, “false” or “not true” She said that living in this fake world with the attitude of even the people closest to the theme. “hold” indicates (dictionary meaning) touch. This refers to the impulse, the strength. At the word “trumpet” shall mean the power that the trumpet that will be held at the “blow” which means removing air from the mouth. There is the word “death” which means not breathe anymore. “Life” which means the function return connotes function in life. “See “connotes looked at.” light “connotes help. that is the” wives “which connotes a woman who is married. by the way they do hum like a” bees “which connotes the work done from night until morning.” Laught “connotes jump for joy.
    Furthermore, in this poem there are three types of image, the image contains seventeen. The first is the visual image. Visual image is a kind of image that we see through our eyes. Containing visual images in the poem such as money, poor, false,, day, see, trumpet, wife, man and friend. later, a second image is kinesthetic. Kinesthetic image is a kind of picture that explains the type of movement, feeling and temperatures that humans can do everything and feel. For example, knocking, joy, holds, blow, light, speak, etc. .. and the last image of the audio. audio description that describes the type of image noise, with normal hearing. For example, to hear and hum. In addition, William function enables images to make the reader to feel the true meaning of the poet who makes it clear that our precious life is not permanent.
    In addition to figurative, there are three figurative contained in this poem. William uses four imgaes that about four figurative speech, metaphor, synechdoche, hyperbole, and personification. “When I have money, money, O!”, “I knew no joy till I went poor” (lines 1,2,17,18,19 & 20) is a metaphor representing paradocts figurative. “For many a false man as friend” , “Came knocking all day at my door” (lines 3 & 4), “Then felt I like a child that holds”, ” A trumpet that he must not blow ” (line 5 & 6) are the images that look the personification figurative. ” Because a man is dead; I dared “, ” Not speak to let this false world know.” (lines 7 & 8) This is an example of hyperbole figurative. And the last (lines 11,12,13 and 14) is a figurative illustration of the metaphor. Such as, “And how their wives do hum like bees About their work from morning till night., “So, when I hear these poor ones laugh”, and see the rich ones coldly frown “. William H.D using four kinds of metaphor to demonstrate the implicit meaning of the three that he wanted to look. First, to demonstrate in depth the meaning of this poem. So readers can experience a meaningful idea of this poem. Second, the use of hyperbole in his lyrics should be emphasized that their readers about life is short. Furthermore, the allusion that William is the personification of a function used to create a more vibrant and more beautiful poem. And the latter metaphor that helps us to identify with non-human elements by giving them human emotions or characteristics, or to identify non-living things by giving attributes of animal life.
    I think W. H. (William Henry) Davies is a poem whose work always has struck me as particularly appealing. His life and his outlook are reflected in many of his poems—his rejection of the dreary workaday life most resign themselves to, his evident dream of being able to live without having to be harnessed to some disagreeable yoke. This poem really shows the incredible talent of William henry davies and imagination as a poet. The subjects he used in a simple poem. The words that he uses daily and is common. However, the poem is really educational and meaningful. William concluded that the money is very important in everyday life and there is grief at the time we dropped by the state. As in this poem the last line 17-20 “When I have money, money, O!”, ” My many friends proved all untrue;”, “But now Ihave no money, O!”, “My friends are real, though very few”.

  15. A little song
    By : Amy Lowell

    When you, my Dear, are away, away,
    How wearily goes the creeping day.
    A year drags after morning, and night
    Starts another year of candle light.
    O Pausing Sun and Lingering Moon!
    Grant me, I beg of you, this boon.
    Whirl round the earth as never sun
    Has his diurnal journey run.
    And, Moon, slip past the ladders of air
    In a single flash, while your streaming hair
    Catches the stars and pulls them down
    To shine on some slumbering Chinese town.
    O Kindly Sun! Understanding Moon!
    Bring evening to crowd the footsteps of noon.
    But when that long awaited day
    Hangs ripe in the heavens, your voyaging stay.
    Be morning, O Sun! with the lark in song,
    Be afternoon for ages long.
    And, Moon, let you and your lesser lights
    Watch over a century of nights.

    The detailed meaning of this poem is telling about the life experiences of the author. This poem describes the author’s personal who abandoned by her lover so far. And she through the day without people there by her side. She hoped and asked for a boon to God to return her love to her arms again.
    “when you, my dear, are away, away. How wearily goes the creeping day. A year drags after morning, and night. Starts another year of candle light. O Pausing Sun and Lingering Moon!. Grant me, I beg of you , this boon. “in this poem the author wanted to convey what she feels. The reader can imagine what the author felt in this poem. In this stanza the author feels to lose a loved one go away leaving the author. The author feel tired through the day to day without a lover.
    “Whirl round the earth as never sun. Has his diurnal journey run. And, Moon, slip past the Ladders of water. In a single flash, while your streaming hair. Catches the stars and pulls them down. To shine on some slumbering Chinese town. O Kindly Sun! Understanding Moon! Bring evening to crowd the Footsteps of noon. “Time passes so quickly and the earth continues to spin, but her boyfriend did not come to her.

    The figurative:
    A simile is a figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as. “John is as strong as a lion” is a simile. It compares two things of different categories. “John is as strong as Jack” is a simile because it compares two things of similar categories. Other examples of similes are: “Whirl round the earth as never sun”
    Metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in “a sea of troubles” or “All the world’s a stage” (Shakespeare). In this poem there are a metaphor figurative such as : “ How wearily goes the creeping day”, “ And, Moon, slip past the ladders of air”, “Catches the stars and pulls them down”, “O Kindly Sun! Understanding Moon!”, “Bring evening to crowd the footsteps of noon”, “Be morning, O Sun! with the lark in song”
    Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin), the general for the specific (as thief for pickpocket), or the material for the thing made from it (as steel for sword). There is a synecdoche figure of this poem that is “To shine on some slumbering Chinese town” it means that “slumbering” is same the meaning of “fast asleep” the meaning of the “slumbering Chinese town” is quiet the city is like a Chinese city that fell asleep without a lively atmosphere.
    Kinesthetic Imagery : wearily
    Visual Imagery : the creeping day, after morning, night, the earth, sun, moon, noon, the heavens.
    Tactile Imagery : Chinese town, voyaging.

  16. The Lamp of Life
    By : Amy Lowell

    Always we are following a light,
    Always the light recedes; with groping hands
    We stretch toward this glory, while the lands
    We journey through are hidden from our sight
    Dim and mysterious, folded deep in night,
    We care not, all our utmost need demands
    Is but the light, the light! So still it stands
    Surely our own if we exert our might.
    Fool! Never can’st thou grasp this fleeting gleam,
    Its glowing flame would die if it were caught,
    Its value is that it doth always seem
    But just a little farther on. Distraught,
    But lighted ever onward, we are brought
    Upon our way unknowing, in a dream.

    The “Lamp of Life” Poem from Lowell is a dramatic poem that expressed the spirit to face all difficulties and challenges in our lives. Although sometimes our lives are uncertain and full of mystery but with hope, enthusiasm and motivation certain we can solve all the problems in our lives. The general meaning from the poem “The Lamp of Life” that we always have hope in every problem and challenge that we face in our lives. In “The Lamp of Life” poem portrayed that the light became guide in our lives, though sometimes it can disappear in the dark night. However, we never give up and desperate to find a way out from all difficulties we face in life, because that hope was never lost in our lives. Until the value we receive from the poem “The Lamp of Life” that we shouldn’t give up and be afraid to face all problems in our lives, but there always a hope which always lead us for better future.
    Then, the detailed meaning of this poem was explores the hope and spirit from Lowell. Every stanza in “The Lamp of Life” poem has a deep meaning. In the first stanza “Always we are Following a light” the author meant that we always have hope. And in the second stanza “Always the light recedes; with groping hands” said that hope is always around us every time. And on the third stanza “We stretch toward this glory, while the lands” that the disputed was occur among us, in order to achieve the best one destination. Then on the fourth stanza “We journey through are hidden from our sight” stated that sometimes we are didn’t realize what we passed in this life. Then, in the fifth stanza “Dim and mysterious, folded deep in night” it means that there are many things which we didn’t know. And in the sixth stanza “We care not, all our demands need Utmost” shows the selfish of who didn’t care of another. moreover in the line seventh “Is but the light, the light! So still it stands “meant that hope is still there. Then in the next stanza “Surely our own if we exert our Might” shows the selfishness nature of human. And in the ninth and tenth stanza of “Fool! Never can’st thou grasp this fleeting gleam “,” Its glowing flame would die if it were caught ” portrayed that sometimes human don’t have a sense of optimism and confidence in daily life. Next, the eleventh stanza “Its value is that? It doth always seem” shows the result of hard work in faced every challenges in our lives. Finally, in the last line “Lighted But ever onward, we are Brought”, “Upon our way unknowing, in a dream.” States That light is the hope in this life will continue to carry and guide us to a better life.
    Moreover, from the poem “The Lamp of Life” the writer has intention to giving hope and spirit to face the difficulties in our lives. Every difficulties and challenges we facing in our life, there must be a way out to solve our problem. Although sometimes we find it too difficult to deal with all problems and challenges in our lives also can’t find a way out, but the lamp of life will show the best way to solve all problems. Thus The Lamp of Life is guiding us to motivate and keep fighting even though it’s a little hope.
    Furthermore, I found some of connotation from Lowell’s poem. There are several words in this poem that connote meanings beyond the dictionary meanings. The word “light” stands for the hope of human because precedes “recedes” which clearly points to the hope almost gone. It is explain about the hope of human that spirit to face the difficulties in our lives. This is emphasized by the word “lands” connotes lives and “journey” connotes the way of life. “Dim and Mysterious” connotes the worst condition in our lives also “folded” connotes lost in the dark because sometimes human didn’t always got what they wanted and lost hopes in their lives. Then, “demands” connotes pray to God and “value” connotes the most important thing in our lives. Because when human feel desprate, they can pray to God as their hope. And “farther” connotes desprate, “distraught” connotes surrender, and “dream” connotes our destinations and hope in our lives. Human shouldn’t surrender when pursuit their dream, because they have hope to make it comes true.
    Next, in “The Lamp of Life” poem there are two kinds of imagery, it contains nine pictures. First, is visual imagery. The visual imagery is kind of image that we can see through our eyes. The visual imagery that contain in this poem such as Hands, light, night, gleam, and glow. Next, the second imagery is kinesthetic. The kinesthetic imagery is kind of image that describe kinds of movement, feeling and temperature that everything human can do and feel. For instance, running, watching, sad, happy, cold, hot, etc. The kinesthetic imagery in this poem represented with words like caught,brought, sight, and grasp. In addition, Amy Lowell used the imagery function to make the reader enable to feel the true meaning from this poem.
    In addition to figurative, there are two figuratives contain in this poem. there are allegory and hyperbole. “We stretch toward this glory, while the lands” (line 3), “We journey through are hidden from our sight” (line 4) is the lyric that represented the allegory figurative. “Its glowing flame would die if it were caught” (line 11) is images that convey the hyperbole figurative. Amy Lowell uses the two kinds of figurative in order to show the three implicit meaning that he wants to expres. Firstly, to show the deeply meaning of this poem. So the reader can experienced the meaningful idea from this poem. Secondly, the uses of hyperbole in his lyric is supposed to emphasize the reader about the life that they had was short.
    Finally, from the “The Lamp of Life” poem, I realized that do not surrender and desperate to faced every difficulties and challenges in our lives. Hope is the motivations for us to resolve all the problems in our lives. Although sometimes our life is misterious as depth night, but with a light of hope we are able to pursuit better lives in the future.

  17. I Do Not Love You Except Because I Love You

    I do not love you except because I love you;
    I go from loving to not loving you,
    From waiting to not waiting for you
    My heart moves from cold to fire.

    I love you only because it’s you the one I love;
    I hate you deeply, and hating you
    Bend to you, and the measure of my changing love for you
    Is that I do not see you but love you blindly.

    Maybe January light will consume
    My heart with its cruel
    Ray, stealing my key to true calm.

    In this part of the story I am the one who
    Dies, the only one, and I will die of love because I love you,
    Because I love you, Love, in fire and blood.
    Pablo Neruda

    A poem by Pablo Neruda is a kind of lyric poem. It states his feeling to a woman he loves so much. He does not need a special reason like others have, such as her beauty, her kindness, or the other reasons, but he loves her because he does. But unfortunately, he can not own the woman as his. It is shown in the line 2 on the first stanza until the last line on the second stanza. He uses a paradox figurative on the words “I go from loving to not loving you, From waiting to not waiting for you“ to show the contradiction situation that he felt in the same time. He had realized the condition –he can not own her- so he tried not to loving her, he tried not to waiting for her but in fact he can not deny, in contrary, that his feeling was going stronger. The words “My heart moves from cold to fire” , a kind of personification, proves that. A movement of his heart from a cold -a condition when there is no feeling- to a fire, a condition when his feeling is going stronger like a fire which has a high temperature that can transfer it heat as a symbol of spirit –spirit to love her again-.

    Another reason –not special reason- why he loves her is because only her who can only make him falling in love. She is the only woman who can make his feeling be attached in her none other woman (I love you only because it’s you the one I love;). This line also has another meaning, is that he had tried to hide or may be he had tried to love the other woman, but he knew that he could not deceive himself that his love is only for her. This caused him hating her deeply (I hate you deeply, and hating you) but hating her did not work as he desired to forget her. As the result he even love her deeper and deeper. (Bend to you, and the measure of my changing love for you; Is that I do not see you but love you blindly.) the hiperbole in the sentence helps us to understand how much he loves her. It is not logical how can a man can love a woman that he can not see? But it is love, the feeling that he feels so strong even he can not see her.
    Pablo try to figure the spirit of the begining of a new year –when everyone hopes for a better life- with a visual imagery with January light. But sadly, the hope itself even make it worse. Throgh the personification “Maybe January light will consume My heart with its cruel” he describe the sadness he feels when he fail to make a wish for a better life, in this case, he could forget his lover. He even strengthen his statement with the last line “Ray, stealing my key to true calm”. Somebody (named Ray) had stolen his key to true calm. The word “key” in this line is not a key to open the door, but something that has an important role to make him feel calm (feel happy) . The woman is the key that which is meant by the author.

    The last stanza of this poem is the climax of the poem. The hiperbole that he used in line one until two states the main idea that he want to share through this poem. He really loves him even he could die in order to prove how much he loves her. No matter what – may be he love was rejected, he lost his love, or the other worse things – come to his love story (his life) he will still love her until he is died. He wants the reader know how strong his love is. He also describe his love to fire and blood, which both are the strongest things in human life through visual imagery (fire and blood). Fire which can burn anything with its heat that human will be died because of that, and blood an important liquid in human body which transport all of body needs, that human can not life without it.

  18. Warning – Jenny Joseph

    When I am an old woman I shall wear purple
    With a red hat which doesn’t go, and doesn’t suit me.
    And I shall spend my pension on brandy and summer gloves
    And satin sandals, and say we’ve no money for butter.
    I shall sit down on the pavement when I’m tired
    And gobble up samples in shops and press alarm bells
    And run my stick along the public railings
    And make up for the sobriety of my youth.
    I shall go out in my slippers in the rain
    And pick flowers in other people’s gardens
    And learn to spit.row more fat
    And eat three pounds of sausages at a go
    Or only bread and pickle for a week
    And hoard pens and pencils and beermats and things in boxes.

    But now we must have clothes that keep us dry
    And pay our rent and not swear in the street
    And set a good example for the children.
    We must have friends to dinner and read the papers.

    But maybe I ought to practice a little now?
    So people who know me are not too shocked and surprised
    When suddenly I am old, and start to wear purple.

    Analysis:
    Jenny Joseph’s “Warning” is a dramatic poem which expresses emotion to describe something. The poem describes the life of old people which is unhappy. Old people act like children because the lack of fun. They must follow social rules so people can accept them. They cannot enjoy their life because they grow older and they are not as strong as young people. Through the poem, Jenny tries to tell people that although responsibilities and commitments must be obeyed, people need a time to enjoy their life and live in a life they wish, even when they get older.

    In detail, the poem is telling about old people’s life and they don’t like it. The first stanza is telling about some things that old people do. They wear purple and red hat which is a symbol of the change from the responsibility of life to the happier life of the elderly. They live in a simple way. They are weak as they are old, so they cannot do many things. They use stick or wheelchair to help them to do their activities. They spend the days by enjoying the nature and writing some notes for their children. They are wise and always advise younger people. Second stanza tells how old people must follow social rule. They must look nice and authoritative to everyone. They must be good models, wise, and respected to younger people. They must stay in social rules whether they like it or not. They must because they need to be accepted to the sociality. Third stanza shows that the author of the poem needs to prepare herself to live in her old age because she was thirty when she wrote the poem.

    There are two figurative of the poem. The first is irony. It is shown on the meaning of the poem. The first stanza is telling about how old people’s life is peaceful and happy. But the second and third stanza shows that their life is not as fun as it seems. The old people must follow social standard in order to make them acceptable in the sociality. The second figurative is symbol. It is shown in the first stanza line 1 and 2 “When I am an old woman I shall wear purple / With a red hat . . .” As explained above, it is a symbol of the changing of life when people get old.

    Some words or phrases in this poem contain denotative and connotative meanings. “Make up for the sobriety of my youth” mean that old people must speak about good and wise things to advise and support young people. ”Clothes that keep us dry” means that old people must keep their behavior for they are examples for young people. “Practice” in line 1 of the third stanza, means that the author should prepare herself to be an old woman.

    There are four imageries of the poem: visual, tactile, kinesthetic of movement, and kinesthetic of feeling. “Old woman”, “purple”, “red hat”, “summer gloves”, “rain”, “gardens”, “hoard pens and pencils” are visual imagery. “Satin sandals” is tactile imagery. “Sit down”, “press alarm bells”, “gobble up”, “pick flowers”, “eat”, “pay our rent”, “set a good example”, “practice” are imagery of kinesthetic of movement. “Sobriety”, “shocked and surprised” is imagery of kinesthetic of feeling.

  19. Freedom poem is the example of classic famous poem which is written by Rabindranath Tagore. Generally, this poem means to describe about the real meaning of freedom. Thought deeply, this poem also has a purpose to realize the readers about the truly freedom we want to get. In addition, the detailed meaning of this poem is begun from “Freedom from fear is the freedom I claim for you my motherland!” (ll.1-2). This shows that he gives an unusual definition for freedom. He does not say that freedom means power, strength or authority. He defines it as freedom from fear. Thought deeply, one can understand that behind the smallest dearth of freedom. This is true not only politically or intellectually, but spiritually as well. He also care to others in his country in order to rise their awareness about freedom. “Freedom from the burden of the ages, bending your head, breaking your back, blinding your eyes to the beckoning call of the future; “(ll. 3-5) means that the fear at his country has given so many bad influence, not only for each person but also for the government.

    A lyric “Freedom from the shackles of slumber wherewith you fasten yourself in night’s stillness, mistrusting the star that speaks of truth’s adventurous paths;” (ll.6-8) shows the freedom from something that has rescue us from the shackles of something that has made us fall asleep, therefore; we do not trust the others’ words who may have good intentions to us.“freedom from the anarchy of destiny whole sails are weakly yielded to the blind uncertain winds, and the helm to a hand ever rigid and cold as death.” (ll.9-11). “Freedom from the insult of dwelling in a puppet’s world, where movements are started through brainless wires, repeated through mindless habits, where figures wait with patience and obedience for the master of show, to be stirred into a mimicry of life.” (ll.12-17). These last lines also realize us to know that the true freedom will we can find when we never give up to any affronts that we are received from others surround us.

    Moreover, the poet of this poem wants to realize the readers about the real meaning of freedom. According to him, the real meaning of freedom will be able we get when we are free from our fear to something that burden you for many years. Because of that fear, we cannot see and reach our future. Then, freedom of fear also we get if we become awake from the shackles of our slumber that have made us cannot face the fact. Freedom also means the freedom from our destiny that makes us scary to see our future. The last, freedom from fear is the freedom from the rude of others that make us cannot believe to our capability. He wants to give points about freedom itself in order to inspire us to realize the real meaning of freedom.

    Furthermore, I also find some connotations in this poem. For example, word “call” means to face something that we want to reach. “In a puppet’s world” means. Mimicry of life means the many changes that happened to us without we can control. Based on this poem, I find some images that have taste to beautify it. Visual imagery is night, motherland, paths, sails, and puppet. Kinesthetic (of feeling) imagery is freedom, fear, rigid, and cold. Kinesthetic (of movement) imagery is call and speaks.

    He uses Metaphor like “to be stirred into a mimicry of life” (l.17), it shows that the poet compares a life without freedom with a mimicry. “Freedom from the insult of dwelling in a puppet’s world,”(l.11) is also a metaphor that describes our life without freedom. Like a puppet, we cannot control ourselves, but the burden and problems in life that controls us. His ideas show his patriotism, a tremendous intellect and a great understanding of the dynamics of human mind and society. He also uses Personification that is used to show that a thing do something like a human being.” . . . the star that speaks of truth’s adventurous paths;”(l.8) is one of personifications in this poem.

    1. Freedom

      Freedom from fear is the freedom
      I claim for you my motherland!
      Freedom from the burden of the ages, bending your head,
      breaking your back, blinding your eyes to the beckoning
      call of the future;
      Freedom from the shackles of slumber wherewith
      you fasten yourself in night’s stillness,
      mistrusting the star that speaks of truth’s adventurous paths;
      freedom from the anarchy of destiny
      whole sails are weakly yielded to the blind uncertain winds,
      and the helm to a hand ever rigid and cold as death.
      Freedom from the insult of dwelling in a puppet’s world,
      where movements are started through brainless wires,
      repeated through mindless habits,
      where figures wait with patience and obedience for the
      master of show,
      to be stirred into a mimicry of life.

      Rabindranath Tagore

      # This is the poem I must analyze, sir.

  20. them almost literally now. Such metaphors are called dead metaphors. Metaphors are probably the most important of all the means by which language develops, changes, grows, and adapts itself to our changing needs. Some popular dead metaphors are: “a dry book”, “a shallow thinking”, “pursuing a subject”, “the head of a pin,” “the neck of a bottle,” “the lip of a cup,” “the foot of a ladder,” “the mouth of a river.” Condolence
    They hurried here, as soon as you had died,
    Their faces damp with haste and sympathy,
    And pressed my hand in theirs, and smoothed my knee,
    And clicked their tongues, and watched me, mournful-eyed.
    Gently they told me of that Other Side-
    How, even then, you waited there for me,
    And what ecstatic meeting ours would be.
    Moved by the lovely tale, they broke, and cried.

    And when I smiled, they told me I was brave,
    And they rejoiced that I was comforted,
    And left to tell of all the help they gave.
    But I had smiled to think how you, the dead,
    So curiously preoccupied and grave,
    Would laugh, could you have heard the things they said.
    Dorothy Parker

    (1) general meaning, (2) detailed meaning, (3) intention, (4) imagery, (5) connotative meanings, (6) figurative language

    What is Figurative Language?
    Consider this statement: “The wind whispered through the trees.” What do you have in mind? You might respond, “This statement seems not meaningful for wind does not really whisper. However, if the speaker means to describe an idea of how the wind sounds, he succeeds.” Yes, you got it. The speaker actually means to express an idea how the wind sounds softly, like the way a person whispers. This is an example of figurative language—language that departs from the literal for the sake of comparison or exaggeration. In poetry, figurative language makes the ideas more vivid and engaging. Figurative language surprises the reader and forces him to think.
    Returning to the example above, do you realize that when you examined it literally, that is to say unimaginatively, you found that the statement seemed absurd, but after examining it imaginatively you got the message? This is typical of figurative language which is often found in literary works, especially in poetry. Poets use figurative language because they can say what they want to say more vividly and forcefully by figures than by saying it directly. However, if you examine your daily speeches, you might be surprised to discover how often you use such expressions as those described above, which are definitely examples of figurative language. A great deal of our ordinary speech and slang is based on figurative language, as well as a great many works in literature. Without figures of speech, our language would be dull and mechanical. It becomes, therefore, important in developing especially affective comprehension skill to know the difference between literal and figurative language.
    There are hundreds of figures of speech. However, we’ll focus on just twelve of the most common figures. Six of them are discussed in the following sections. The other six will be discussed in Figurative Language in Poetry (2).
    1. Simile
    A simile is a comparison of two things of different categories. It is usually introduced by like, as, as…so, than, similar to, or resembles. “John is as strong as a lion” is a simile. It compares two things of different categories. “John is as strong as Jack” is not a simile because it compares two things of similar categories. Other examples of similes are: “He ran like a hunted deer”, “… sounds like a machine gun”, … sparkles like a lake”, and “… as cool as a spring water”.
    2. Metaphor
    Like a simile, a metaphor compares two things of different categories. But different from a simile, a metaphor doesn’t use the words or phrases like, as, as…so, than, similar to, or resembles. In other words, the comparison in a metaphor is implied—that is, the figurative term is substituted for or identified with the literal term. For instance, when we say someone “clammed up and wouldn’t talk,” we are comparing the person’s closed mouth with the tightness of a closed clam. When we say someone has a stone face, we are comparing the unchanging expression with the immobility of a stone. When Shakespeare writes, “merry larks are plough-men’s clock” in his poem Spring, he is using a metaphor, for he identifies larks with clocks. When Tennyson writes that the eagle “clasps the crag with crooked hands”, he is using a metaphor, for he substitutes crooked hands for claws. The line “the furrow followed free” from Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner is also a metaphor because a furrow, when taken literally is only to be found in a ploughed field. In this context, it is used to describe the speed of the ship: it went so rapidly that it made a ‘furrow’ in the sea.
    When simile and metaphors are properly used, they help us to react on emotional and affective levels of understanding. Consider, for example, the different feeling is called up by these figures of speech: “black as soot” versus “black as ebony”; “he pounced like a lion” versus “he pounced like a vulture”; “a neon smile” versus “a sunny smile.”
    Some metaphors have been used so frequently that we accept
    3. Allusion
    An allusion is a reference to a person, place or thing outside of the confines of a work. Authors usually allude to characters or events in mythology and the Bible, to another literary work, or to a contemporary or historical event. The use of allusion in a work widens its dimensions. Using an allusive reference, readers can make connections that greatly enhance their understanding of what they read. Sometimes the allusion is crucial to the understanding of the selection. “The couple went to Adam’s grocery and stole an apple” is an allusion to the book of Genesis in the Bible.
    4. Metonymy
    In metonymy, one word or image is used to represent another with which it is closely related. When we say, “I have read all of Shakespeare,” we use Shakespeare’s name to stand for his works. Calling a detective a “gumshoe” is also an example of metonymy. In the Eagle’s song Hotel California, for example, “California” seems to be metonymical for the entire United States. Some of the popular metonymies are: “he succeeded to the throne” (royal officer), “from the cradle to the grave” (from childhood to death), “She accepted the cross (Christianity)”, and “The pen has more influence than the sword.”
    5. Synecdoche
    A synecdoche is a kind of substitution of a name for another, the meaning of which is more or less cognate with its own. When a person uses a synecdoche, he uses a part to represent the whole or the whole for a part. Synecdoche is very commonly used in English, even in everyday speech. One does not think twice about so ordinary phrase as farm or factory hand. The word ‘hand’ is substituted for the complete human being because that is the operative part of the man or woman in so far as manual work is concerned. The part is merely substituted for the whole and the substitutional relationship is obviously recognized. Synecdoche, however, is not restricted to physical relationship and in the line, “Give us this day our daily bread”, the word bread represents the whole class of foodstuffs which sustain and nourish mankind. When Coleridge writes “The western wave was all aflame” in Ancient Mariner, he is using a synecdoche, for he substitutes “wave” for “sea”. Another example is “Spain won the World Cup in 2010”
    6. Allegory
    Allegory is a narrative or description that has a second meaning beneath the surface one. Although the surface story or description may have its own interest, the author’s major interest in the ulterior meaning. When Pharaoh in the Bible, for instance, has a dream in which seven fat kine are devoured by seven lean kine, the story does not really become significant until Joseph interprets its allegorical meaning: that Egypt is to enjoy seven years of fruitful ness and prosperity followed by seven years of famine. This figure of speech is an effective way of making the abstract concrete, because abstract ideas or concepts are represented as people, objects or situation.
    7. Symbol
    A symbol may be roughly defined as something that means more than what it is. Metaphor, image, and symbol shade into each other and are sometimes difficult to distinguish. In general, however, an image means only what it is; a metaphor means something more than what it is; and a symbol means what it is and something more too. If I say that a shaggy brown dog was rubbing its back against a white picket fence, I am talking about nothing but a dog (and a picket fence) and am therefore presenting an image. If I say, “Some dirty dog stole my wallet at the party”, I am not talking about a dog at all and am therefore using metaphor. But if I say “You can’t teach an ole dog new tricks,” I am talking not only talking about dogs but about living creatures of any species and am therefore speaking symbolically.
    In literary use, symbols depend upon their context for meaning. Some symbols are generally accepted as universal and give few problems in their interpretation: the cross symbolizes Christianity; water symbolizes life; sleep symbolizes death; winter symbolizes old; age symbolizes death; dove symbolizes peace; sunrise symbolizes birth; sunset symbolizes death. The meaning of some symbols may be accepted by a group of people in the scope of a nation. For Indonesians, for instance, red symbolizes bravery and white symbolizes purity.
    8. Personification
    A personification is also called ‘personal metaphor’ because it speaks of inanimate objects and abstract ideas as if they were alive, had human characteristics or animal life. Thus, when personification is used, the speaker helps us to identify with non-human elements by giving them human emotions or characteristics, or to identify non-living things by giving them the attributes of animal life. In the line, “The screaming shells burst overhead”, it would be absurd to think of he artillery shells as complete human beings, flying through the air and exploding. The sound of the shells make as they fly overhead is being compared to the sound of a person screaming (metaphor) and so introduces connotations of danger and human fear. Here is another example, “The voice of your brother’s blood cries unto me from the ground” (Genesis IV.10).
    9. Overstatement (Hyperbole)
    This figure of speech is a kind of exaggeration for the sake of emphasis. So, it makes things greater. Hyperbole is very commonly used in English, even in everyday speech. It is not uncommon to hear such figurative statements as “I could have killed him for saying that” or “What an uncomfortable house, I nearly froze to death.” The first merely expresses the speaker’s anger and desire to hurt the other person, the second, that the speaker was cold.
    10. Understatement
    Understatement is the opposite of hyperbole, and is just as common as hyperbole. It exaggerates things below the level of literal meaning. The statement “Men have died from time to time”, for instance, exaggerates below the fact that men die every minute and in very great number.
    11. Paradox (Oxymoron)
    A paradox (or oxymoron) is a contradiction between two things that seemingly cannot be resolved. Literally, an oxymoron seems illogical or self-contradictive. However, figuratively interpreted it makes sense. Literally, “The pen is mightier than the sword” seems contradictory to fact. As weapons that share similar shapes but have different sizes, the pen is certainly not mightier than the sword. But when it is figuratively interpreted, it does make sense! If pens are not being compared to swords, but rather writing (pen as tool) to fighting (swords), the statement reads: “Argument is more effective than violence.” A simpler example is seen in the line, “The child is father of the man.” By realizing that the word ‘man’ implies one’s physical and psychological characteristics that begin to develop from his childhood, the statement makes excellent sense: “The man’s nature is formed or determined by that of the child.
    12. Irony
    Irony is the expression of one’s meaning by using words that mean the direct opposite of what one really intends to convey. In this way, it may show ridiculous, contemptuous, or humorous attitude. Irony is classified into three types, i.e. verbal irony, situational irony, and dramatic irony. Verbal irony is used when we wish to emphasize a point humorously or sarcastically. For example, assume that someone is trying to look out into a valley filled with smog and some minutes later she says, “What a lovely view.” A famous example of verbal irony, laced with sarcasm, occurs in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, when Mark Anthony, orating over the body of the assassinated Caesar, says one of the chief assassins, “Brutus is an honorable man.” The crowd (and the audience) soon sees that Anthony means just the opposite.
    Situational irony is less familiar in daily speech but is often used in literature. In this type of irony, a discrepancy exists between the actual circumstances and those that would seem appropriate or between what one anticipates and what actually happens. If a man and his second wife, on the first night of their honeymoon, are accidentally seated next to the man’s first wife, we should call this situation ironical. When King Midas, in the famous fable, is granted his fondest wish, that anything he touch turn to gold, and then finds that he cannot eat because even his food turns to gold, we call this situation ironical. When Coleridge’s Ancient mariner finds himself in the middle of the ocean with “Water, water everywhere” but not a “drop” to drink”, we call the situation ironical. In each case, the circumstances are not what would seem appropriate or what we would expect.
    In dramatic irony the discrepancy is not between what the speaker says and what he means, but between what the speaker says and what the author means. In this irony, the audience knows something a character does not. A classic example of dramatic irony occurs in Sophocles play Oedipus when Oedipus curses whoever it is that caused the plague in the city of Thebes; however, the audience knows, as Oedipus does not, that he has cursed himself. Despite its name, dramatic irony is not used only in drama but also in poems and prose.
    Imagery in Poetry
    We experience the world through our five senses of sight, sound, smell, touch and taste. My experience of a sunny day on a beach, for instance, may consist partly of certain emotions I feel and partly of certain thoughts I think. But most of it will be a cluster of sense impressions. It will consist of seeing blue sky white clouds, and green palm trees; of hearing the crashing waves’ and swallows singing in the sky; of smelling salty air; and feeling a fresh wind against my cheek or moist sand on my feet. The poet seeking to express his experience of a sunny day on a beach must therefore provide a selection of the sense impressions he has, and the use of imagery (the collection of images in a literary work) will serve him best. By means of imagery, the emotions that accompanied his sensations can be evoked.
    Images are essentially word-pictures which usually work by a method of association. This means that the images are created by associations that we make as readers within the linguistic context of the text. For example, the line “swashing waves and salty air” immediately creates the image of being on a beach in the reader’s mind, because “swashing waves” and ‘salty air” could naturally be heard and smelt on a beach. That’s why they are directly associated with the seaside. To take another example, the world “red” in “His face turned red after hearing he was betrayed” will be associated with “anger”.
    Based on those explanations, it is obvious that imagery is a tool or an instrument poets use to reveal their intentions or feelings. Understanding the use of images, therefore, is very crucial in one’s trials to understand the essential meaning of poem.
    Imagery, which is defined as a word or representation that appeals to the human senses, can be very various in poetry. Psychologists identify seven kinds of mental images — those of visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, kinesthetic (movement and muscular tension) and internal sensation. All are available to poets, and all are used by poets, though not to the same extent.
    Visual image describes something you can see. Visual imagery will describe a setting’s colors, size, shape, physical features and anything else that you detect with your eyes. Some examples of words used to evoke sight (visual) images are: picture, flash, bright, clear, see, light, dark, large, red, and gloom.
    Auditory image, also known as aural imagery, describes something you can hear. It can be used on a large scale, such as describing the sounds of an earthquake, or it can be more subtle, such as the sound of footsteps on a wooden floor. Common words used to suggest sound (auditory) images are: scream, shout, listen, tone, whisper, ring, utter, noisy, and quiet.
    Olfactory image describes something you can smell. Writers can use lots of creative license with olfactory imagery by assigning smells to unusual things. For example, anyone can imagine the smell of chocolate chip cookies baking in the oven, but a writer can use olfactory imagery to describe the smell of a forest, a meadow or a summer night. To evoke smell (olfactory) images, common words to use are: pungent, fragrant, sweet, dank, stinky, musty, rotten, odor, or essence.
    Gustatory image is something you can taste. Like olfactory imagery, gustatory imagery has endless possibilities for describing simple things in a creative way. Gustatory imagery can describe anything from the taste of a slice of pizza to the taste in your mouth before you have to make a big speech. To evoke taste (gustatory) images, poets can use words like sweet, sour, salty, bitter, fresh, juicy, burnt, zesty, and tangy.
    Tactile image appeals to your sense of touch. It describes parts of the story you can feel on your skin, for example a kitten’s fur between your fingers or a cold wind on your face. Good tactile imagery should make you feel something as though it were really there. To evoke touch images, common words used are: hard, sharp, smooth, soft, wet, and rugged.
    Kinesthetic imagery is a broad term that is used to describe various emotions. It includes sense of movement (swimming, running on grass, or throwing a ball), feeling (sad, calm, angry, happy), temperature (cold, hot), internal sensations (hungry, thirsty) and physical interactions (heartbeat, tension in the muscles or joints).
    To illustrate the importance of considering imagery in poem comprehension, read the following poem and pay attention to imagery used by Browning in it.

  21. First Men on the Moon
    BY J. PATRICK LEWIS
    “The Eagle has landed!” —Apollo II
    Commander Neil A. Armstrong
    “A magnificent desolation!” — Air
    Force Colonel Edwin E. “Buzz”
    Aldrin, Jr.
    July 20, 1969
    That afternoon in mid-July,
    Two pilgrims watched from distant
    space
    The moon ballooning in the sky.
    They rose to meet it face-to-face.
    Their spidery spaceship, Eagle, dropped
    Down gently on the lunar sand.
    And when the module’s engines
    stopped,
    Rapt silence fell across the land.
    The first man down the ladder, Neil,
    Spoke words that we remember now—
    “One small step…” It made us feel
    As if we were there too, somehow.
    When Neil planted the flag and Buzz
    Collected lunar rocks and dust,
    They hopped like kangaroos because
    Of gravity. Or wanderlust?
    A quarter million miles away,
    One small blue planet watched in awe.
    And no one who was there that day
    Will soon forget the sight they saw.

    This poem tells about the first men who landed on the moon. The writer admires both men. Moreover the writes tells how the men and what did they do in the moon. The men went there with Apolo II, it is a space flight. The astronauts who went there were Neil Amstrong and Buzz Aldrin on July 20, 1969. And this landing becomes the one giant leap for mindkind. Because of their landing, people know about moon, about space and it proves that human technology can make people landed on the moon. From the “First Men on The Moon” there are some imageries. According to to the poet we can experiences the poet through our senses. The imageries in this poem are:

    1. Visual
    a) ‘One small blue planet….’
    It describes to something that we can see. The size is small and the colour of its is blue.

    2. Auditory
    a) ‘Rapt silence fell accross the land…’
    It describes to something that we can hear. The sound in this poem is rapt silence when it fell accross the land.

    3. Kinesthetic
    a) Their spidey spaceship, tagle, ‘dropped’
    b) ‘Down gently’ on the lunar sand…
    c) The first man ‘down the ladder’
    d) When Nail ‘planted the flag’ and Buzz ‘collected lunar rocks’
    e) ….they ‘hoped’ like kangoroos
    From all word in quotation marks above express the sense of the movement in the poem.

    Furthermore to make the ideas in this poem more vivid and engaging, there are some figuratives language in this poem.

    1. Symbol
    a) distand space
    b) one small blue planet
    Both words refer to ‘the earth’

    2. Personafication
    a) eagle
    It means the space flight.

    3. Allegory
    a) The moon balloning in the sky.
    It means the moon is looked like a ballon.

    4. Synecdoche
    a) ….we were there
    We refers to the humankinds. The word ‘we’ deputs all of people in this world.

    5. Simile
    a) They hopped like kangoroos.
    It comopares two things (activity) of different catagories.

  22. Happiness

    Happiness is a deep feeling,
    All the sorrows that are healing,
    Makes you feel alright,
    Although you recently had a fight,

    It helps you to see the happier side of life,
    But usually sorrows cut like a knife,
    Many things that you felt were rude,
    They spoil your happy mood,

    Smiling is the first step of happiness,
    Laughing is the second step of happiness,
    Screaming is the highest step towards happiness,
    Frowning is surely not enjoying happiness,

    Flying, high above the sky,
    Oh! my,
    This is what happiness is all about,
    I’ll tell you later what happiness can bring about….
    (Sherbanu Molu)

    Happiness is a descriptive poem in which the author expresses and describes the happiness. It tells us about what happiness is. He describes what the real meaning of happiness.

    He describes more completely about the meaning of happiness. Happiness is a deep feeling, deep emotional. Maybe you can say, “I feel good emotionally”. In the second line the author describe that happiness is something that heals all of the sorrow, pain, sadness. In the third and fourth line he said that happiness will make to feel better. If you are sad, if you are in a deep depression, if you are guilty, if worried, happiness will free you from all of these feeling. Even though you had a quarrel, fight, you can make yourself feel better with happiness. Happiness can overcome any bad situation. In the fifth line tells about happiness teaches us the others side of happy such as excitement, passion, exhilaration, fulfillment, freedom, feeling fully alive with inspiration and joy. For another it might be more peaceful, content, capable, hopeful, satisfied, and comfortable feeling. Whatever you call it, it just feels darn good. In the sixth, seventh and eighth line indicates something that can destroy your happiness; sorrow that will slice your happiness with a sharp knife or maybe something impolite attitude. All of them can decrease the meaning of your happiness or maybe broke your happiness. In the ninth, tenth, eleventh line emphasizes that there are steps to reach your happiness. Smiling is the first step. Smiling is the simplest thing to begin your life with happiness. With smile every time, everywhere and to everyone, happiness will come close to you. Laughing is the second step to reach the happiness. Laughing indicates the real happiness. Because it is so impossible that you will not laugh without any happiness in your heart. Laughing shows your happiness. It means that laughing expresses happiness. Laughing can also means “be laugh and you will get your happiness”. Screaming is the last step to reach your happiness. Sometimes screaming indicates happiness. It means if you want to express your happiness you scream. And in the last lines the author wants to tell us the real happiness is. Happiness is like fly high above the blue sky. When you feel the freedom like fly above the sky is the meaning of happiness.

    There is no doubt that through this poem, Sherbanu Molu means to describe what happiness is.

    The poet, Sherbanu Molu uses some connotations here. In the second and sixth line, he uses /sorrow/ , means sadness, pain, disillusion, etc. In the sixth sentence / But usually sorrows cut like a knife/ “cut like a knife” is also a connotation. It means sometimes all your sorrow; sadness, pain, disillusion will hurt you so badly. Like a sharp knife which cut your heart. It is so painful and poignant.

    Sherbanu Molu also uses some imagery here to make his poem more beautiful and make the readers feel in order to understand the meaning. First, he uses kinesthetic imagery that is used to describe various emotions such as /happiness/, /happy/, /sorrow/, /rude/. It includes sense of movement such as /smiling/, /laughing/, /screaming/, /frowning/, /enjoying/, and /flying/. Second, he also uses tactile image which appeals to your sense of touch. You can see in sixth line / But usually sorrows cut like a knife, / you can imagine that. A very sharp knife cuts and slices your skin. That is the pain. Sometimes sorrows hurt you like a sharp knife cuts and slice your skin

    Almost all poets use figurative language in their poem. They use figurative language because they can say what they want to say more vividly and forcefully by figures than by saying it directly. Sherbanu Molu also uses some figurative language in his poem. In the sixth line / But usually sorrows cut like a knife/, is a simile. A simile is a comparison of two things of different categories. And he compares two things of different categories “sorrows cut like a knife”. Then in the thirteenth line / Flying, high above the sky/ is a personification. A personification is also called ‘personal metaphor’ because it speaks of inanimate objects and abstract ideas as if they were alive, had human characteristics or animal life. And Sherbanu Molu helps us to identify with non-human elements by giving them human emotions or characteristics. And “Flying, high above the sky” is sounded like “sorrows” make as the fly high above the sky

  23. Chain Of Pearls
    By: Rabindranath Tagore
    Mother, I shall weave a chain of pearls for thy neck
    with my tears of sorrow.

    The stars have wrought their anklets of light to deck thy feet,
    but mine will hang upon thy breast.

    Wealth and fame come from thee
    and it is for thee to give or to withhold them.
    But this my sorrow is absolutely mine own,
    and when I bring it to thee as my offering
    thou rewardest me with thy grace.

    Chain Of Pearls is a lyric poem because the poem express the feeling and emotions of the poet. How he is very thankful to his mother because his mother had worked hard caring for her son and he wanted to reply to all his efforts
    This poem is about the expression of gratitude of a child to his mother where he wanted to reply to all the sacrifices his mother that have been raised him with full of struggle, how his mother slaved for him and mad innumerable sacrifices on his behalf. Then the greatest wealth in life is the unbroken bond of love between a mother and her son. The material one comes later. Wealth and fame come from her and it is for her to give or to withhold them. At the right time when he is ready to take the burden of his own life upon his shoulders, she would bless him with wisdom, strength, confidence and moral support. His only desire is to see her happy and always smiling. But this sorrow is absolutely his own for he has learnt how to bear his own sadness and misfortunes and when he bring it to her as his offering she rewards him with her grace; elegance of movement: courteous good. Only her sweet words and her tender love can mend his broken heart.The poet wanted to express to the reader in order to the readers knows how a mother’s sacrifice is so great for our lives and we as children should appreciate all the sacrifices that our mother have given us because the mother’s love all the time and exceed our love to our mothers.

    In this poem the imagery is just kinesthetic “I shall weave a chain of pearls for thy neck with my tears of sorrow” then “Mine will hang upon thy breast” and the last “I bring it to thee as my offering”

    The poet tells his mother that he shall weave a chain of pearls for her neck with his tears of sorrow. Most probably it is because from his birth he has seen how his mother slaved for him and mad innumerable sacrifices on his behalf. The stars have wrought; made or fashioned in the specified way; their anklets; an ornament worn round an ankle a sock that reaches just above the ankle; of light to deck her feet, but his will hang upon her breast. The stars above are the heavenly witnesses and have instructed him the manner in which the chain should be made. This would be like a reminding souvenir of his love for her. She is like a goddess to him who raised, molded and shaped him up till the present day. The chain of pearls is the crowning glory that he will put around his mother’s neck.

    There is a figurative which ultimately makes the poem become more beautiful and as if the reader when reading the poem the poet’s drift in the atmosphere. The figurative that often we find in a poem are simile, metaphor, allusion, metonymy, synecdoche, allegory, symbol, personification, overstatement (hyperbole), understatement, paradox (oxymoron), and irony. Have individual characteristics and has the each purpose. In this poem, Rabindranath Tagore used some figurative. The figurative which caused is personification we can see in a sentence “I shall weave a chain of pearls for thy neck with my tears of sorrow” (the first stanza), as our logically it’s impossible that tears of sorrow will weave a chain of pearls for thy neck. Because we know that the tears of sorrow is an inanimate objects, but the poet describes the tears in his poetry, as if they were alive.

  24. Leisure
    By: William Henry Davies

    What is this life if, full of care,
    We have no time to stand and stare.

    No time to stand beneath the boughs
    And stare as long as sheep or cows.

    No time to see, when woods we pass,
    Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass.

    No time to see, in broad daylight,
    Streams full of stars, like skies at night.

    No time to turn at Beauty’s glance,
    And watch her feet, how they can dance.

    No time to wait till her mouth can
    Enrich that smile her eyes began.

    A poor life this is if, full of care,
    We have no time to stand and stare.
    Analysis of William Henry Davies’s poem “Leisure”
    Leisure poem is about the availability of time for enjoying various delights of life. These may range from the most ordinary every day pleasure to the extraordinary events. The poet is lamenting over the rush and hurried manner in which we spend our lives. We deprive ourselves of the richness and diversity of life.
    The poet believes that life must be enjoyed in a casual leisurely manner. He thinks that we should spend our free time enjoying and appreciating the beauty of nature. We should find time to stand under the trees and look at beautiful objects of nature as sheep and cows do. While passing through the woods, we must pause to se the squirrels busy in hiding their nuts in the grass. We should also stop by streams of clear water glittering like skies at night. We must also find time to see the beautiful glance of a maiden and admire the skill of her dancing feet. We should not miss the beautiful smile playing at her face. In this way we can fill our lives with happiness.

    First Couplet
    The first couplet begins with the question:
    “What is this life if, full of care, / We have no time to stand and stare?” The
    reader can imagine that the speaker has been ridiculed by someone, perhaps as a
    child by an adult, for “standing and staring” at something that fascinated him.
    Now, in this poem, he explores the idea of standing and staring, and he wants
    to know what life is about if standing and staring cannot be tolerated.

    Second Couplet
    The speaker then begins to enumerate the many
    things for which there is no time: “No time to stand beneath the boughs, / And
    stare as long as sheep and cows.” The speaker compares the human condition to
    that of “sheep and cows”; these animals can stand and stare as long as they
    wish. But the speaker by merely mentioning this
    fact laments his own situation. As a human being living in a fast-paced
    society, he would be laughed at and degraded for wanting to concentrate on the
    simple natural world around him. He would be labeled a sluggard.

    Third Couplet
    The speaker claims that as human beings
    travel by a wooded area, there is “no time” to see that the squirrels are
    hiding their nuts in the grass.

    Fourth Couplet
    In the fourth couplet, the speaker mourns the
    lack of time for seeing, “in broad daylight, / Streams full of stars, like
    skies at night.”

    Fifth Couplet/ Sixth Couplet
    The fifth and sixth couplets focus on the
    abstract quality of “Beauty”: There is no time to watch Beauty dance; the
    abstract concept is being personified. There is no time to stop and stare as a
    beautiful woman dances, and no time to wait to see her smile, first with her
    eyes and then with her mouth.

    Seventh Couplet
    The final couplet makes something of a moral
    judgment that it is pretty pitiful if human beings cannot just stand and stare
    at natural and beautiful things, because they are bogged down with
    responsibilities and worries.

    I found some connotation in this poem. First, “to stand and stare” means “face.” Second, “squirrels hide their nuts in grass” that means “unsophisticated.” Third, “no time” means ”indication of mankind’s dilemma.” And the last, “Beauty” means “a name for Mother Nature.”
    The theme of the poem is very serious and it has been expressed in a very sentimental and straightforward manner. The poet is very sincere in his appeal and at once influences our inner-self. The imagery of the nature in general has been used to make the theme more clearly to us. The grasses, the forest, the squirrel, the nuts, the stream, the daylight, the stars, the sky, the beauty incarnate supply a rich imagery to the poem (visual imagery). The poem is rich in similes and personification. Examples of alliteration are:’ stand and stare’, ‘beneath the boughs’, ‘when woods we pass’, ‘Streams full of stars like skies’. The similes are: And stare as long as sheep or cows’,’ like skies at night'( any comparison with the use of ‘as’ or ‘like’ is a simile). In the last few lines Beauty has been personified as a woman “Beauty” has been personified and different details have been sweetly and influentially added to the metaphor. Feet, lips, smiles, dance, all make the beauty fully embodied.

    After the whole analyzed of this poem, I can feel the messages that deliver by the Author. The poet expresses his grief at the fact that modern rush of life has deprived us of many commonplace pleasures. We run around after our material pursuits, so crazily that we get no time to spend in a relaxed manner. He warns us if our life remains full of worries and problems with no opportunity to enjoy its simple pleasures, it will be very miserable life. We needed many times in our life to encourage us to “stand and stare”.

  25. We Wear the Mask
    By : Paul Laurence Dunbar

    We wear the mask that grins and lies,
    It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes,–
    This debt we pay to human guile;
    With torn and bleeding hearts we smile,
    And mouth with myriad subtleties.

    Why should the world be overwise,
    In counting all our tears and sighs?
    Nay, let them only see us, while
    We wear the mask.

    We smile, but, O great Christ, our cries
    To thee from tortured souls arise.
    We sing, but oh the clay is vile
    Beneath our feet, and long the mile;
    But let the world dream otherwise,
    We wear the mask!

    Paul Laurence Dunbar poem “We Wear the Mask” is a descriptive poem in which the author describes about his views on racism and the struggle for equality for African-Americans. In this poem describes a “mask” in which a man wearing the mask while in front of another human being in order to disguise the pain, sadness or confusion that they are going through right then. Here we can see that people are not honest about their feelings to those around them. So the mask is to hide (camouflage) all those feelings because, for they may be less important for others to know about it in other words enough to know only God, because God is great and all-knowing all things that happen in life person.
    The first verse is the poet of “We wear the mask That Grins and Lies,” means that the mask is the lie which the author describes the written description of fraud or dishonesty against something because, it is basically dishonesty is regarded as a fraud and a bad thing and not good for the example . However the temple so on “This debt we pay to human Guile;” it was told of the struggle behind the mask of the other words in the world before they can smile, when in fact their hearts are hurt and feel tormented “With torn and bleeding hearts we smile,” describes the struggle of African-Americans who were enslaved and oppressed in their struggle throughout history.

    The second verse is the author expresses a question.”Why should the world be overwise. In counting all our tears and sighs? Nay, let them only see us, while We wear the mask.” (II. 7-9) Why the oppressors must see sadness, emotions and anguish so real they will be more happy to humiliate and oppress them, the author felt that it was unfair for the oppressed. be a “mask” that will explain that they are strong and capable at the top of every issue and oppressors they will only see the “mask”. For Dunbar “Mask” became a symbol of strength in the community of African – Americans as a mask to hide their emotions and is a way to force the oppressors out. with this mask they can see the scorn and discrimination that will help strengthen their mental and prevent heartache again.

    In the last verse talks about our struggle behind the mask “We sing, but oh the clay is vile beneath our feet, and the length of a mile, but the let ….” This illustrates how African-Americans struggle with slavery and oppression in which their history. They fled because of the enslaved and the oppressed, they fled on foot, through a very long road. But on the last line of the author to write about the “dream” that means thinking about our dreams for something that is not real but the dream can be real with the persistence and seriousness. (III. 10-15)
    Dunbar uses the metaphor in which “masks” that described as a grin lies and false picture, because in fact they are still oppressed. “cheek” reveal or express human emotions when his feel sad and ashamed, when his tears and pain.
    After analyzing this poem I better understand why many people who still use their devastated when his mask or something that hurt their feelings. Even many of them will tell the truth to people when they already know well, apart from the problems that they just handed them over to God. And Authors hope that readers are more persistent in their own struggles and difficulties as in “Beneath our feet, and long the mile” which means that even though their problems were many and long all will be resolved properly and will achieve the expected goals, all will be better.
    http://www.dunbarsite.org/gallery/WeWearTheMask.asp
    http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/canam/dunbar.htm

  26. First Day At School
    by Roger McGough

    A millionbillionwillion mile from home
    Waiting for the bell to go. (To go where?)
    Why are they all so big, other children?
    So noisy? So much at home they
    Must have been born in uniform
    Lived all their lives in playgrounds
    Spent the years inventing games
    That don’t let me in. Games
    That are rough, that swallows you up.

    And the railings.
    All around, the railings.
    Are they to keep out wolves and monsters?
    Things that carry off and eat children?
    Things you don’t take sweets from?
    Perhaps they’re to stop us getting out
    Running away from the lessins. Lessin.
    What does a lessin look like?
    Sounds small and slimy.
    They keep them in the glassrooms.
    Whole rooms made out of glass. Imagine.

    I wish I could remember my name
    Mummy said it would come in useful.
    Like wellies. When there’s a puddle.
    Yellowwellies. I wish she was here.
    I think my name is sewn on somewhere
    Perhaps the teacher will read it for me.
    Tea-cher. The one who makes the tea.

    Analysis of poem:
    • The spelling errors in the poem and his misinterpretations of the words show his innocent mind and his limited vocabulary, giving readers an impression that this was written by a young child who has yet to have any school.
    • ‘to keep out wolves and monsters’, ‘things that carry off and eat children’ shows that his mind has been exposed to fairy tales, which shows that he is really young.
    • We can also see his ignorance towards school.

    First Day At School” is a descriptive poem. The writer places himself inside the head of a young child who has just been dropped off by his mother in the playground of a city school on his very first day. It is an experience that this reviewer remembers vividly after 54 years, and no doubt the same is true of the vast majority of readers of this poem, which is why they will find themselves having instant rapport with the sentiments expressed by McGough. The child has clearly been told what to expect, but the words used mean little to him without explanation, and his mother has either not thought this necessary or he has only half understood them. He therefore gets confused and lets his imagination run away with him. Coupled with these strange words and concepts are the experiences of the moment that are also baffling, confusing and slightly scary.
    In addition to imagery, the poem conveys these feelings and emotions very forcefully with its free-verse form in which the three stanzas hang together loosely and the child’s stream of consciousness can ramble on and then be suddenly pulled back as a new thought strikes him.

    The very first line expresses childhood exaggeration and wordplay:
    “A millionbillionwillion miles from home”
    and this is followed by the child’s literal interpretation of what he has been told:
    “Waiting for the bell to go. (To go where?)”
    He now becomes aware of something scary in the form of other, older, children:
    “Why are they all so big, other children?
    So noisy? So much at home they
    Must have been born in uniform.”
    He immediately sees them as something alien and not like him. They also display alienation towards him in that they must have:
    “Spent the years inventing games
    That don’t let me in. Games
    That are rough, that swallow you up.”
    McGough, who was a schoolteacher in the 1960s, is aware that, to a 5-year-old child, a 6-year-old is a potential threat, and that any child who is not in their first year at any school will look down on those children who are and reject them as unworthy companions. Being alone and rejected, the child now looks around him and his attention is taken by the railings that surround the playground. The second stanza begins:
    “And the railings.
    All around, the railings.
    Are they to keep out wolves and monsters?
    Things that carry off and eat children?
    Things you don’t take sweets from?
    Perhaps they’re to stop us getting out
    Running away from the lessins.”
    He sees them first as being a protection from outside threats, which leads his imagination down a fresh path in which “wolves and monsters” from bedtime stories are associated with his parents’ admonitions not to take sweets from strangers. There is an interesting link from the first stanza in that his fear of being “swallowed up” has been transferred to a new threat that can “eat” him.
    However, he then wonders if these railings are not prison bars designed to prevent his escape from other monsters that he should fear even more, namely the “lessins” that he has been told to expect.
    “What does a lessin look like?
    Sounds small and slimy.
    They keep them in the glassrooms.
    Whole rooms made out of glass. Imagine.”
    Without the necessary understanding, concepts such as “lesson” and “classroom” belong in the fantasy world of the child’s vivid imagination. McGough understands this well, and he reminds the reader that this was how he or she would have responded when they were that age.
    The third stanza begins with another sudden shift, this time back to the child himself:
    “I wish I could remember my name
    Mummy said it would come in useful.
    Like wellies. When there’s puddles.
    Yellowwellies. I wish she was here.”
    His mind switches back to the certainties in his life, particularly his mother who only left him a few minutes before but whom he misses already. The mention of his pet name for his wellington boots, his “yellowwellies”, is enough to bring back his fear of the unknown and his desire for the comfort of his mother’s presence.
    However, the poem ends on a more positive note, because another word he has been given is “teacher”, and he knows that a teacher is not a monster even if he is unsure precisely what a teacher does:
    “I think my name is sewn on somewhere
    Perhaps the teacher will read it for me.
    Tea-cher. The one who makes the tea.”
    Touch on McGough’s part to end the poem with another childish misunderstanding, as well as the appreciation that many young children do not know their own name, having not had occasion to use their surname in their life up to this point. The reader is therefore left with the realization that, when the bell goes in a few minutes time, the child’s life is going to take a dramatic surge forward from being a child of a parent, living at home, to one among many pupils under the care of a teacher. There are few rites of passage in a young person’s life that are more disruptive than this, and yet it is not a theme that has had much attention from adult writers, apart from Roger McGough, that is. “First Day at School” is a comic poem, as one would expect from McGough, but he is careful to ensure that the reader does not laugh at or mock the confusion of the child in question. The best comedy always has a serious purpose, and that is certainly the case here. McGough does an excellent job of reminding the reader, who has the knowledge that the poem’s subject does not have, that this experience can be a traumatic one if the child has not been properly prepared for it.
    As a poem, it works on several levels. It conveys the sense of confusion very well, through the use of childish words and misinterpretations, and the use of stream of consciousness is also handled well in that it is allowed to go just so far and no further.

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