7. Summarizing a Novel


Summarizing a Novel

Parlindungan Pardede

Universitas Kristen Indonesia

A summary is a presentation of the substance of a body of material in a condensed form or by reducing it to its main points (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/summary). Summarizing is often described like peeling an onion, in which many layers you need to be peeled away to get to essence of the story.

In a summary you just report the main ideas, main points, and major supports of the original text. You need to do it by using your own expression without changing any idea or viewpoint. Thus, to summarize a novel means that you just report the story by revealing the main events, who does it, where, and why, as they are presented by the author. Later, when a reader unacquainted with the original text reads your summary, he will get from your summary the essential facts and point of view of the original selection.

One of the most frequently questions addressed in summarizing is how long the summary should be. There is no fixed rule for this. A novel of 200 pages, for instance, could be well summarized in three to four pages. Thus, the length of a summary largely depends on the length and complexity of the original work, the intended audience and the purpose. What is important to underlie is that you know how much detail to include, and what details to omit.

As a general guide, begin your summary chapter by chapter or unit by unit. Try to summarize a chapter into a paragraph. To do this, determine the main ideas of the chapter by looking for events that move the story forward, or that reveal or develop character. Then review the chapter briefly. You can do this by imagining yourself telling your classmate what the chapter was about. Now write a single sentence containing this main idea. Then use it as the topic sentence of the paragraph summarizing that single chapter. After writing a paragraph for each chapter, edit and revise all of them in order get a unified summary. Add the transitional words, phrases, and sentences to make all paragraphs hang together. This will help your reader make sense of the ideas and events.

To illustrate of the above concept, the following summary of chapter 1 and 2 of Orwell’s Animal Farm is presented.

 Animal Farm (Chapter 1-2)

Animal Farm begins as evening falls upon Manor Farm. After Mr. Jones, the farm owner, locks up, the animals gather in the big barn to hear the dream of twelve-year-old Major, Manor Farm’s prize-winning boar. When all the animals, including the pigs; the dogs; the sheep; the two cart horses Boxer and Clover; Muriel the white goat; Mollie, the white mare; and Benjamin, the old donkey have settled down to listen, Old Major reveals that he is close to dying. He then shares his life philosophy focusing on the difficulty of their lives under man’s rule. He reveals his dream and prophesies a future rebellion of animals against man, and ends by teaching the animals a song called “Beasts of England.”

Three nights after his stirring speech, Old Major dies, but the other animals, led by two young boars named Snowball and Napoleon, keep the idea of a future rebellion against man alive. They also develop Major’s rhetoric into a complete thought system—Animalism. On Midsummer’s Eve, Mr. Jones becomes too drunk to feed or care for the animals, and his men forget them as well. The animals break into the grain bins. When Mr. Jones and his four men appear and begin to whip, the animals attack and drive them off the farm. Manor Farm is now under the control of the animals. They search the farm grounds for any trace of human beings, remove and burn all artifacts of their imprisonment—the bits, nose-rings, chains, and knives—and take a double portion of food. They even change farm’s name to Animal Farm and establish their own rules for behavior which are painted on the wall of the barn.

Reference

Orwell, George. 2010. Animal Farm Retrieved on July 2011 from http://ebooks.adelaide. edu.au/o/orwell/george/o79a/complete

To watch the full length animated movie of Orwell’s Animal Farm  (1954), click –> here

To watch Animal Farm summary, click –> here

33 Comments

  1. Summary:
    Chapter 1 tells about the situation in the farm run by Mr. Jones. And in this chapter is introduced the characters of the animal, such as Major, the old boar; three dogs, Bluebell, Jessie, Pincher; two horses, Boxer and Clover; Muriel, the white goat; Benjamin the donkey; white mare Mollie; and Moses the raven. In this scene, Major encourages animals to have their freedom from humans’ slavery. He announced who’re friends who’re enemies. He also declared the Seven Commandments as the sign of animal rising. Their slogan is all animals are equal. They also have national anthem “Beast of England.”
    Chapter 2 tells about Old Major died. It’s spring already. After the Old Major’s dead, the animals are questioning who will replace him. And along the story away, it’s introduced the new young pigs who might be the next “leader” for the animals. They are Snowball, Napoleon and Squealer. It is shown that pigs get more privilege than the other animals, such as getting better education and get position in teaching and organizing. The Rebellion comes quicker than they expected. It reaches the climax of rebellion when Mr. Jones is bankrupt and the animals are underfed. They are so furious until they mess up the farm and get rid of Mr. Jones from the farm. A day after they make some changes to the farm, such as changing the farm name, enacted the Seven Commandments, and adjusting the farm work assignment.
    Chapter 3 tells shows how animals adjust to the new situation. They work based on their capacity and pigs act as the supervisors and directors because they are the well-educated ones. They have to learn how to work, which is successfully done. All animals learn how to read and write, but the interesting part is that learning is a priority to the pigs. Another interesting thing is about Snowball and Napoleon that never meet disagreement in any discussions.
    Chapter 4 tells about the success of Animal Farm in the country. The pigeons as the messengers help the news spread around the country. The farmers are concerned with this because it could affect to the other animals in any farms. That’s why the farmers want to attack the Animal Farm, but they are defeated by Snowball’s defensive operation which he got from old book of Caesar’s campaigns. In that war, a sheep is killed and they give a nice funeral with military ceremony. It’s also the time when they come up the idea for giving title to “hero”.
    Chapter 5 tells about Mollie’s missing after Clover talked to her. She is accused as humans’ spy. The interesting story is about the competition between Snowball and Napoleon. They vigorously get animals’ support to vote them to be the leader. It is described that Snowball as a brilliant orator and it works for the majority. Napoleon doesn’t speak much but he succeeds with the sheep and keeps doing campaign about “4 legs good 2 legs bad”. In this chapter, Benjamin is shown as the only one who takes no sides. The dispute heats up when Snowball comes up with windmill idea and delivers it to the rest of animals. He encourages the animals to support the windmill because it’s for the animals’ future. He also explains the benefits they will get. But he doesn’t tell how it does. The sly Napoleon doesn’t say much. He only said that what the animals needed right now is about increasing the food production. It is said no need to think about the future, better think the presence. His charisma shows that animals listen to him more that they get rid of Snowball out from the farm at once. After three weeks, Napoleon announces of building of the windmill and claims it was his pure idea.
    Chapter 6 shows that how animals must work harder. Besides they have to meet the farm target, they also have to work to build the windmill. They start living with new rules and new working ethic. Boxer seems brainwashed by Napoleon. He works much harder than before and keeps saying to himself “I will work harder” and “Napoleon is always right.” The sad scene is when the hard gale struck down trees and messed the farm, including the windmill. The animals were hopeless, but Napoleon could motivate them back by saying Snowball is the cause of everything. That’s why they need to keep the spirit.
    Chapter 7 tells about the time when animals rebuild the windmill during winter. Boxer and Clover keep working hard. Apparently animals are running off the food and the harvest was not that good at that time. To overcome this issue, Napoleon changed the policy which is crazy, like asking hens to raise their eggs production. As consequent, nine hens died as they sacrificed to the farm. At this point Squealer tries to convinced animals that this is all Snowball’s fault. But animals have doubt about it. They start talking about what’s going on. The other silly policy is to forbid the song “beast of England”. Not any single animal can sing it because they have passed The Rebellion time.
    Chapter 8 shows the consequent of talking about Snowball. Any animals who have doubt to Napoleon’s leadership consider as traitors and they get executions. The others are afraid of talking; but it actually has crossed the rule of Seven Commandments. The animals face another war with human, Fred, because he breaks the timber agreement. He doesn’t pay Napoleon with real money. Napoleon boastfully says that he gave Fred a death-sentence. After that he sends pigeons to spread the warning. What happens in the morning is that Fred and friends attack Animal Farm. Many animals get killed and injured, but they could kick humans out of the farm. They thought they won the battle, but actually they didn’t because the windmill is destroyed by humans. It means they will be in danger of hunger. In spite of living in reality, they have party for two days, and it seems that napoleon gets drunk and again, it breaks the rule of Seven Commandments. But the issue is that Napoleon got poisoned by Snowball and he’s dying. After resting some time, he could show himself in public. At the end of chapter it is shown that one of the Seven Commandments rules has been changed from “No animal shall drink alcohol” to “No animal shall drink alcohol TO EXCESS.”
    Chapter 9 shows how the living in farm is getting hard for every animal. It is started by pension policy which shows that pigs and dogs have different class than the others. Meanwhile, the weather is worse than last year and the food supply is short. But Squealer keeps doctrine the animals by saying that their live is much better than the old time. At the same time, Napoleon focuses on pigs’ regeneration by building school for them. He also discourages the young pigs not to make friends with the other animals’ children. Through a-year hard work, they gain good harvest, but still lack of money. So, animals can’t stop working, even now much harder than before because of focusing on production, rebuilding the windmill and building a school. As a result, they can’t have regeneration. So, the numbers of pigs and dogs are much more than the others. Napoleon stated his position as leader by declaring Animal Farm as Republic and they need to elect the president. No doubt, Napoleon becomes the president of animal Farm. It’s also the most tragic moment happens when Boxer overwork that he gets injured. Instead of doing good for his great contribution to Animal Farm development, Napoleon sends him to the slaughter. But Squealer can cover it up smoothly.
    Chapter 10 shows Napoleon’s leadership has gone far away from the concept of the Rebellion. His doctrine that all animals are treated equal is just an illusion. The fact is that pigs and dogs get more privilege than the others. He can cover up by blowing the fact that they are more prosperous and have more money and they have finished built all buildings. They don’t realize that they are paid less, get pension less and have working hours more than pigs and dogs. They keep being doctrine that living is decent is the right one because all animals are equal. On the other hand, the pigs are trained secretly to be the same as humans. They walked with two legs. When the animals found this out, the leader changed the Seven Commandments to one rule: “All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others.” It’s so tragic for the other animals because after that day they live in tyranny. The pigs supervise them with whips, Napoleon dressed up and he allows humans to visit the farm. Napoleon, some pigs and the humans have conversation in farmhouse where they have beer and diplomatic talks. Mr. Pilkington praises Napoleon great farm strategy which he will follow to treat his farm animals. As the return, Napoleon says that it is a misunderstanding aroused for long time about the farm which actually the right name is The Manor Farm, not Animal Farm. And they agree to have good relation in the future. The other animals just can see the event from outside without knowing what’s going on. What they can see now is that they can’t distinguish which pigs and which men.

  2. Summary of “Animal Farm” by : George Orwell.

    Chapter 1
    In the beginning of the story, the writer tells about the meeting of all the animals in the farm after the drunken farmer Jones has gone to bed. The meeting has been called by Old Major, a boar who is the oldest and the wisest animal in the farm. The pigs, cows, ducks, horses, hens and dogs all assemble in the big barn. They think that they are going to be told about a dream which Old Major had the previous night. Before telling them about his dream, he says that he is coming to the end of his own life, and he wants to share his wisdom with the other animals. He reminds them about all the work that they have to do for their human masters, how little they are given to eat. He describes how the humans steal everything produced by the animals, with the animals receiving in return only enough food to keep them alive. He realized that the misery of their daily lives is all due to the tyranny of human beings, and that if they work to overthrow the humans their lives will become easy and comfortable. The song of “Beasts of England” is also sung by Old Major and other animals for five times in succession until they are interrupted by a blast from the farmer’s shotgun then the farm finally returns to normality.

    Chapter 2
    Old Major dies three days later. The animals set out to prepare for the rebellion. The pigs, being the most intelligent animals on the farm, take the lead on this. The task of working Old Major’s ideas into a more formal system falls to three pigs, Napoleon, Snowball and Squealer. These three organise regular nighttime meetings with the other animals to explain the principles of their system, called Animalism. They encounter many obstacles from amongst the simpler animals, who are afraid of what might happen if Jones was not around to feed them. Also, Moses the Raven always tells the animals about an animal’s paradise called Sugarcandy Mountain, where the animals go when they die. Many of the animals believe in Sugarcandy Mountain, and the pigs have to keep on persuading them that no such place exists.
    The rebellion happens on Midsummer’s day, just before harvest. The animals become ecstatic. They light a great bonfire and burn every farm. One of the cows breaks down a door to the store-shed, and several of the animals begin to help themselves from the bins. The animals attack the humans spontaneously and furiously. The farm now belongs to the animals.
    After rebellion happens, Snowball and Napoleon now call the animals together, and surprise them by announcing that they have spent the last few months learning to write. Next they go to the main gate of the farm and paint over “Manor Farm”, replacing it with “Animal Farm”. Returning to the farm buildings, they paint the seven commands of Animalism onto the gable of the big barn.
    With this done, the animals set out to begin the harvest. But as they do so, the cows remind them that they have not been milked for twenty-four hours. The pigs get some buckets and do the milking themselves, producing five buckets of delicious-looking milk. Some of the animals ask what is to be done with the milk, but Napoleon tells them not to worry about it, and that they should concentrate on the harvest instead. When they return in the evening, the milk has disappeared.
    Chapter 3
    The harvest reaches its success. The animals are so enthusiastic and excited about the fact that the food is truly their own. No food is stolen during the harvesting. In this chapter the writer describes that almost all the animals have worked as hard as they possibly could, but there are some exceptions. Mollie, the vain mare, often leaves the field early complaining about a stone in her hoof, and the cat seems to appear only for meals. A donkey, Benjamin is one of the few animals who is completely unchanged by the revolution, remaining as aloof and cynical as he had been before.
    When Sunday is a rest day, the animals assemble at a great meeting. This is where the work for the coming week is to be planned, and various motions discussed. All of the resolutions are put forward by the pigs. The other animals are aware of this, but as they cannot think of any resolutions themselves, they allow the pigs to lead. As the weeks ago by, it becomes clear that Napoleon and Snowball rarely agree about anyhting. Snowball puts all his energies into forming various committees, each of which is responsible for improving some or other aspect of life on the farm. Napoleon sees no value in this, and refers to concenrate on educating the young. Not all of Snowball’s committees work well, but his reading and writing classes are successfully. The pigs can read and write perfectly. The dogs learn to read, but will not read anything except the seven commandments. Boxer, the great carthorse tries very hard to learn the alphabet, but cannot get past D. Many of the other animals can understand only one letter. So many animals are thus unable to read the seven commandments. Snowball reduces the seven commandments to the single maxim “Four legs good, two legs bad” which they can remember easily.
    Chapter 4
    News of the rebellion spread to the surrounding county after Snowball and Napoleon send pigeons to neighbouring farms and beyond to tell the animals about it. The farmers at first pretend not to be troubled about the rebellion, believing that the animals cannot possibly make a success of the farm. But as time passes the farmers become more and more troubled, and their animals become more and more emboldened. The tune of Beasts of England is now known by nearly every animal in the county. The farmers try to spread lies about torture and slavery on animal farm but the animals of the county do not believe them. Then Jones and his people attack animal farm. He carries a gun and the others are armed with sticks. All animals have already prepared to face this situation. The battle is begun. All the animals participate in struggling their life except Mollie. She hides herself in a corner. She fled the battle as soon as the gun went off. The animals reach their success in the battle. They maintain their farmyard finally then they celebrate their victory by raising the flag and singing “Beasts of England”.
    Chapter 5
    This chapter begins to describe the activities the animals do in winter. They spend their time on meetings in a big barn where the future policy for the farm is discussed and voted on. The visions of both Snowball and Napoleon are clearly different. Snowball has new plans for the improvement of the farm. Snowball’s plan is to construct a windmill that can provide heat and electricity to the farm. On the other hand, Napoleon is completely againts the Snowball’s idea. Snowball says that the windmill will lead to increase leisure time for everybody, while Napoleon thinks that it will cause the animals to lose time on the harvest and starve. All the animals attend the meeting in the big barn, which is filled by arguing the windmill whether will be built or not. The farm is divided into two big groups, the “vote for Snowball and the three-day week” group and the “vote for Napoleon and the full manger” group. The meeting finishes to a fifteen-minute chorus of “Four legs good, two legs bad” from the sheep.

    Chapter 6
    Under the supervision of the pigs, the animals work on the harvest. It finds that the harvest is a poorer one than the previous year. The progress on the windmill is slow. The stones with which to be built have to be hauled to the top of the quarry and thrown from there to the bottom, so that the stones can be broken into the appropriate sizes. It takes until the end of the summer to accumulate enough stone to begin building the windmill, work which depends almost entirely on the tremendous efforts of Boxer, who works himself harder than ever before.
    As the work on the harvest and the windmill proceeds, the animals find themselves running out of supplies. Items such as paraffin, seeds, manure and machinery could not be produced on the farm. This problem is resolved when Napoleon announces one day that Animal Farm will henceforth enter into trading arrangements with some of the surrounding farms. Hay and wheat from the farm will be sold, and the hens are told that they will have to give up some of their eggs, a sacrifice that they should be proud to make. Some of the animals are doubtful about this move, seeming to remember an agreement in the early days after the rebellion never to have anything to do with humans. Again, Squealer puts any doubts to rest in the following days, informing them that such a resolution was never written down.
    From then on, Napoleon engages a local solicitor to act as the middleman between Animal Farm and the outside world. The solicitor comes every Monday, and his presence makes the other animals very uneasy, but their doubts are eased by their pride in seeing Napoleon give orders to a human.
    Shortly afterwards, the pigs move into the farmhouse. They eat in the kitchen, relax in the drawing room, and even sleep in the beds. Some of the animals are very doubtful about this. Clover consults the seven commandments on the gable wall, and asks Muriel to read out the fourth commandment, which states, “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets.” Muriel cannot remember sheets being mentioned before. However, helped by the smooth words of Squealer, she assumes that she must have been wrong, She and the other animals accept his argument that the pigs, as the leaders, must have as much comfort as possible to facilitate their brainwork.
    The work on the windmill continues. The animals are all extremely proud of their progress so far, except for Benjamin, who expresses no opinion for or against the windmill. By November, the windmill is half finished. However, disaster strikes when a nighttime storm destroys it. The animals all gather around the ruin. Napoleon is silent for a long time, before making the sudden and dramatic announcement that the windmill was destroyed by Snowball. Some pig footprints leading away from the farm are discovered, and Napoleon confirms them to belong to Snowball. The other animals are shocked that their former leader could do such a thing. Napoleon announces that work on rebuilding the windmill will commence immediately.

    Chapter 7
    When the winter comes, the food on the farm gets worse. Corn is difficult to find, the stock of potatoes is destroyed by frost so that the animals are threatened with starvation. Then, Squealer comes up with some ideas that the hens must give up their eggs, so that they can be traded with the outside world for grain and meal. They are forced to give up their eggs as soon as they are laid.
    All the while, the pigs spread terrible news about Snowball. Snowball is said to be hiding on one of the neighbouring farms. He is said to be sneaking into animal farm bi night and doing untold damage. Every mishap and misfortune on the farm is now attributed to Snowball. Then Napoleon who is accompanied by his dogs makes a show of doing a big tour of the farm to investigate the activities of Snowball. Napoleon finds that Snowball is in league with Jones from the very beginning. Napoleon, who rarely leaves the farmhouse, and is never without his dogs. At a signal, the dogs charge into the crowd and drag four of the more troublesome pigs before Napoleon. At the same time, three of the dogs attach Boxer. Boxer easily fends them off. The miserable pigs are forced to confess to having been in league with Snowball, and are murdered on the spot by the dogs. Other animals come forward to confess various crimes against the farm, each in turn is slaughtered. These are the first killings of other animals since the rebellion. The animals creep away from the meeting. Boxer resolves that the only possible solution is to work harder. Clover has deep misgivings about what she has seen, but she cannot put them into words. She remains faithful to Napoleon, but she knows that this state of affairs is not what they fought for in the rebellion. The animals try to console them by singing Beasts of England. However, they are interrupted by Squealer, who tells them that the song is henceforth abolished. It is to be replaced a song called Animal Farm, composed by one of the pigs. The animals take up the new song faithfully, but are aware that it does not compare to Beasts of England.

    Chapter 8
    Clover is uneasy that one of the seven commandments has been broken after the executions. The animals spend the following year working harder than ever. Squealer exhorts them to greater efforts, telling them that productivity on the farm has improved enormously since the rebellion, though many of the animals secretly feel hungry. Napoleon, who is now known as “Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,” and several other flattering titles, is seen in public rarely, and now employs a cockerel as a herald, as well as being accompanied at all times by his dogs. Relation between the neighbouring farms, Frederick of Pinchfield and Pilkington of Foxwood, remain complex. Napoleon, through the middleman, has been trying to sell off a pile of timb er to one of the other neighbour. At this time, rumours abound that Frederick is about to attack the farm. A plot to murder Napoleon is uncovered. Three hens confess that Snowball, said to be living on Pinchfield, put them up to it. The hens are executed. Napoleon announces shortly afterwards that the wood is to be sold to Pilkington of Foxwood. When, later in the year, the wheat crop is found to be full of weeds, Snowball, any by implication Frederick, are blamed. The whole farm seethes with anger and resentment againts Frederick, who is now the sworn enemy of animal farm. The windmill is completed by autumn. The animals forget their worries temporary to celebrate this magnificent achievement. The animals are all congratulated by Napoleon. Two days later, he calls them to a meeting and announces that the wood is to be sold to Frederick. The animals are astonished, but Squealer easily explains this away as part of Napoleon’s strategy, to appear friendly with one neighbour while sectretly courting the other. The sale goes ahead, and the solicitor organises the transport of the wood off the farm, and the delivery of the banknotes to Napoleon. Three days later, the notes are discovered to be forgeries. Napoleon assembles the animals again and pronounces the death sentence on Frederick. At the same time, he warns them that Frederick and his men may be about to attack the farm. The attack comes the next morning with fifteen men and six guns. They approach the farm. Messengers are sent to Foxwood requesting assistance, but Pilkington sends back a curt rejection. The animals are driven back to the farm building. While they are trapped there, the men plant dynamite around the windmill. In the ensuing explosion, the windmill is obliterated. The animals react to this by forgetting all about the guns and charging headlong at the men, who after a brief struggle, run for their lives. The animals are dejected at the loss of the windmill, but the pigs quickly set about the task of rebuilding morale by reminding them of the magnificent victory they have won. The day will be forever commemorated as the bettle of the windmill. In the ensuing celebrations, the forged banknotes are forgotten. The celebration begins here when the pigs discover a cask of whisky in the farmhouse. Then, it is announced that a small field near the orchard, originally set aside for retired animals who could work no more, was to be ploughed up and sown with barley. Muriel is troubled by this development, and she consults the fifth commandment. Again, she realises she has remembered it incorrectly, for it says, “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.”

    Chapter 9
    Rebuilding of the windmill begins immediately after the celebrations. Boxer works harder than ever, despite carrying an injury from the battle. His thoughts are now turning to retirement, for which, under the laws of Animal farm, he is due the next year. In the meantime, another cold winter with little food must be endured. Squealer bamboozles the animals with productivity figures which prove how much better off they are than when they were under Jones, although many have by now forgotten life under Jones.
    The strain of the resources of the farms grows, not least due to the birth of thirty-one piglets the previous autumn. Napoleon declares that a new schoolroom must be built for the piglets, who are instructed to remain aloof from the other animals. The schoolroom is in addition to the requirement to rebuild the windmill and the need to keep the farm supplied with various other requirements. Potatoes are sold, and practically every egg laid by the hens is sold to earn the money required for these supplies. All the while, the animals’ rations are being reduced, while the pigs make beer from the barley they sowed earlier in the year.
    Napoleon now introduces a weekly event called the Spontaneous Demonstration, where every animal would leave their work to march in military procession around the farm, so as to instil pride in the animals in the achievements of the farm since the rebellion. It comforts the animals to know that, no matter how hard their lives, at least they have the benefit of being their own masters. Another consolation around this time is the reappearance of Moses and his tales of SugarCandy Mountain. Many of the animals like to believe that they will go to a better place after their deaths, and the pigs now seem to tolerate Moses, giving him an allowance of beer every day.
    The building work around the farm continues through the summer, heavily dependent on the extraordinary efforts of Boxer. He is showing some signs at this stage that his strength is failing. He himself is hoping to get as much done as he possibly can before he retires. Then, one summer evening, he collapses. All the animals rush to his side, unable to bear the thought that anything might happen to him. He barely has the strength to get back to his feet and to struggle back to his stall. Squealer promises to send him to the town so that the veterinary surgeon can treat him. Clover and Benjamin spend as much time as they can over the next few days nursing him. Then, while the animals are all at work, the van comes to take Boxer away. They would not have noticed, except that Benjamin gallops across the farm to tell them that Boxer is being taken away. No one has ever seen Benjamin gallop before. The animals rush to the yard in time to see the van begin to pull away. They start to wave goodbye to Boxer, but Benjamin is very agitated, and tells them to read the letters on the van. Muriel reads out the sign on the van, which describes the van as belonging to the local horse-slaughterer. The animals try to warn Boxer, who tries to kick his way out of the van, but he has no strength, and the kicking from the van soon dies away.
    Three days later, Squealer announces that Boxer died in the hospital. He makes a moving speech in praise of Boxer. He explains the sign on the van by saying that the veterinary surgeon bought the van from the horse-slaughterer, and had not yet replaced the sign. The animals are very relieved to hear this, and are greatly consoled by Squealer’s further descriptions of the wonderful care and treatment that Boxer received in his final hours.
    Napoleon pays his respects to Boxer at the meeting on the following Sunday. He tells them that it was not possible to return Boxer’s remains for burial on the farm, but that he will be commemorated with a wreath instead. Napoleon announces a memorial banquet for Boxer, which takes place in the farmhouse shortly afterwards, attended only by the pigs.

    Chapter 10
    Years have passed, and many of the animals are dead. Only Clover, Benjamin, Moses and some of the pigs remember the days before the rebellion. Clover is by now very old, well past retirement age, except that no animal has actually managed to retire yet.
    The windmill has finally been completed. It is used for milling corn, rather than for generating electricity, and brings a good profit to the farm. Another windmill is now being built to generate electricity. There is no more talk of the three-day week, or any of the other luxuries that Snowball originally promised would accrue from the windmill.
    The farm is growing richer, but the animals themselves do not seem to benefit much from it. There are many pigs and dogs on the farm now. The pigs are all involved in the bureaucracy of running the farm, and are not available to do any actual work, though Squealer makes it clear to the others that what the pigs do is of vital importance to the farm. Squealer continues to impress everyone with detailed figures of how everything has improved on the farm, but deep down the animals are unable to reconcile this with the lack of improvement in their own conditions. Nonetheless, Animal Farm remains the only farm in England to be owned by the animals, and the animals remain enormously proud of this.
    Summer arrives. Squealer is seen to take all the sheep of the farm aside, and no-one sees them for a week. The sheep eventually return. That evening, as the animals are returning to the yard from work, Clover is heard neighing excitedly from the yard. The animals rush forward to see what is happening. They stop dead when they all see what has startled Clover. It is the sight of Squealer walking upright, on his hind legs. At this moment, all of the pigs leave the farmhouse in single file, all upright on two legs. Finally, Napoleon emerges from the farmhouse, upright and carrying a whip.
    It is the most shocking thing the animals have ever seen. It goes against everything that they have been taught up to then. Just as it seems that someone might object, the sheep break into a deafening chorus of “Four legs good, two legs better.” They went on for five minutes, during which the pigs walked briefly around and then returned to the farmhouse. The chance to protest is gone. Clover goes to the gable wall and brings Benjamin with her. She asks Benjamin to read for her what is on the gable wall. All the commandments are gone, and all that is written there now is “All animals are equal, But some animals are more equal than others.”
    After this, the pigs and their sows start wearing clothes and carrying whips. They begin to have more direct dealings with the neighbouring farmers. One day, the pigs invite a number of the local farmers to inspect the farm. After the inspection, the pigs and the farmers return to the farmhouse for a celebration. After a time, loud noises of laughter and singing are heard through the windows. The other animals are overcome with curiosity, and they approach the farmhouse to see what is going on. They look through the windows to see the pigs and farmers seated around the living room table, playing cards, making speeches and congratulating one another. Mr Pilkington makes a speech telling the pigs how impressed he is with Animal Farm, especially with the hard work and poor rations of the farm animals. Napoleon makes a speech in return, expressing his happiness that the mistrust between Animal Farm and the others is now at an end. He furthermore announces that the animals will cease to address each other as “Comrade,” and that “Animal Farm” will now revert to being called “Manor Farm.” As Napoleon finishes his speech to great applause, the animals outside seem to notice something changing in the features of the pigs, but what?
    As the applause dies down and the card game is resumed, the animals creep away from the window. However, they hurry back when they hear a furious argument break out. The argument is because Mr. Pilkington and Napoleon have both played an Ace of Spades at the same time. But as the animals look from Napoleon to Pilkington, from man to pig and from pig back to man, they find that they are unable to tell the difference.

  3. Chapter 1
    Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, stumbles drunkenly up to bed as the farm animals wait in still silence. The moment he is out of sight, they begin to bustle around, preparing themselves for the big meeting that is to take place that night. Old Major has called the meeting to discuss a strange dream he had the previous night. He is waiting for his fellow animals in the big barn. The first animals to arrive are the three dogs, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher, followed by the pigs. Hens, pigeons, sheep, and cows arrive, as well as the horses, Boxer and Clover. Muriel, the white goat, and the donkey Benjamin follow. Old Major addresses the animals, calling them, “Comrades.” Over his lifetime, he has come to the conclusions that “No animal in England is free” and “The life of an animal is misery and slavery. Old Major states that animals’ domination by Man is the sole reason they cannot be free, happy, and fulfilled. Man is “the only creature that consumes without producing.” His only job is to be “lord of all the animals,” which makes him “the only real enemy” animals have. According to Old Major, Rebellion is the path to freedom. Overthrowing the human race would make animals “rich and free” almost instantly. Old Major begs the other animals to devote the rest of their lives to the cause of Rebellion and to reject the idea that they have co-dependence with Man. Old Major holds a vote to decide whether domesticated animals should unite with wild animals. Only the dogs and the cat vote no, although the cat is not paying attention and votes twice. After the vote, Old Major crystallizes his point, stating: “Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.” He adds the additional point that, once they have achieved victory, animals must not emulate Man. , Old Major relates his dream to the animals. His dream was about the state of happiness that will exist once Man is eliminated.

    Chapter 2
    Old Major dies three nights after the meeting that united the animals. Over the next three months, the more intelligent animals begin to approach life differently. They now anticipate the Rebellion, for which they assume the task of preparing. The pigs take on the task of organizing and teaching the other animals because they are “generally recognized as being the cleverest of the animals”. Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer have taken charge especially, and they have expanded Old Major’s concept into a “complete system of thought” called Animalism. They hold frequent meetings in the big barn to espouse the views of Animalism to the other farm animals. At first, the animals are not convinced that they should follow Animalism. Monetary troubles plague Mr. Jones, leading him to drink excessively. The farmhands are lazy and fail to tend the farm well, yet hard times for Mr. Jones mean a leg up for the animals. In fact, Mr. Jones’s misfortune makes the Rebellion come earlier than expected. On Midsummer’s Eve in June, Mr. Jones gets so drunk that he passes out and neglects to feed the animals. After a disbelieving calm, the animals barge into the harness-room and drown or burn all the implements of their former bondage. Snowball makes sure to burn the ribbons, which he calls tantamount to clothing, and states, “All animals should go naked”. Finally, they tour the farmhouse, seeing in disbelief the “unbelievable luxury” in which the Joneses had lived. Then the animals agree to leave the farmhouse intact as a museum. They confiscate a few hams for burial and leave. Snowball uses paint to replace the title “Manor Farm” with “Animal Farm” on the farm gate. Back in the big barn, they reveal that they have reduced Animalism to Seven Commandments. The animals must live by these commandments “for ever after.” The commandments, which Snowball writes on the wall with some typographical errors, are:
    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.

    Chapter 3
    The harvest is more of a success than Mr. Jones and his men ever accomplished, despite the fact that the tools are not well suited for animals to use, especially without the animals rearing up on their hind legs. The pigs supervise the others but do not participate in the manual labor. With the “parasitical human beings” out of the way, the animals enjoy a feeling of abundance for the first time. They have more leisure, and their food tastes all the better for their having gathered and portioned it out themselves. Every Sunday is a day of rest and devotion to Animalism on Animal Farm. The animals hold an hour-long ceremony at which they raise their new flag. The flag is green to represent England’s pastures and features a hoof and horn that “represent the future Republic of the Animals” that will exist “when the human race [has] finally been overthrown”. A gathering called Meeting follows the flag raising, in which the animals plan the coming week and the pigs present resolutions for debate (none of the other animals are intelligent enough to think up resolutions). Snowball and Napoleon tend to debate the most and take opposite sides. The animals end each meeting by singing “Beasts of England.” Many of the animals lack the intelligence needed to memorize the Seven Commandments, so Snowball reduces Animalism’s tenets to one simple saying: “Four legs good, two legs bad”. As time goes by, the pigs begin to increase their control over the other animals.

    Chapter 4
    It is late summer. News of the Rebellion has spread to many other farms, thanks to Snowball’s and Napoleon’s pigeon messengers. Meanwhile, in the human world, Mr. Jones tells other farmers about the Rebellion. The fear of similar revolutions unites the owners of the farms adjacent to Animal Farm, even though they dislike one another. Despite the farmers’ efforts to subdue ideas of rebellion, their animals begin lashing out against them. The animals resist the farmers’ orders. They also adopt the infuriating habit of singing “Beasts of England.” In October, accompanied by several other farmers, Mr. Jones tries to recapture Animal Farm. Snowball has already trained the animals for war, however, and they take their defensive positions. The smaller animals attack the men and then pretend to retreat into the yard in defeat. Once the men follow, the larger animals ambush them. After the battle, the animals sing “Beasts of England” yet again.

    Chapter 5
    January brings bitterly cold weather. Since conditions are too harsh for farming, the animals hold many meetings. They have agreed that the pigs should make all policy decisions, which the other animals are to ratify. Snowball and Napoleon are in constant disagreement, and the other animals begin to take sides. The sheep support Napoleon and interrupt Snowball’s speeches by bleating, “Four legs good, two legs bad.” Snowball is the more progressive politician, promoting innovations to make the farm run more efficiently. Napoleon makes sure to oppose all of Snowball’s ideas. After some time, Snowball and Napoleon come into bitter conflict over a windmill. Snowball designates a piece of land for a windmill, which will provide electricity for the heretofore-primitive farm. He uses Mr. Jones’s books to draft a detailed chalk blueprint, which fascinates the other animals. One day, Napoleon urinates on the blueprint to show his disdain. Snowball estimates that the animals can complete the windmill with a year of hard labor, after which the time saving machine will shorten their workweek to three days. Napoleon counters with the idea that they will all starve to death in that time, and that the farm’s primary concern should be increasing food production. The animals split into two groups, one called “Vote for Snowball and the three-day week,” the other called “Vote for Napoleon and the full manger.” Snowball and Napoleon engage in another major debate about how best to prepare for another human attack. Napoleon advocates the procurement of firearms as well as firearms training. Snowball advocates sending pigeons to rally the other animals; if rebellions occur everywhere, then the humans will stay at bay. The other animals do not divide over this issue because they cannot decide who is right.

    Chapter 6
    The animals work sixty-hour weeks all spring and summer in order to build the windmill, but none begrudges the extra labor. In August, Napoleon instates “strictly voluntary” labor on Sundays: animals may choose not to come, but they will have their rations reduced by half. There are plenty of building materials on the premises, and the animals discover that they can break limestone into pieces by using the force of gravity. However, the process of dragging boulders to the top of the quarry and throwing them down is very taxing. Shortages begin to occur. The animals require things, such as iron for horseshoes and machinery for the windmill, that they cannot produce on the farm. To provide a solution, Napoleon opens trade with the neighboring farms and says that the animals may need to sell some of the hens’ eggs in the nearby town of Willingdon. He makes sure to stress the fact that the windmill should be the animals’ first priority. The other animals are “conscious of a vague uneasiness” because the Seven Commandments forbid trade with humans and the use of money.

    Chapter 7
    The animals work to rebuild the windmill through a bitter, stormy winter, well aware that the human world is watching and hoping for their failure. Because of increasing food shortages, the animals begin to go hungry. Knowing that the humans must not hear of Animal Farm’s hardships, Napoleon enlists the sheep to comment about their increasing rations when within earshot of Mr. Whymper. He also has someone lead Mr. Whymper past the food bins, which are filled with sand and topped with grain to look full. Napoleon appears in public less and less, and when he does, six fierce dogs act as his guards. As there is need for more grain, he has Mr. Whymper arrange a contract to sell four hundred eggs per week. The hens rebel by laying their eggs in the rafters so that the eggs smash on the floor. Napoleon stops the hens’ rations and makes feeding a hen punishable by death. Nine hens die, supposedly of coccidiosis, during the five-day strike, after which the hens surrender.

    Chapter 8
    Once the terror abates, some of the animals recall the Sixth Commandment, “No animal shall kill any other animal.” Clover again asks Muriel to read to her from the wall, only to find that the Sixth Commandment has been changed to: “No animal shall kill any other animal without cause.” The animals now call Napoleon “our Leader, Comrade Napoleon.” Just as the animals attribute all misfortunes to Snowball, they now attribute all success and luck to Napoleon. Minimus composes a poem called “Comrade Napoleon,” which Napoleon has inscribed on the wall across from the Seven Commandments, where Squealer also paints his portrait. . In the summer, three hens confess to plotting against Napoleon’s life and are executed instantly. After that, Napoleon increases his security even more and enlists a pig named Pinkeye to be his taster, lest someone attempt to poison him. Napoleon finally agrees to sell the timber to Pilkington, as well as to engage in regular trade with Foxwood. Meanwhile, rumors about Frederick’s coming invasion, as well as his cruel practices at Pinchfield, begin to circulate. One day, Napoleon announces that he never planned to do business with Frederick at all. He makes the messenger pigeons change their slogan from “Death to Humanity” to “Death to Frederick.”

    Chapter 9
    To appease the animals, Squealer reads the animals more statistics to make them believe that their lives are better than in the days of Mr. Jones’s rule. The animals are overworked, underfed, and cold, but they are happy to believe Squealer. Thirty-one young pigs now live on the farm, all of them parented by Napoleon. He makes plans to build them a schoolhouse and discourages them from interacting with other types of animals. He also instates two rules of pig superiority: other animals must stand aside on the path to let pigs pass, and pigs are allowed to wear green ribbons on their tails on Sundays. Napoleon also awards himself the privilege of eating sugar. Still, times are hard on the farm, and the animals struggle to make ends meet. The chickens are forced to lay six hundred eggs per week to sell in town and can barely keep any for hatching. Rations are reduced again, and the animals are not allowed lanterns in their stalls anymore in order to save oil. Meanwhile, the pigs seem to be flourishing. Towards the end of winter, the animals smell a new scent in the wind, which they discover is from the barley Napoleon has begun to cook. Soon after, the pigs announce that all barley is reserved for them. Each pig gets a pint of beer added to his rations, with Napoleon getting half a gallon. To distract the animals from their hardship, Napoleon increases the amount of propaganda on the farm. This includes songs, speeches, poems, statistics, marches, and his newly created Spontaneous Demonstrations, in which the animals celebrate their victories. The animals enjoy the Spontaneous Demonstrations, which remind them of their freedom and self-sufficiency.

    Chapter 10
    After a few years, the only animals that even remember the Rebellion are Clover, Benjamin, Moses, and some of the pigs. Muriel, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher have died. Mr. Jones has died in a home for alcoholics. Still, no animal has retired, and no pasture has been put aside for retired animals. Napoleon and Squealer have both become very fat. The farm is bigger, thanks to land purchased from Mr. Pilkington, and now features a threshing machine and hay elevator. The windmill is finished, but the animals use it to mill corn for a profit instead of to generate electricity as planned. Napoleon puts the animals to work building an additional windmill, which he promises will supply electricity. The pigs and dogs continue to do no manual labor, instead devoting themselves to organizational work that the other animals are “too ignorant to understand.” This includes writing up notes and burning them promptly after. Propaganda and pride in living on the only animal-owned farm in England continue to distract the animals from their hardships. One day, Squealer takes all the sheep out to an overgrown patch of land on the far side of the farm. Over the next week, he claims to be teaching them a song, and no one sees them. On the day the sheep return, Clover alerts the other animals to a disturbing fact: Squealer and the other pigs are walking two-footed, on their hind legs. The sheep break into a chorus of, “Four legs good, two legs better!” Benjamin accompanies Clover to the barn wall, where he deigns to read to her for the first time. In place of the Seven Commandments there is now a single maxim: “All animals are equal / But some animals are more equal than others.” One day, Napoleon invites human visitors to tour the farm. That night, the animals spy into the farmhouse and see the pigs dining with the humans. According to Mr. Pilkington’s toast, they are celebrating the end of their bad relations. Touring Animal Farm has impressed him and the other farmers to follow Animal Farm’s example and give their animals more work and less food. Napoleon says he wants to cooperate with the other farms and confirms that he and the pigs co-own the farm’s title-deeds. He states that the animals will no longer be calling each other “Comrade” or marching past Old Major’s skull (a practice he denies understanding anyway). In addition, the flag has been changed to a plain green without the symbols of the Rebellion. Even further, Animal Farm shall again be referred to as “The Manor Farm.”

  4. Chapter 3.

    After the stating of seven commandments for their Animalism because they have separated from Mr. Jones, all of them work harder together to fulfil their life. Fortunately, that the harvest becomes the biggest success than what they have hoped. Snowball has big role in leading and managing the animals, especially to use the free time to make a discussion and meeting for their problem resolutions. Moreover, to develop their qualified, he forms animal committees and reading and writing class that actually is opposed by Napoleon as he never agree with Snowball`s idea. Napoleon exactly interests to rear and bring up of nine sturdy puppies privately.

    Chapter 4.
    The story about what has happened in the Animal Farm has spread to the other farm. Moreover, Snowball and Napoleon everyday send their pigeons to other farm to share the story about Rebellion and also teach them the tune of ‘Beast of England’. This case actually makes the other owners of the farms – that join animal farm – Foxwood and Pinchfield are afraid that their animal will do like that. Mr. Jones and all his men with half a dozen others from Foxwood and Pinchfield attack animal farm to get the farm back, but it can be failed by the animals there in Snowball leading, that finally Mr. Jones and his troops that are defeated and chased away without getting the animal farm back.

    Chapter 5.

    Mollie has left the animal farm to the Willingdon. In the Animal Farm the debates and disagreements between Snowball and Napoleon becomes worsen and it makes the animals sometimes cannot realize their well-work planning. The biggest controversy is when Snowball expresses his idea to build a windmill for their farm; on the other hand, Napoleon exactly against that idea. The climax when they are discussing to vote for Snowball`s commands to a part of animals to work in the windmill or Napoleon`s command`s of all animals should work to fulfil their needs of foods, then Napoleon commands his nine enormous dogs which are reared privately to attack Snowball and chases away from Animal Farm. Napoleon then makes his own authorities, such as omitting the Sunday-morning meeting, except flag saluting and singing for Beast of England, all of decisions are decided by himself. Napoleon later through his speaker, Squealer, begins to claim that Snowball is a bad one with bad influence for other; furthermore, he explains that windmill is Napoleon`s idea that is stolen by Snowball.

    Chapter 6.

    The animals in Napoleon`s leading work hard like slaves, even on Sunday. However, they do their work happily. The harvest that time is less successful than previous year, but fortunately that harvest gathered just for them, not human. The building of windmill is continued slowly with presenting of unexpected difficulties, especially to get the materials. To solve this problem, Napoleon decides a policy that animal farm will have interaction in trading with neighbouring farms to order certain materials and for this, he choose Mr. Whymper, a solicitor living in Willingdon, to act as intermediary between Animal Farm and the outside world. Their windmill that have not finished is collapsed by the gale in the night and Napoleon accuses Snowball as the responsible one for that.

    Chapter 7

    The animals continue to build the windmill that has been destroyed. Because of the reducing of foods production, the animals resort to be the cannibalism and infanticide. Through Whymper, Napoleon spreads the news that in Animal Farm the foodstuffs are plentiful. Napoleon is being rarely appears in the public and asks Squealer to announce his orders. When it is emerge then he will appear with ceremonial manner with escorting of six dogs. He makes the contract with Whymper that every week the hens should give their eggs a week to pay for grain and meal, while Snowball`s existence is supposed that he is in neighbouring farm, either Foxwood or Pinchfield. Napoleon begins to make a relation with other farmers and he offers to sell a pile of timber in the yard. The bad condition or treatments that happen in the Animal Farm actually will be connected with the Snowball. Therefore, Napoleon decides to make full investigation to Snowball`s activities, even Squealer makes a statement that Snowball is in league with Jones from the start. There is execution for some animals that suddenly confess their mistakes that they have made a league with Snowball. The song of Beasts of England is abolished, and as the substitution, it is given a poet.

    Chapter 8

    After the sudden execution of animals, the situation becomes so stress. Some commandments have been changed. Squealer reads the news that the foodstuff has increased to two hundred, three hundred and five hundred percent. Napoleon, in the other case, stays in different apartments, separate from other animals and gets the special services in all of his daily needs. Furthermore, he is now called in formal style of “our Leader, Comrade Napoleon”. Squealer begins to promote that Napoleon is a good one that has the high caring for the animals, even animals in other farms that are unhappy. Some of animals say their proud of Napoleon and makes a poem to express their credit for Napoleon. The windmill is finished and Napoleon announces that the windmill will be called as Napoleon Mill. A pile of timber finally is sold to Frederick, but the check that is used to pay is forgeries. Frederick and his men attack the Animal Farm and destroy the windmill. There pigs begin to drink whisky in the cellars.

    Chapter 9

    There are thirty one young pigs that are born, so the need of foods increases. The young pigs then are separated from other animals and instructed by Napoleon. The rations of foods are reduced but the pigs are actually in comfortable. Animal Farm is proclaimed a Republic, so there should be an elected of President and Napoleon is only one of the candidates. Boxer that works very hard gets in sick and cannot stand strongly. Napoleon lies to the animals that he sends Boxer to the hospital in Willingdon. He actually sends him to the Horse Slaughterer. Napoleon asks Moses to come back and talk about Sugarcandy Mountain to give the spirit for the animals which work hard like labours. There is also the school for the young pigs.

    Chapter 10

    Years passed and some animals have death. However, only some animals that can still remember the situation before the Rebellion as they do not protest for the situation today under the authority of Napoleon. The Animal Farm actually is more prosperous now and better organised. The farm is richer, but not for the animals, except the pigs and the dogs. Moreover, the land has been wider as there are two fields that are bought from Mr. Pilkington. The windmill has been finished. Nevertheless, it is used to make profit, not for generating electrical power. Napoleon practices to act and do the activities like human being and walks in his two behind legs without any protest from others. Napoleon makes more interaction with human and get in drinking with them in a party in Animal Farm. Even, the commandments are abolished and changed in short: ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS.

  5. First paragraph. This chapter tell about the introduction of the character and tell about the old animal who had a dream and wanted to make it real. This chapter introduce kind of animals in the farm, but the major who be the leader only one animal, it is pig. Then in the beginning, the leader just gave the motivate and gave a song.
    Second paragraph. The old major died, but his goal has to be achieved and he given his speech to intelligent animal. There were 3 animal who is chosed to be the leader base on the skill, they are snowball, napoleon and squarler. Sniwball was a more vivacious pig, quicker in speech and more inventive , but was not considered to have the same depth of character.
    Napoleon was large, rather fierce-looking be shire boar, Not much of a talker, but with repilation for getting his eyes, mirable movements, and a shrill voice, he was a brilliant taker and when he was arguing some difficult point he had a way of skipping from side to side and and whisking his tail which was somehow very persuasive.
    Oneday they had made rebellion and it had been successfully carried. They explained that by their studied of animal to 7 commandments that would now be inscribed on the wall, they would form an unalterable law by which all the animals on Animal farm must live for ever after.
    Third paragraph. The animals were happy as they had never conceived it possible to be, all the animals were happy and to and fro all day in the sun.
    Boxer was the administration of everybody, from morning ti night hewas pushing and pilling, always at the spot where the work was hardest. Every animals worked according to his capacity this chapter tell about the duty and education of the animalas.
    Fourth paragraph. In the beginning they introduce their neighbor and its owner mipilkington; and pinckfield its owner was Mr.Fredderick. Snowball launched his first and second attack, and teach them how to defence rush oush out and he gave the signal for the charge.
    This tell about fighting, several men dropped their in the farm, but after that the animals decided unanimously to create a military decoration , ”Animal hero, first class,” which whas conferred there and then on Snowball and Boxer. There also “ Animal hero second class” then on the dead sheep, and they have battle, it was named the Battle of the Cowshed.
    Fifth paragraph. Mollie escape from her place, but , before she went, Clover had dreamt of her. Mollie wanted to be herself, because she appeared to be enjoying herself. Most of this story tell about betrayal between Snowball and Napoleon. Snowball often won over the majority by his brilliant speeches, but napoleon was better at canvassing support for himself in the times. Snowball’s plan to make the place for a windmill, which could be made to operate a dynamo and supply the farm with electrical power. Napoleon had known his planning so he also made planning too, he produced no schemes of his own, his plan of the moment was to increase food production. Napoleon persuade the animals. So, many of animals choose Napoleon.
    Sixth paragraph. All that year the animals worked like slaves,but they were happy in their work; they grudged no effort or sacrifice, well aware that everything that they did for themselves and those of their kid who would come after them, and not for a pack of idle, thieving human beings. Napoleon instruct there would be no need for any of the animals to come in contact with human beings, which would clearly be most undesirable.
    Seventh paragraph. It was a bitter winter, the stormy weather was followed by sleet and snow. The animals carried on as best they could with the outside world was watching them and that the envious human beings would rejoice and triumph if the mill were not finished on time. Out of spite, the human beings pretended not believe that it was Snowball who had destroyer the windmill: they said that it had fallen down because the walls were too thin. Some progress was made in the dry frosty weather that followed, but it was cruel work, and the animals could not feel so hopeful about it as they had felt before.
    Eighth paragraph. Remember sixth from seven Commandment “ No animal shall kill any other animal”, when the terror caused by the executions had died down, but no one care to mention it in the hearing of the pigs or the dogs, it was felt that the killings which had taken place did not square with this. Clover asked Benjamin to read her the sixth commandment, and he said that he refused to meddle in such matters, she fetched Muriel, but he ran and said that No animal shall kill any other animal without cause. Somehow or other, the last two words had slipped out of the animals’ memory. But they saw now that the Commandment had not been violated; for clearly there was good reason for killing the traitors who had leagued themselves with Snowball.
    Ninth paragraph. Boxer’s split hoof was a longtime in healing. They had started the rebuilding of the windmill the day after the victory celebrations were ended. Boxer refuses to take even a day off work, and made it a point of honor not to let it be seen that he was in pain.
    Tenth paragraph. The seasons came and went, the short animal lives fled by. A time came when there was no one who remembered the old days before the rebellion, except Clover, Benjamin, Mosses the raven, and a number of the pigs.
    Muriel was dead; Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher were dead. Jones too was dead-he had died in an inebriates’ home in an other part of the country. Snowball and Boxer was forgotten, except by the few who had known him. Clover was old stout mare now, stiff in the joints and with a tendency to rheumy eyes. She was two years past the retiring age, but in fact no animal had ever actually retired. He talk of setting aside a corner of the pasture for superannuated animals had long since been dropped. Napoleon was now mature boar of twenty-four stone. Squealer was so fat that he could with difficult see out of his eyes. Only Benjamin was much the same as ever, except for being a little greyer about the muzzle, and since Boxer’s death, more morose and taciturn than ever.

  6. Chapter 1
    When Mr. Jones, of the Manor Farm falls asleep in drunk, All of his animals are meeting in the big barn because the old Major has a strange dream on the previous night and wishes to communicate it to the other animals. Animals that come to the big barn are three dogs (Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher) and then the pigs, who settle down in the straw immediately in front of the platform, the hens, the pigeons, the sheep, the cow that lays down behind the pigs, the two cart- horses (Boxer and Clover), the white goat and Benjamin, the donkey. Old Major asks to the animals in the big barn, why you aren’t laugh, then he ask about the problem. The man is the one of this problem, man is the only creature that consumes without producing. He doesn’t give milk, he doesn’t lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough, he cannot run fast enough to catch rabbit. Then old Major gives a solution that he teaches the animals a song “Beasts of England”. All the animals sing it and the like his song although they are feeling scared and worry but when they are singing this song they feel warm and enjoy.

    Chapter 2
    In the second chapter when old Major dies peacefully in his sleep three nights later, all of the animals do the secret activity. Pigs (Napoleon and Snowball) that generally recognize as being the cleverest of the animals. Napoleon is a large, rather fierce – look- ing Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on the farm, not much of talker, but with a reputation for getting his own way. Snowball is a more vivacious pig than Napoleon, quicker in speech and more inventive, but is not considering having the same depth of character. The old Major has taught about the principles of Animalism that functions to against the men. Suddenly, when Mr. Jones with his men arrive, they start to hurt the animals on the barn but the animals have a secret tricks that to against them. Then the Snowball changes the word of “Manor Farm” becomes “Animal Farm” and these seven commandments will be inscribed on the wall; they would form unalterable law by which all the animals on Animal farm must live for ever after.

    Chapter 3
    The animals feel so hard to use the tools that had made from the human. But the pigs are so clever that they can think of a way round every difficult. The pigs don’t actually work, but direct and supervise the others. With their superior knowledge it is natural that they should assume the leadership. The half of the animals for example the birds can’t understand about the “seven commandments” but they accept his explanation so the Snowball wants to help the other animals that don’t understand about it with the reduces it becomes “Four Legs Good, Two legs Bad”, is inscribed on the end wall of the barn, above Seven Commandments and in bigger letter when they have once it by heart, the sheep develops a great liking for the maxim, and often as they lay in the field they will all the start bleating “Four legs good, two legs bad! Four legs good, two legs bad! and keep it up for hours on end, never growing tired of it.

    Chapter 4
    By the late summer the news of what had happened on animal farm had spread across half the country. Everyday Snowbell and Napoleon send out flights of pigeons whose instructions were to mingle with the animals on neighbouring farms, tell the story of the Rebellion, and teach them the tune of ‘Beasts of England’. Then the animals decide unanimously to create a military decoration, “Animal Hero, First Class,” which is conferred there on Snowball and Boxer.

    Chapter 5
    When the winter comes, Mollie becomes more and more troublesome. She is late for work every morning and excuses herself by saying that she has overslept, and she complains of mysterious pains, although her appetite is excellent. Suddenly, Clover finds Mollie that being in bribes by Mr. Pilkingto’s men is standing on the other side of the hedge and he takes her aside. He wants to try about the Mollie’s loyal, and then the three days later Mollie disappears. For some weeks is knew of her whereabouts, then the pigeons report that they have seen her on the other side of Willingdon. Napoleon and Snowbell have to manage the differences of Agriculture’s opinion. Snowball gives an opinion that we must make windmill to labor-saving but Napoleon doesn’t agree with him because it needs much time to make it. On the third Sunday after Snowball’s expulsion, the animals are somewhat surprise to hear Napoleon announce that windmill is to be building after all. He doesn’t give any reason for having change his mind, but merely warn the animals that is extra task will mean very hard work, it may even be necessary to reduce their rations.

    Chapter 6
    All that year the animals work like slaves. But they are happy in their work; they grudge no effort or sacrifice, well aware that everything that they do is for the benefit of themselves and those of their kind who will come after them, and not for a pack of idle, thieving human beings. The windmill presented unexpected difficulties. There is a good quarry of limestone on the farm, and plenty of sand and cement has been found in one of the outhouses, so that all the materials for building are at hand. But the problem the animals cannot at first solve is how to break up the stone into pieces of suitable size. The animals are shock beyond measure to learn that even snowball can be guilty of such an action. There is a cry of indignation, and everyone began thinking out ways of catching Snowball if he should ever come back.

    Chapter 7
    The all of the animals do the best that can do that for build again the windmill, well knowing that the outside world as watching them and that the envious human beings will rejoice and triumph if the mill are not finish on time. Out of spite the human beings pretended not believe that it was Snowball who had destroyer the windmill: they said that it had fallen down because the walls were too thin. Not only that in this chapter the animals must believe that Snowball has visited the barn and the all of the animals are thinking that Snowball is very dangerous and he becomes a threat because in the beginning Snowball has joined with Jones. One day in the spring, Napoleon asks to the all of the animals about this problem and the animals also confess to crimes that they claim was prompted by Snowball. At last, feeling this to be in some way a substitute for words she is unable to find, she began to sing “Beasts of England”. The other animals sitting round her take it up, and they sing it three times over-very tunefully, but slowly and mournfully, in a way they have never sung it before.

    Chapter 8
    When the terror caused by the executions had died down, some of the animals remembered that the sixth Commandment decreed “No animal shall kill any other animal.” In this chapter tells that Mr. Frederick and his men fired to the farm and half of the animals are injured. Not only that Mr. Frederick has broken the windmill. And then they make a strategy to against Mr. Frederick, so Napoleon call the animals for thinking it and they can find the trap to against Mr. Frederick and his men. From the war, the animals have successed to catch Mr. Frederick and his men in their trap but half of the animals have injured.

    Chapter 9
    They have started the rebuilding of the windmill the day after the victory celebrations were ended. Boxer refuses to take even a day off work, and made it a point of honor not to let it be seen that he was in pain. In April, Animal Farm is proclaimed a Republic, and it becomes to elect a president. There is only one candidate, Napoleon, who is elected unanimously. On the same day it was given out the fresh documents have been discovering with reveal further details about Snowball’s complicity with Jones.

    Chapter 10
    In this chapter tells that the farm is more prosperous now and better organized than the last. Not only that the windmill has been successfully completed at last, the farm processes a threshing machine and a hay elevator of its own, and various new buildings has been add to it. And then Napoleon removes the words of “Animal Farm” becomes “the Manor Farm” which he believes, is its correct and original name. then the applause having come to an end, the company take up their cards and continue the game that has been interrupt, and the animals crept silently away.

  7. I’m sorry sir! Because CCU task I sent to the blog literature.

    1. Yes, I agree. Because life is to be made with mutual love (peace) and take care of each other. Moreover, he should be able to control his emotions so easily upset and do not fight with others. Because he is an example for everyone, be it for his wife and to his son. Instead he should think about how to organize them in order to be successful and progressed. But they also need a wise and frugal government to protect their lives, so they can do things the best and useful for many people and it is done without any coercion from others or from the government itself.

    2. Congress. Because the decision of the congress, the presidency can be replaced even if the term of office had not been exhausted or finished.

    3. Republican Parties and Democrat Parties.
    Republican Parties:
    Considered to be more conservative; pro-business (wants government to let private enterprise regulates itself); make citizens less dependent on government; supports military spending.

    Democrat Parties:
    Tends to be more liberal; wants government to regulate business, to do more for all classes and kinds of American, like providing social program for the poor, unemployed &elderly; opposes nuclear weapons & too much military spending.

  8. Chapter 1
    After Mr. Jones the farmer has gone to bed (drunk as usual), the animals all sneak into the barn to hear a speech by Old Major. First the dogs arrive, then the pigs, followed by the hens, sheep, cows, pigeons, and ducks and so on. Among the animals are Boxer and Clover the cart-horses, Muriel the goat, Benjamin the donkey, Mollie the white mare and the cat.

    Old Major tells them he has done a lot of thinking in his long life, particularly about the hardships the animals face (hard work, little food and eventually being slaughtered). He believes these hardships are all due to the greedy humans:
    “Man is the only creature that consumes without producing. He does not give milk, he does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough, he cannot run fast enough to catch rabbits. Yet he is lord of all the animals. He sets them to work, he gives back to them the bare minimum that will prevent them from starving, and the rest he keeps for himself.”

    He tells them to work for the eventual overthrow of the human race. “All men are enemies. All animals are comrades.”

    He reminds the animals to stick together and protect each other, even the wild animals, and to remember that they are all equal. He also warns them never to adopt any human habits. He teaches them a song which came to him in his dream, an old song that he remembers his mother and the other sows singing parts of when he was young. The song is about liberation and is called “Beasts of England”.

    They quickly learn the song and start singing it, but this wakes Mr. Jones who lets off a charge from his gun in case there is a fox in the yard. The animals all hurry off to bed.

    Chapter 2
    Old Major dies peacefully in his sleep three nights later and the pigs begin teaching and organizing the others to prepare for the Rebellion he predicted. Chief among them are Snowball, Napoleon and Squealer, who elaborate Old Major’s ideas into a system of thought called Animalism. They teach this to the other animals at secret meetings late at night in the barn, but the animals make many silly points like “Mr. Jones feeds us. If he were gone, we should starve to death,” and it is slow work. Boxer and Clover are their two most devoted disciples.

    Moses the pet raven keeps telling the animals lies about a magic place called Sugar candy Mountain and the pigs have to work hard to persuade them that it doesn’t exist.

    On Midsummer’s Eve, Mr. Jones goes to the pub and gets drunk, then doesn’t come back until noon the next day and goes to sleep with the newspaper over his face. The farmhands go out catching rabbits and no one feeds the animals, which become so hungry that by evening they break in the door of the store-shed and help themselves. Mr. Jones then wakes up and he and his men start lashing at the animals with whips. The animals spontaneously attack the humans and drive them off the farm – Mrs. Jones and Moses sneak away when they see what is happening.

    The animals are thrilled and amazed to be free; they destroy all the reminders of Jones – the whips, knives, chains etc. are thrown down the well and the reins, nosebags and ribbons are burnt.

    The next morning they wake up and go around the whole farm snuffling at the earth, rolling in the dew, eating the grass and so on, overwhelmed with excitement that it is all theirs. They creep into the farmhouse, inspect it and remove some hams for the kitchen for burial as well as shattering the beer barrel in the scullery. They agree to preserve the farmhouse as a museum, and that no animal must ever live there.

    The pigs then reveal that they have taught themselves to read and write, and Snowball paints out the ‘Manor Farm’ sign on the gate and replaces it with ‘Animal Farm’. He and Squealer paint the Seven Commandments of Animalism, the new laws of the farm, on the wall of the barn.

    The seven commandments:
    1. whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.”

    The cows have not been milked and their udders are almost bursting. The pigs manage to milk them, and the animals go off to the hayfield to begin the harvest – when they return that evening they notice that the milk has disappeared.

    Chapter 3
    The animals harvest the hay, with everyone helping – the pigs supervise the others as they work, and even the ducks and hens go back and forth in the sun all day carrying tiny wisps of hay in their beaks.

    Through the summer and the later corn harvest, everything continues to go well.
    “The animals were happy as they had never conceived it possible to be. Every mouthful of food was an acute positive pleasure, now that it was truly their own food, produced by themselves and for themselves, not doled out to them by a grudging master.”

    Boxer pulls everyone through again and again, doing the work of three horses rolled into one. He gets up half an hour early to do extra volunteer work and his personal slogan and answer to every problem is “I will work harder!” The animals work hard, although some, like Mollie and the cat, seem to avoid work.

    On Sundays there is no work and after breakfast the animals hoist their flag. Then they have a Meeting to discuss work and proposed resolutions, and Snowball and Napoleon are always the most active in debating resolutions, although they never agree with each other.

    The pigs use the harness-room as a headquarters where they study blacksmithing, carpentering and so on from books they find in the farmhouse. Snowball organizes the animals into committees (such as the Wild Comrades’ Re-education Committee), which are not very successful, but also organizes reading and writing lessons, which are very successful, particularly with the pigs, dogs, Muriel and Benjamin who all learn to read well.

    They find that the stupider animals – like hens, sheep and ducks – cannot learn the Seven Commandments by heart, and so after thinking about it Snowball decides that the Seven Commandments can effectively be reduced to the slogan: “FOUR LEGS GOOD, TWO LEGS BAD”, and this is written up above the Seven Commandments on the wall of the barn, in bigger letters. The birds object that they have two legs, but Snowball tells them a wing is more like a leg than a hand, because the wing is used for movement and not to manipulate objects. The sheep, hens and ducks then learn this slogan by heart.

    Napoleon says it is more important to educate the young than those who are already grown up, and he takes the nine puppies that are born right after the harvest away from their mothers for education, secluding them in a loft until the rest of the farm has pretty much forgotten that they exist.

    The animals discover what has been happening to the milk – it all gets mixed into the pigs’ mash. As the apples begin to ripen, orders go out that all the windfall apples and the main crop later on are to be reserved for the sole use of the pigs. Even Snowball and Napoleon agree on this – Squealer explains to the other animals that it is necessary for the pigs to eat milk and apples for their health, because they have to do all the brain work and if they fail in their duties Jones will come back.

    Chapter 4
    News about the takeover on Animal Farm spreads through the county, and Snowball and Napoleon send out special flights of pigeons instructed to go to other farms and tell the animals the story of the Rebellion and teach them “Beasts of England”.

    Mr. Jones spends most of his time sitting in the Red Lion Pub complaining about his woes, and the other farmers wonder if there is a way they can gain by his loss. Luckily the two farmers neighboring Animal Farm, Mr. Pilkington of Fox-woods and Mr. Frederick of Pinch field, hate each other and would never cooperate against the animals. They are both worried by the rebellion, though, and say that it will never last and that the animals are fighting among themselves and starving to death. Then when it is clear that the animals are not starving to death, they change their tune:
    “It was given out that the animals there practiced cannibalism, tortured one another with red-hot horseshoes, and had their females in common. This was what came of rebelling against the laws of Nature, Frederick and Pilkington said.”
    Still, rumors of a wonderful farm spread among animals, and ‘Beasts of England’ can be heard everywhere, much to the anger of the human beings.

    In early October, Jones and all his men with some others from nearby farms, come back to try and retake the farm – Jones carrying a gun and the others are carrying sticks. Snowball assumes leadership (he has studied an old book of Julius Caesar’s campaigns from the farmhouse) and together the animals manage to defeat the humans and drive them off the farm – although a shot from Jones kills a sheep and wounds Snowball along the back. One stable-boy is hit on the skull by one of Boxer’s hooves, and then lies motionless face-downward in the mud. Boxer is upset because he believes he has killed the boy, and when Snowball tells him that the only good human being is a dead one:
    “‘I have no wish to take life, not even human life,’ repeated Boxer, and his eyes were full of tears.”

    The animals discover Mollie is missing, go to look for her and find her hiding in her stall with her head buried in the hay – when they return they find that the stable-lad, who was only stunned, has recovered and run away.

    The battle is named the Battle of the Cowshed and the animals decide to make two military decorations – “Animal Hero, First Class”, which they give to Snowball and Boxer, and “Animal Hero, Second Class”, which they give to the dead sheep. The gun Mr. Jones left behind is set up at the foot of the flagstaff, to be fired twice a year – once on the anniversary of the battle, and once on the anniversary of the Rebellion.

    Chapter 5
    As winter approaches, Mollie’s behavior becomes increasingly perturbed. She is late for work and feigns injury in order to shirk her duties. More seriously, Clover has spotted Mollie at the border of Foxwoods, allowing Mr. Pilkington to stroke her nose and talk to her. Mollie denies the accusation, but her embarrassment confirms that she is lying. On a hunch, Clover goes to Mollie’s stall and finds a hidden stash of sugar and ribbons. Mollie disappears soon after. She is seen in a painted cart, gussied up and taking sugar from a man who appears to be some kind of manager. The other animals never mention her again.

    January brings bitterly cold weather. Since conditions are too harsh for farming, the animals hold many meetings. They have agreed that the pigs should make all policy decisions, which the other animals are to ratify. Snowball and Napoleon are in constant disagreement, and the other animals begin to take sides. The sheep support Napoleon and interrupt Snowball’s speeches by bleating, “Four legs good, and two legs bad.” Snowball is the more progressive politician, promoting innovations to make the farm run more efficiently. Napoleon makes sure to oppose all of Snowball’s ideas.

    After some time, Snowball and Napoleon come into bitter conflict over a windmill. Snowball designates a piece of land for a windmill, which will provide electricity for the heretofore-primitive farm. He uses Mr. Jones’s books to draft a detailed chalk blueprint, which fascinates the other animals. One day, Napoleon urinates on the blueprint to show his disdain.

    Snowball estimates that the animals can complete the windmill with a year of hard labor, after which the time saving machine will shorten their workweek to three days. Napoleon counters with the idea that they will all starve to death in that time, and that the farm’s primary concern should be increasing food production.

    The animals split into two groups, one called “Vote for Snowball and the three-day week,” the other called “Vote for Napoleon and the full manger”. The only animal not to take a side is Benjamin, who is pessimistic about both plans.
    Snowball and Napoleon engage in another major debate about how best to prepare for another human attack. Napoleon advocates the procurement of firearms as well as firearms training. Snowball advocates sending pigeons to rally the other animals; if rebellions occur everywhere, then the humans will stay at bay. The other animals do not divide over this issue because they cannot decide who is right.

    Finally, Snowball completes his blueprint for the windmill. The animals hold a meeting at which Snowball wins over the majority with his descriptions of the leisurely life that the windmill will allow. Suddenly, Napoleon signals “nine enormous dogs wearing brass-studded collars,” which barge into the barn and chase Snowball out. Snowball manages to escape through a hedge. The frightened animals gather once more in the barn. As it turns out, the nine dogs are Jessie’s and Bluebell’s puppies. They seem to consider Napoleon their master. Napoleon takes the stage and announces that Sunday meetings with all their accompanying debates will cease, and he will lead a small committee of pigs in making decisions. This mandate disturbs the other animals, but most of them are too dull to argue and too afraid of the dogs to show their disapproval. Four pigs protest briefly.

    After the meeting, Squealer explains the new arrangement to the other animals. Just as in the case of the milk and apples, Squealer claims that taking on leadership responsibilities is a burden for Napoleon and his committee; they do it only for the general welfare. If left to make their own decisions, he explains, the animals might make a wrong decision. He also calls Snowball a criminal; even if he was brave in the Battle of the Cowshed (an idea that Squealer also questions), “loyalty and obedience are more important.” Squealer tells the animals, “Discipline, comrades, iron discipline! That is the watchword for today.” Again as in the case of the milk and apples, Squealer ensures the animals’ compliance by threatening Mr. Jones’s return. Of all the animals, Boxer takes obedience to the pigs to heart most. He now has two personal maxims: “Napoleon is always right” and “I will work harder”.

    Winter turns into spring. The pigs disinter Old Major’s skull and place it at the base of the flagpole beside the gun. When they meet to receive their orders for the week, the animals no longer sit all together. Rather, the dogs and other pigs gather around Napoleon, Squealer, and another pig named Minimus. Only three days after Snowball’s removal, Napoleon announces plans to build the windmill and make similar improvements to the farm. Squealer explains to the animals that Napoleon had never really opposed the windmill—in fact; it was “his own creation,” which Snowball had copied. With evident pride, Squealer explains that Napoleon’s feigned opposition to the windmill was simply a “maneuver” in his plan to expel Snowball for disobedience; it was a brilliant example of “tactics”.

    Chapter 6
    The animals work sixty-hour weeks all spring and summer in order to build the windmill, but none begrudges the extra labor. In August, Napoleon instates “strictly voluntary” labor on Sundays: animals may choose not to come, but they will have their rations reduced by half. There are plenty of building materials on the premises, and the animals discover that they can break limestone into pieces by using the force of gravity. However, the process of dragging boulders to the top of the quarry and throwing them down is very taxing. Boxer compensates by picking up the other animals’ slack, for which they admire him.

    Shortages begin to occur. The animals require things, such as iron for horseshoes and machinery for the windmill that they cannot produce on the farm. To provide a solution, Napoleon opens trade with the neighboring farms and says that the animals may need to sell some of the hens’ eggs in the nearby town of willing don. He makes sure to stress the fact that the windmill should be the animals’ first priority. The other animals are “conscious of a vague uneasiness” because the Seven Commandments forbid trade with humans and the use of money. Napoleon assures the animals that they, at least, will not have to make contact with human beings. He has already set up an agreement with a solicitor in town named Mr. Whymper, who will act as their intermediary to the human world.
    After the meeting, Squealer assures the animals that trade and the uses of money are allowed after all that no resolution against those activities has ever been passed. He convinces them that their memory of such a resolution is mistaken. Mr. Whymper visits the farm every Monday to get his orders.
    Meanwhile, in the human world, humans are more opposed than ever to Animal Farm’s existence. They hope that the windmill will fail and the farm will go bankrupt. Still, they secretly admire Animal Farm’s efficiency, which they have begun to call by its new name. They even stop valorizing Mr. Jones, who has moved away.

    One day, the pigs move into the farmhouse. The other animals again feel uneasy, remembering faintly a resolution that forbade such an action. Again, Squealer convinces them that they are mistaken. Napoleon, whom Squealer now calls “The Leader,” should be granted the honor of living in a house. Furthermore, the pigs need a quiet workplace. Squealer’s lies satisfy some of the animals. But Clover decides to investigate when she learns that the pigs have taken to sleeping in beds. She tries to read the Seven Commandments on the barn wall, but she cannot. Muriel is able to read it for her. One resolution has been changed to: “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets”. At this point, Squealer approaches and denies that there was ever a rule against beds—only sheets. As usual, he justifies the pigs’ actions by threatening Mr. Jones’s return. Soon after, the pigs award themselves the additional privilege of waking up an hour late.

    By autumn, the windmill is half finished. One night in November, violent winds ravage the farm and destroy the windmill. Napoleon quickly blames the destruction on Snowball. He sentences Snowball to death and offers half a bushel of apples and the title of “Animal Hero, Second Class” to any animal that detains him. There is a track of pig footprints leading to the hedge, which Napoleon attributes to Snowball. Then Napoleon rouses the animals to action, saying, “Forward, comrades! Long live the windmill! Long live Animal Farm!”

    Chapter 7
    * “Ah, that is different!” said Boxer. “If Comrade Napoleon says it, it must be right.”
    * Animal Farm, Animal Farm,
    Never through me salt have thou come to harm!

    Chapter 8
    Somehow it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the animals themselves any richer — except, of course, for the pigs and the dogs.
    * But when Muriel reads the writing on the barn wall to Clover, interestingly, the words are, “No animal shall kill any other animal without cause.”
    * At the foot of the end wall of the big barn, where the Seven Commandments were written, there lay a ladder broken in two pieces. Squealer, temporarily stunned, was sprawling beside it, and near at hand there lay a lantern, a paint-brush, and an overturned pot of white paint.
    * None of the animals could form any idea as to what this meant, except old Benjamin, who nodded his muzzle with a knowing air, and seemed to understand, but would say nothing.
    * Somehow or other, the last two words had slipped out of the animals’ memory. But they saw now that the Commandment had not been violated; for clearly there was good reason for killing the traitors who had leagued themselves with Snowball.

    Chapter 10
    * Somehow it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the animals themselves any richer — except, of course, for the pigs and the dogs.
    * Four legs good, two legs better!
    * All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.

  9. Paragraph 1
    when a drunken farmer Jones has gone to bed, all the animals from farms gathered for a meeting. The meeting has been called by Old Major, a boar of the oldest and wisest in agriculture. Pigs, cows, horses, ducks, chickens and dogs all gathered in a large warehouse, thinking that they will be told about a dream that Old Major the night before.

    He told them that all animals are comrades, they are brothers, and that their real enemy is only human. Humans are the root cause of all the difficulties that occur to them, he tells them. He urged the animal to fight against people at every opportunity, and told them that the rebellion is the only possible solution for their situation. In the middle of a speech, a wild rat enter multiple warehouses, and the dogs chase them. Old Major calls a vote on whether or not the mice should be considered friends. Most agree that rats are comrades, the only animal to give voice to the dogs and cats, which, we are told, Old Major then concludes his speech by advising them “is after found to have a voice on both sides.” about how they should conduct themselves. They must realize that no matter what happens on four legs or wings are friends. They should be on the account never came like a human being, and never have to stay home. He said they finally “All animals are equal.”

    The old Mayor finally gets around to telling them about his dream, but the first thing he tells them is that it can not describe that dream, except to say that it reminded him of a song he learned in his youth called “Animal England . ” He sang the song, which tells about the day when Man finally overthrown, when there is no more slavery or cruelty, and when the animal finally free. The animals in the barn respond rapturously, and sang together through five times in succession, until they were interrupted by a blast from the shotgun farmers. Agriculture quickly return to normality.

    Paragraph 2
    Suddenly, Old Major dies three days later. The animals set out to prepare the insurrection. Pigs, being the most intelligent animals on the farm, to lead this pembeontakan. Old Major tasks to work the idea into a more formal system fall into three pigs, Napoleon, Snowball and squealer. Third arrange regular meetings with other animals at night to explain the principles of their system, called Animalism. They face many obstacles from between simple animals, who feared what might happen if Jones is not around to feed them. Also, Moses the Raven always tell about animal heaven animals called Sugarcandy Mount, where the animals go when they die. Many animals in the Mountain Sugarcandy believe, and pigs should continue to persuade them that there is no such place exists.

    Without any planning, the rebellion took place on Midsummer day, just before harvest. Farmer Jones will be desperate drunk the night before, and disregard for cow’s milk or animal feed throughout the day. One of the cows broke the door to the warehouse stores, and some animals began to help themselves out of the trash. Jones is now waking up and seeing this, he and four farm hands began whipping the animals out of the warehouse store. The animals attack humans spontaneously and angry. They react with almost surprised he immediately ran down the laneway and escaped livestock. Agriculture now belongs to the animal.

    Snowball and Napoleon now call animal together, and surprised them by announcing that they have spent the last few months learning to write. Next they went to the farm’s main gate and paint over the “Manor Farm”, replacing it with “Animal Farm”. Back to the farm buildings, they paint the seven commandments of Animalism to the gable of the warehouse;

    1. Whatever happens on two legs is an enemy.

    2. Whatever happened to the wings of the four legs, or has, is a friend.

    3. No animal will be wearing clothes.

    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.

    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.

    6. No animal shall kill another animal.
    7. All animals are equal.

    With this done, the animals are set to begin harvesting. But as they do, the cows remind them that they have not been milked for twenty-four hours. The pigs get some buckets and do the milking itself, producing five buckets that looked delicious milk. Some animals ask what to do with milk, but Napoleon tells them to not worry about it, and that they should instead concentrate on the harvest. When they returned at night, the milk had disappeared.

    Paragraph 3
    Harvest was a great success. It is finished two days earlier than Jones and his men used to manage. The animals are so enthusiastic and excited about the fact that this food is really their own, that no food was stolen during the harvest. Almost all animals have been working as hard as they possibly can, but there are some exceptions. Mollie, a horse in vain, often leaving the field early to complain about a stone in the nail, and the cat seems to come just to eat. Benjamin the donkey is one of the few animals that really changed by the revolution, remaining as aloof and cynical as ever before.
    Sunday is a day of rest, when the animals congregate in large meetings. This is the place to work for the coming week is to be planned, and discussed the various movements. All the resolutions proposed by the pigs. Other animals are aware of this, but because they can not think of any resolutions themselves, they let the pig to lead. As the weeks passed, it became clear that Napoleon and Snowball rarely agree on anything. Snowball put all energy into forming various committees, each of which is responsible for improving some or other aspect of life on the farm. Napoleon saw no value in this, and prefer to concentrate on the education of youth. For example, when two of the dogs have a liter, Napoleon took the puppies away from their mothers and secludes them in an inaccessible part of the farm, so he can educate them well in the principles of Animalism.
    Not all committee Snowball that works very well, but reading and writing is a very successful class. Pigs can read and write perfectly. The dogs learn to read, but will not read anything but the seven commandments. Boxer great carthorse trying very hard to learn the alphabet, but can not get a D. Many other animals of the past can be understood only one letter. Because so many animals thus can not read the seven commandments, Snowball reduces the seven commandments to a single maxim “Four legs good, two legs bad!” All they can remember more easily.
    It is soon learned that the pigs took the milk that disappeared on the first day, and is now blending into their porridge. Pigs are now issued a decree stating that all the apples fortune must be collected and administered over to exclusive use of pigs. Some animals confused by this, and wondered why apples are not to be distributed evenly. Stirring went before them to explain. He told them that the pigs, as leaders, must keep their brain power, and that science has proven that milk and apples are very important for this. Stirring continued by reminding them that the alternative to the pig farmer is to have Jones back. This settles the animals, who agreed that, whatever happens, they never want to live under Jones again.

    Paragraph 4
    News of the rebellion had spread to the surrounding area. The farmers at first pretended not troubled about the rebellion, believing that the animals might not make a success of farming. But with the passage of time the farmers are becoming more and more problematic, and the animals they become more and more daring. Song of the animals from the UK is now known by almost every animal in this area. The farmers try to spread lies about torture and slavery in Animal Farm, but the animals from the county did not believe them. They whistle songs and singing the words of British animals, although they risk a bad beating by doing so. Hear more stories about the individual animal abuse and in some cases attacking their human masters.
    One day in October, Jones, all of his men, and half a dozen others from neighboring farms, attack Animal Farm. They walked through the main gate laneway. They were all armed with sticks except for Jones, who carried a gun. The animals, however, are well prepared. After the initial battle in which the pigeons and geese attack the humans, Snowball attacks them, supported by Benjamin, Muriel and all the sheep. The men repulse this attack with their sticks, and Snowball sounds the retreat. They fell back to the ranch, chased by people, who thought they had won. However, they had entered the trap.
    Once the men were on the ranch, a number of larger animals emerge from the warehouse behind them, and cut off their retreat. Snowball groups now attack again. Snowball cost at Jones. Jones fires shot at Snowball and wounds him, but this is not enough to prevent Snowball from crashing into him and sending him falling to the ground, the gun flew out of his hand in the process, Now Boxer joins strikes, maintenance on the hind legs and front legs with hoofed cruel striking her. Boxer strikes one person in the skull, apparently killing him. Seeing this, other people running for their lives, back to the laneway and out the gate. Invasion ends.
    In the excitement of post-battle, Boxer is very sorry to kill the man, while the animals suddenly realized that Mollie is lost. They are looking for farms, and found hiding in a corner. He fled the fighting as soon as the gun went. They returned to the ranch to find that people are just stunned, and has since recovered and fled.
    The animals celebrate their victory. The flag is raised, the animals of Britain sung. A medal for “Class Animal Hero, First” is created and given to Snowball. A medal for “Animal Hero, Second Class” made, and will be given to a sheep that died when Jones fired his gun. They decided to keep the gun and placing it at the bottom of the flagpole, will be fired every year on the anniversary of the rebellion, and fighting.

    Paragraph 5
    Winter is approaching. Mollie, who has been avoiding work yanglebih, was found to have received a gift ribbons and sugar from one of the men in the neighboring farm. Shortly after that he disappeared, and said to pull the wagon in the city. No one on the farm never seen again, and he never mentioned again.
    With the land that is now frozen, it is impossible to farm anything. Much time was spent at a meeting of all the animals in a large warehouse, where the future of agricultural policy to be discussed and chosen. The split between Snowball and Napoleon became more apparent, and it seems that they are now conflicting on every proposal. Snowball eloquence enables him to control the meeting, however, Napoleon worked quietly behind the scenes to support the development, and succeeded in getting all the sheep to the side.
    Snowball forever proposing new plans and schemes for the improvement of agriculture, all of which were opposed by Napoleon. Snowball’s most ambitious plan is for the construction of windmills, which he said could provide heat and electricity for agriculture. He accepted that it would be a huge undertaking, and a vague about some details. Napoleon really oppose the idea, and made its opposition clear. The snowball continues to work on his plan, and spend hours every day in a warehouse that works on them, they draw on the wood floor. All animals in the barn regularly visits Snowball plan to watch grow into something that looks very complex and impressive. Napoleon just holding back, and when he does come to examine the plan, he urinated on them.
    The day will come when all the animals gathered in a large warehouse to choose whether or not the windmill will be built. Agriculture is divided into two factions at this stage, “Vote for Snowball and the three days a week” faction, and “Vote for Napoleon and the full manger” faction. Snowball has convinced a windmill faction that will lead to increased leisure time for all people, while Napoleon had assured the factions that disruption of the windmills would cause the animal to lose time at harvest and famine.
    The meeting begins. The seductive sheep Snowball when he explained his plans for windmills, and why it would be good for farming. Napoleon then rose and gave the address very short and curt, advise each person to vote against windmills. Snowball then spoke again. He spoke passionately and eloquently, and create a vision of agriculture mechanical with heat and light, with power threshers and plows, and employees, where the animals do little or no job, and all labor performed by electricity generated by windmills. It is clear that Snowball will win the vote.
    Only later, Napoleon stood up and pulled out a strange sound, a kind of whining. At this signal, nine large dogs, the dogs that Napoleon took as a puppy months before, rush into the warehouse and cargo at the Snowball. They chased him from the warehouse and from agriculture. He was never seen again.
    Other animals, which has left the barn to watch the chase, now back to the barn, where Napoleon addresses them. He told them that the next meeting Sunday was abolished, and that all future decisions will be taken only by the pigs. Any dissent was silenced by the growl of a dog, and the meeting is completed for chorus fifteen minutes “Four legs good, two legs bad” from the sheep. Following agitation in consequence, to explain to shocked animals from farms that Napoleon had taken on leadership with great reluctance and with great sacrifice to himself. The animals will soon be won over when they are reminded of what life was like under Jones.
    Three weeks after this fateful meeting, Napoleon announced that Windmill now be built. The animals are warned that this would mean a lot of extra hard work, and reduction of their rations. Stirring explain the apparent change of heart by convincing the animals that Napoleon had been supportive during this windmill, but it should be coming out against it in order to get rid of Snowball. The animals are easily persuaded.

    Paragraph 6
    A year passed. The animals work themselves under the supervision of a pig to the bone on the harvest and the windmill. The animals are required to work on Sunday afternoon as well, on a voluntary basis, although every animal that does not work on Sundays to their rations have been halved. In the autumn, it is clear that the harvest is one poorer than the previous year. This will make the coming winter all the more difficult.
    Progress on the windmill is difficult and slow. Will be built of stone with which had to be dragged up and thrown mine from there to the bottom, so the stone can be broken into appropriate size. It takes until late summer to gather stones together enough to begin to build a windmill, a job that depends almost entirely on the tremendous efforts of Boxer, who worked himself harder than ever.
    As work on the harvest and yield windmills, animals find themselves running out of supplies. Items such as paraffin, seeds, fertilizers and machinery can not be produced on the farm. This problem is resolved when Napoleon announced one day that Animal Farm will then enter into trade arrangements with several surrounding farms. Hay and grain from the farm will be sold, and the chicken was told that they would have to give up some of their eggs, a sacrifice that they should be proud to make. Some animals who doubts this step, it seems to remember the covenant in the early days after the rebellion was never anything to do with humans. Once again, stirring doubts put to rest on the following days, telling them that such a resolution was never written.
    Since then, Napoleon was engaged local lawyers to act as intermediary between Animal Farm and the outside world. Lawyers come every Monday, and its presence makes other animals very nervous, but their doubts subsided by their pride in seeing Napoleon gave the order to man.
    Shortly after, pigs move into the farmhouse. They eat in the kitchen, relax in the living room, and even sleeping in bed. Some animals are very doubtful about this. Clover consulted seven commandments on the gable wall, and asks Muriel to read the fourth commandment, which states, “No animal will sleep in a bed with sheets.” Muriel does not remember previously mentioned sheet. However, aided by smooth stirring words, he assumes that he must be mistaken, he and other animals accept the argument that the pig, as a leader, should have as much comfort as possible to facilitate the work of their brains.
    Work on the windmill continues. The animals are all very proud of their progress so far, except Benjamin, who expressed no opinion for or against the windmills. In November, the windmill is half finished. However, when a devastating hurricane that night. The animals all gather around the wreckage. Napoleon was silent for a long time, before making the announcement of the sudden and dramatic that the windmill was destroyed by Snowball. A few footprints away from the pig farms are found, and Napoleon insisted they were to belong to Snowball. Other animals are surprised that the former leader they could do something like that. Napoleon announced that work on rebuilding the windmill will commence immediately.

    Paragraph 7
    The animals are now facing a brutal winter. Scarce maize, potato and stock farms have been destroyed by frost. In January, they were threatened with starvation. The pigs hide this fact from the outside world with a fill-junk shop full of sand, beyond the provision of waste with whatever they have left, and lets them walk through the middleman of human trash is full. However, they have to get food from the outside world somehow.
    At the meeting on Sunday, stirring announced that the chicken must surrender their eggs, so they can be traded with the outside world for grain and meal. Chicken stunned into rebellion. They took to spawn them from the rafters of a barn, which allows them to smash into the ground. The pigs responded by stopping their rations completely, and threaten death to any other animals that share their food with them. Finally the chicken in, and they were forced to surrender their eggs immediately after they are placed.
    Meanwhile, the pigs spreading bad rumors about Snowball. Snowball said to be hiding in one of the neighboring farms. He is said to sneak into the farm animals at night and do incalculable damage. Every accident and misfortune in agriculture is now associated with Snowball. Napoleon made a big show toured the farm, accompanied by dogs, to investigate the activities of Snowball. This went on for several weeks, when a dramatic announcement made that Snowball was in league with Jones from the beginning. Stirring tells the terrible beast invention has been made of the newly discovered documents pigs. The animals are shocked and confused by this. Boxer, in particular, are reluctant to accept this. He’s stirring question, she reminded him how bravely Snowball fought when the farmers tried to attack Animal Farm. Stirring trying to convince him, but be persistent Boxer in the belief that Snowball never be in league with Jones. Stirring finally convince Boxer by telling him that Napoleon had declared unequivocally that Snowball was Jones’s agent. Boxer finally relented, with the assumption that Napoleon should be correct. Perseverance stirring Boxer questioned, however, has been recorded.
    An assembly of all the animals in the yard which is now called. Napoleon, who now rarely left the home farm, and never without the escort of a dog, standing in front of them. At the signal, the charge dogs into the crowd and pull four of the pigs are more problematic before Napoleon. At the same time, three of the dogs Boxer attach. Boxer easily fends them. Pigs pathetic forced to confess to conspiring with Snowball, and killed on the spot by a dog. Other animals come forward to acknowledge their crimes against agriculture, and each in turn slaughtered.
    This is the first murder of other animals since the rebellion. The animals creep away from the meeting. Boxer, in trying to understand why this is the case, decided that the only possible solution is to work harder. Clover, not as strong but more intelligent, have deep doubts about what he has seen, but he could not put them into words. He remained faithful to Napoleon, but deep down he knows that things are not what they fought for the rebellion. The animals try to entertain them by singing the Animals of Britain. However, they were disturbed by the agitation, which tells them that the song was later abolished. It has to be replaced a song called Animal Farm, prepared by one of the pigs. The animals take the faithful to a new song, but realized that it does not compare with the Animals of Britain.

    Paragraph 8
    Upon execution, Clover again anxiety that one has broken the seventh commandment. He asks Muriel to read it again the sixth commandment of the gable wall. Command that reads, “No animal shall kill another animal without cause.” Clover does not seem to remember reading the last two words before, but he thought nothing more of it.
    The animals spend the next year working harder than ever. Stirring urging them to greater efforts, telling them that productivity in agriculture has increased enormously since the rebellion, although many animals secretly feel hungry. Napoleon, now known as “Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,” and several other flattering title, rarely seen in public, and now employs a rooster as a preacher, and accompanied all the time with his dogs.
    The relationship between the neighboring farms, of Frederick and Pilkington of Foxwood Pinchfield, remains complex. Napoleon, through intermediaries, has been trying to sell a pile of wood to one of the other neighbors. At this time, rumors abound that Frederick is about to attack livestock. A plot to murder Napoleon revealed. Three chicken Snowball admitted it, is said to live in Pinchfield, put them to it. Chicken run. Napoleon announced shortly afterwards that the wood is sold to Pilkington of Foxwood. When, at the end of the year, the wheat crop was found full of weeds, Snowball, and by implication Frederick, who blamed. The entire farm seethes with anger and hatred against Frederick, who are now bitter enemies of agricultural animals.
    The windmill is equipped with autumn. The animals temporarily forget their worries to celebrate outstanding achievements. The animals were all congratulated by Napoleon. Two days later, he called them to the meeting and announced that the timber will be sold to Frederick. The animals are shocked, but stirring easily explain this away as part of Napoleon’s strategy, to appear friendly with a neighbor while secretly courting the other. The sale goes forward, and the attorney arranging the transport of wood from the farm, and sending bills to Napoleon.
    Three days later, found to be counterfeit notes. Napoleon assembles an animal again and say the death penalty in Frederick. At the same time, he reminded them that Frederick and his men would probably attack the farm.
    The attack came the next day. Fifteen people, six with guns, approach to agriculture, and the battle joined. Emissaries were sent to Foxwood request assistance, but Pilkington sends back a short resistance. The animals were driven back to the farm buildings. While they are stuck in there, dynamite male plants around the windmill. In the subsequent explosion, windmills are gone. The animals reacted to this by forgetting all about guns and charging headlong at the people, who after a brief struggle, to run their lives.
    The animals are sad because of loss of windmills, but the pig quickly set about the task of rebuilding morale by reminding them of their glorious victory has been won. Today will be forever commemorated as Battle of the Windmill. In the next celebration, counterfeit banknotes forgotten.
    Pigs then find keg of whiskey in the farmhouse. That night, the celebration of loud sounds in the farmhouse, to the amazement of other animals. Soon after, it was announced that a small field near the garden, originally set aside for retirement animals that could work no more, it should be plowed and planted with wheat. Muriel disturbed by these developments, and he consulted the fifth commandment. Once again, he realizes he has remembered it wrong, for it says, “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.”

    Paragraph 9
    The rebuilding of the windmill began soon after the celebration. Boxer worked harder than ever, despite carrying injuries from combat. His thoughts are now turning to retirement, which, under the law of animal agriculture, he is due next year. Meanwhile, another winter with little food to be served. Stirring bamboozles animals with productivity figures prove how good they are than when they were under Jones, although a lot by the now forgotten life under Jones.
    Strains of resources from agriculture to grow, not least because of the birth of thirty-one piglets previous autumn. Napoleon declared that the new classrooms should be built for the piglets, which were ordered to stay away from other animals. This school space in addition to the requirement to rebuild the windmill and the need to keep the ranch included with the other requirements. Potatoes are sold, and almost every egg laid by chickens sold to get money needed for supplies. Meanwhile, the ration of animals’ being reduced, while the pigs making beer from grain they sow the beginning of the year.
    Napoleon now introduced a weekly event called spontaneous demonstration, in which each animal will leave their jobs to march in a procession of military in agriculture, so as to instill pride in the achievements in animal agriculture since the rebellion. These animals comfort to know that, no matter how hard their lives, at least they have their own benefits employers. Another consolation was around this time re-emergence of Moses and the story of Mount SugarCandy. Many animals like to believe that they will go to a better place after their death, and the pigs seem to tolerate now Moses, gave him an allowance of beer every day.
    Building work on the farm continues through the summer, relied heavily on the extraordinary efforts Boxer. He showed some signs at this stage that his strength failed. He himself wished to get as much done as he can before he retired. Then, one summer evening, he collapsed. All the animals rush to her side, unable to bear the thought that anything might happen to her. He almost did not have the power to back up and fought back to his stall. Stirring promised to send him to town so the vet can treat themselves. Clover and Benjamin spend as much time as they can during the next few days take care of him. Then, while the animals are all working, the van comes to take Boxer away. They will not see, except that Benjamin gallops on the farm to tell them that Boxer is being taken away. No one has ever seen Benjamin gallop before. The animals rushed to the page in time to see the van began to pull away. They began to wave goodbye to Boxer, but Benjamin is very anxious, and tell them to read the letters on the van. Muriel read the sign on the van, which described the van as a locally owned horse-slaughterer. The animals tried to warn Boxer, who tried to kick a way out of the van, but he did not have the strength, and kicking from the van soon die away.
    Three days later, stirring announced that Boxer died in the hospital. He made a moving speech in praise of Boxer. He explained the sign on the van by saying that the veterinarian bought the van from butchers horses, and have not replaced the sign. The animals are very relieved to hear this, and very entertaining with stirring descriptions about care and treatment received in the beautiful Boxer’s last hours.
    Boxer pays homage to Napoleon at the meeting on the following Sunday. He tells them that it is not possible to return remains to be buried on the farm Boxer, but that he will be celebrated with a bouquet of flowers instead. Napoleon announced a memorial feast for Boxer, which took place in the farmhouse shortly after, attended only by pigs.

    Paragraph 10
    One Year has passed, and many animals die. Only Clover, Benjamin, Moses and a few pigs given the day before the uprising. Clover is now very old, well past retirement age, except that no animal had actually retired yet succeeded.
    The windmill has finally been completed. It is used to grind corn, not to generate electricity, and bring good profits for agriculture. Another windmill is now being built to generate electricity. There is no conversation more than three days a week, or one of the other luxuries that Snowball originally promised would grow from a windmill.
    Agriculture is growing richer, but the animal itself seems not much benefit from it. There are lots of pigs and dogs on the farm now. Pigs of all the bureaucracy involved in running the farm, and are not available to do the actual work, though stirring to make clear to others that what pigs do is very important for agriculture. Stirring continues to impress everyone with detailed figures on how things have improved in farms, but in the hearts of animals are not able to reconcile this with the lack of improvement in their condition. Still, Animal Farm animal husbandry in the UK to be owned only by animals, and animals remain very proud of this.
    Summer arrives. Stirring looks to take all the sheep farm side, and no one saw them for a week. Lamb finally back. That night, as the animals return to the page of the job, Clover sounded excited whinny of the page. The animals rushed forward to see what happens. They stop dead when they all saw what Clover shocked. This is the view of stirring walk upright, on its hind legs. At this time, all the pigs leave the farmhouse in a single file, all upright on two legs. Finally, Napoleon emerged from the farmhouse, upright and carrying a whip.
    This is the most shocking thing the animals have ever seen. It goes against everything that they have been taught up to that time. Just like a person who appears to be possible objects, sheep breaks into a deafening chorus of “Four legs good, two legs better.” They go for five minutes, during which pigs running around briefly and then returned to the farmhouse. Missing an opportunity to protest. Clover went to the gable wall and bring Benjamin to him. He asked Benjamin to read to him what is on the gable wall. All commands are missing, and all it says on there now is “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.

  10. Chapter1
    When the owner of manor farm Mr. Jones is asleep, a pig named Major held a meeting in a large warehouse. Major is the middle white boar who was older than most other animals, and life is no longer. He invites his friends to rebel human behavior. He says people only rely on animals for personal profit without considering the condition of the animal. They plan a mission to rebel against the humans. The meeting ends with the singing the beasts of England. When they are singing, Mr. Jones is awake from his sleep. Then, he takes and rings his rifle.

    Chapter 2:
    Three nights after the death of Major, two young boars Snowball and Napoleon continued Major messages. They both plan a human mission to rebel. Rebellion occurs when the animals are not fed by Mr. Jones. Without thinking, a cow broke the door to the warehouse store and all the animals begin to help themselves out of the trash. Mr. Jones wake up and then whipping the animals. They keep against Mr. Jones behavior spontaneously. The man is startle and run away from agriculture. The farm now belongs to them. They replace the manor farm to animal farm. They then made seven orders that essentially all animals are equal.

    Chapter 3
    These animals managed to run the harvest. They divide the task of managing the farm in accordance with their respective capabilities. The Warehouse is used as headquarters for their gathering. In free time, they also deepen their knowledge such as learning to read and write. They work hard in managing animal farm for the better. They hope that Mr. Jones don’t return to the farm.

    Chapter 4
    The animal farm news spread in almost all parts of the country. They are successful in managing the farm. Then Mr. Jones and all his men come to the animal farm to seize the farm. Snowball gives signal to other animals so that animals can attack and they can save themselves from attack Mr. Jones. Animals continue to attack Mr. Jones and his followers. Mr. Jones and all his followers flee. These animals are finally pleased to be able to maintain animal farm.

    Chapter 5
    Snowball and Napoleon have to manage dissent in agriculture. Snowball is planning to make a windmill to increase food production while Napoleon doesn’t agree with the snowball plan. Napoleon accuses Snowball have stolen his idea to make a wind mill. Then Snowball expel from the animal farm. Napoleon opposes the windmills just as maneuvers to get rid of Snowball.

    Chapter 6
    Napoleon decide that a new policy where the animal farm will be involved in the trade with the neighbor so that the animals have to work harder. At the time a storm comes, the windmill has broken. The animals run to the place of Napoleon. Napoleon accuses Snowball who has overthrown the windmill. Napoleon asks to all the animals that Snowball have destroyed the work of animal farm. They will find a way to catch the snowball because he has betrayed his friends.

    Chapter 7
    Napoleon tells the friends that Snowball is in hiding. These animals are believed and thought that Snowball often hide quietly on the farm at night. Napoleon tells them that Snowball is Jones’s accomplice. Moreover, there are four pigs that admitted conspiring with Snowball to destroy the windmill, and have signed an agreement to hand over Animal Farm to Mr. Frederick. Finally, they are expelled from the animal farm. In addition, Napoleon also prohibits singing beasts of England because he thinks external and internal enemies have been defeated.

    Chapter 8
    Mr. Frederick cheats Napoleon by buying wood beams with counterfeit money. Then Mr. Frederick and his followers attacked and fired shots into the animal farm. Some animals are injured and the windmill has broken. Then they retaliated by making a trap to Mr. Frederick. Napoleon ordered the dog to make a detour under cover of protected areas and their barking. Frederick shouted to his followers to get out. The animals chased them down to the bottom of the field and then they get caught in barbed wire. These animals are winning but their bodies bleed.

    Chapter 9
    Animal Farm is proclaimed a republic, and Napoleon is elected president. Moses who is a crow return to the animal farm and not bored to tell of life in the sugar candy mountain, and he also tell that the country will be happy if the animal rest forever the night at his job. But they consider it a fairy tale. In addition, Boxer tries hard to rebuild a windmill. At the age of retirement, he still try to work long hours without concern for his health. Finally Boxer fell, his body lying on his side and can’t get up. Napoleon says he will take Boxer to the doctor at Willingdon for inspection. However, Napoleon sells Boxer to be slaughtered. Then Napoleon holds a banquet to honor the departure of Boxer.

    Chapter 10
    Now, Napoleon is a mature boar. Agriculture also has had three horses besides Clover. Agriculture is now more prosperous and organized. The windmill has been successfully completed. Seven Laws have been condensed into a single sentence: “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.” Napoleon holds a dinner meeting for the pigs and humans. Mr. Pilkington congratulate to Napoleon for having the animals are most diligent in the country despite being feed the least. Then Napoleon announces that Animal Farm’s name has been erased and change to the previous name of Manor Farm, which is correct and original name.

  11. In the first chapter, tells about a unique even when Mr. Jones falls asleep in drunk. Mr. Jones, is the owner of the Manor Farm. In this story tells all animals meet in the big barn by command of old Mayor. Mayor is a pig twelve years old he called all animal because he need tell about his dream. All animal gather in the bug barn for listen Mayor stories. First came the three dogs, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher, and then the pig (Snowball and Napoleon). The hens, the pigeons , the sheep and cows. The two cart-horses Boxer and Clover. After the horses came Muriel, the white goat, and Benyamin (the oldest animal on the farm). Mayor start tell his dream. At this moment while Mayor speaking four large rats came and siting on their hindquarters, listening to him. The dogs had suddenly caught sight of them. He make question and vote whether Man is friends or enemies? Voting run all animals agreed if Man is an enemy to them. In his story Mayor stated that the real enemy of animal is Man. He urges the animal to rebel Man because rebellion is the solution to change their condition now. Mayor also tell that No animal must ever live in a house, or sleep in a bed, or wear chlotes. All the habits of Man are evil. No animal must ever tyrannise over his own kind. Weak or strong, clever or simple, all animal are brother. No animal must ever kill any other animal. All animal are equal. He remembered with a song named “Beasts of England.” The sing of this song threw the animals into the wildest excitement. All animals sing this song five times in succession.
    In the second, three nights laters old Mayer died peacefully in his sleep. This was early in March. They no reason for thinking about rebellion. The work of teaching and organising the others fell naturally upon the pigs, who were generally recognised as being the cleverest of the animals. Two young boars named Snowball and Napoleon rather fierce-looking Berkshire boar. The best known among them was a small fat pig named Squealer. Old Mayor make group named Animalism these had elaborated three animals. At the beginning they met with much stupidity and apathy. The stupiedest questions of all were asked by Mollie, the white mare. The pigs had an even harder struggle to counteract the lies put about by Moses(who was Mr. Jones’s especial pet), the tame raven. In this story pigs do rebellion they are successful in conveying the principles of Animalism to the others. They do their palnned when Mr. Jones falles in drunken and neglect to feed the animals. All animals make noise by destroying the stores until make Mr. Jones woke up and whipped them. Replace Manor Farm they change be the top bar of the gate to Animal Farm. They make a meeting again and agree about Seven Commandments. They are: Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy, Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend, No animal shall wear clothes, No animal shall sleep in a bed, No animal shall drink alcohol, No animal shall kill any other animal, and All animals are equal. This seven commandments they make from collective agreement.
    In the third chapter, tells about how they toiled and sweated to get the hay in. Sometimes the work was hard, the implements had been designed for human being and not for animals was able to use any tool that involved standing on his hind legs. The pigs didn’t actually work, but directed and supervised the others. Boxer and Clover they are group. Every animal down to the humblest worked at turning the hay and gathering it. All through that summer the work of the farm went like clockwork. The animals were happy as they had never conceived it possible to be. Boxer was the admiration of everybody.he had been a hard worker even in Jones’s time from morning he was pushing and pulling, always at the spot where the work was hardest. Everyone worked according to his capacity no body stole, nobody grumbled over his rations, nobody shirked-or almost nobody. Old Benjamin, the donkey, seemed quite unchanged since the Ribellion. Snowball and Napoleon were by far the most active in the debates. The meeting always ended with the singing of “Beasts of England,” the pigs had set aside the harness-room as a headquarters for themselves. Snowball also busied himself with organizing the other animal what he called Animal Committee. Napoleon took no interest in Snowball’s Committees. He said that the education of the young was more important than anything that could be done for those who were already grown up. The mystery of where the milk went to was soon cleared up. It was mixed every day into the pigs’ mash.
    In fourth chapter, every day Snowball and Napoleon sent out flights of pigeons whose instructions were to mingle with animals on neighbouring farm, tell them the story of the Rebellion and teach them the tune of “Beasts of Enlgland”. Nevertheless, they were both thoroughly frightened by the rebellion on Animal Farm, and every anxious to prevent their own animals from learning too much about it. However, these stories were never fully believed. Rumours of a wonderful farm, where the human beings had been turned out and the animal managed their own affairs, and throughout that year a wave of rebelliousness ran through the countryside. Jones and all his men, with half a dozen others from Foxwood and Pinchfield, had entered the five-barred gate and were coming up the cart-track that led to the farm. Snowball, had studied an old book of Julius Caesar’s campaigns which he had found in the farmhouse. The animals celebration of the victory was held immediately. The flag was run up and “Beasts of England” was sung a number of times. Snowball made speech, emphasizing the need for all animals to be ready to die for Animal Farm if need be. And then the animals decided unanimously to create a military decoration, “Animal Hero, First Class,”
    In the fifth chapter, Mollie became more and more troublesome. She was late for work every morning. On day as Mollie strolled blithely into yard, Clover took her a side. Three days later Mollie disappeared. For some weeks nothing was known of her whereabouts, then the pigeons reported that they had seen her on the other side of Willingdon. In January the earth was like iron, and nothing could be done in the fields. Much meetings were held in the big barn, and the pigs occupied themselves with planning out the work of the coming season. At the meetings Snowball often won over the majority by his brilliant speeches, but Nopoleon was better at canvassing support for himself in between times. Snowball had made a close study of some back numbers of the ‘Farmer and Stockbreeder’ which he had found in the farmhouse. When Snowball was tell about his knowledge about what he gets from three books only Napoleon held aloof. Snowball didn’t deny that to build it would difficult business. As usual, Snowball and Napoleon were in disagreement. According to Napoleon, what the animals must do was to produce firearms. According snowball, they must send out more and more pigeons and stir up rebellion among the animals on the other farms. At last the day came when Snowball’s plans were completed. By the time he had finished speaking, there was no doubt as to which way the vote would go. On the third Sunday after snowball’s expulsion, the animals were somewhat surprised to hear Napoleon announce that the windmill was to be built after all. That evening squealer explained privately to the other animals that napoleon had never in reality been opposed to the windmill.
    In the sixth chapter, all that year the animals worked like slaves. The harvest was a little less successful than in the previous year, and two fields which should have been sown with roots in the early summer were not sown because the Ploughing had not been completed early enough. There seemed no way of doing this except with picks and crown bars, which no animal could use, because no animal could stand on his hind legs. By the late summer a sufficient store of stone had accumulated, and then the building began, under the superintendence of the pigs. The animals were not badly off throughout that summer, in spite of the hardness of their work. One Sunday morning, when the animals assembled to receive their orders, Napoleon announced that he had decided upon a new policy. Once again the animals were conscious of a vague uneasiness. Napoleon was speech and ended his speech with his usual cry of “Long life Animal Farm!” and after the singing of ‘Beasts of England’ the animals were dismissed. Afterwards Squealer made a round of the farm and set the animals’ minds at rest. Every Monday Mr. Whymper visited the farm as had been arranged. The animals watched his coming and going with a kind of dread, and avoided him as much as possible. The animals seemed to remember that a resolution against this had been passed in the early days. The animals reassured him on this point immediately, and no more was said about the pigs sleeping in the farmhouse beds. By the autumn the animals were tired but happy. Boxer would even come out at night and work for an hour or two on his own by light of the harvest moon. November came, with raging south-west winds. Finally there came a night when the gale was so violent that the farm buildings rocked on their foundations and several tiles were blown off the roof of the barn. The animals were shocked beyond measure to learn that even Snowball could be quilty of such an action.
    In the Seventh chapter, it was a bitter winter. By January food fell short. The corn ration was drastically reduced, an potato ration would be issued to make up for it. The pigs conceal this fact from outside world by filling the store-bins full of sand, topping the bins with what few provisions they have left, and allowing their human middleman to walk past the apparently full bins. At a Sunday meeting, Squealer announces that the hens must give up their eggs, so that they can be traded with the outside world for grain and meal. The pigs spread terrible about Snowball. Snowball is said to be hiding on one of the neighbouring farms. Napoleon makes a show of doing a major tour of the farm. This goes on for some weeks, when the dramatic announcement is made that Snowball was in league with Jones from the very start. Squealer tells the animals that this terrible discovery has been made from documents that the pigs have just discovered. the animals are shocked. Squealer eventually convinces Boxer by telling him that Napoleon has stated categorically that Snowball was an agent of Jones. Napoleon, who now rarely leaves the farmhouse, and is never without his escort of dogs, stands before them. At the same time, three of the dogs attach Boxer. Boxer easily fends them off. These are the first killings of other animals since rebellion. The animals creep away from the meeting. Boxer tried to understand. She remains faithful to Nopoleon, but deep down she knows that this state of affairs was not what they fought for in the rebellion. The animals try to console them by singing Beasts of England.

    In the eighth chapter, a few days later, when the terror caused by the executions had died down, some animals remembered the Sixth Commandment decreed “No animal shall kill another animal without cause.” The animals spend the following year working harder than ever. Napoleon, who is now known as “Our leader, Comrade Napoleon,” and several other flattering titlesis seen in public rarely, and now employs a cockerel as a herald, as well as being accompanied at all times by his dogs. At this time, rumours abound that Frederick is about to attack tha farm. Three hens confess that Snowball, said to be living on Pinchfield, put them up to it. When later in the year, the wheat crops are found to be full of weeds, Snowball, and by implication Frederick, are blamed. Napoleon announces shortly afterwards that the wood is to be sold to Pilkington of Foxwood. The animals forget their worries temporarily to celebrate this magnificent achievement. The animals are all congratulated by Napoleon. Two days later, he calls them to a meeting. The animals are astonished, but Squealer easily explains this away as part of Napoleon’s strategy, to appear friendly with one neighbor while secretly courting the other. Three days later, the notes are discovered to be forgeries. Napoleon assembles the animals again and pronounces the death sentences on Frederick. At the same time, he warns them that Frederick and his men may be about to attack the farm. Messages are sent to Foxwood requesting assistance, but Pilkington send back a curt rejection. The day will be forever commemorated as the Battle of the Windmill. The pigs then discover a cask of whisky in the farmhouse. That night, loud celebrations are heard in the farmhouse, to the amazement of the other animals. Soon afterwards, it is announced that a small field near the orchard, originally set aside for retired animals who could work no more, was to be ploughed up and sown with barley. Muriel is troubled by this development, and she consults the fifth commandment. Again, she realizes she has remembered it incorrectly, for it says, “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.”

    In ninth chapter, boxer works harder than ever, despite carrying an injury from the battle. In the meantime, another cold winter with little food must be endured. The strain of the resources of the farms grows, not least due to the birth of thirty-one piglets the previous autumn. Napoleon declares that a new schoolroom must be built for the piglets, who are instructed to remain aloof from the other animals. Potatoes are sold, and practically every egg laid by hens is sold to earn the money required for these supplies. All the while, the animals’ rations are being reduced, while the pigs make beer from the barley they sowed earlier in the year. The building work around the farm continues through the summer, heavily dependent on the extraordinary efforts of Boxer. He showed some signs at this stage that his strength is failing. Then, one summer evening, he collapses. Clover and Benjamin spend as much time as they can over the next few days nursing him. They start to wave goodbye to Boxer, but Benjamin is very agitated, and tells them to read the letters on the van. Muriel reads out the sign on the van, which describes the vas as belonging to the local horse-slaughterer. The animals try to warn Boxer, who tries to kick his way out of the van, but he has no strength, and the kicking from the van soon dies away. Three days later, Squealer announces that Boxer died in the hospital. The animals are very relieved to hear this, and are greatly consoled by Squealer’s further descriptions of the wonderful care and treatment that Boxer received in his final hours. Napoleon pays his respects to Boxer at the meeting on the following Sunday. Napoleon announces a memorial banquet for Boxer, which takes place in the farmhouse shortly afterwards, attended only by the pigs.

    In tenth chapter, years have passed, and many of the animals are dead. The windmill has finally been completed. The farm is growing richer, but the animals themselves do not seem to benefit much from it. The pigs are all involved in the bureaucracy of running the farm, and are not available to do any actual work, though Squealer makes it clear to the others that what the pigs do is of vital importance to the farm. Nonetheless, Animal Farm remains the only farm in England to be owned by the animals. And the animals remain enormously proud of this. Summer arrives. The animals rush forward to see what is happening. They stop dead when they all see what has startled Clover. It is the most shocking thing the animals have ever seen. Just as it seems that someone might object, the sheep break into a deafening chorus of ‘Four legs good, two legs better.” Clover goes to the gable wall and brings Benjamin with her. All the commandments are gone, and all that is written there now is “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than other.” After this, the pigs and their sows start wearing clothes and carrying whips. After the inspection, the pigs and the farmers return to the farmhouse for a celebration. Mr. Pilkington makes a speech telling the pigs how impressed he is with Animal farm. Napoleon makes a speech in return, expressing his happiness that the mistrust between Animal Farm and the others is now at an end.

  12. Dear sir,
    Below is my complete summary of Orwell’s Animal Farm.

    Summary Chapter 1
    Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, has gone to bed after the drunken, all the animals of the farm wait and assemble for a meeting and hear speech by Old Major. Old Major has called the meeting to discuss a strange dream he had the previous night. First the dogs arrive, then the pigs, followed by the hens, sheep, cows, pigeons, ducks and so on. Among the animals are Boxer and Clover the cart-horses, Muriel the goat, Benjamin the donkey, Mollie the white mare and the cat. Old Major explains that, because he is getting old and may die soon, he wishes to impart his wisdom. Over his lifetime, he has come to the conclusions that “No animal in England is free” and “The life of an animal is misery and slavery”. Old Major states that animals’ domination by Man is the sole reason they cannot be free, happy, and fulfilled. Man is “the only creature that consumes without producing.” His only job is to be “lord of all the animals,” which makes him “the only real enemy” animals have. Man overworks animals only to rob them of the fruits of their labor, and treats them only well enough to survive and provide more labor. When Man is done with an animal, he slaughters it cruelly. . Old Major begs the other animals to devote the rest of their lives to the cause of Rebellion and to reject the idea that they have co-dependence with Man. Because according to Old Major, Rebellion is the path to freedom. Old Major holds a vote to decide whether domesticated animals should unite with wild animals. Only the dogs and the cat vote no, although the cat is not paying attention and votes twice. After the vote, Old Major crystallizes his point, stating: “Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.” He adds the additional point that, once they have achieved victory, animals must not emulate Man. They must not wear clothing, live in houses, or copy any of Man’s other “evil” habits. Old Major finally gets around to telling them about his dream, but the first thing he tells them is that he cannot describe the dream, except to say that it reminded him of a song that he learned in his youth called “Beasts of England.” He sings the song, which tells of the day when Man is finally overthrown, when there is no more slavery or cruelty, and when the animals are finally free. The animals in the barn respond rapturously to this, and sang it through together five times in succession, until they are interrupted by a blast from the farmer’s shotgun. The farm quickly returns to normality.

    Summary Chapter 2
    Old Major dies in his sleep three nights later, and then the pigs begin teaching and organizing the others to prepare for the Rebellion, for which they assume the task of preparing. The pigs, being the most intelligent animals on the farm, take the lead on this. The task of working Old Major’s ideas into a more formal system falls to three pigs, Napoleon, Snowball and Squealer. These three organize regular nighttime meetings with the other animals to explain the principles of their system, called Animalism. They teach this to the other animals at secret meetings late at night in the barn, but the animals make many silly points like “Mr. Jones feeds us. If he were gone, we should starve to death,” and it is slow work. Boxer and Clover are their two most devoted disciples. Moses the pet raven keeps telling the animals lies about a magic place called Sugar candy Mountain and the pigs have to work hard to persuade them that it doesn’t exist. On Midsummer’s Eve in June, Mr. Jones gets so drunk that he passes out and neglects to feed the animals. Having gone unfed for hours, the animals break into the store-shed and eat. Mr. Jones and the farmhands rush in and begin whipping the animals indiscriminately, and the animals respond by attacking them in unison. The men are frightened and forced to flee the farm. After a disbelieving calm, the animals barge into the harness-room and drown or burn all the implements of their former bondage. Snowball makes sure to burn the ribbons, which he calls tantamount to clothing, and states, “All animals should go naked”. The animals then help themselves to double servings of food and sleep better than they ever have. When they awake the next morning, they survey the farm with new eyes, absorbing the fact that it is now their own. Finally, they tour the farmhouse, seeing in disbelief the “unbelievable luxury” in which the Joneses had lived. Then the animals agree to leave the farmhouse intact as a museum. They confiscate a few hams for burial and leave.
    The pigs then reveal that they have taught themselves to read and write, and Snowball paints out the ‘Manor Farm’ sign on the gate and replaces it with ‘Animal Farm’. He and Squealer paint the Seven Commandments of Animalism, the new laws of the farm, on the wall of the barn.
    THE SEVEN COMMANDMENTS :
    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.
    After reading the Seven Commandments out loud, Snowball declares that the animals must begin the hay harvest. The cows have not been milked and their udders are almost bursting. The pigs manage to milk them, and the animals go off to the hayfield to begin the harvest – when they return that evening they notice that the milk has disappeared.

    Summary Chapter 3
    The harvest is more of a success than Mr. Jones. It is finished two days earlier than Jones and his men used to manage. The pigs supervise the others but do not participate in the manual labor. With the “parasitical human beings” out of the way, the animals enjoy a feeling of abundance for the first time. They have more leisure, and their food tastes all the better for their having gathered and portioned it out themselves. On Animal Farm, everyone works “according to his capacity.” Boxer is invigorated and pushes himself to work harder than ever; because he is strong and big, he contributes to the most strenuous labor. In contrast, the hens and ducks work at gathering small bits of corn that the bigger animals would not be able to gather. The system of Animalism is working well: every animal is satisfied with his share of the labor and its fruits. No one steals or argues, and very few shirk their responsibilities, with the exception of the cat and frivolous Mollie. On Sundays there is no work and after breakfast the animals hoist their flag.
    Then they have a Meeting to discuss work and proposed resolutions, and Snowball and Napoleon are always the most active in debating resolutions, although they never agree with each other. As the weeks go by, it becomes clear that Napoleon and Snowball rarely agree about anything. Snowball puts all his energies into forming various committees, each of which is responsible for improving some or other aspect of life on the farm. Napoleon sees no value in this, and prefers to concentrate on educating the young. For example, when two of the dogs have litters, Napoleon takes the puppies away from their mothers and secludes them in an inaccessible part of the farm, so that he can educate them properly in the principles of Animalism.
    Not all of Snowball’s committees work very well, but his reading and writing classes are hugely successful. The pigs can read and write perfectly. The dogs learn to read, but will not read anything except the seven commandments. Boxer the great carthorse tries very hard to learn the alphabet, but cannot get past D. Many of the other animals can understand only one letter. Because so many animals are thus unable to read the seven commandments, Snowball reduces the seven commandments to the single maxim “Four legs good, two legs bad!”, which they can remember more easily.

    It is soon learned that the pigs took the milk that disappeared on the first day, and are now mixing it into their mash. The pigs now issue a decree stating that all windfall apples are to be gathered up and given over for the exclusive use of the pigs. Some of the animals are puzzled by this, and wonder why the apples are not to be shared out equally. Squealer goes before them to explain. He tells them that the pigs, as the leaders, must keep their brainpower up, and that science has proven that milk and apples are essential for this. Squealer goes on to remind them that the alternative to the pigs is to have Farmer Jones back. This settles the animals, who agree that, whatever happens, they never want to live under Jones again.

    Summary Chapter 4
    News of the Rebellion has spread to many other farms, thanks to Snowball’s and Napoleon’s pigeon messengers. Meanwhile, in the human world, Mr. Jones tells other farmers about the Rebellion. The fear of similar revolutions unites the owners of the farms adjacent to Animal Farm, even though they dislike one another. Easy-going Mr. Pilkington (of large, neglected Foxwood) and hard-nosed Mr. Frederick (of small, better-kept Pinchfield) spread rumors to discourage their animals from turning against them. They say that the animals on Manor Farm are starving. When this claim turns out to be clearly untrue, they claim that the animals are cannibals who practice all kinds of wickedness. Despite the farmers’ efforts to subdue ideas of rebellion, their animals begin lashing out against them. The animals resist the farmers’ orders. They also adopt the infuriating habit of singing “Beasts of England.”
    In October, accompanied by several other farmers, Mr. Jones tries to recapture Animal Farm. Snowball has already trained the animals for war, however, and they take their defensive positions. The smaller animals attack the men and then pretend to retreat into the yard in defeat. Once the men follow, the larger animals ambush them. Mr. Jones kills one sheep and wounds Snowball several times with his gun, but the animals manage to overpower the humans. Boxer is thought to have killed a stable-lad, which upsets the stalwart horse. But it turns out that the boy is only injured, and he flees with the other men. The only animal who does not fight is Mollie, whom the animals discover cowering in her stall. After the battle, the animals sing “Beasts of England” yet again. They invent a military honor called “Animal Hero, First Class,” which they bestow upon Snowball and Boxer. Then they bury the fallen sheep and confer upon him posthumously the title of “Animal Hero, Second Class.” The animals decide to call this conflict the Battle of the Cowshed. The agree to fire Mr. Jones’s gun into the air twice a year, on the anniversaries of the battle (October 12) and of the Rebellion (Midsummer’s Eve). The animals celebrate their victory. The flag is raised, Beasts of England is sung. A medal for “Animal Hero, First Class” is created and awarded to Snowball. A medal for “Animal Hero, Second Class” is created, and awarded to a sheep that died when Jones fired his gun. They decide to keep the gun and place it at the bottom of the flagstaff, to be fired each year on the anniversaries of the rebellion, and of the battle.

    Summary Chapter 5
    Winter is approaching. Mollie’s behavior becomes increasingly perturbed. She is late for work and feigns injury in order to shirk her duties. More seriously, Clover has spotted Mollie at the border of Foxwood, allowing Mr. Pilkington to stroke her nose and talk to her. Mollie denies the accusation, but her embarrassment confirms that she is lying. On a hunch, Clover goes to Mollie’s stall and finds a hidden stash of sugar and ribbons. Mollie disappears soon after. She is seen in a painted cart, gussied up and taking sugar from a man who appears to be some kind of manager. The other animals never mention her again.
    January brings bitterly cold weather. Since conditions are too harsh for farming, the animals hold many meetings. They have agreed that the pigs should make all policy decisions, which the other animals are to ratify. Snowball and Napoleon are in constant disagreement, and the other animals begin to take sides. The sheep support Napoleon and interrupt Snowball’s speeches by bleating, “Four legs good, two legs bad.” Snowball is the more progressive politician, promoting innovations to make the farm run more efficiently. Napoleon makes sure to oppose all of Snowball’s ideas. Snowball is forever proposing new plans and schemes for the improvement of the farm, all of which are opposed by Napoleon. Snowball’s most ambitious plan is for the construction of a windmill, which he says can provide heat and electricity to the farm. He accepts that it will be a huge undertaking, and is vague about some of the details. Napoleon is completely against the idea, and makes his opposition clear. Snowball continues to work on his plans, and spends hours every day in a shed working on them, drawing them out on the wooden floor. All of the animals visit Snowball regularly in the shed to watch the plans grow into something that looks very complex and impressive. Only Napoleon holds back, and when he does come to inspect the plans, he urinates on them.
    The day comes when all the animals will gather in the big barn to vote on whether or not the windmill will be built. The farm is divided into two factions at this stage, the “Vote for Snowball and the three-day week” faction, and the “Vote for Napoleon and the full manger” faction. Snowball has convinced his faction that the windmill will lead to increased leisure time for everybody, while Napoleon has convinced his faction that the distraction of the windmill will cause the animals to lose time on the harvest and starve. After the meeting, Squealer explains the new arrangement to the other animals. Just as in the case of the milk and apples, Squealer claims that taking on leadership responsibilities is a burden for Napoleon and his committee; they do it only for the general welfare. If left to make their own decisions, he explains, the animals might make a wrong decision. He also calls Snowball a criminal; even if he was brave in the Battle of the Cowshed (an idea that Squealer also questions), “loyalty and obedience are more important.” Squealer tells the animals, “Discipline, comrades, iron discipline! That is the watchword for today.” Again as in the case of the milk and apples, Squealer ensures the animals’ compliance by threatening Mr. Jones’s return. Of all the animals, Boxer takes obedience to the pigs to heart most. He now has two personal maxims: “Napoleon is always right” and “I will work harder” (70).
    Winter turns into spring. The pigs disinter Old Major’s skull and place it at the base of the flagpole beside the gun. When they meet to receive their orders for the week, the animals no longer sit all together. Rather, the dogs and other pigs gather around Napoleon, Squealer, and another pig named Minimus. Only three days after Snowball’s removal, Napoleon announces plans to build the windmill and make similar improvements to the farm. Squealer explains to the animals that Napoleon had never really opposed the windmill—in fact, it was “his own creation,” which Snowball had copied. With evident pride, Squealer explains that Napoleon’s feigned opposition to the windmill was simply a “maneuver” in his plan to expel Snowball for disobedience; it was a brilliant example of “tactics”.

    Summary Chapter 6
    The animals work themselves to the bone on the harvest and on the windmill, all under the supervision of the pigs. The animals are asked to work on Sunday afternoons as well, on a voluntary basis, though any animal that did not work on Sunday had their rations halved. By autumn time, it is clear that the harvest is a poorer one than the previous year. This will make the coming winter all the more difficult.
    Progress on the windmill is laborious and slow. The stones with which it is to be built have to be hauled to the top of the quarry and thrown from there to the bottom, so that the stones can be broken into the appropriate sizes. It takes until the end of the summer to accumulate enough stone to begin building the windmill, work which depends almost entirely on the tremendous efforts of Boxer, who works himself harder than ever before.
    As the work on the harvest and the windmill proceeds, the animals find themselves running out of supplies. Items such as paraffin, seeds, manure and machinery could not be produced on the farm. This problem is resolved when Napoleon announces one day that Animal Farm will henceforth enter into trading arrangements with some of the surrounding farms. Hay and wheat from the farm will be sold, and the hens are told that they will have to give up some of their eggs, a sacrifice that they should be proud to make. Some of the animals are doubtful about this move, seeming to remember an agreement in the early days after the rebellion never to have anything to do with humans. Again, Squealer puts any doubts to rest in the following days, informing them that such a resolution was never written down.
    From then on, Napoleon engages a local solicitor to act as the middleman between Animal Farm and the outside world. The solicitor comes every Monday, and his presence makes the other animals very uneasy, but their doubts are eased by their pride in seeing Napoleon give orders to a human.
    Shortly afterwards, the pigs move into the farmhouse. They eat in the kitchen, relax in the drawing room, and even sleep in the beds. Some of the animals are very doubtful about this. Clover consults the seven commandments on the gable wall, and asks Muriel to read out the fourth commandment, which states, “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets.” Muriel cannot remember sheets being mentioned before. However, helped by the smooth words of Squealer, she assumes that she must have been wrong, She and the other animals accept his argument that the pigs, as the leaders, must have as much comfort as possible to facilitate their brainwork.
    The animals are all extremely proud of their progress so far, except for Benjamin, who expresses no opinion for or against the windmill. By November, the windmill is half finished. However, disaster strikes when a nighttime storm destroys it. The animals all gather around the ruin. Napoleon is silent for a long time, before making the sudden and dramatic announcement that the windmill was destroyed by Snowball. Some pig footprints leading away from the farm are discovered, and Napoleon confirms them to belong to Snowball. The other animals are shocked that their former leader could do such a thing. Napoleon announces that work on rebuilding the windmill will commence immediately.

    Summary Chapter 7
    The animals work to rebuild the windmill through a bitter, stormy winter, well aware that the human world is watching and hoping for their failure. Because of increasing food shortages, the animals begin to go hungry. Knowing that the humans must not hear of Animal Farm’s hardships, Napoleon enlists the sheep to comment about their increasing rations when within earshot of Mr. Whymper. He also has someone lead Mr. Whymper past the food bins, which are filled with sand and topped with grain to look full. At a Sunday meeting, Squealer announces that the hens must give up their eggs, so that they can be traded with the outside world for grain and meal. The hens are stunned into rebellion. They take to laying their eggs from the rafters of the coop, allowing them to smash to the ground. The pigs respond by stopping their rations completely, and threatening death on any other animals that shares their food with them. Eventually the hens relent, and they are forced to give up their eggs as soon as they are laid.
    All the while, the pigs spread terrible rumours about Snowball. Snowball is said to be hiding on one of the neighbouring farms. He is said to be sneaking into Animal farm by night and doing untold damage. Every mishap and misfortune on the farm was now attributed to Snowball. Napoleon makes a show of doing a major tour of the farm, accompanied by his dogs, to investigate the activities of Snowball. This goes on for some weeks, when the dramatic announcement is made that Snowball was in league with Jones from the very start. Squealer tells the animals that this terrible discovery has been made from documents that the pigs have just discovered. The animals are shocked and puzzled by this. Boxer, in particular, is reluctant to accept this. He questions Squealer; he reminds him how bravely Snowball fought when the farmers tried to invade Animal Farm. Squealer tries to reassure him, but Boxer remains persistent in his belief that Snowball could never have been in league with Jones. Squealer eventually convinces Boxer by telling him that Napoleon has stated categorically that Snowball was an agent of Jones. Boxer finally relents at this, assuming that Napoleon must be correct. Boxer’s persistence in questioning Squealer, however, has been noted.
    Four days later, Napoleon calls an assembly. He wears the medals of “Animal Hero, First Class” and “Animal Hero, Second Class,” which he has awarded himself. Napoleon’s dogs drag out of the crowd the four pigs that had opposed the cessation of Sunday meetings. The dogs try to drag Boxer out as well, but he deflects them. The pigs confess that they collaborated with Snowball in destroying the windmill and were planning to help Mr. Frederick overtake Animal Farm. They also confess to knowing of Snowball’s partnership with Mr. Jones for years. Then the dogs tear out the four pigs’ throats. Napoleon asks whether any other animal wishes to confess. Three hens, which had led the hen rebellion, confess that Snowball incited them to revolt in a dream vision. After this, several other animals confess to crimes both great (murder) and small (stealing). Napoleon has them all murdered.
    These are the first killings of other animals since the rebellion. The animals creep away from the meeting. Boxer, in trying to understand why this has happened, resolves that the only possible solution is to work harder. Clover, not as strong but more intelligent, has deep misgivings about what she has seen, but she cannot put them into words. She remains faithful to Napoleon, but deep down she knows that this state of affairs was not what they fought for in the rebellion. The animals try to console them by singing Beasts of England. However, they are interrupted by Squealer, who tells them that the song is henceforth abolished. It is to be replaced a song called Animal Farm, composed by one of the pigs. The animals take up the new song faithfully, but are aware that it does not compare to Beasts of England.

    Summary Chapter 8
    After the executions, Clover is again uneasy that one of the seven commandments has been broken. She asks Muriel to read her the sixth commandment again from the gable wall. The commandment reads, “No animal shall kill another animal without cause.” Clover did not seem to remember having read the last two words before, but she thought no more of it.
    The animals spend the following year working harder than ever. Squealer exhorts them to greater efforts, telling them that productivity on the farm has improved enormously since the rebellion, though many of the animals secretly feel hungry. Napoleon, who is now known as “Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,” and several other flattering titles, is seen in public rarely, and now employs a cockerel as a herald, as well as being accompanied at all times by his dogs.
    Relations between the neighbouring farms, Frederick of Pinch field and Pilkington of Foxwood, remain complex. Napoleon, through the middleman, has been trying to sell off a pile of timber to one of the other neighbour. At this time, rumours abound that Frederick is about to attack the farm. A plot to murder Napoleon is uncovered. Three hens confess that Snowball, said to be living on Pinch field, put them up to it. The hens are executed. Napoleon announces shortly afterwards that the wood is to be sold to Pilkington of Foxwood. When, later in the year, the wheat crop is found to be full of weeds, Snowball, and by implication Frederick, are blamed. The whole farm seethes with anger and resentment against Frederick, who is now the sworn enemy of Animal farm.
    The windmill is completed by autumn. The animals forget their worries temporarily to celebrate this magnificent achievement. The animals are all congratulated by Napoleon. Two days later, he calls them to a meeting and announces that the wood is to be sold to Frederick. The animals are astonished, but Squealer easily explains this away as part of Napoleon’s strategy, to appear friendly with one neighbour while secretly courting the other. The sale goes ahead, and the solicitor organizes the transport of the wood off the farm, and the delivery of the banknotes to Napoleon.
    Three days later, the notes are discovered to be forgeries. Napoleon assembles the animals again and pronounces the death sentence on Frederick. At the same time, he warns them that Frederick and his men may be about to attack the farm.
    The attack comes the next morning. Fifteen men, six with guns, approach the farm, and the battle is joined. Messengers are sent to Foxwood requesting assistance, but Pilkington sends back a curt rejection. The animals are driven back to the farm buildings. While they are trapped there, the men plant dynamite around the windmill. In the ensuing explosion, the windmill is obliterated. The animals react to this by forgetting all about the guns and charging headlong at the men, who after a brief struggle, run for their lives.
    The animals are dejected at the loss of the windmill, but the pigs quickly set about the task of rebuilding morale by reminding them of the magnificent victory they have won. The day will be forever commemorated as the Battle of the Windmill. In the ensuing celebrations, the forged banknotes are forgotten.
    The pigs then discover a cask of whisky in the farmhouse. That night, loud celebrations are heard in the farmhouse, to the amazement of the other animals. Soon afterwards, it is announced that a small field near the orchard, originally set aside for retired animals who could work no more, was to be ploughed up and sown with barley. Muriel is troubled by this development, and she consults the fifth commandment. Again, she realises she has remembered it incorrectly, for it says, “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.”

    Summary Chapter 9
    Boxer works harder than ever, despite carrying an injury from the battle. Rebuilding of the windmill begins immediately after the celebrations. His thoughts are now turning to retirement, for which, under the laws of Animal farm, he is due the next year. In the meantime, another cold winter with little food must be endured. Squealer bamboozles the animals with productivity figures which prove how much better off they are than when they were under Jones, although many have by now forgotten life under Jones.
    The strain of the resources of the farms grows, not least due to the birth of thirty-one piglets the previous autumn. Napoleon declares that a new schoolroom must be built for the piglets, who are instructed to remain aloof from the other animals. The schoolroom is in addition to the requirement to rebuild the windmill and the need to keep the farm supplied with various other requirements. Potatoes are sold, and practically every egg laid by the hens is sold to earn the money required for these supplies. All the while, the animals’ rations are being reduced, while the pigs make beer from the barley they sowed earlier in the year.
    Napoleon now introduces a weekly event called the Spontaneous Demonstration, where every animal would leave their work to march in military procession around the farm, so as to instil pride in the animals in the achievements of the farm since the rebellion. It comforts the animals to know that, no matter how hard their lives, at least they have the benefit of being their own masters. Another consolation around this time is the reappearance of Moses and his tales of SugarCandy Mountain. Many of the animals like to believe that they will go to a better place after their deaths, and the pigs now seem to tolerate Moses, giving him an allowance of beer every day.
    The building work around the farm continues through the summer, heavily dependent on the extraordinary efforts of Boxer. He is showing some signs at this stage that his strength is failing. He himself is hoping to get as much done as he possibly can before he retires. Then, one summer evening, he collapses. All the animals rush to his side, unable to bear the thought that anything might happen to him. He barely has the strength to get back to his feet and to struggle back to his stall. Squealer promises to send him to the town so that the veterinary surgeon can treat him. Clover and Benjamin spend as much time as they can over the next few days nursing him. Then, while the animals are all at work, the van comes to take Boxer away. They would not have noticed, except that Benjamin gallops across the farm to tell them that Boxer is being taken away. No one has ever seen Benjamin gallop before. The animals rush to the yard in time to see the van begin to pull away. They start to wave goodbye to Boxer, but Benjamin is very agitated, and tells them to read the letters on the van. Muriel reads out the sign on the van, which describes the van as belonging to the local horse-slaughterer. The animals try to warn Boxer, who tries to kick his way out of the van, but he has no strength, and the kicking from the van soon dies away.
    Three days later, Squealer announces that Boxer died in the hospital. He makes a moving speech in praise of Boxer. He explains the sign on the van by saying that the veterinary surgeon bought the van from the horse-slaughterer, and had not yet replaced the sign. The animals are very relieved to hear this, and are greatly consoled by Squealer’s further descriptions of the wonderful care and treatment that Boxer received in his final hours.
    Napoleon pays his respects to Boxer at the meeting on the following Sunday. He tells them that it was not possible to return Boxer’s remains for burial on the farm, but that he will be commemorated with a wreath instead. Napoleon announces a memorial banquet for Boxer, which takes place in the farmhouse shortly afterwards, attended only by the pigs.

    Summary Chapter 10
    After a few years, many of the animals are dead. Only Clover, Benjamin, Moses and some of the pigs remember the days before the rebellion. Clover is by now very old, well past retirement age, except that no animal has actually managed to retire yet. The windmill has finally been completed. It is used for milling corn, rather than for generating electricity, and brings a good profit to the farm. Another windmill is now being built to generate electricity. There is no more talk of the three-day week, or any of the other luxuries that Snowball originally promised would accrue from the windmill.
    The farm is growing richer, but the animals themselves do not seem to benefit much from it. There are many pigs and dogs on the farm now. The pigs are all involved in the bureaucracy of running the farm, and are not available to do any actual work, though Squealer makes it clear to the others that what the pigs do is of vital importance to the farm. Squealer continues to impress everyone with detailed figures of how everything has improved on the farm, but deep down the animals are unable to reconcile this with the lack of improvement in their own conditions. Nonetheless, Animal Farm remains the only farm in England to be owned by the animals, and the animals remain enormously proud of this.
    Summer arrives. Squealer is seen to take all the sheep of the farm aside, and no-one sees them for a week. The sheep eventually return. That evening, as the animals are returning to the yard from work, Clover is heard neighing excitedly from the yard. The animals rush forward to see what is happening. They stop dead when they all see what has startled Clover. It is the sight of Squealer walking upright, on his hind legs. At this moment, all of the pigs leave the farmhouse in single file, all upright on two legs. Finally, Napoleon emerges from the farmhouse, upright and carrying a whip.
    It is the most shocking thing the animals have ever seen. It goes against everything that they have been taught up to then. Just as it seems that someone might object, the sheep break into a deafening chorus of “Four legs good, two legs better.” They went on for five minutes, during which the pigs walked briefly around and then returned to the farmhouse. The chance to protest is gone. Clover goes to the gable wall and brings Benjamin with her. She asks Benjamin to read for her what is on the gable wall. All the commandments are gone, and all that is written there now is “All animals are equal, But some animals are more equal than others.”
    After this, the pigs and their sows start wearing clothes and carrying whips. They begin to have more direct dealings with the neighbouring farmers. One day, the pigs invite a number of the local farmers to inspect the farm. After the inspection, the pigs and the farmers return to the farmhouse for a celebration. After a time, loud noises of laughter and singing are heard through the windows. The other animals are overcome with curiosity, and they approach the farmhouse to see what is going on. They look through the windows to see the pigs and farmers seated around the living room table, playing cards, making speeches and congratulating one another. Mr Pilkington makes a speech telling the pigs how impressed he is with Animal Farm, especially with the hard work and poor rations of the farm animals. Napoleon makes a speech in return, expressing his happiness that the mistrust between Animal Farm and the others is now at an end. He furthermore announces that the animals will cease to address each other as “Comrade,” and that “Animal Farm” will now revert to being called “Manor Farm.” As Napoleon finishes his speech to great applause, the animals outside seem to notice something changing in the features of the pigs, but what?
    As the applause dies down and the card game is resumed, the animals creep away from the window. However, they hurry back when they hear a furious argument break out. The argument is because Mr. Pilkington and Napoleon have both played an Ace of Spades at the same time. But as the animals look from Napoleon to Pilkington, from man to pig and from pig back to man, they find that they are unable to tell the difference.

  13. Dear sir,
    Below is my respond to the assignment of Literature II “Animal Farm” .

    Chapter 1
    After Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, falls asleep in a drunken stupor, all of his animals meet in the big barn at the request of old Major, a 12-year-old pig. Major delivers a rousing political speech about the evils inflicted upon them by their human keepers and their need to rebel against the tyranny of Man. After elaborating on the various ways that Man has exploited and harmed the animals, Major mentions a strange dream of his in which he saw a vision of the earth without humans. He then teaches the animals a song — “Beasts of England” — which they sing repeatedly until they awaken Jones, who fires his gun from his bedroom window, thinking there is a fox in the yard. Frightened by the shot, the animals disperse and go to sleep.
    Chapter 2
    After the death of old Major, the animals spend their days secretly planning the rebellion, although they are unsure when it will occur. Because of their intelligence, the pigs are placed in charge of educating the animals about Animalism, the name they give to the philosophy expounded by Major in Chapter 1. Among the pigs, Snowball and Napoleon are the most important to the revolution. Despite Mollie’s concern with ribbons and Moses’ tales of a place called Sugarcandy Mountain, the pigs are successful in conveying the principles of Animalism to the others.
    Chapter 3
    Despite the initial difficulties inherent in using farming tools designed for humans, the animals cooperate to finish the harvest — and do so in less time than it had taken Jones and his men to do the same. Boxer distinguishes himself as a strong, tireless worker, admired by all the animals. The pigs become the supervisors and directors of the animal workers. On Sundays, the animals meet in the big barn to listen to Snowball and Napoleon debate a number of topics on which they seem never to agree. Snowball forms a number of Animal Committees, all of which fail. However, he does prove successful at bringing a degree of literacy to the animals, who learn to read according to their varied intelligences. To help the animals understand the general precepts of Animalism, Snowball reduces the Seven Commandments to a single slogan: “Four legs good, two legs bad.” Napoleon, meanwhile, focuses his energy on educating the youth and takes the infant pups of Jessie and Bluebell away from their mothers, presumably for educational purposes.
    Chapter 4
    As summer ends and news of the rebellion spreads to other farms (by way of pigeons released by Snowball and Napoleon), Jones spends most of his time in a pub, complaining about his troubles to two neighboring farmers: Pilkington and Frederick. In October, Jones and a group of men arrive at Animal Farm and attempt to seize control if it. Snowball turns out to be an extraordinary tactician and, with the help of the other animals, drives Jones and his men away. The animals then celebrate their victory in what they call “The Battle of the Cowshed.”
    Chapter 5
    Winter comes, and Mollie works less and less. Eventually, Clover discovers that Mollie is being bribed off Animal Farm by one of Pilkington’s men, who eventually wins her loyalties. Mollie disappears, and the pigeons report seeing her standing outside a pub, sporting one of the ribbons that she always coveted. The pigs increase their influence on the farm, deciding all questions of policy and then offering their decisions to the animals, who must ratify them by a majority vote. Snowball and Napoleon continue their fervent debates, the greatest of which occurs over the building of a windmill on a knoll. Snowball argues in favor of the windmill, which he is certain will eventually become a labor-saving device; Napoleon argues against it, saying that building the windmill will take time and effort away from the more important task of producing food. The two also disagree on whether they should (as Napoleon thinks) amass an armory of guns or (as Snowball thinks) send out more pigeons to neighboring farms to spread news of the rebellion. On the Sunday that the plan for the windmill is to be put to a vote, Napoleon calls out nine ferocious dogs, who chase Snowball off the farm. Napoleon then announces that all debates will stop and institutes a number of other new rules for the farm.
    Chapter 6
    During the following year, the animals work harder than ever before. Building the windmill is a laborious business, and Boxer proves himself a model of physical strength and dedication. Napoleon announces that Animal Farm will begin trading with neighboring farms and hires Mr. Whymper, a solicitor, to act as his agent. Other humans meet in pubs and discuss their theories that the windmill will collapse and that Animal Farm will go bankrupt. Jones gives up his attempts at retaking his farm and moves to another part of the county. The pigs move into the farmhouse and begin sleeping in beds, which Squealer excuses on the grounds that the pigs need their rest after the daily strain of running the farm.
    Chapter 7
    As the human world watches Animal Farm and waits for news of its failure, the animals struggle against starvation. Napoleon uses Mr. Whymper to spread news of Animal Farm’s sufficiency to the human world. After learning that they must surrender their eggs, the hens stage a demonstration that only ends when they can no longer live without the rations that Napoleon had denied them. Nine hens die as a result of the protest. The animals are led to believe that Snowball is visiting the farm at night and spitefully subverting their labor. He becomes a constant (and imagined) threat to the animals’ security, and Squealer eventually tells the animals that Snowball has sold himself to Frederick and that he was in league with Jones from the very beginning.
    Chapter 8
    The following year brings more work on the windmill and less food for the workers, despite Squealer’s lists of figures supposedly proving that food production has increased dramatically under Napoleon’s rule. As Napoleon grows more powerful, he is seen in public less often. The general opinion of him is expressed in a poem by Minimus that lists his merits and virtues. More executions occur while Napoleon schemes to sell a pile of timber to Frederick — who is alternately rumored to be a sadistic torturer of animals and the victim of unfounded gossip.
    Chapter 9
    After celebrating their so-called victory against Frederick, the animals begin building a new windmill. Their efforts are again led by Boxer who, despite his split hoof, insists on working harder and getting the windmill started before he retires.
    Chapter 10
    Years pass, and Animal Farm undergoes its final changes. Muriel, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher are all dead, and Jones dies in an inebriates’ home. Clover is now 14 years old (two years past the retiring age) but has not retired. (No animal ever has.) There are more animals on the farm, and the farm’s boundaries have increased, thanks to the purchase of two of Pilkington’s fields. The second windmill has been completed and is used for milling corn. All the animals continue their lives of hard work and little food — except, of course, for the pigs.

    Reference :
    http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/literature

  14. Dear sir,
    Below is my respond to the assignment of Literature II “Animal Farm”

    Chapter 1
    After Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, falls asleep in a drunken stupor, all of his animals meet in the big barn at the request of old Major, a 12-year-old pig. Major delivers a rousing political speech about the evils inflicted upon them by their human keepers and their need to rebel against the tyranny of Man. After elaborating on the various ways that Man has exploited and harmed the animals, Major mentions a strange dream of his in which he saw a vision of the earth without humans. He then teaches the animals a song — “Beasts of England” — which they sing repeatedly until they awaken Jones, who fires his gun from his bedroom window, thinking there is a fox in the yard. Frightened by the shot, the animals disperse and go to sleep.
    Chapter 2
    After the death of old Major, the animals spend their days secretly planning the rebellion, although they are unsure when it will occur. Because of their intelligence, the pigs are placed in charge of educating the animals about Animalism, the name they give to the philosophy expounded by Major in Chapter 1. Among the pigs, Snowball and Napoleon are the most important to the revolution. Despite Mollie’s concern with ribbons and Moses’ tales of a place called Sugarcandy Mountain, the pigs are successful in conveying the principles of Animalism to the others.
    Chapter 3
    Despite the initial difficulties inherent in using farming tools designed for humans, the animals cooperate to finish the harvest — and do so in less time than it had taken Jones and his men to do the same. Boxer distinguishes himself as a strong, tireless worker, admired by all the animals. The pigs become the supervisors and directors of the animal workers. On Sundays, the animals meet in the big barn to listen to Snowball and Napoleon debate a number of topics on which they seem never to agree. Snowball forms a number of Animal Committees, all of which fail. However, he does prove successful at bringing a degree of literacy to the animals, who learn to read according to their varied intelligences. To help the animals understand the general precepts of Animalism, Snowball reduces the Seven Commandments to a single slogan: “Four legs good, two legs bad.” Napoleon, meanwhile, focuses his energy on educating the youth and takes the infant pups of Jessie and Bluebell away from their mothers, presumably for educational purposes.
    Chapter 4
    As summer ends and news of the rebellion spreads to other farms (by way of pigeons released by Snowball and Napoleon), Jones spends most of his time in a pub, complaining about his troubles to two neighboring farmers: Pilkington and Frederick. In October, Jones and a group of men arrive at Animal Farm and attempt to seize control if it. Snowball turns out to be an extraordinary tactician and, with the help of the other animals, drives Jones and his men away. The animals then celebrate their victory in what they call “The Battle of the Cowshed.”
    Chapter 5
    Winter comes, and Mollie works less and less. Eventually, Clover discovers that Mollie is being bribed off Animal Farm by one of Pilkington’s men, who eventually wins her loyalties. Mollie disappears, and the pigeons report seeing her standing outside a pub, sporting one of the ribbons that she always coveted. The pigs increase their influence on the farm, deciding all questions of policy and then offering their decisions to the animals, who must ratify them by a majority vote. Snowball and Napoleon continue their fervent debates, the greatest of which occurs over the building of a windmill on a knoll. Snowball argues in favor of the windmill, which he is certain will eventually become a labor-saving device; Napoleon argues against it, saying that building the windmill will take time and effort away from the more important task of producing food. The two also disagree on whether they should (as Napoleon thinks) amass an armory of guns or (as Snowball thinks) send out more pigeons to neighboring farms to spread news of the rebellion. On the Sunday that the plan for the windmill is to be put to a vote, Napoleon calls out nine ferocious dogs, who chase Snowball off the farm. Napoleon then announces that all debates will stop and institutes a number of other new rules for the farm.
    Chapter 6
    During the following year, the animals work harder than ever before. Building the windmill is a laborious business, and Boxer proves himself a model of physical strength and dedication. Napoleon announces that Animal Farm will begin trading with neighboring farms and hires Mr. Whymper, a solicitor, to act as his agent. Other humans meet in pubs and discuss their theories that the windmill will collapse and that Animal Farm will go bankrupt. Jones gives up his attempts at retaking his farm and moves to another part of the county. The pigs move into the farmhouse and begin sleeping in beds, which Squealer excuses on the grounds that the pigs need their rest after the daily strain of running the farm.
    Chapter 7
    As the human world watches Animal Farm and waits for news of its failure, the animals struggle against starvation. Napoleon uses Mr. Whymper to spread news of Animal Farm’s sufficiency to the human world. After learning that they must surrender their eggs, the hens stage a demonstration that only ends when they can no longer live without the rations that Napoleon had denied them. Nine hens die as a result of the protest. The animals are led to believe that Snowball is visiting the farm at night and spitefully subverting their labor. He becomes a constant (and imagined) threat to the animals’ security, and Squealer eventually tells the animals that Snowball has sold himself to Frederick and that he was in league with Jones from the very beginning.
    Chapter 8
    The following year brings more work on the windmill and less food for the workers, despite Squealer’s lists of figures supposedly proving that food production has increased dramatically under Napoleon’s rule. As Napoleon grows more powerful, he is seen in public less often. The general opinion of him is expressed in a poem by Minimus that lists his merits and virtues. More executions occur while Napoleon schemes to sell a pile of timber to Frederick — who is alternately rumored to be a sadistic torturer of animals and the victim of unfounded gossip.
    Chapter 9
    After celebrating their so-called victory against Frederick, the animals begin building a new windmill. Their efforts are again led by Boxer who, despite his split hoof, insists on working harder and getting the windmill started before he retires.
    Chapter 10
    Years pass, and Animal Farm undergoes its final changes. Muriel, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher are all dead, and Jones dies in an inebriates’ home. Clover is now 14 years old (two years past the retiring age) but has not retired. (No animal ever has.) There are more animals on the farm, and the farm’s boundaries have increased, thanks to the purchase of two of Pilkington’s fields. The second windmill has been completed and is used for milling corn. All the animals continue their lives of hard work and little food — except, of course, for the pigs.

    Reference :
    http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/literature

  15. Dear Sir,

    Below is my respond to the assignment of Literature II “Animal Farm”

    Chapter 1
    After Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, falls asleep in a drunken stupor, all of his animals meet in the big barn at the request of old Major, a 12-year-old pig. Major delivers a rousing political speech about the evils inflicted upon them by their human keepers and their need to rebel against the tyranny of Man. After elaborating on the various ways that Man has exploited and harmed the animals, Major mentions a strange dream of his in which he saw a vision of the earth without humans. He then teaches the animals a song — “Beasts of England” — which they sing repeatedly until they awaken Jones, who fires his gun from his bedroom window, thinking there is a fox in the yard. Frightened by the shot, the animals disperse and go to sleep.
    Chapter 2
    After the death of old Major, the animals spend their days secretly planning the rebellion, although they are unsure when it will occur. Because of their intelligence, the pigs are placed in charge of educating the animals about Animalism, the name they give to the philosophy expounded by Major in Chapter 1. Among the pigs, Snowball and Napoleon are the most important to the revolution. Despite Mollie’s concern with ribbons and Moses’ tales of a place called Sugarcandy Mountain, the pigs are successful in conveying the principles of Animalism to the others.
    Chapter 3
    Despite the initial difficulties inherent in using farming tools designed for humans, the animals cooperate to finish the harvest — and do so in less time than it had taken Jones and his men to do the same. Boxer distinguishes himself as a strong, tireless worker, admired by all the animals. The pigs become the supervisors and directors of the animal workers. On Sundays, the animals meet in the big barn to listen to Snowball and Napoleon debate a number of topics on which they seem never to agree. Snowball forms a number of Animal Committees, all of which fail. However, he does prove successful at bringing a degree of literacy to the animals, who learn to read according to their varied intelligences. To help the animals understand the general precepts of Animalism, Snowball reduces the Seven Commandments to a single slogan: “Four legs good, two legs bad.” Napoleon, meanwhile, focuses his energy on educating the youth and takes the infant pups of Jessie and Bluebell away from their mothers, presumably for educational purposes.
    Chapter 4
    As summer ends and news of the rebellion spreads to other farms (by way of pigeons released by Snowball and Napoleon), Jones spends most of his time in a pub, complaining about his troubles to two neighboring farmers: Pilkington and Frederick. In October, Jones and a group of men arrive at Animal Farm and attempt to seize control if it. Snowball turns out to be an extraordinary tactician and, with the help of the other animals, drives Jones and his men away. The animals then celebrate their victory in what they call “The Battle of the Cowshed.”
    Chapter 5
    Winter comes, and Mollie works less and less. Eventually, Clover discovers that Mollie is being bribed off Animal Farm by one of Pilkington’s men, who eventually wins her loyalties. Mollie disappears, and the pigeons report seeing her standing outside a pub, sporting one of the ribbons that she always coveted. The pigs increase their influence on the farm, deciding all questions of policy and then offering their decisions to the animals, who must ratify them by a majority vote. Snowball and Napoleon continue their fervent debates, the greatest of which occurs over the building of a windmill on a knoll. Snowball argues in favor of the windmill, which he is certain will eventually become a labor-saving device; Napoleon argues against it, saying that building the windmill will take time and effort away from the more important task of producing food. The two also disagree on whether they should (as Napoleon thinks) amass an armory of guns or (as Snowball thinks) send out more pigeons to neighboring farms to spread news of the rebellion. On the Sunday that the plan for the windmill is to be put to a vote, Napoleon calls out nine ferocious dogs, who chase Snowball off the farm. Napoleon then announces that all debates will stop and institutes a number of other new rules for the farm.
    Chapter 6
    During the following year, the animals work harder than ever before. Building the windmill is a laborious business, and Boxer proves himself a model of physical strength and dedication. Napoleon announces that Animal Farm will begin trading with neighboring farms and hires Mr. Whymper, a solicitor, to act as his agent. Other humans meet in pubs and discuss their theories that the windmill will collapse and that Animal Farm will go bankrupt. Jones gives up his attempts at retaking his farm and moves to another part of the county. The pigs move into the farmhouse and begin sleeping in beds, which Squealer excuses on the grounds that the pigs need their rest after the daily strain of running the farm.
    Chapter 7
    As the human world watches Animal Farm and waits for news of its failure, the animals struggle against starvation. Napoleon uses Mr. Whymper to spread news of Animal Farm’s sufficiency to the human world. After learning that they must surrender their eggs, the hens stage a demonstration that only ends when they can no longer live without the rations that Napoleon had denied them. Nine hens die as a result of the protest. The animals are led to believe that Snowball is visiting the farm at night and spitefully subverting their labor. He becomes a constant (and imagined) threat to the animals’ security, and Squealer eventually tells the animals that Snowball has sold himself to Frederick and that he was in league with Jones from the very beginning.
    Chapter 8
    The following year brings more work on the windmill and less food for the workers, despite Squealer’s lists of figures supposedly proving that food production has increased dramatically under Napoleon’s rule. As Napoleon grows more powerful, he is seen in public less often. The general opinion of him is expressed in a poem by Minimus that lists his merits and virtues. More executions occur while Napoleon schemes to sell a pile of timber to Frederick — who is alternately rumored to be a sadistic torturer of animals and the victim of unfounded gossip.
    Chapter 9
    After celebrating their so-called victory against Frederick, the animals begin building a new windmill. Their efforts are again led by Boxer who, despite his split hoof, insists on working harder and getting the windmill started before he retires.
    Chapter 10
    Years pass, and Animal Farm undergoes its final changes. Muriel, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher are all dead, and Jones dies in an inebriates’ home. Clover is now 14 years old (two years past the retiring age) but has not retired. (No animal ever has.) There are more animals on the farm, and the farm’s boundaries have increased, thanks to the purchase of two of Pilkington’s fields. The second windmill has been completed and is used for milling corn. All the animals continue their lives of hard work and little food — except, of course, for the pigs.

    Reference :
    http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/literature

  16. In the first chapter, Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, after the drunken farmer Jones has gone to bed, all the animals of the farm assemble for a meeting. The meeting has been called by Old Major, a boar who is the oldest and wisest animal on the farm. The pigs, cows, horses, ducks, hens and dogs all assemble in the big barn, thinking that they are going to be told about a dream that Old Major had the previous night. He describes how the humans steal everything produced by the animals, with the animals receiving in return only enough food to keep them alive. He goes on to tell them that all the animals are comrades, they are brothers, and that their only real enemy is humans. Old Major finally gets around to telling them about his dream, he cannot describe the dream, except to say that it reminded him of a song that he learned in his youth called “Beasts of England.”

    In the second chapter, Old Major dies three days later. The animals set out to prepare for the rebellion. The pigs, being the most intelligent animals on the farm, take the lead on this. The task of working Old Major’s ideas into a more formal system falls to three pigs, Napoleon, Snowball and Squealer. These three organize regular nighttime meetings with the other animals to explain the principles of their system, called Animalism. The rebellion happens on Midsummer’s day, just before harvest. Snowball and Napoleon are announcing that they have spent the last few months learning to write. Next they go to the main gate of the farm and paint over “Manor Farm”, replacing it with “Animal Farm”. Returning to the farm buildings, they paint the seven commands of Animalism onto the gable of the big barn;
    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.

    In the third chapter, the harvest is a great success. It finished about two days earlier than Jones and his men used to manage. They are so enthusiastic and excited about the fact that the food is truly their own, that no food is stolen during the harvesting. Almost all the animals have worked as hard as they possibly could, but there are some exceptions. Sunday is a rest day, when the animals assemble at a great meeting. This is where the work for the coming week is to be planned, and various motions discussed. All of the resolutions are put forward by the pigs. The other animals are aware of this, but as they cannot think of any resolutions themselves, they allow the pigs to lead. Snowball puts all his energies into forming various committees, each of which is responsible for improving some or other aspect of life on the farm. Napoleon sees no value in this, and prefers to concentrate on educating the young. Not all of Snowball committees work very well, but his reading and writing classes are very successful. The pigs can read and write perfectly. The dogs learn to read, but will not read anything except the seven commandments. Boxer the great carthorse tries very hard to learn the alphabet, but cannot get past D. Many of the other animals can understand only one letter. Because so many animals are thus unable to read the seven commandments, Snowball reduces the seven commandments to the single maxim “Four legs good, two legs bad!” which they can remember more easily. Some of the animals are puzzled by this, and wonder why the apples are not to be shared out equally. He tells them that the pigs, as the leaders, must keep their brainpower up, and that science has proven that milk and apples are essential for this. Squealer goes on to remind them that the alternative to the pigs is to have Farmer Jones back. This settles the animals, who agree that, whatever happens, they never want to live under Jones again.

    In the fourth chapter, news of the rebellion that occurred in the animal farm began to spread. Every day, Snowball and Napoleon sent the pigeons to spread the news, and they also teach the pigeons song “beasts of England”. The neighboring farmers, led by Mr. Pilkington of Fox wood and Mr. Frederick of Pinch Field Farm, attempt to retake Animal Farm by force. The animals, led by Snowball, successfully fight off the invaders in what comes to be known as the Battle of the Cowshed. Snowball and boxer have known as the ultimate animal hero.

    In the fifth chapter, winter is approaching. Mollie, who has been avoiding work more and more, is found to have been accepting gifts of ribbon and sugar from one of the men on the neighboring farm. Shortly afterwards she disappears, and is said to be pulling a cart in the town. A lot of time is spent on meetings of all the animals in the big barn, where the future policy for the farm is discussed and voted on. The divisions between Snowball and Napoleon are becoming more pronounced, and it seems that they now oppose each other on every proposal. Snowball’s eloquence allows him to control the meetings, However, Napoleon works quietly behind the scenes building support, and succeeding in getting all of the sheep onto his side.
    Snowball is forever proposing new plans and schemes for the improvement of the farm, all of which are opposed by Napoleon. Snowball’s most ambitious plan is for the construction of a windmill, which he says can provide heat and electricity to the farm. He accepts that it will be a huge undertaking, and is vague about some of the details. Napoleon is completely against the idea, and makes his opposition clear. Snowball continues to work on his plans, and spends hours every day in a shed working on them, drawing them out on the wooden floor. All of the animals visit Snowball regularly in the shed to watch the plans grow into something that looks very complex and impressive.

    In the sixth chapter, another year passes. The animals work themselves to the bone on the harvest and on the windmill, all under the supervision of the pigs. Napoleon announced that Animal Farm will begin trading with neighboring farms and employs Mr. Whymper, the other men met in the pub and discuss their theories that the windmill would collapse and that Animal Farm will go bankrupt. Jones put in the effort to reclaim his farm. In November, the storm uprooted half-finished windmill. Napoleon said Snowball responsible for damage to windmills and offered a reward for every animal that kills Snowball or brings him back to life. Napoleon then declared that they will begin rebuilding the windmill through the rain during the winter, morning or shine.

    In the seventh chapter, in the seventh chapter, it was a bitter winter they tried their best in rebuilding the windmill. By January, they are threatened with starvation. Once time on Sunday when they have meeting the Squealer announced that hens should give their eggs for trading, the hens try to refuse but, the pigs warned that they will stop their rations completely. Eventually the hens give their eggs. In the other side, the animals heard the news about Snowball from the pig. Snowball is said to be hiding on one of the neighboring farms. He is said to be sneaking into Animal farm by night and doing untold damage. Every mishap and misfortune on the farm was now attributed to Snowball. Napoleon made a show and he was accompanied by the dogs to investigate what Snowball did. Many things happed in the farm, Napoleon at all did all by his own way, even the killing of a pig who is forced to admit if they conspire with him. The animals felt strange but they try to console their self by singing Beast of England, and they are very surprised now that the song is henceforth abolished. It is to be replaced a song called Animal Farm, composed by one of the pigs. The animals take up the new song faithfully, but are aware that it does not compare to Beasts of England.

    In the eighth chapter, upon execution, Clover agitated that someone has violated the seventh commandment. He asks Muriel to read it again the sixth commandment of the gable wall. The order was read, No animal will kill another animal without cause. Clover does not seem to remember reading the last two words before, but thought nothing more of it. Stirring urging them to greater efforts, telling them that productivity in agriculture has increased enormously since the rebellion, although many animals secretly feel hungry. Napoleon, now known as Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon, and several other flattering title, rarely seen in public, and now employs a rooster as a preacher, and accompanied all the time with his dogs. The relationship between the neighboring farms, of Frederick and Pilkington of Fox wood Pinch field, remains complex. Napoleon, through mediators had tried to sell a pile of wood to one of the other neighbors. At this time, rumors abound that Frederick is about to attack livestock. A plot to assassinate Napoleon revealed. Three chickens Snowball acknowledges, is said to live in Pinch field, put them to it. Chicken run. Napoleon announced shortly afterwards that the wood is sold to Pilkington of Fox wood. When, at the end of the year, the wheat crop was found full of weeds, Snowball, and by implication Frederick, blame. The animals are sad because of loss of windmills, but the pig quickly set about the task of rebuilding morale by reminding them of their glorious victory has been won. Today will be forever commemorated as Battle of the Windmill. In the next celebration, counterfeit banknotes were forgotten. Pigs then find keg of whiskey in the farmhouse. That night, a loud celebrations, in the farmhouse, to the amazement of other animals. Soon after, he announced that a small field near the park, originally set aside for retirement animals that could work no more, it should be plowed and planted with wheat. Muriel disturbed by these developments, and he consulted with the fifth commandment. Once again, he realized that he had given the wrong, for it says, no animal shall drink alcohol to excess.

    In the ninth chapter, rebuilding of the windmill begins immediately after the celebrations. Boxer works harder than ever, despites carrying an injury from the battles. His thoughts are now turning to retirement, for which, under the laws of Animal farm, he is due the next year. The building work around the farm continues through the summer, heavily dependent on the extraordinary efforts of Boxer. He is showing some signs at this stage that his strength is failing. He himself is hoping to get as much done as he possibly can before he retires. Then, one summer evening, he collapses. All the animals rush to his side, unable to bear the thought that anything might happen to him. He barely has the strength to get back to his feet and to struggle back to his stall. Squealer promises to send him to the town so that the veterinary surgeon can treat him. Napoleon pays his respects to Boxer at the meeting on the following Sunday. He tells them that it was not possible to return Boxer’s remains for burial on the farm, but that he will be commemorated with a wreath instead. Napoleon announces a memorial banquet for Boxer, which takes place in the farmhouse shortly afterwards, attended only by the pigs.

    In the tenth chapter, Years have passed, and many of the animals are dead. Summer arrives. Squealer is seen to take all the sheep of the farm aside, and no-one sees them for a week. Mr Pilkington makes a speech telling the pigs how impressed he is with Animal Farm, especially with the hard work and poor rations of the farm animals. Napoleon makes a speech in return, expressing his happiness that the mistrust between Animal Farm and the others is now at an end. He furthermore announces that the animals will cease to address each other as “Comrade,” and that “Animal Farm” will now revert to being called “Manor Farm.” As Napoleon finishes his speech to great applause, the animals outside seem to notice something changing in the features of the pigs, but what? As the applause dies down and the card game is resumed, the animals creep away from the window. However, they hurry back when they hear a furious argument break out. The argument is because Mr. Pilkington and Napoleon have both played an Ace of Spades at the same time. But as the animals look from Napoleon to Pilkington, from man to pig and from pig back to man, they find that they are unable to tell the difference.

  17. Hello my handsome lecturer 
    At the chapter one, the story begins when Mr. Jones drunkenly retreats to bed for the evening, the animals gather to hear a word by old Major. A well respected pig who had a dream the night prior which he felt he needed to share with the other barnyard animals. Before Major delivers his speech, Orwell introduces many of the novel’s main characters, who would each play an important role later in the novel: the horses Boxer and Clover, Benjamin the donkey and Molly the pretty white mare. Major feels he will not live much longer, and desires to pass on his wisdom to the others before it is too late. Old Major continues into his speech, where he announces that the life of an animal is “miserable, laborious and short,” as a result of being enslaved by man.

    At the second chapter, although old Major dies in his sleep just three nights after delivering his speech, his message lives on through the remaining animals on the farm. They are emboldened by his promise of a better future and begin to prepare for the coming revolution. The pigs, being the most intelligent animals on the farm, begin the task of educating the others and organizing for the revolution. Orwell introduces two pigs that stand out as natural leaders over the rest of the animals. The first pig named Napoleon, whom Orwell describes as a “large, rather fierce looking boar with a reputation for getting his own way” and Snowball, a pig characterized as being inventive and naturally engaging. Orwell also describes a third pig, aptly named Squealer, who has an unparalleled ability to convince others that “black is white” through his talents in persuasion and influence.

    The third chapter. The animals work very hard, but they are eventually rewarded with a larger harvest then they have seen in the past. Animalism is met with great enthusiasm as everyone finally enjoys the fruits of their labor, free from the parasitic nature of man. Since the pigs were clever to figure out ways to use Mr. Jones’ tools and coordinate the harvest, they did not do any work themselves. Instead they supervised the work of the other animals as they all pitched in to complete the harvest. Although they were met with some difficulties, the animals pulled through any problem thanks to the cleverness of the pigs and the strength of Boxer. Boxer arranged to wake up earlier than the others, work voluntarily during the animal’s leisure time and he answered every problem the same way.

    Fourth chapter. Word of the Animal Farm rebellion quickly spreads across the country by late summer. Animals everywhere could be heard singing Beasts of England. Otherwise subdued animals on other farms begin to disobey their masters in subtle ways on a regular basis. Mr. Jones recounts his sad tale of losing the farm at the local pub and urges the other farmers to help him retake his farm from the animals. Jones and other local farmers attack the Animal farm in the hope of returning the power to Mr. Jones and quash any possibility of an animal uprising across the country.

    The fifth chapter. With the workload increasing steadily, Mollie becomes more and more resistant to doing her share. Clover discovers her speaking with a neighboring farmer, to which Mollie denies. Clover visits Mollie’s stall and finds a pile of lump sugar and ribbon. Three days later, Mollie disappears from the farm and the pigeons report her to be in the care of a human. No one ever mentions Mollie again.

    Sixth chapter. The animals work like slaves throughout the year, but remain happy in their work knowing that it is for the benefit of animalkind, not mankind. During the spring and summer, the animals work 60-hour weeks. Work on Sundays becomes “voluntary” as well. This voluntary work comes with a condition those who do not work on Sundays have their food rations cut in half for the remainder of the week, therefore prompting all animals to work Sundays as well. Construction of the windmill proves difficult as well since the animals have no easy method to transport the rocks and break them down to a manageable size. Boxer again proves to be a model of hard work and determination able to do the work of almost all of the other animals alone.

    The seventh chapter. The ensuing winter was very hard, but the animals carried on with the reconstruction of the windmill. Due to the hard work and terrible weather, the moral begins to slide at Animal farm. Only Boxer and Clover remained dedicated to the cause. During the winter food supplies also fall short, threatening starvation for many of the animals. Napoleon decides to conceal this from the outside world and fills the empty food bins with sand to make them appear full, placing the remaining food on top. Mr. Whymper is lead through the farm so that he would see (and report to the other humans) that the animals had plenty of food.

    The eighth chapter, Later, some of the animals remembered – or thought they remembered – that the Sixth Commandment decreed ‘No animal shall kill any other animal.’ And though no one cared to mention it in the hearing of the pigs or the dogs, it was felt that the killings which had taken place did not square with this.

    Chapter ninth, Boxer’s hoof, split in the battle against the humans, takes a long time to heal, but he refuses to take any time off work as he wants to see the windmill well under way before he retires the next summer.

    And then the last chapter is many years pass and the only animals left on the farm from the days before the Rebellion are Clover, Benjamin, Moses and a number of the pigs – the rest have passed away. The farm is more prosperous now, with more animals who have been born or bought, and the windmill is finished. The animals are building another windmill, which will run a dynamo, but even then there will be no light and hot and cold water.

  18. Animal Farm Summary
    Animal Farm begins with a very drunk Mr. Jones (owner of Manor Farm) doing a really crumby job of, you know, his job. The neglected animals listen to a wise old pig, old Major, who encourages them all to rebel and run the farm themselves. Above all, he says, everyone should be equal. Then he dies. Everyone is excited except for Benjamin, a cynical donkey whose main job in life is to be, well, cynical.

    The animals do rebel, and the pigs, being the smartest animals, naturally take the leadership role (so much for that equality business). There is some immediate conflict between two pigs, Napoleon and Snowball. Napoleon wants to sit around and be in charge of everything, while Snowball wants to teach the other animals (Imagine!) and build a windmill. Napoleon uses nine ferocious and enormous dogs (which he stole when they were young) to become the All Powerful Dominant Boss Leader Chief Pig. He doesn’t call it that, but it’s in the back of his mind somewhere. So Snowball is out of the picture, which is convenient for blaming everything on him.

    The pigs exploit the other animals shamelessly, breaking all the rules that they had established after the Rebellion. Things fall apart: life on the farm gets worse and worse, the animals forget old Major’s original dream, and the pigs make some poor management decisions when dealing with the neighboring farms. The culminating miserable moment comes when the pigs send Boxer, a hardworking and loyal horse who is ready for retirement, to his death. Ouch.

    In short, the pigs are starting to look a lot like the horrible human owners that we started with at the beginning of this whole mess. They may even be worse. So old cynical Benjamin was right.

    Chapter 1 Summary
    • Mr. Jones is drunk. Again. He owns Manor Farm, by the way. Also, the animals talk. Work with it.
    • “Old Major” is a sort of revered, older, wiser boar-pig-dude on the farm. He has a dream, and the others, acknowledging his age, wisdom, and all around general superiority, gather around (campfire-style) to listen.
    • The cast of characters is introduced. You’ve got Jessie, Bluebell, and Pincher (three dogs), Boxer and Clover (horses, male and female respectively), Muriel (a goat), Benjamin (an old and cynical donkey, good friends with Boxer), Mollie (a silly mare), Moses (a raven), chickens, hens, ducks, two turtledoves and a partridge in a pear tree.
    • Old Major suggests that they have an uprising against the lazy, resource-sucking humans and run the farm themselves. He introduces some rules for the animals regarding loyalty, alcohol, money, trade, and specifies that no animal may kill any other animal. Keep an eye on those rules – they tend to change as the story goes on.
    • They all sing “Beasts of England,” a lovely tune eliciting warm and fuzzy feelings of togetherness.

    Chapter 2 Summary
    • Old Major dies, which would have been all jarring and climax-esque if he hadn’t predicted it before he gave his speech.
    • We are told that the pigs, particularly Snowball and Napoleon, are more intelligent than everyone else. They’re pigs…they need to get something in the way of attributes. Oh, and there’s also Squealer, who is sort of like a used car salesman. The pigs start running the show.
    • The animals found “Animalism,” a system of thought summarizing Old Major’s teachings. No points for creativity.
    • Moses, the crow, speaks of a paradise-like place called Sugarcandy Mountain, much to everyone’s annoyance.
    • Turns out Boxer and Clover are stupid, but trusting and hard working.
    • Mr. Jones gets drunk. Again. After he neglects the animals, they choose the opportune moment of being a) underfed and b) really pissed off as the time to uprise. They do. Uprise that is. Successfully.
    • They make more rules: no clothes (including ribbons…brutal) and no sleeping in the house. They also rename Manor Farm, calling it Animal Farm instead.
    • The pigs, who miraculously read and write, come up with Seven Commandments. What are these commandments, you might ask. Good question. We suggest you open your book.
    • The pigs steal all the fresh milk from the cows. The less intelligent animals don’t seem to notice.

    Chapter 3 Summary
    • The animals start the great task of running the farm. The pigs supervise. Things seem to be going well. This, of course, is foreshadowing for disaster.
    • Boxer, it turns out, is a huge asset. He’s big, and not particularly smart, but he works harder than everyone else. In fact, to emphasize this point, he walks around all day repeating, “I will work harder” over and over. Like we said…not too smart.
    • Mollie (the mare, remember?) is extraordinarily lazy. She also has this odd predilection for ribbons.
    • Benjamin, we see, is this really cool, cryptic, apathetic guy. And by guy we mean donkey. He has this one interesting line…better check out your book. OK, fine, we’ll give you this one. But don’t get used to it. When asked his opinion on the Rebellion, Benjamin says, “Donkeys live a long time. None of you has ever seen a dead donkey.”
    • The pigs try to educate the farm animals, only to find that their pupils resemble ignorant creatures of hard labor.
    • To make things easier, the Seven Commandments get condensed to a single maxim: “Four legs good, two legs bad.”
    • Napoleon (the pig, remember?) sequesters nine newborn puppies. Keep an eye out for those suckers.
    • The pigs seem to be taking the milk and apples every day, but explain that this is only because it is their responsibility to maintain their health. They don’t even like milk and apples, they explain. At this point, Orwell is rolling on the floor laughing and wiping tears of hilarity off of his typewriter.

    Chapter 4 Summary
    • We are introduced to Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick. Each owns one of the neighboring farms. In short, the animals are working on their public image. PR, etc.
    • Snowball, a tactics extraordinaire, prepares the animals for the impending invasion of the humans. Sounds Jules Verne-ish, doesn’t it?
    • Blood! Battle! Exclamation Points! Read your book! There are some minor casualties (animals that don’t really matter, like sheep) and Snowball is wounded. Boxer kills a man and then feels guilty about it.
    • Snowball gets a prize. Rather, he gives himself a prize: “Animal Hero, First Class.”

    Chapter 5 Summary
    • Something is rotten in the state of the Animal Farm. And it’s not the dead sheep from the battle. It’s the fact that Mollie has been cavorting (talking, really, we just like the word “cavort”) with one of the men on the neighboring farms in return for such frivolities as sugar and ribbons. Then she abandons the farm altogether.
    • Snowball and Napoleon start fighting with each other like two bullies on a playground, each insisting that he is bigger than the other and should get to pick teams for dodge ball. Snowball’s speeches are better, but Napoleon does this clever campaigning business in the downtime between animal votes.
    • Snowball makes plans for a windmill for the farm. Napoleon pees on them. No, literally, he actually pees on the plans. Or “urinates”, as Orwell so delicately puts it. We’re not kidding. But in case you were doubting us, you should read your book.
    • Benjamin pops back up again to say that life sucks either way, windmill or no windmill. Such a Pollyanna, that Benjamin.
    • Snowball and Napoleon give speeches about the windmill; Snowball’s is superior. But before the vote, Napoleon brings in the pups from before (we told you to look out for them) which are now all grown-up and tooth-baring and vicious and they chase Snowball out of the farm. Napoleon wins by default. Or by brute force, depending on your point of view.
    • Napoleon abolishes the meetings. Squealer makes him seem like a god by “explaining” things to the dumber animals.
    • Napoleon decides to build the windmill after all. What’s that saying? Oh, yes – how fickle is pig.

    Chapter 6 Summary
    • The animals work “like slaves.” Heavy irony ensues.
    • Napoleon starts engaging in trade with the neighboring farms. “Wait a minute,” you might say, “I thought there was a rule against trade!” Yeah. That’s what the animals thought, too. Talk to Squealer. They also move into the farmhouse. Talk to Squealer again.
    • Snowball becomes the scapegoat, which is particularly convenient when the windmill blows down in a gale.

    Chapter 7 Summary
    • Since the collapse of the windmill, the animals are starving. But they try to convince the outside world otherwise. Again, public relations and image control.
    • The hens are told their eggs will be taken. They rebel, but are starved as a consequence (via control of the teeth-baring dogs) and nine die. Again, heavy irony ensues.
    • More scapegoating at Snowball’s expense. Boxer seems, amazingly, to remember history the way that it occurred, but Squealer quickly convinces him otherwise.
    • At a meeting, several animals confess (while in the presence of the teeth-baring dogs) to having been in league with Snowball, or with Jones, or both. They are subsequently killed upon Napoleon’s orders.
    • It seems that, due to Boxer’s doubt regarding the new and rewritten history, Napoleon tries to have him killed by the dogs. However, when Boxer’s brute strength becomes apparent, Napoleon seems to change his mind. There’s a lot of subtlety here – none of the animals, and especially not Boxer, think for a moment that there was an attempt on Boxer’s life. On the surface, it simply appears as though the dogs went rogue and attacked him.
    • There’s this great, contemplative moment when Clover looks over the farm and thinks to herself that these scenes of bloody terror are certainly not what the animals have worked so hard for. Such emotion, such poignancy – read your book.
    • The song which we have all come to know and love (“Beasts of England”) is abolished.

    Chapter 8 Summary
    • At this point, you may be thinking to yourself that there was some rule about not killing other animals. The animals thought so, too, but upon inspection find that the rules have been changed. Now it says something along the lines of not killing without cause. Semantics, really.
    • Napoleon gets a new name, as “Napoleon” is not majestic enough. Now it is “Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon.” He’s also becoming a total snob about the amount and consistency of the foam on his cappuccinos. OK, we made that last part up.
    • Napoleon sells timber to neighboring farmer Frederick, refusing to take payment by check (or rather, “cheque,” since this is England), demanding cash instead. Turns out the money was fake. That Frederick – such a prankster.
    • The animals are again attacked by the humans, who this time take dynamite and blow apart the windmill the animals were building. Did we mention they were rebuilding the windmill? Oh. Well, take our word for it, they were rebuilding the windmill. Also, some bloodiness is involved in the battle. Naturally. Boxer is injured.
    • The pigs celebrate their “victory” by dressing up in clothes (not allowed) and drinking alcohol (also not allowed) inside the farmhouse (you got it – not allowed).

    Chapter 9 Summary
    • Things continue, basically, to suck. They have to rebuild the windmill again and they have no food and it’s winter and Boxer is hurt and it’s cold and they have to walk to school every day in the snow, barefoot, uphill both ways. The pigs, however, seem to be doing just fine in their fat and alcoholic state.
    • Moses comes back! The raven, not the Biblical figure. Did we mention that he had gone away? Because he did, at some point.
    • Boxer overexerts himself and collapses; he is ready for retirement.
    • The pigs send him to the “hospital,” and by hospital they really mean glue factory. No, really, glue factory, as Benjamin reads off the side of the departing van. Old Benjie finally shows some emotion, namely rage, as he sees his dear friend being taken to the slaughter.
    • The pigs use the money they earned off Boxer to buy themselves whisky.

    Chapter 10 Summary
    • Time passes, as Orwell so subtly and artistically informs us with the line, “Years passed.”
    • Ironically, the animals are happy about the fact that they no longer work for tyrannical masters. Orwell is winking at you, and occasionally nudging you with his (pointy) elbow.
    • The pigs start walking on two legs. They train the sheep to say, “Four legs good, two legs better,” which we all can agree has a nicer ring to it than version 1.0.
    • Then comes the big, famous line from the book – the line that, for the rest of your life at cocktail parties, people will say in hopes of sounding smart, and you, thanks to having read the book, will be able to identify and laugh along into your shrimp with everyone else: “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.” Let’s all take a moment.
    • The pigs meet inside the farmhouse with the neighboring farmer Pilkington, who congratulates them on running a farm with the hardest working and most underfed animals in England. More nudging of ribs.
    • The name Animal Farm is done away with and the pigs go back to calling it Manor Farm.
    • Watching the pigs, as a result of the clothes and alcohol and the standing on two legs, the animals peeking through the window realize there is no difference between the pigs and the humans, and there is in fact no way to tell them apart.

    References: http://www.shmoop.com/animal-farm/summary.html

  19. Summary
    The story takes place on a farm somewhere in England. The story is told by an all-knowing narrator in the third person. The action of this novel starts when the oldest pig on the farm, Old Major, calls all animals to a secret meeting. He tells them about his dream of a revolution against the cruel Mr. Jones. Three days later Major dies, but the speech gives the more intelligent animals a new outlook on life. The pigs, who are considered the most intelligent animals, instruct the other ones. During the period of preparation two pigs distinguish themselves, Napoleon and Snowball. Napoleon is big, and although he isn’t a good speaker, he can assert himself. Snowball is a better speaker, he has a lot of ideas and he is very vivid. Together with another pig called Squealer, who is a very good speaker, they work out the theory of “Animalism”. The rebellion starts some months later, when Mr Jones comes home drunk one night and forgets to feed the animals. They break out of the barns and run to the house, where the food is stored. When Mr Jones sees this he takes out his shotgun, but it is too late for him; all the animals fall over him and drive him off the farm. The animals destroy all whips, nose rings, reins, and all other instruments that have been used to suppress them. The same day the animals celebrate their victory with an extra ration of food. The pigs make up the seven commandments, and they write them above the door of the big barn.
    They run thus:
    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
    6. No animal shall kill another animal.
    7. All animals are equal.
    The animals also agree that no animal shall ever enter the farmhouse, and that no animal shall have contact with humans. These commandments are summarized in the simple phrase: “Four legs good, two legs bad”. After some time, Jones comes back with some other men from the village to recapture the farm. The animals fight bravely, and they manage to defend the farm. Snowball and Boxer receive medals of honour for defending the farm so bravely. Also Napoleon, who had not fought at all, takes a medal. This is the reason why the two pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, often argue. When Snowball presents his idea to build a windmill, to produce electricity for the other animals, Napoleon calls nine strong dogs. The dogs drive Snowball from the farm, and Napoleon explains that Snowball was in fact co-operating with Mr. Jones. He also explains that Snowball in reality never had a medal of honour, that Snowball was always trying to cover up that he was fighting on the side of Mr. Jones. The animals then start building the windmill, and as time passes the working-time goes up, whereas the food rations decline. Although the “common” animals have not enough food, the pigs grow fatter and fatter. They tell the other animals that they need more food, for they are managing the whole farm. Sometime later, the pigs explain to the other animals that they have to trade with the neighboring farms. The common animals are very upset, because since the revolution there has been a resolution that no animal shall trade with a human. But the pigs ensure them that there never has been such a resolution, and that this was an evil lie of Snowball. Shortly after this decision the pigs move to the farmhouse. The other animals remember that there is a commandment that forbids sleeping in beds, and so they go to the big barn to look at the commandments. When they arrive there they can’t believe their eyes, the fourth commandment has been changed to: “No animal shall sleep in bed with sheets”. And the other commandments have also been changed: “No animal shall kill another animal without reason”, and “No animal shall drink alcohol in excess”. Some months later a heavy storm destroys the windmill, which is nearly finished. Napoleon accuses Snowball of destroying the mill, and he promises a reward to the animal that gets Snowball. The rebuilding of the mill takes two years. Again Jones attacks the farm, and although the animals defend it, the windmill is once again destroyed. The pigs decide to rebuild the mill again, and they cut down the food rations to a minimum. One day Boxer breaks down. He is sold to a butcher, but Napoleon tells the pigs that Boxer has been brought to a hospital where he has died. Three years later, the mill is finally completed. During this time Napoleon deepens the relations with the neighboring farm, and one day Napoleon even invites the owners of this farm for an inspection. They sit inside the farmhouse and celebrate the efficiency of his farm, where the animals work very hard with a minimum of food. During this celebration, all the other animals meet at the window of the farm, and when they look inside they can’t distinguish between man and animal.
    References:
    http://www.k-1.com/Orwell/site/work/summaries/animf.html

  20. Chapter 3
    The harvest is a great success. It finished about two days earlier than Jones and his men used to manage. They are so enthusiastic and excited about the fact that the food is truly their own, that no food is stolen during the harvesting. Almost all the animals have worked as hard as they possibly could, but there are some exceptions.
    Sunday is a rest day, when the animals assemble at a great meeting. This is where the work for the coming week is to be planned, and various motions discussed. All of the resolutions are put forward by the pigs. The other animals are aware of this, but as they cannot think of any resolutions themselves, they allow the pigs to lead. Snowball puts all his energies into forming various committees, each of which is responsible for improving some or other aspect of life on the farm. Napoleon sees no value in this, and prefers to concentrate on educating the young. Not all of Snowball committees work very well, but his reading and writing classes are very successful. The pigs can read and write perfectly. The dogs learn to read, but will not read anything except the seven commandments. Boxer the great carthorse tries very hard to learn the alphabet, but cannot get past D. Many of the other animals can understand only one letter. Because so many animals are thus unable to read the seven commandments, Snowball reduces the seven commandments to the single maxim “Four legs good, two legs bad!”,which they can remember more easily. Some of the animals are puzzled by this, and wonder why the apples are not to be shared out equally. He tells them that the pigs, as the leaders, must keep their brainpower up, and that science has proven that milk and apples are essential for this. Squealer goes on to remind them that the alternative to the pigs is to have Farmer Jones back. This settles the animals, who agree that, whatever happens, they never want to live under Jones again.
    Chapter 4
    Snowball and Napoleon are sending pigeons to neighboring farms and beyond, to tell the animals about the rebellion. News of the rebellion has spread to the surrounding county. The farmers at first pretend not to be troubled about the rebellion, believing that the animals cannot possibly make a success of the farm. But as time passes the farmers become more and more troubled, and their animals become more and more bravely. The farmers try to spread lies about torture and slavery on Animal Farm, but the animals of the county do not believe them, because the tunes of their whistle are different. One day in October, Jones, all his men, and half a dozen others from the neighboring farms, attack Animal Farm. They walk up the laneway through the main gate. They are all armed with sticks except for Jones, who carries a gun. The animals, however, are well prepared. As soon as the men are in the farmyard, a number of the larger animals emerge from the shed behind them, and cut off their retreat. Snowball’s group now attacks again. Snowball charges at Jones. Jones fires a shot at Snowball and wounds him, but this is not enough to prevent Snowball from crashing into him and sending him tumbling to the ground, the gun flying out of his hand in the process, Now Boxer joins the attack, rearing up on his hind legs and striking viciously with his hoofed forelegs. Boxer strikes one of the men on the skull, apparently killing him. At the sight of this, the other men run for their lives, back down the laneway and out the gate. They search the farm, and find her hiding in a corner. She fled the battle as soon as the gun went off. They return to the farmyard to find that the man was only stunned, and has since recovered and escaped. The animals celebrate their victory. The flag is raised, Beasts of England is sung.
    Chapter 5
    Winter is coming. Mollie, who has been avoiding work more and more, is found to have been accepting gifts of ribbon and sugar from one of the men on the neighboring farm. Shortly afterwards she disappears, and is said to be pulling a cart in the town. No one on the farm ever sees her again, and she is never mention again.
    A lot of time is spent on meetings of all the animals in the big barn, where the future policy for the farm is discussed and voted on. The divisions between Snowball and Napoleon are becoming more pronounced, and it seems that they now oppose each other on every proposal. Snowball’s eloquence allows him to control the meetings, However, Napoleon works quietly behind the scenes building support, and succeeding in getting all of the sheep onto his side.
    Snowball is forever proposing new plans and schemes for the improvement of the farm, all of which are opposed by Napoleon. Snowball’s most ambitious plan is for the construction of a windmill, which he says can provide heat and electricity to the farm. He accepts that it will be a huge undertaking, and is vague about some of the details. Napoleon is completely against the idea, and makes his opposition clear. Snowball continues to work on his plans, and spends hours every day in a shed working on them, drawing them out on the wooden floor. All of the animals visit Snowball regularly in the shed to watch the plans grow into something that looks very complex and impressive.
    Chapter 6
    Another year passes. The animals work themselves to the bone on the harvest and on the windmill, all under the supervision of the pigs. The animals are asked to work on Sunday afternoons as well, on a voluntary basis, though any animal that did not work on Sunday had their rations halved. By autumn time, it is clear that the harvest is a poorer one than the previous year. This will make the coming winter all the more difficult.
    Progress on the windmill is laborious and slow. The stones with which it is to be built have to be hauled to the top of the quarry and thrown from there to the bottom, so that the stones can be broken into the appropriate sizes. It takes until the end of the summer to accumulate enough stone to begin building the windmill, work which depends almost entirely on the tremendous efforts of Boxer, who works himself harder than ever before.
    As the work on the harvest and the windmill proceeds, the animals find themselves running out of supplies. Hay and wheat from the farm will be sold, and the hens are told that they will have to give up some of their eggs, a sacrifice that they should be proud to make. Shortly afterwards, the pigs move into the farmhouse. They eat in the kitchen, relax in the drawing room, and even sleep in the beds. Some of the animals are very doubtful about this. Clover consults the seven commandments on the gable wall, and asks Muriel to read out the fourth commandment, which states, “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets.” Muriel cannot remember sheets being mentioned before. However, helped by the smooth words of Squealer, she assumes that she must have be wrong, She and the other animals accept his argument that the pigs, as the leaders, must have as much comfort as possible to facilitate their brainwork. The work on the windmill continues. The animals are all extremely proud of their progress so far, except for Benjamin, who expresses no opinion for or against the windmill. By November, the windmill is half finished.
    Chapter 7
    The animals now face into a brutal winter. Corn is scarce, and the farm’s stock of potatoes has been destroyed by frost. By January, they are threatened with starvation. The pigs conceal this fact from the outside world by filling the store-bins full of sand, topping the bins with what few provisions they have left, and allowing their human middleman to walk past the apparently full bins. However, they must obtain food from the outside world somehow.
    At a Sunday meeting, Squealer announces that the hens must give up their eggs, so that they can be traded with the outside world for grain and meal. The hens are stunned into rebellion. They take to laying their eggs from the rafters of the coop, allowing them to smash to the ground. The pigs respond by stopping their rations completely, and threatening death on any other animals that shares their food with them. Eventually the hens relent, and they are forced to give up their eggs as soon as they are laid.
    All the while, the pigs spread terrible rumors about Snowball. Snowball is said to be hiding on one of the neighboring farms. He is said to be sneaking into Animal farm by night and doing untold damage. Every mishap and misfortune on the farm was now attributed to Snowball. Napoleon makes a show of doing a major tour of the farm, accompanied by his dogs, to investigate the activities of Snowball. This goes on for some weeks, when the dramatic announcement is made that Snowball was in league with Jones from the very start.
    Chapter 8
    The animals spend the following year working harder than ever. Squealer exhorts them to greater efforts, telling them that productivity on the farm has improved enormously since the rebellion, though many of the animals secretly feel hungry. Three hens confess that Snowball, said to be living on Pinchfield, put them up to it. The hens are executed. Napoleon announces shortly afterwards that the wood is to be sold to Pilkington of Foxwood. When, later in the year, the wheat crops are found to be full of weeds, Snowball, and by implication Frederick, are blamed.
    Three days later, the notes are discovered to be forgeries. Napoleon assembles the animals again and pronounces the death sentence on Frederick. At the same time, he warns them that Frederick and his men may be about to attack the farm.
    The attack comes the next morning. Fifteen men, six with guns, approach the farm, and the battle is joined. Messengers are sent to Foxwood requesting assistance, but Pilkington sends back a curt rejection. The animals are driven back to the farm buildings. While they are trapped there, the men plant dynamite around the windmill. In the ensuing explosion, the windmill is obliterated. The animals react to this by forgetting all about the guns and charging headlong at the men, who after a brief struggle, run for their lives.
    Chapter 9
    Rebuilding of the windmill begins immediately after the celebrations. Boxer works harder than ever, despites carrying an injury from the battles. His thoughts are now turning to retirement, for which, under the laws of Animal farm, he is due the next year. The building work around the farm continues through the summer, heavily dependent on the extraordinary efforts of Boxer. He is showing some signs at this stage that his strength is failing. He himself is hoping to get as much done as he possibly can before he retires. Then, one summer evening, he collapses. All the animals rush to his side, unable to bear the thought that anything might happen to him. He barely has the strength to get back to his feet and to struggle back to his stall. Squealer promises to send him to the town so that the veterinary surgeon can treat him. Napoleon pays his respects to Boxer at the meeting on the following Sunday. He tells them that it was not possible to return Boxer’s remains for burial on the farm, but that he will be commemorated with a wreath instead. Napoleon announces a memorial banquet for Boxer, which takes place in the farmhouse shortly afterwards, attended only by the pigs.
    Chapter 10
    Years have passed, and many of the animals are dead. Only Clover, Benjamin, Moses and some of the pigs remember the days before the rebellion. Clover is by now very old, well past retirement age, except that no animal has actually managed to retire yet.
    The windmill has finally been completed. There is no more talk of the three-day week, or any of the other luxuries that Snowball originally promised would accrue from the windmill.
    The farm is growing richer, but the animals themselves do not seem to benefit much from it. There are many pigs and dogs on the farm now. The pigs are all involved in the bureaucracy of running the farm, and are not available to do any actual work, though Squealer makes it clear to the others that what the pigs do is of vital importance to the farm. Squealer continues to impress everyone with detailed figures of how everything has improved on the farm, but deep down the animals are unable to reconcile this with the lack of improvement in their own conditions. Summer arrives. Squealer is seen to take all the sheep of the farm aside, and no-one sees them for a week. The sheep eventually return. After this, the pigs and their sows start wearing clothes and carrying whips. They begin to have more direct dealings with the neighbouring farmers. One day, the pigs invite a number of the local farmers to inspect the farm. After the inspection, the pigs and the farmers return to the farmhouse for a celebration. After a time, loud noises of laughter and singing are heard through the windows. The other animals are overcome with curiosity, and they approach the farmhouse to see what is going on. They look through the windows to see the pigs and farmers seated around the living room table, playing cards, making speeches and congratulating one another. Mr. Pilkington makes a speech telling the pigs how impressed he is with Animal Farm, especially with the hard work and poor rations of the farm animals. Napoleon makes a speech in return, expressing his happiness that the mistrust between Animal Farm and the others is now at an end.

  21. dear sir
    In chapter one: After the drunken farmer Jones has gone to bed, all the animals of
    the farm assemble for a meeting. The meeting has been called by Old Major, a boar who is the oldest and wisest animal on the farm. The pigs, cows, horses, ducks, hens and dogs all assemble in the big barn, thinking that they are going to be told about a dream that Old Major had the previous night. When they have all settled down, Old Major addresses them. Before telling them about his dream, he says that, as he is coming to the end of his own life, and he wants to share his wisdom with the other animals. He reminds them about all the work that they have to do for their human masters, how little they are given to eat, how they own nothing but their bare skin. He describes how the humans steal everything produced by the animals, with the animals receiving in return only enough food to keep them alive. He tells them that their children are taken from them almost as soon as they are born, and that when they come to the end of their useful lives, they will be cruelly slaughtered. He goes on to tell them that all the animals are comrades, they are brothers, and that their only real enemy is humans. Man is the root cause of all their troubles, he tells them. He urges the animals to fight the humans at every turn, and tells them that rebellion is the only possible solution to their situation. In the middle of the speech, a few wild rats enter the barn, and the dogs chase them. Old Major calls a vote on whether or not the rats should be considered to be comrades. A large majority agrees that the rats are comrades, the only animals to vote against are the dogs and the cat, who, we are told, “was afterwards discovered to have voted on both sides.” Old Major then concludes his speech by advising them on how they should conduct themselves. They must recognize that whatever goes on four legs or wings is a friend. They must on no account ever come to resemble man, and must never live in a house. He tells them finally “All animals are equal.”Old Major finally gets around to telling them about his dream, but the first thing he tells them is that he cannot describe the dream, except to say that it reminded him of a song that he learned in his youth called “Beasts of England.” He sings the song, which tells of the day when Man is finally overthrown, when there is no more slavery or cruelty, and when the animals are finally free. The animals in the barn respond rapturously to this, and sang it through together five times in succession, until they are interrupted by a blast from the farmer’s shotgun. The farm quickly returns to normality.

    In chapter two: Old Major dies three days later. The animals set out to prepare for the rebellion. The pigs, being the most intelligent animals on the farm, take the lead on this. The task of working Old Major’s ideas into a more formal system falls to three pigs, Napoleon, Snowball and Squealer. These three organize regular nighttime meetings with the other animals to explain the principles of their system, called Animalism. They encounter many obstacles from amongst the simpler animals, which are afraid of what might happen if Jones was not around to feed them. Also, Moses the Raven is always telling the animals about an animal’s paradise called Sugar Candy Mountain, where the animals go when they die. Many of the animals believe in Sugar Candy Mountain, and the pigs have to keep on persuading them that no such place exists. Without any planning, the rebellion happens on Midsummer’s day, just before harvest. Farmer Jones gets hopelessly drunk the night before, and neglects to milk the cows or feed the animals all day. One of the cows breaks down a door to the store-shed, and several of the animals begin to help themselves from the bins. Jones now awakes and seeing this, he and his four farm hands begin whipping the animals out of the store-shed. The animals attack the humans spontaneously and furiously. They shocked men react by almost immediately running down the laneway and fleeing the farm. The farm now belongs to the animals. The animals are ecstatic. They light a great bonfire and burn every farm implement they can lay their hands on, including knives, nose-rings and whips. Napoleon serves double-rations of food to every animal, they gather to sing Beasts of England, and they go to sleep. The next morning they carry out a more detailed inspection of the farm, stopping warily outside the farmhouse. After doing a brief and cautious tour of the farmhouse, they leave, vowing that no animal should ever live there, and to preserve the farmhouse as a museum. Snowball and Napoleon now call the animals together, and surprise them by announcing that they have spent the last few months learning to write. Next they go to the main gate of the farm and paint over “Manor Farm”, replacing it with “Animal Farm”. Returning to the farm buildings, they paint the seven commands of Animalism onto the gable of the big barn;

    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.

    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.

    In chapter three: The harvest is a great success. It is finished two days earlier than Jones and his men used to manage. The animals are so enthusiastic and excited about the fact that the food is truly their own, that no food is stolen during the harvesting. Almost all the animals have worked as hard as they possibly could, but there are some exceptions. Mollie, the vain mare, often leaves the fields early complaining about a stone in her hoof, and the cat seems to appear only for meals. Benjamin the donkey is one of the few animals who are completely unchanged by the revolution, remaining as aloof and cynical as he had been before. Sunday is a rest day, when the animals assemble at a great Meeting. This is where the work for the coming week is to be planned, and various motions discussed. All of the resolutions are put forward by the pigs. The other animals are aware of this, but as they cannot think of any resolutions themselves, they allow the pigs to lead. As the weeks go by, it becomes clear that Napoleon and Snowball rarely agree about anything. Snowball puts all his energies into forming various committees, each of which is responsible for improving some or other aspect of life on the farm. Napoleon sees no value in this, and prefers to concentrate on educating the young. For example, when two of the dogs have litters, Napoleon takes the puppies away from their mothers and secludes them in an inaccessible part of the farm, so that he can educate them properly in the principles of Animalism. Not all of Snowball’s a committee work very well, but his reading and writing classes are hugely successful. The pigs can read and write perfectly. The dogs learn to read, but will not read anything except the seven commandments. Boxer the great carthorse tries very hard to learn the alphabet, but cannot get past D. Many of the other animals can understand only one letter. Because so many animals are thus unable to read the seven commandments, Snowball reduces the seven commandments to the single maxim “Four legs good, two legs bad!” which they can remember more easily. It is soon learned that the pigs took the milk that disappeared on the first day, and are now mixing it into their mash. The pigs now issue a decree stating that all windfall apples are to be gathered up and given over for the exclusive use of the pigs. Some of the animals are puzzled by this, and wonder why the apples are not to be shared out equally. Squealer goes before them to explain. He tells them that the pigs, as the leaders, must keep their brainpower up, and that science has proven that milk and apples are essential for this. Squealer goes on to remind them that the alternative to the pigs is to have Farmer Jones back. This settles the animals, who agree that, whatever happens, they never want to live under Jones again.

    In chapter four: Snowball and Napoleon are sending pigeons to neighboring farms and beyond, to tell the animals about the rebellion. News of the rebellion has spread to the surrounding county. The farmers at first pretend not to be troubled about the rebellion, believing that the animals cannot possibly make a success of the farm. But as time passes the farmers become more and more troubled, and their animals become more and more emboldened. The tune of Beasts of England is now known by nearly every animal in the county. The farmers try to spread lies about torture and slavery on Animal Farm, but the animals of the county do not believe them. They whistle the tune and sing the words of Beasts of England, though they risk terrible beatings by doing so. More and more stories are heard of individual animals disobeying and in some cases attacking their human masters. One day in October, Jones, all his men, and half a dozen others from the neighboring farms, attack Animal Farm. They walk up the laneway through the main gate. They are all armed with sticks except for Jones, who carries a gun. The animals, however, are well prepared. After an initial skirmish where the pigeons and geese attack the humans, Snowball attacks them, supported by Benjamin, Muriel and all the sheep. The men repulse this attack with their sticks, and Snowball sounds the retreat. They fall back to the farmyard, pursued by the men, who think that they have triumphed. However, they have walked into a trap. As soon as the men are in the farmyard, a number of the larger animals emerge from the shed behind them, and cut off their retreat. Snowball’s group now attacks again. Snowball charges at Jones. Jones fires a shot at Snowball and wounds him, but this is not enough to prevent Snowball from crashing into him and sending him tumbling to the ground, the gun flying out of his hand in the process, Now Boxer joins the attack, rearing up on his hind legs and striking viciously with his hoofed forelegs. Boxer strikes one of the men on the skull, apparently killing him. At the sight of this, the other men run for their lives, back down the laneway and out the gate. The invasion is over.
    In the post-battle excitement, Boxer is extremely remorseful for killing the man, while the animals suddenly realize that Mollie is missing. They search the farm, and find her hiding in a corner. She fled the battle as soon as the gun went off. They return to the farmyard to find that the man was only stunned, and has since recovered and escaped.
    The animals celebrate their victory. The flag is raised, Beasts of England is sung. A medal for “Animal Hero, First Class” is created and awarded to Snowball. A medal for “Animal Hero, Second Class” is created, and awarded to a sheep that died when Jones fired his gun. They decide to keep the gun and place it at the bottom of the flagstaff, to be fired each year on the anniversaries of the rebellion, and of the battle.

    In chapter five: Winter is approaching. Mollie, who has been avoiding work more and more, is found to have been accepting gifts of ribbon and sugar from one of the men on the neighboring farm. Shortly afterwards she disappears, and is said to be pulling a cart in the town. No one on the farm ever sees her again, and she is never mentioned again.
    With the land now frozen solid, it is impossible to do any farming. A lot of time is spent on meetings of all the animals in the big barn, where the future policy for the farm is discussed and voted on. The divisions between Snowball and Napoleon are becoming more pronounced, and it seems that they now oppose each other on every proposal. Snowball’s eloquence allows him to control the meetings, However, Napoleon works quietly behind the scenes building support, and succeeding in getting all of the sheep onto his side. Snowball is forever proposing new plans and schemes for the improvement of the farm, all of which are opposed by Napoleon. Snowball’s most ambitious plan is for the construction of a windmill, which he says can provide heat and electricity to the farm. He accepts that it will be a huge undertaking, and is vague about some of the details. Napoleon is completely against the idea, and makes his opposition clear. Snowball continues to work on his plans, and spends hours every day in a shed working on them, drawing them out on the wooden floor. All of the animals visit Snowball regularly in the shed to watch the plans grow into something that looks very complex and impressive. Only Napoleon holds back, and when he does come to inspect the plans, he urinates on them.
    The day comes when all the animals will gather in the big barn to vote on whether or not the windmill will be built. The farm is divided into two factions at this stage, the “Vote for Snowball and the three-day week” faction, and the “Vote for Napoleon and the full manger” faction. Snowball has convinced his faction that the windmill will lead to increased leisure time for everybody, while Napoleon has convinced his faction that the distraction of the windmill will cause the animals to lose time on the harvest and starve. The meeting begins. The sheep heckle Snowball as he explains his plans for the windmill, and why it will be good for the farm. Napoleon then rises and gives a very brief and curt address, advising everyone to vote against the windmill. Snowball then speaks again. He talks passionately and eloquently, and creates a vision of a mechanized farm with heat and light, with electrical threshers and ploughs and reapers, where the animals do little or no work, and all the labor is carried out by the electricity generated by the windmill. It is clear that Snowball will win the vote.
    Just then, Napoleon stands and emits a queer sound, a kind of whimper. At this signal, nine huge dogs, the dogs that Napoleon took away as puppies months before, rush into the barn and charge at Snowball. They chase him from the barn and off the farm. He is never seen again.
    The other animals, who had left the barn to watch the chase, now return to the barn, where Napoleon addresses them. He tells them that Sunday Meetings are henceforth abolished, and that all decisions in future will be taken solely by the pigs. Any dissent is silenced by growls from the dogs, and the meeting finishes to a fifteen-minute chorus of “Four legs good, two legs bad” from the sheep. Squealer follows up in the aftermath, explaining to the shocked animals of the farm that Napoleon has taken on the leadership with great reluctance and with great sacrifice to himself. The animals are soon won over when they are reminded of what life was like under Jones.
    Three weeks after this fateful meeting, Napoleon announces that the Windmill will now be built. The animals are warned that this will mean lots of extra hard work, and a reduction in their rations. Squealer explains the apparent change of heart by convincing the animals that Napoleon had been in favor of the windmill all along, but had to appear to be against it in order to get rid of Snowball. The animals are easily persuaded.

    In chapter six: Another year passes. The animals work themselves to the bone on the harvest and on the windmill, all under the supervision of the pigs. The animals are asked to work on Sunday afternoons as well, on a voluntary basis, though any animal that did not work on Sunday had their rations halved. By autumn time, it is clear that the harvest is a poorer one than the previous year. This will make the coming winter all the more difficult. Progress on the windmill is laborious and slow. The stones with which it is to be built have to be hauled to the top of the quarry and thrown from there to the bottom, so that the stones can be broken into the appropriate sizes. It takes until the end of the summer to accumulate enough stone to begin building the windmill, work which depends almost entirely on the tremendous efforts of Boxer, who works himself harder than ever before.
    As the work on the harvest and the windmill proceeds, the animals find themselves running out of supplies. Items such as paraffin, seeds, manure and machinery could not be produced on the farm. This problem is resolved when Napoleon announces one day that Animal Farm will henceforth enter into trading arrangements with some of the surrounding farms. Hay and wheat from the farm will be sold, and the hens are told that they will have to give up some of their eggs, a sacrifice that they should be proud to make. Some of the animals are doubtful about this move, seeming to remember an agreement in the early days after the rebellion never to have anything to do with humans. Again, Squealer puts any doubts to rest in the following days, informing them that such a resolution was never written down. From then on, Napoleon engages a local solicitor to act as the middleman between Animal Farm and the outside world. The solicitor comes every Monday, and his presence makes the other animals very uneasy, but their doubts are eased by their pride in seeing Napoleon give orders to a human. Shortly afterwards, the pigs move into the farmhouse. They eat in the kitchen, relax in the drawing room, and even sleep in the beds. Some of the animals are very doubtful about this. Clover consults the seven commandments on the gable wall, and asks Muriel to read out the fourth commandment, which states, “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets.” Muriel cannot remember sheets being mentioned before. However, helped by the smooth words of Squealer, she assumes that she must have been wrong; she and the other animals accept his argument that the pigs, as the leaders, must have as much comfort as possible to facilitate their brainwork.
    The work on the windmill continues. The animals are all extremely proud of their progress so far, except for Benjamin, who expresses no opinion for or against the windmill. By November, the windmill is half finished. However, disaster strikes when a nighttime storm destroys it. The animals all gather around the ruin. Napoleon is silent for a long time, before making the sudden and dramatic announcement that the windmill was destroyed by Snowball. Some pig footprints leading away from the farm are discovered, and Napoleon confirms them to belong to Snowball. The other animals are shocked that their former leader could do such a thing. Napoleon announces that work on rebuilding the windmill will commence immediately.

    In chapter seven: The animals now face into a brutal winter. Corn is scarce, and the farm’s stock of potatoes has been destroyed by frost. By January, they are threatened with starvation. The pigs conceal this fact from the outside world by filling the store-bins full of sand, topping the bins with what few provisions they have left, and allowing their human middleman to walk past the apparently full bins. However, they must obtain food from the outside world somehow.
    At a Sunday meeting, Squealer announces that the hens must give up their eggs, so that they can be traded with the outside world for grain and meal. The hens are stunned into rebellion. They take to laying their eggs from the rafters of the coop, allowing them to smash to the ground. The pigs respond by stopping their rations completely, and threatening death on any other animals that shares their food with them. Eventually the hens relent, and they are forced to give up their eggs as soon as they are laid. All the while, the pigs spread terrible rumors about Snowball. Snowball is said to be hiding on one of the neighboring farms. He is said to be sneaking into Animal farm by night and doing untold damage. Every mishap and misfortune on the farm was now attributed to Snowball. Napoleon makes a show of doing a major tour of the farm, accompanied by his dogs, to investigate the activities of Snowball. This goes on for some weeks, when the dramatic announcement is made that Snowball was in league with Jones from the very start. Squealer tells the animals that this terrible discovery has been made from documents that the pigs have just discovered. The animals are shocked and puzzled by this. Boxer, in particular, is reluctant to accept this. He questions Squealer; he reminds him how bravely Snowball fought when the farmers tried to invade Animal Farm. Squealer tries to reassure him, but Boxer remains persistent in his belief that Snowball could never have been in league with Jones. Squealer eventually convinces Boxer by telling him that Napoleon has stated categorically that Snowball was an agent of Jones. Boxer finally relents at this, assuming that Napoleon must be correct. Boxer’s persistence in questioning Squealer, however, has been noted. An assembly of all the animals in the yard is now called. Napoleon, who now rarely leaves the farmhouse, and is never without his escort of dogs, stands before them. At a signal, the dogs charge into the crowd and drag four of the more troublesome pigs before Napoleon. At the same time, three of the dogs attach Boxer. Boxer easily fends them off. The miserable pigs are forced to confess to having been in league with Snowball, and are murdered on the spot by the dogs. Other animals come forward to confess various crimes against the farm, and each in turn is slaughtered. These are the first killings of other animals since the rebellion. The animals creep away from the meeting. Boxer, in trying to understand why this has happened, resolves that the only possible solution is to work harder. Clover, not as strong but more intelligent, has deep misgivings about what she has seen, but she cannot put them into words. She remains faithful to Napoleon, but deep down she knows that this state of affairs was not what they fought for in the rebellion. The animals try to console them by singing Beasts of England. However, they are interrupted by Squealer, who tells them that the song is henceforth abolished. It is to be replaced a song called Animal Farm, composed by one of the pigs. The animals take up the new song faithfully, but are aware that it does not compare to Beasts of England.
    In chapter eight: After the executions, Clover is again uneasy that one of the seven commandments has been broken. She asks Muriel to read her the sixth commandment again from the gable wall. The commandment reads, “No animal shall kill another animal without cause.” Clover did not seem to remember having read the last two words before, but she thought no more of it. The animals spend the following year working harder than ever. Squealer exhorts them to greater efforts, telling them that productivity on the farm has improved enormously since the rebellion, though many of the animals secretly feel hungry. Napoleon, who is now known as “Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,” and several other flattering titles, is seen in public rarely, and now employs a cockerel as a herald, as well as being accompanied at all times by his dogs. Relations between the neighboring farms, Frederick of Pinchfield and Pilkington of Foxwood, remain complex. Napoleon, through the middleman, has been trying to sell off a pile of timber to one of the other neighbor. At this time, rumors abound that Frederick is about to attack the farm. A plot to murder Napoleon is uncovered. Three hens confess that Snowball, said to be living on Pinchfield, put them up to it. The hens are executed. Napoleon announces shortly afterwards that the wood is to be sold to Pilkington of Foxwood. When, later in the year, the wheat crop is found to be full of weeds, Snowball, and by implication Frederick, is blamed. The whole farm seethes with anger and resentment against Frederick, who is now the sworn enemy of Animal farm. The windmill is completed by autumn. The animals forget their worries temporarily to celebrate this magnificent achievement. The animals are all congratulated by Napoleon. Two days later, he calls them to a meeting and announces that the wood is to be sold to Frederick. The animals are astonished, but Squealer easily explains this away as part of Napoleon’s strategy, to appear friendly with one neighbor while secretly courting the other. The sale goes ahead, and the solicitor organizes the transport of the wood off the farm, and the delivery of the banknotes to Napoleon.
    Three days later, the notes are discovered to be forgeries. Napoleon assembles the animals again and pronounces the death sentence on Frederick. At the same time, he warns them that Frederick and his men may be about to attack the farm. The attack comes the next morning. Fifteen men, six with guns, approach the farm, and the battle is joined. Messengers are sent to Foxwood requesting assistance, but Pilkington sends back a curt rejection. The animals are driven back to the farm buildings. While they are trapped there, the men plant dynamite around the windmill. In the ensuing explosion, the windmill is obliterated. The animals react to this by forgetting all about the guns and charging headlong at the men, who after a brief struggle, run for their lives. The animals are dejected at the loss of the windmill, but the pigs quickly set about the task of rebuilding morale by reminding them of the magnificent victory they have won. The day will be forever commemorated as the Battle of the Windmill. In the ensuing celebrations, the forged banknotes are forgotten. The pigs then discover a cask of whisky in the farmhouse. That night, loud celebrations are heard in the farmhouse, to the amazement of the other animals. Soon afterwards, it is announced that a small field near the orchard, originally set aside for retired animals who could work no more, was to be ploughed up and sown with barley. Muriel is troubled by this development, and she consults the fifth commandment. Again, she realizes she has remembered it incorrectly, for it says, “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.”
    In chapter nine: Rebuilding of the windmill begins immediately after the celebrations. Boxer works harder than ever, despite carrying an injury from the battle. His thoughts are now turning to retirement, for which, under the laws of Animal farm, he is due the next year. In the meantime, another cold winter with little food must be endured. Squealer bamboozles the animals with productivity figures which prove how much better off they are than when they were under Jones, although many have by now forgotten life under Jones. The strain of the resources of the farms grows, not least due to the birth of thirty-one piglets the previous autumn. Napoleon declares that a new schoolroom must be built for the piglets, who are instructed to remain aloof from the other animals. The schoolroom is in addition to the requirement to rebuild the windmill and the need to keep the farm supplied with various other requirements. Potatoes are sold, and practically every egg laid by the hens is sold to earn the money required for these supplies. All the while, the animals’ rations are being reduced, while the pigs make beer from the barley they sowed earlier in the year.
    Napoleon now introduces a weekly event called the Spontaneous Demonstration, where every animal would leave their work to march in military procession around the farm, so as to instill pride in the animals in the achievements of the farm since the rebellion. It comforts the animals to know that, no matter how hard their lives, at least they have the benefit of being their own masters. Another consolation around this time is the reappearance of Moses and his tales of Sugar Candy Mountain. Many of the animals like to believe that they will go to a better place after their deaths, and the pigs now seem to tolerate Moses, giving him an allowance of beer every day. The building work around the farm continues through the summer, heavily dependent on the extraordinary efforts of Boxer. He is showing some signs at this stage that his strength is failing. He himself is hoping to get as much done as he possibly can before he retires. Then, one summer evening, he collapses. All the animals rush to his side, unable to bear the thought that anything might happen to him. He barely has the strength to get back to his feet and to struggle back to his stall. Squealer promises to send him to the town so that the veterinary surgeon can treat him. Clover and Benjamin spend as much time as they can over the next few days nursing him. Then, while the animals are all at work, the van comes to take Boxer away. They would not have noticed, except that Benjamin gallops across the farm to tell them that Boxer is being taken away. No one has ever seen Benjamin gallop before. The animals rush to the yard in time to see the van begin to pull away. They start to wave goodbye to Boxer, but Benjamin is very agitated, and tells them to read the letters on the van. Muriel reads out the sign on the van, which describes the van as belonging to the local horse-slaughterer. The animals try to warn Boxer, who tries to kick his way out of the van, but he has no strength, and the kicking from the van soon dies away. Three days later, Squealer announces that Boxer died in the hospital. He makes a moving speech in praise of Boxer. He explains the sign on the van by saying that the veterinary surgeon bought the van from the horse-slaughterer, and had not yet replaced the sign. The animals are very relieved to hear this, and are greatly consoled by Squealer’s further descriptions of the wonderful care and treatment that Boxer received in his final hours. Napoleon pays his respects to Boxer at the meeting on the following Sunday. He tells them that it was not possible to return Boxer’s remains for burial on the farm, but that he will be commemorated with a wreath instead. Napoleon announces a memorial banquet for Boxer, which takes place in the farmhouse shortly afterwards, attended only by the pigs.
    In chapter ten: Years have passed, and many of the animals are dead. Only Clover, Benjamin, Moses and some of the pigs remember the days before the rebellion. Clover is by now very old, well past retirement age, except that no animal has actually managed to retire yet. The windmill has finally been completed. It is used for milling corn, rather than for generating electricity, and brings a good profit to the farm. Another windmill is now being built to generate electricity. There is no more talk of the three-day week, or any of the other luxuries that Snowball originally promised would accrue from the windmill. The farm is growing richer, but the animals themselves do not seem to benefit much from it. There are many pigs and dogs on the farm now. The pigs are all involved in the bureaucracy of running the farm, and are not available to do any actual work, though Squealer makes it clear to the others that what the pigs do is of vital importance to the farm. Squealer continues to impress everyone with detailed figures of how everything has improved on the farm, but deep down the animals are unable to reconcile this with the lack of improvement in their own conditions. Nonetheless, Animal Farm remains the only farm in England to be owned by the animals, and the animals remain enormously proud of this. Summer arrives. Squealer is seen to take all the sheep of the farm aside, and no-one sees them for a week. The sheep eventually return. That evening, as the animals are returning to the yard from work, Clover is heard neighing excitedly from the yard. The animals rush forward to see what is happening. They stop dead when they all see what has startled Clover. It is the sight of Squealer walking upright, on his hind legs. At this moment, all of the pigs leave the farmhouse in single file, all upright on two legs. Finally, Napoleon emerges from the farmhouse, upright and carrying a whip. It is the most shocking thing the animals have ever seen. It goes against everything that they have been taught up to then. Just as it seems that someone might object, the sheep break into a deafening chorus of “Four legs good, two legs better.” They went on for five minutes, during which the pigs walked briefly around and then returned to the farmhouse. The chance to protest is gone. Clover goes to the gable wall and brings Benjamin with her. She asks Benjamin to read for her what is on the gable wall. All the commandments are gone, and all that is written there now is “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.”
    After this, the pigs and their sows start wearing clothes and carrying whips. They begin to have more direct dealings with the neighboring farmers. One day, the pigs invite a number of the local farmers to inspect the farm. After the inspection, the pigs and the farmers return to the farmhouse for a celebration. After a time, loud noises of laughter and singing are heard through the windows. The other animals are overcome with curiosity, and they approach the farmhouse to see what is going on. They look through the windows to see the pigs and farmers seated around the living room table, playing cards, making speeches and congratulating one another. Mr. Pilkington makes a speech telling the pigs how impressed he is with Animal Farm, especially with the hard work and poor rations of the farm animals. Napoleon makes a speech in return, expressing his happiness that the mistrust between Animal Farm and the others is now at an end. He furthermore announces that the animals will cease to address each other as “Comrade,” and that “Animal Farm” will now revert to being called “Manor Farm.” As Napoleon finishes his speech to great applause, the animals outside seem to notice something changing in the features of the pigs, but what? As the applause dies down and the card game is resumed, the animals creep away from the window. However, they hurry back when they hear a furious argument break out. The argument is because Mr. Pilkington and Napoleon have both played an Ace of Spades at the same time. But as the animals look from Napoleon to Pilkington, from man to pig and from pig back to man, they find that they are unable to tell the difference.

  22. The first chapter, Mr. Jones, of the Manor Farm, had locked the hen-houses for the night but was too drunk to remember to shut the pop-holes. Mr. Jones stumbles drunkenly up to bed as the farm animals wait in still silence. The moment he is out of sight, they begin to bustle around, preparing themselves for the big meeting that is to take place that night. Old Major has called the meeting to discuss a strange dream he had the previous night and must talk it because he has not a longer life. He is waiting for his fellow animals in the big barn and all the animals came to the barn, the first animals to arrive are the three dogs, pigs. Hens, pigeons, sheep, and cows arrive, as well horses. The white goat and the donkey follow except moses. The old Major relates his dream to the animals. His dream was about the state of happiness that will exist once Man is eliminated. In the dream, a tune his mother and the other sows sang to him in his childhood returned to him, and new words accompanied the tune. Old Major is sure that he has, in his dream life, uncovered an old animal anthem that has lain dormant for generations. It is called “Beasts of England,” and he sings it to the other animals. When man is finally overthrown there is no more slavery or cruelty, and when the animals are finally free. All the animals are very enthusiastic to sing it, and they stop it when Mr. Jones awake by their song.
    Second chapter, the old major died peacefully in his sleep, his body was buried at the foot of the orchard. Over the next three months, the more intelligent animals begin to approach life differently. They now anticipate the Rebellion, for which they assume the task of preparing. The pigs take on the task of organizing and teaching the other animals because they are “generally recognized as being the cleverest of the animals”. Moses causes trouble for the pigs by inventing an animal heaven called Sugarcandy Mountain., a utopia for another time. In contrast, Clover and Boxer are some of the pigs’ strongest collaborators. Not being very intelligent themselves, Clover and Boxer memorize simple pro-Animalism arguments that they pass on to the others. Mr. Jones, leading him to drink excessively, Mr. Jones’s misfortune makes the Rebellion come earlier than expected. On Midsummer’s Eve in June, Mr. Jones gets so drunk that he passes out and neglects to feed the animals. Having gone unfed for hours, the animals break into the store-shed and eat then back in the big barn, they reveal that they have reduced Animalism to Seven Commandments. The animals must live by these commandments “for ever after.” The commandments, which Snowball writes on the wall with some typographical errors, are:
    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.
    Chapter third, in the harvest time of their efforts were rewarded, for the harvest was an even bigger more success than they had hope. Despite the animals difficulties the tools because the tools are not well suited for animals to use, especially without the animals rearing up on their hind legs. Every Sunday is a day of rest and devotion to Animalism on Animal Farm, the animal meet they plan the work for the next week, debate, and resolve problems. The two leaders, Napoleon and Snowball, do understand the issues and are very vocal in their debates; however, they never agree, foreshadowing their later struggle for power and control. The meeting always ends with the singing of ‘Beasts of England.’ In the afternoon, there is time for recreation. The mystery of the ‘disappeared milk’ is solved, for it has been seized by the pigs and mixed into their mush. Squealer justifies the action by stating that milk and apples contain substances absolutely necessary for a pig’s diet.
    Chapter four, by the late summer the news of what had happened on Animal Farm had spread across half the county. Every day Snowball and Napoleon sent out flight of pigeons whose instructions were to mingle with the animals on neighboring farms, tell them the story of the Rebellion, and teach them the tune of ‘Beasts of England’. In October, accompanied by several other farmers, Mr. Jones tries to recapture Animal Farm. Snowball has already trained the animals for war, however, and they take their defensive positions. The smaller animals attack the men and then pretend to retreat into the yard in defeat. Once the men follow, the larger animals ambush them. Mr. Jones kills one sheep and wounds Snowball several times with his gun, but the animals manage to overpower the humans. Boxer is thought to have killed a stable-lad, which upsets the stalwart horse. But it turns out that the boy is only injured, and he flees with the other men. The only animal who does not fight is Mollie, whom the animals discover cowering in her stall.
    Chapter five, as winter drew on, Mollie became more and more troublesome. She was late for work every morning and excused herself by saying that she had overslept, and she complained of mysterious pains, although her appetite was excellent. On every kind of protext she would run away from work and go to the drinking pool, where she would stand foolishly gazing at her own reflection in the water. But there were also rumors of something more serious. One day as Mollie strolled blithely into the yard, flirting her
    long tail and chewing at a stalk of hay, Clover took her aside. On January brings bitterly cold weather. Since conditions are too harsh for farming, the animals hold many meetings. They have agreed that the pigs should make all policy decisions, which the other animals are to ratify. Snowball and Napoleon are in constant disagreement, and the other animals begin to take sides. The sheep support Napoleon and interrupt the Snowball. Snowball is the more progressive politician, promoting innovations to make the farm run more efficiently. Napoleon makes sure to oppose all of Snowball’s ideas.
    Chapter six, all that year the animals worked like slaves. But they were happy in their work. They grudged no effort or sacrifice, well aware that everything that
    they did was for the benefit of themselves and those of their kind who
    would come after them, and not for a pack of idle, thieving human beings. The animals work sixty-hour weeks all spring and summer in order to build the windmill, but none begrudges the extra labor. Throughout the spring and summer they work sixty-hour a week, and in August Napoleon announced that there would be work on Sunday Afternoon as well. This work was strictly voluntary, but any animal who absented himself from it would have his rations reduced by half. Even so, it was found necessary to leave certain tasks undone. The harvest was a little less successful than in the previous year, and two fields which should have been sown with roots in the early summer were not sown because the ploughing had not been completed early enough. It was possible to foresee that the coming winter would be a hard one.
    Chapter seven, it was a bitter winter, all the animals carried on as best they could with the rebuilding of the windmill. In January food fell short, Four days at a time the animals had nothing to eat but chaff and mangels. They seemed starvation. One Sunday morning Squealer announced that the hens surrender their eggs. They raised a terrible outcry, but they give their eggs. in the other side, the pig heard news about snowball, Snowball said to be hiding on one of the neighbouring farms. He is said to be sneaking into Animal farm by night and doing untold damage. Every mishap and misfortune on the farm was now attributed to Snowball. Napolleon made a show and he was accompanied by the dogs to investigate what Snowball did. Many things happed in the farm, Napolleon at all did all by his own way, even the killing of a pig who is forced to admit if they conspire with him. The animals felt strange but they try to console their self by singing Beast of England, and they are very surprised now that the song is henceforth abolished. It is to be replaced a song called Animal Farm, composed by one of the pigs. The animals take up the new song faithfully, but are aware that it does not compare to Beasts of England.
    Chapter eight, A few days later, when the terror caused by the executions had died down, some of the animals remembered that the Sixth
    Commandment said “No animal shall kill any other animal”. The commandment had not been violated for clearly there was good reason for
    killing the traitors who had leagued themselves with Snowball. Throughout the year the animals worked even harder than they had worked in
    the previous year. Year by year the harvest was abundantly and relations between the neighbor farms, Frederick of Pinch field and Pilkington of Fox wood, remain complex. Napoleon, through the middleman, has been trying to sell off a pile of timber to one of the other neighbor. At this time, rumors abound that Frederick is about to attack the farm. Napoleon announces shortly afterwards that the wood is to be sold to Pilkington of Fox wood. The windmill is completed by autumn. The animals forget their worries temporarily to celebrate this magnificent achievement. The animals are all congratulated by Napoleon. On three days later, the notes are discovered to be forgeries, he calls them to a meeting and announces that the wood is to be sold to Frederick. Napoleon assembles the animals again and pronounces the death sentence on Frederick. The animals are driven back to the farm buildings. While they are trapped there, the men plant dynamite around the windmill. The animals are dejected at the loss of the windmill, but the pigs quickly set about the task of rebuilding morale by reminding them of the magnificent victory they have won. The pigs then discover a cask of whisky in the farmhouse to amazement the other animals. Soon afterwards, the pig realize it incorrectly, for it says, “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.”
    Chapter nine, they start rebuilding of the windmill begins immediately after the celebrations. Boxer works harder than before, the strain of the resources of the farms grows, not least due to the birth of thirty-one piglets the previous autumn. Napoleon declares that a new schoolroom must be built for the piglets, who are instructed to remain aloof from the other animals. Napoleon made an event called the spontaneous demonstration. Every animal would leave their work to march in military procession around the farm, while the animals are all at work. The van comes to take Boxer away. They would not have noticed, except that Benjamin gallops across the farm to tell them that Boxer is being taken away. Boxer died in the hospital. On Sunday Napoleon pays his respects to Boxer at the meeting, he announces a memorial banquet for Boxer, which takes place in the farmhouse shortly afterwards, attended only by the pigs.
    Chapter tenth, years passed. The seasons came and went and many of the animals are dead. Only Clover, Benjamin, Moses and some of the pigs remember the days before the rebellion. Snowball was forgotten. Boxer was forgotten, except by the few who had known him. The farm is more prosperous now, with more animals who have been born or bought, and the windmill is finished. It isn’t used for electricity, but for milling corn which is then sold at a profit. The animals are building another windmill, which will run a dynamo, but even then there will be no light and hot and cold water in the stalls, or a three-day work week, or any of the improvements Snowball had talked about. Summer arrives. Squealer is seen to take all the sheep of the farm aside, and no-one sees them for a week. The sheep eventually return. That evening, as the animals are returning to the yard from work, Clover is heard neighing excitedly from the yard. The animals rush forward to see what is happening. They stop dead when they all see what has startled Clover. It is the sight of Squealer walking upright, on his hind legs. At this moment, all of the pigs leave the farmhouse in single file, all upright on two legs. Finally, Napoleon emerges from the farmhouse, upright and carrying a whip.
    It is the most shocking thing the animals have ever seen. It goes against everything that they have been taught up to then. Just as it seems that someone might object, the sheep break into a deafening chorus of “Four legs good, two legs better.” They went on for five minutes, during which the pigs walked briefly around and then returned to the farmhouse. The chance to protest is gone. Clover goes to the gable wall and brings Benjamin with her. She asks Benjamin to read for her what is on the gable wall. All the commandments are gone, and all that is written there now is “All animals are equal, But some animals are more equal than others.”
    After this, the pigs and their sows start wearing clothes and carrying whips. They begin to have more direct dealings with the neighboring farmers. One day, the pigs invite a number of the local farmers to inspect the farm. After the inspection, the pigs and the farmers return to the farmhouse for a celebration. After a time, loud noises of laughter and singing are heard through the windows. The other animals are overcome with curiosity, and they approach the farmhouse to see what is going on. They look through the windows to see the pigs and farmers seated around the living room table, playing cards, making speeches and congratulating one another. Mr Pilkington makes a speech telling the pigs how impressed he is with Animal Farm, especially with the hard work and poor rations of the farm animals. Napoleon makes a speech in return, expressing his happiness that the mistrust between Animal Farm and the others is now at an end. He furthermore announces that the animals will cease to address each other as “Comrade,” and that “Animal Farm” will now revert to being called “Manor Farm.” As Napoleon finishes his speech to great applause, the animals outside seem to notice something changing in the features of the pigs, nut what? As the applause dies down and the card game is resumed, the animals creep away from the window. However, they hurry back when they hear a furious argument break out. The argument is because Mr. Pilkington and Napoleon have both played an Ace of Spades at the same time. But as the animals look from Napoleon to Pilkington, from man to pig and from pig back to man, they find that they are unable to tell the difference.

  23. In the first chapter, Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, After the drunken farmer Jones has gone to bed, all the animals of the farm assemble for a meeting. The meeting has been called by Old Major, a boar who is the oldest and wisest animal on the farm. The pigs, cows, horses, ducks, hens and dogs all assemble in the big barn, thinking that they are going to be told about a dream that Old Major had the previous night. Then He goes on to tell them that all the animals are comrades, they are brothers, and that their only real enemy is humans.. Then the second chapter, A few days later, Major dies. The animals, under the leadership of the pigs, begin to prepare for the Rebellion. Two of the pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, elaborate Major’s ideas into a complete system of thought known as Animalism. The Rebellion comes much sooner than anyone thought, and the animals break free of Jones’s tyranny and drive the humans from the farm. Snowball and Napoleon paint over the name “Manor Farm” on the gate, replacing it with “Animal Farm .” They also paint the basic principles of Animalism on the wall of the barn:
    THE SEVEN COMMANDMENTS
    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.
    Third chapter is, to get the hay The harvest is a great success. It is finished two days earlier than Jones and his men used to manage. The animals are so enthusiastic and excited about the fact that the food is truly their own, that no food is stolen during the harvesting. Almost all the animals have worked as hard as they possibly could, but there are some exceptions. Mollie, the vain mare, often leaves the fields early complaining about a stone in her hoof, and the cat seems to appear only for meals. Benjamin the donkey is one of the few animals who is completely unchanged by the revolution, remaining as aloof and cynical as he had been before. A gathering called Meeting follows the flag raising, in which the animals plan the coming week and the pigs present resolutions for debate (none of the other animals are intelligent enough to think up resolutions). Snowball and Napoleon tend to debate the most and take opposite sides. The animals end each meeting by singing “Beasts of England.”
    In the fourth chapter is News of the Rebellion has spread to many other farms, thanks to Snowball’s and Napoleon’s pigeon messengers. Meanwhile, in the human world, Mr. Jones tells other farmers about the Rebellion. The fear of similar revolutions unites the owners of the farms adjacent to Animal Farm, even though they dislike one another. Easy-going Mr. Pilkington and hard-nosed Mr. Frederick spread rumors to discourage their animals from turning against them. They say that the animals on Manor Farm are starving. When this claim turns out to be clearly untrue, they claim that the animals are cannibals who practice all kinds of wickedness. They search the farm, and find her hiding in a corner. She fled the battle as soon as the gun went off. They return to the farmyard to find that the man was only stunned, and has since recovered and escaped. The animals celebrate their victory. The flag is raised, Beasts of England is sung. A medal for “Animal Hero, First Class” is created and awarded to Snowball. A medal for “Animal Hero, Second Class” is created, and awarded to a sheep that died when Jones fired his gun. They decide to keep the gun and place it at the bottom of the flagstaff, to be fired each year on the anniversaries of the rebellion, and of the battle.
    The fifth chapter is, Mollie, who has been avoiding work more and more, is found to have been accepting gifts of ribbon and sugar from one of the men on the neighbouring farm. Shortly afterwards she disappears, and is said to be pulling a cart in the town. No one on the farm ever sees her again, and she is never mentioned again. With the land now frozen solid, it is impossible to do any farming. Snowball and Napoleon engage in another major debate about how best to prepare for another human attack. Napoleon advocates the procurement of firearms as well as firearms training. Snowball advocates sending pigeons to rally the other animals; if rebellions occur everywhere, then the humans will stay at bay. The other animals do not divide over this issue because they cannot decide who is right.
    In Sixth chapter is, “All that year the animals worked like slaves. But they were happy in their work, The animals work themselves to the bone on the harvest and on the windmill, all under the supervision of the pigs. The animals are asked to work on Sunday afternoons as well, on a voluntary basis, though any animal that did not work on Sunday had their rations halved. By autumn time, it is clear that the harvest is a poorer one than the previous year. This will make the coming winter all the more difficult. The animals are all extremely proud of their progress so far, except for Benjamin, who expresses no opinion for or against the windmill. By November, the windmill is half finished. However, disaster strikes when a nighttime storm destroys it. The animals all gather around the ruin. Napoleon is silent for a long time, before making the sudden and dramatic announcement that the windmill was destroyed by Snowball. Some pig footprints leading away from the farm are discovered, and Napoleon confirms them to belong to Snowball. The other animals are shocked that their former leader could do such a thing. Napoleon announces that work on rebuilding the windmill will commence immediately. Then The animals work to rebuild the windmill through a bitter, stormy winter, well aware that the human world is watching and hoping for their failure. By January, they are threatened with starvation. The pigs conceal this fact from the outside world by filling the store-bins full of sand, topping the bins with what few provisions they have left, and allowing their human middleman to walk past the apparently full bins. However, they must obtain food from the outside world somehow. At a Sunday meeting, Squealer announces that the hens must give up their eggs, so that they can be traded with the outside world for grain and meal. The hens are stunned into rebellion. After that The animals spend the following year working harder than ever. Squealer exhorts them to greater efforts, telling them that productivity on the farm has improved enormously since the rebellion, though many of the animals secretly feel hungry. Napoleon, who is now known as “Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,” and several other flattering titles, is seen in public rarely, and now employs a cockerel as a herald, as well as being accompanied at all times by his dogs. Relations between the neighbouring farms, Frederick of Pinchfield and Pilkington of Foxwood, remain complex. Napoleon, through the middleman, has been trying to sell off a pile of timber to one of the other neighbour. At this time, rumours abound that Frederick is about to attack the farm. Rebuilding of the windmill begins immediately after the celebrations. Boxer works harder than ever, despite carrying an injury from the battle. His thoughts are now turning to retirement, for which, under the laws of Animal farm, he is due the next year. In the meantime, another cold winter with little food must be endured. Squealer bamboozles the animals with productivity figures which prove how much better off they are than when they were under Jones, although many have by now forgotten life under Jones.The strain of the resources of the farms grows, not least due to the birth of thirty-one piglets the previous autumn. Napoleon declares that a new schoolroom must be built for the piglets, who are instructed to remain aloof from the other animals. The schoolroom is in addition to the requirement to rebuild the windmill and the need to keep the farm supplied with various other requirements. Potatoes are sold, and practically every egg laid by the hens is sold to earn the money required for these supplies. The last chapter is After a few years, the only animals that even remember the Rebellion are Clover, Benjamin, Moses, and some of the pigs. Muriel, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher have died. Mr. Jones has died in a home for alcoholics. Still, no animal has retired, and no pasture has been put aside for retired animals. Napoleon and Squealer have both become very fat. The farm is bigger, thanks to land purchased from Mr. Pilkington, and now features a threshing machine and hay elevator. The windmill is finished, but the animals use it to mill corn for a profit instead of to generate electricity as planned. Napoleon puts the animals to work building an additional windmill, which he promises will supply electricity. The argument is as the animals look from Napoleon to Pilkington, from man to pig and from pig back to man, they find that they are unable to tell the difference.

  24. Dear Sir Parlin !

    In the first chapter, Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, he got too drunk, so he cannot remember to shut the pop-holes. After he falls asleep, all the animals in big barn gathered at the request of the old major, an old pig, because he had dreamed that he felt, it needs to tell to the other animals. The cast of characters are introduced. First came the three dogs, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher; Boxer and Clover (horses, male and female respectively); Muriel (a goat); Benjamin (an old and cynical donkey, good friends with Boxer); Mollie (a silly mare); last of all comes the cat, who looks round as usual, all animals are now present except Moses, the tame raven, who sleeps on a perch behind the back door. The main old began his speech to all the animals in a large barn. His speech contains about rebellion against oppression carried out by humans. He managed to evoke the spirit of an animal to do what he had dreamed. He said that man is a creature who does not want to produce something, they just want to be consuming. Whatever goes upon two legs is our enemy. But whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend. All the habits of man are evil. Then he teaches all the animals a song “Beasts of England.” They all sing it as a lovely tune eliciting warm and fuzzy feelings of togetherness. They sing repeatedly until they awaken Mr. Jones, who fires his gun from his bedroom window, thinking there is a fox in the yard. They frightened with the shot, they disperse and go to sleep.

    In the second chapter, three days after Old Major gave his speech to the animals, he dead and buried at the foot of the orchard. The work of teaching and organizing the others fell naturally upon the pigs, who were generally recognized as being the cleverest of the animals. The pigs were two young boars named Snowball and Napoleon, whom Mr. Jones was breeding up for sale. These three had elaborated old Major’s teaching into a complete system of thought, to which they gave the name of Animalism. Several nights a week, after Mr. Jones was asleep, they held secret meetings in the barn and expounded the principles of Animalism to the others. On Midsummer’s Eve, which was a Saturday, Mr. Jones went into Willingdon and got so drunk at the Red Lion that he did not come back till midday on Sunday. The men had milked the cows in the early morning and then had gone out rabbiting, without bothering to feed the animals. When Mr. Jones back, he immediately went to sleep on the drawing-room sofa. At last they could stand it no longer. One of the cows broke in the door of the store-shed with her horn and all the animals began to help. This was more than the hungry animals could bear. Jones and his men suddenly found themselves being butted and kicked from all sides. A minute later all five of them were in full flight down the cart-track that led to the main road, with the animals pursuing them in triumph. Jones was expelled, and the Manor Farm was theirs. All the animals capered with joy when they saw the whips going up in the flames. After that moment, Snowball and Napoleon butted the door open with their shoulders and the animals entered in single file. Then Snowball took a brush painted out Manor Farm and placed it with Animal Farm. They are reducing the seven commandments, it written on the tarred wall.

    In the third chapter, the animals are difficult to use existing tools to be used in harvesting, because the tool is designed for humans, but they work together to complete the harvest. On Sunday, all the animals gathered in a large warehouse to talk about what else to do for next week. But the snowball and Napoleon always have the inequality ways of thinking and ideas. To help the animals understand the general precepts of Animalism, Snowball reduces the Seven Commandments to a single slogan: “Four legs good, two legs bad.” Napoleon, meanwhile, focuses his energy on educating the youth and takes the infant pups of Jessie and Bluebell away from their mothers, presumably for educational purposes.

    In the fourth chapter, news of the rebellion that occurred in the animal farm began to spread. Every day, Snowball and Napoleon sent the pigeons to spread the news, and they also teach the pigeons song “beasts of England”. The neighboring farmers, led by Mr. Pilkington of Fox wood and Mr. Frederick of Pinch Field Farm, attempt to retake Animal Farm by force. The animals, led by Snowball, successfully fight off the invaders in what comes to be known as the Battle of the Cowshed. Snowball and boxer have known as the ultimate animal hero.

    In the fifth chapter, the winter came, and Mollie works less and less. Finally, Clover found that Mollie from Animal Farm was bribed by one of the men in Pilkington. Snowball and Napoleon continue its strong debate, the largest of which occurred during the construction of windmills on a hill. Snowball argues in favor of the windmills, he believes that over time it will become labor-saving devices. Napoleon argued against it, saying that building a wind farm will require time and effort away from more important task of producing food. On Sunday that plans for the windmill must be held a vote, Napoleon calls nine ferocious dogs, who chase Snowball from the farm. Napoleon later announced that all debate stops and institute a number of other new rules for farm. Three weeks after escaping, Snowball, Napoleon surprised everyone by announcing that the windmill will be built. He sent a stirring with animals to explain privately with other animals windmills were really Napoleon’s ideas together and that the plan for it was stolen from him by Snowball.

    In the sixth chapter, all the animals worked like slaves all year, they work harder than ever. Building a windmill is a tiring business, and Boxer proved himself as a model of physical strength and dedication. Napoleon announced that Animal Farm will begin trading with neighboring farms and employs Mr. Whymper, the other men met in the pub and discuss their theories that the windmill would collapse and that Animal Farm will go bankrupt. Jones put in the effort to reclaim his farm. In November, the storm uprooted half-finished windmill. Napoleon said Snowball responsible for damage to windmills and offered a reward for every animal that kills Snowball or brings him back to life. Napoleon then declared that they will begin rebuilding the windmill through the rain during the winter, morning or shine.

    In the seventh chapter, animals do the best they can do to rebuild the windmill. Napoleon uses Mr. Whymper to spread the word of the adequacy of Animal Farm to the human world. The animals are led to believe Snowball who visited the farm at night. He became a constant threat to the safety of the animals , the complaint said the animals that Snowball has sold himself. One day in spring, Napoleon summoned all the animals, in which he forced the recognition of all those who had questioned him, and then have them killed by the dogs. Many animals also confess to crimes that they claim was caused by Snowball. Eventually, the singing of “Beasts of England” is outlawed and a new song by Minimus, Napoleon’s pig-poet, is instituted, although the animals do not find the song as meaningful as their previous anthem.

    In the eighth chapter, upon execution, Clover agitated that someone has violated the seventh commandment. He asks Muriel to read it again the sixth commandment of the gable wall. The order was read, No animal will kill another animal without cause. Clover does not seem to remember reading the last two words before, but thought nothing more of it. Stirring urging them to greater efforts, telling them that productivity in agriculture has increased enormously since the rebellion, although many animals secretly feel hungry. Napoleon, now known as Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon, and several other flattering title, rarely seen in public, and now employs a rooster as a preacher, and accompanied all the time with his dogs. The relationship between the neighboring farms, of Frederick and Pilkington of Foxwood Pinchfield, remains complex. Napoleon, through mediators had tried to sell a pile of wood to one of the other neighbors. At this time, rumors abound that Frederick is about to attack livestock. A plot to assassinate Napoleon revealed. Three chickens Snowball acknowledges, is said to live in Pinchfield, put them to it. Chicken run. Napoleon announced shortly afterwards that the wood is sold to Pilkington of Foxwood. When, at the end of the year, the wheat crop was found full of weeds, Snowball, and by implication Frederick, blame. The animals are sad because of loss of windmills, but the pig quickly set about the task of rebuilding morale by reminding them of their glorious victory has been won. Today will be forever commemorated as Battle of the Windmill. In the next celebration, counterfeit banknotes was forgotten. Pigs then find keg of whiskey in the farmhouse. That night, a loud celebrations in the farmhouse, to the amazement of other animals. Soon after, he announced that a small field near the park, originally set aside for retirement animals that could work no more, it should be plowed and planted with wheat. Muriel disturbed by these developments, and he consulted with the fifth commandment. Once again, he realized that he had given the wrong, for it says, no animal shall drink alcohol to excess.

    In the ninth chapter, the rebuilding of the windmill began soon after the celebration. Boxer worked harder than ever, despite carrying injuries from combat. His thoughts are now turning to retirement, which, under the law of the farm, he is due next year. Meanwhile, the winter with little food to be served. Building a work in agriculture continuing through the summer, is very dependent on the Boxer’s extraordinary efforts. He showed some signs at this stage that his strength failed. He himself wanted to get as much done as he can before he retired. Then, one summer evening, he fainted. He told them that it is impossible to return remains to be buried in the Boxer farm, but he will be celebrated with a bouquet of flowers instead. Napoleon announced a memorial feast for Boxer, which took place in the farmhouse shortly after, attended only by pigs.

    In the tenth chapter, years have passed, and many dead animals except Clover, Benjamin, Moses and a few pigs given the day before the uprising. Clover is now very old, well past retirement age, except that no animal had actually retired yet. The windmill has finally been completed. It is used to grind corn, not to generate electricity, and bring good profits for agriculture. Another windmill is now being built to generate electricity. These farms will be better. Summer arrives. Stirring looks to take all the sheep farm, and no one saw them for a week. Lamb finally back. That night, as the animals back to the job page, Clover sounded excited braying page. The animals rushed forward to see what happens. They stop dead when they all saw what Clover surprised. It is a stirring sight to walk upright, on its hind legs. At this time, all the pigs leave the farm house in single file, all upright on two legs. Mr. Pilkington made a speech saying how he was impressed with farm of pigs from animals, especially the hard work and the rations of the poor of farm animals. Napoleon made a speech at the same time, expressed his happiness that mistrust between Farm Animal and the other is over. Later, announced that the animals concerned shall contact each other as comrades and that Farm Animal will now return to the so called farm Manor. Finally, Napoleon emerged from the farmhouse, upright and carrying a whip. They were very surprised. This is contrary of what they have stored in their order four legs good, two legs better. The creatures outside looked from humans to pigs and from pigs to humans, they found that they could not distinguish.

  25. In the first chapter of Animal Farm, George Orwell introduce about the animals in Mr. Jones’ farm have a meeting to talk about their survival of life. The old major ( he was a twelve years old pig) the prize Middle White boar was the one who asked them to have a meeting in the big barn. Old major asked the meeting because he was a big dream to talk and he has not a longer life. All the animals came to the barn, including the dogs (Bluebell, Jessie and Pincher), the pigs (Snowball and Napoleon), the hens, the pigeons, the sheeps, the cows, the horses (Boxer, Clover), the goat (Benjamin, Muriel), and the donkey, all the animals were present except Moses, the tame raven). Then the old Major began to talk that all the animals are comrades, they are brothers, and that their only real enemy is humans. Man is the root cause of all their troubles, he tells them. He urges the animals to fight the humans at every turn, and tells them that rebellion is the only possible solution to their situation. After that old major then told them about his dream but the first thing he tells them is that he cannot describe the dream, except to say that it reminded him of a song that he learned in his youth called “Beasts of England.” He sings the song, which tells of the day when Man is finally overthrown, when there is no more slavery or cruelty, and when the animals are finally free. All the animals are very enthusiastic to sing it, and they stop it when Mr. Jones awake by their song.
    In the second chapter, three nights later old major died peacefully in his sleep. Before he died, he had given to the more inteligent animals on the farm and a completely outlook on life. All the animals on the farm sets on their Rebellion. But, Moses the Raven is always telling the animals about an animal’s paradise called Sugarcandy Mountain, where the animals go when they die. Nevertheless, the Rebellion is coming. It happend when Mr. Jones falls in drunken and neglect to feed the animals. One of the cows breaks down a door to the store-shed, and several of the animals begin to help themselves from the bins. Jones now awakes and seeing this, he and his four farm hands begin whipping the animals out of the store-shed. The animals attack the humans spontaneously and furiously. They shocked men react by almost immediately running down the laneway and fleeing the farm. The farm now belongs to the animals. Then they replace Manor Farm from the top bar of the gate to Animal Farm. After the fisrt rebellion they a meeting and agree about Seven Commandments. They are: 1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5.No animal shall drink alcohol.

    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.
    The third chapter, is how to get the hay in. It is the harvest time. Their efforts were rewarded , for the the harvest was an even bigger success than they had hoped. Even though they found sme diffuculties in using the tools but they work hard to get the success harvest. The pig become the supervise because the they think that ig is smart enough. Boxer was the hardest. The harvest turns out to be the largest that the farm has ever seen. On Sunday the animal meet they plan the work for the next week, debate, and resolve problems. The two leaders, Napoleon and Snowball, do understand the issues and are very vocal in their debates; however, they never agree, foreshadowing their later struggle for power and control. The meeting always ends with the singing of ‘Beasts of England.’ In the afternoon, there is time for recreation. The mystery of the ‘disappeared milk’ is solved, for it has been seized by the pigs and mixed into their mush. Squealer justifies the action by stating that milk and apples contain substances absolutely necessary for a pig’s diet
    In the fourth chapter, day by day the rebellion of anilaml farm had spead across half of the country. Every day Snowball and Napoleon sent out flight pigeons whose instruction were to mingle with the animals on neighbouring farm, tell them the story of rebellion and teach them the tune of “Beast of England”. For the first time it seemed that the farmer ignore it but through what they saw made them scared. Early in october Mr. Jones and all his men try o attack them, but they have been prepared well. When the first time that all his men kick them with their stick felt that they will win but actually they came to animals’ trap. The animals won. The invasion was over. All of them were happy, but in that happy situation Boxer felt so sorry for killing the man. Now they celebrate their victory. The flag is raised, Beasts of England is sung. A medal for “Animal Hero, First Class” is created and awarded to Snowball. A medal for “Animal Hero, Second Class” is created, and awarded to a sheep that died when Jones fired his gun.
    In the fifth chapter, as winter drew on, Mollie works less and less, she always late to work, early to go back from work and always has exsuced for it. Shortly she disappears, no one animals on the farm ever see her again. Many meeting were held in the big farm. They discuss about farm policy and it had to ratified by a majority vote. The dispute between Nopeleon and Snowball become visible through all the time they are oppose each other on every proposal. Snowball’s eloquence to control the meetings, However, Napoleon works quietly behind the scenes building support, and succeeding in getting all of the sheep onto his side. Snowball had a proposal to build a windmill which he says can provide heat and electricity to the farm,and as usuall he was oppose with Napolleon. Then they agree to decide it by vote. But what happened on that meeting? Some animals become confused because they have heard about two side explanation about the windmill which is from Napolleon and Snowball. Three weeks after Snowball’s escape, Napoleon surprises everybody by announcing that the windmill will be built. He sends Squealer to the animals to explain privately to the other animals that the windmill was really Napoleon’s idea all along and that the plans for it were stolen from him by Snowball.
    In the sixh chapter, all the animals worked all the year like slaves, they work very hard. They made the priority for building the windmill and the harvest of the field boecome less and less. It made them running otu of supplies. Progress on the windmill is laborious and slow. Athough the farm animals saw some irregularities in Napolleon leadership and also the rules but they still survive. From then on, Napoleon engages a local solicitor to act as the middleman between Animal Farm and the outside world. The solicitor comes every Monday, and his presence makes the other animals very uneasy, but their doubts are eased by their pride in seeing Napoleon give orders to a human. Soon they found that the pigs move into the farmhouse. They eat in the kitchen, relax in the drawing room, and even sleep in the beds. Some of the animals are very doubtful about this. It is not deal of what they have dealed in their Seven Commandment. Later they continued the process of windmill built and when it is half finished they found it destroyed by someone. But later Napolleon announced them that Snowball is the one who works and take resposibble for what had happened to a half finished windmill because he found that there are some pig footprint around the ruin.
    In the seventh chapter, it was a bitter winter they tried their best in rebuilding the windmill. By January, they are threatened with starvation. Onece time on Sunday when they have meeting the Squealer announced that hens should give their eggs for trading, the hens try to refuse but, the pigs warned that they will stop their rations completely. Eventually the hens give their eggs. In the other side, the animals heard the news about Snowball from the pig. Snowball is said to be hiding on one of the neighbouring farms. He is said to be sneaking into Animal farm by night and doing untold damage. Every mishap and misfortune on the farm was now attributed to Snowball. Napolleon made a show and he was accompanied by the dogs to investigate what Snowball did. Many things happed in the farm, Napolleon at all did all by his own way, even the killing of a pig who is forced to admit if they conspire with him. The animals felt strange but they try to console their self by singing Beast of England, and they are very surprised now that the song is henceforth abolished. It is to be replaced a song called Animal Farm, composed by one of the pigs. The animals take up the new song faithfully, but are aware that it does not compare to Beasts of England.
    In the eight chapter, after the executions some of the animals remembered that the Sixth Commandment decreed “No animal shall kill any other aimal.” All the year the animals work more harder than the years before. It was telling that the harvest year by year is abudantly even in the fact many of them were starving. Now the relations between the neigbouring farm remain complex. At this time, rumours abound that Frederick is about to attack the farm. Because of it Napolleon anounced them that the wood will be sold to Pilkington. The windmill is completely finished by autumn. The animals forget their worries temporarily to celebrate this magnificent achievement. But three days later, the notes are discovered to be forgeries. Napoleon assembles the animals again and pronounces the death sentence on Frederick. On the next morning Frederick comes to attack them. The animals were trapped at the back of the farm building and the windmill is gone. They are very sad, but thepigs give them support that they can build it again and can reach a great victory. The pigs then discover a cask of whisky in the farmhouse. That night, loud celebrations are heard in the farmhouse, to the amazement of the other animals. Muriels is trouble by this and one more time she realized that it is incorrectly, for it says, “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.”
    In the ninth chapter, they started the rebuilding of the windmill after the victory of celebrations were ended. Boxer worked harder than before, he refused to take even a day off work. Resources at the farm was grown. Napoleon declares that a new schoolroom must be built for the piglets, who are instructed to remain aloof from the other animals. The schoolroom is in addition to the requirement to rebuild the windmill and the need to keep the farm supplied with various other requirements. Potatoes are sold, and practically every egg laid by the hens is sold to earn the money required for these supplies. And now Napolleon introduced a weekly event called sponttaneous Demonstration which every animal has an exersice in military procession. When the animals seemed depending to Boxer, hw was sick, he cauld not stand for it anymore. In his sickness all the animals rush to his side. Squealer promises to send him to the town so that the veterinary surgeon can treat him. Then, while the animals are all at work, the van comes to take Boxer away. They would not have noticed, except that Benjamin gallops across the farm to tell them that Boxer is being taken away. Three days later Squealer told that Boxer was died in the hospital. Napoleon pays his respects to Boxer at the meeting on the following Sunday.
    In the tenth chapter, years have passed, and many of the animals are dead except Clover, Benjamin, Moses and some of the pigs remember the days before the rebellion. Clover is by now very old, well past retirement age, except that no animal has actually managed to retire yet.The windmill has finally been completed. It is used for milling corn, rather than for generating electricity, and brings a good profit to the farm. Another windmill is now being built to generate electricity. The farm is going better. Summer arrives. Squealer is seen to take all the sheep of the farm aside, and no-one sees them for a week. The sheep eventually return. That evening, as the animals are returning to the yard from work, Clover is heard neighing excitedly from the yard. The animals rush forward to see what is happening. They stop dead when they all see what has startled Clover. It is the sight of Squealer walking upright, on his hind legs. At this moment, all of the pigs leave the farmhouse in single file, all upright on two legs. Finally, Napoleon emerges from the farmhouse, upright and carrying a whip. They are very shocked. This opposed from what they had kept in their commandment ”Four legs good, two legs better.” After this, the pigs and their sows start wearing clothes and carrying whips. They begin to have more direct dealings with the neighbouring farmers. One day, the pigs invite a number of the local farmers to inspect the farm. After the inspection, the pigs and the farmers return to the farmhouse for a celebration. After a time, loud noises of laughter and singing are heard through the windows. The other animals are overcome with curiosity, and they approach the farmhouse to see what is going on. They look through the windows to see the pigs and farmers seated around the living room table, playing cards, making speeches and congratulating one another. Mr Pilkington makes a speech telling the pigs how impressed he is with Animal Farm, especially with the hard work and poor rations of the farm animals. Napoleon makes a speech in return, expressing his happiness that the mistrust between Animal Farm and the others is now at an end. He furthermore announces that the animals will cease to address each other as “Comrade,” and that “Animal Farm” will now revert to being called “Manor Farm.” As Napoleon finishes his speech to great applause, the animals outside seem to notice something changing in the features of the pigs, but what?
    As the applause dies down and the card game is resumed, the animals creep away from the window. However, they hurry back when they hear a furious argument break out. The argument is because Mr. Pilkington and Napoleon have both played an Ace of Spades at the same time. But as the animals look from Napoleon to Pilkington, from man to pig and from pig back to man, they find that they are unable to tell the difference.

    reference : http://www.online-literature.com/orwell/animalfarm/5/

  26. Animal Farm Summary
    Animal Farm is a satirical fable set on Manor Farm, a typical English farm. Orwell employs a third-person narrator, who reports events without commenting on them directly. The narrator describes things as the animals perceive them.
    Old Major calls a meeting of all the animals in the big barn. He announces that he may die soon and relates to them the insights he has gathered in his life. Old Major tells the animals that human beings are the sole reason that “No animal in England is free” and that “The life of an animal is misery and slavery.” Therefore the animals must take charge of their destiny by overthrowing Man in a great Rebellion. He relates his dream of rebellion.
    Old Major dies soon after the meeting and the other animals prepare for the Rebellion under Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer’s leadership. One night, Mr. Jones passes out drunk, creating the perfect opportunity for the animals to rebel. They are so hungry that they break into the store-shed. When Jones and his men try to whip them into submission, the animals run them off the farm. The animals’ burn all reminders of their former bondage but agree to preserve the farmhouse “as a museum.” Snowball changes the name of the farm to “Animal Farm” and comes up with Seven Commandments, which are to form the basis of Animalism. They are:
    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animals shall drink alcohol.
    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.
    The pigs milk the cows, and then the animals go out to begin the harvest. When they return, the milk has disappeared mysteriously. The first harvest is a great success. The animals adhere to the tenets of Animalism happily, and with good result. Each animal works according to his ability and gets a fair share of food.
    Every Sunday, Snowball and Napoleon lead a meeting of all the animals in the big barn. The pigs are the most intelligent animals, so they think up resolutions for the other animals to debate. Soon after, the pigs set up a study-center for themselves in the harness-room. Snowball embarks on various campaigns for social and economic improvement. Napoleon opposes whatever Snowball does. Because most of the animals lack the intelligence to memorize the Seven Commandments, Snowball reduces them to the single maxim, “Four legs good, two legs bad.” The sheep take to chanting this at meetings.
    As time goes by, the pigs increase their control over the animals and award themselves increasing privileges. They quell the animals’ questions and protests by threatening Mr. Jones’s return. During this time, Napoleon also confiscates nine newborn puppies and secludes them in a loft in order to “educate” them.
    By late summer, Snowball’s and Napoleon’s pigeon-messengers have spread news of the Rebellion across half of England. Animals on other farms have begun lashing out against their human masters and singing the revolutionary song “Beasts of England.” Jones and other farmers try to recapture Animal Farm but fail. The animals celebrate their victory in what they call “The Battle of the Cowshed.”
    The animals agree to let the pigs make all the resolutions. Snowball and Napoleon continue to be at odds and eventually clash over the windmill. Snowball wants to build a windmill in order to shorten the work week and provide the farm electricity, but Napoleon opposes it. Napoleon summons nine fierce dogs (the puppies he trained) to run Snowball off the farm. Napoleon announces that Sunday meetings will cease and that the pigs will make all the decisions in the animals’ best interest. At this point, Boxer takes on his own personal maxims, “I will work harder” and “Napoleon is always right.” In the spring, Napoleon announces plans to build the windmill, claiming that it was his idea all along—rewriting history.
    Building the windmill forces the animals to work harder and on Sundays. Shortages begin to occur, so Napoleon opens up trade with the human world. Through Squealer, he lies that no resolutions against interaction with humans or the use of money had ever been passed. Napoleon enlists Whimper to be his intermediary, and the pigs move into the farmhouse. Squealer assures the animals that there is no resolution against this, but Clover and Muriel discovers that one of the resolutions has been changed to: “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets.” Squealer convinces her that there was never a resolution against beds at all.
    One night, strong winds shake the farm and the animals awake to discover the windmill destroyed. Napoleon blames Snowball and sentences the expelled pig to death.
    In the winter, as conditions become worse on Animal Farm, Napoleon deceives the human world into thinking Animal Farm is prospering. He signs a contract for a quota of four hundred eggs per week, inciting a hen rebellion that results in several deaths. Around the same time, Napoleon begins negotiating with Frederick and Pilkington to sell Animal Farm’s store of timber. He also spreads propaganda against Snowball, claiming that Snowball was always a spy and a collaborator while Napoleon was the true hero of the Battle of the Cowshed, and Squealer warns against Snowball’s secret agents.
    Four days later, Napoleon holds an assembly in which he makes several animals confess to treachery and then has the dogs execute them. The dogs try to get Boxer to confess but leave him alone when they cannot overpower him. Afterwards, Clover and some other animals huddle together on a hill overlooking the farm. They reminisce about Animalism’s ideals and consider how much they differ from the violence and terror of Napoleon’s reign. They sing “Beasts of England,” but Squealer informs them that the song is useless now that the Rebellion is completed and that it is now forbidden. The new anthem begins with the lyrics: “Animal Farm, Animal Farm, / Never through me shalt thou come to harm!”
    Another commandment is changed to read: “No animal shall kill any other animal without cause.” Clover and Muriel convince themselves that the commandment has always been this way. Squealer begins reading the animals statistics regularly to convince them that production is increasing. Napoleon seldom appears in public. The animals now call him “our Leader, Comrade Napoleon.” They attribute all misfortunes to Snowball and all success and luck to Napoleon.
    Napoleon continues to negotiate with the farmers and eventually decides to sell the timber to Mr. Pilkington. At last, the windmill is finished and named “Napoleon Mill.” Soon after, Napoleon announces that he will sell the timber to Frederick, quickly changing his allegiance and disavowing his earlier vilification of Frederick. Napoleon says that Pilkington and Snowball have been collaborating. Frederick pays for the timber in fake cash, and the next morning, Frederick and his men invade the farm and blow up the windmill. The animals manage to chase the humans off, though many die or are injured in what they call “The Battle of the Windmill.”
    After the battle, the pigs discover a case of whisky in the farmhouse. They drink to excess and soon, Squealer reports that Napoleon is dying and, as his last action, has made the consumption of alcohol punishable by death. But Napoleon recovers quickly and then sends Whimper to procure manuals on brewing alcohol. Squealer changes another commandment to “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.”
    Napoleon plans to build a schoolhouse for the thirty-one young pigs he has parented. Towards the end of the winter, Napoleon begins increasing propaganda to distract the animals from inequality and hardship. He creates special “Spontaneous Demonstrations” in which the animals march around and celebrate their triumphs.
    In April, Napoleon declares the farm a Republic and is elected unanimously as President. The animals continue to work feverishly, most of all Boxer. One day, Boxer collapses while overexerting himself. Napoleon promises to send him to the veterinarian in Willingdon. A few days later, a horse-slaughterer takes Boxer away in his van. The animals are none the wiser until Benjamin reads the lettering on the side of the van. A few days later, Squealer reports that Boxer died in the hospital despite receiving the best possible care. He claims that Boxer’s last words glorified Animal Farm and Napoleon. He also claims that the van belongs to the veterinarian, who recently bought it from the horse slaughterer and had not yet managed to paint over the lettering. Napoleon promises to honor Boxer with a special banquet. But the pigs use the money from his slaughter to buy a case of whisky, which they drink on the day appointed for the banquet.
    Years go by, and though Animal Farm’s population has increased, only a few animals that remember the Rebellion remain. Conditions are still harsh despite technological improvements. The pigs and dogs continue to do no manual labor, instead devoting themselves to organizational work. One day, Squealer takes the sheep out to a deserted pasture where, he says, he is teaching them a song. On the day the sheep return, the pigs walk around the yard on their hind legs as the sheep chant, “Four legs good, and two legs better.” The other animals are horrified. Clover consults the barn wall again. This time Benjamin reads to her. The Seven Commandments have been replaced with a single maxim: “All animals are equal / But some animals are more equal than others.”
    The pigs continue the longstanding pattern of awarding themselves more and more privileges. They buy a telephone and subscribe to magazines. They even wear Jones’s clothing. One night, Napoleon holds a conciliatory banquet for the farmers. Pilkington makes a speech in which he says he wants to emulate Animal Farm’s long work hours and low rations. Napoleon announces that the farm will be called “Manor Farm” again, the animals will call each other “Comrade” no longer, and they no longer will march ceremoniously past Old Major’s skull (a practice he denies understanding). He also declares that the farm’s flag will be plain green, devoid of the symbols of the Rebellion. As the animals peer through the windows to watch the humans and pigs play poker, they cannot distinguish between them.

  27. dear sir
    below is my summary of Animal farm.

    In chapter one: After the drunken farmer Jones has gone to bed, all the animals of the farm assemble for a meeting. The meeting has been called by Old Major, a boar who is the oldest and wisest animal on the farm. The pigs, cows, horses, ducks, hens and dogs all assemble in the big barn, thinking that they are going to be told about a dream that Old Major had the previous night. When they have all settled down, Old Major addresses them. Before telling them about his dream, he says that, as he is coming to the end of his own life, and he wants to share his wisdom with the other animals. He reminds them about all the work that they have to do for their human masters, how little they are given to eat, how they own nothing but their bare skin. He describes how the humans steal everything produced by the animals, with the animals receiving in return only enough food to keep them alive. He tells them that their children are taken from them almost as soon as they are born, and that when they come to the end of their useful lives, they will be cruelly slaughtered. He goes on to tell them that all the animals are comrades, they are brothers, and that their only real enemy is humans. Man is the root cause of all their troubles, he tells them. He urges the animals to fight the humans at every turn, and tells them that rebellion is the only possible solution to their situation. In the middle of the speech, a few wild rats enter the barn, and the dogs chase them. Old Major calls a vote on whether or not the rats should be considered to be comrades. A large majority agrees that the rats are comrades, the only animals to vote against are the dogs and the cat, who, we are told, “was afterwards discovered to have voted on both sides.” Old Major then concludes his speech by advising them on how they should conduct themselves. They must recognize that whatever goes on four legs or wings is a friend. They must on no account ever come to resemble man, and must never live in a house. He tells them finally “All animals are equal.”Old Major finally gets around to telling them about his dream, but the first thing he tells them is that he cannot describe the dream, except to say that it reminded him of a song that he learned in his youth called “Beasts of England.” He sings the song, which tells of the day when Man is finally overthrown, when there is no more slavery or cruelty, and when the animals are finally free. The animals in the barn respond rapturously to this, and sang it through together five times in succession, until they are interrupted by a blast from the farmer’s shotgun. The farm quickly returns to normality.
    In chapter two: Old Major dies three days later. The animals set out to prepare for the rebellion. The pigs, being the most intelligent animals on the farm, take the lead on this. The task of working Old Major’s ideas into a more formal system falls to three pigs, Napoleon, Snowball and Squealer. These three organize regular nighttime meetings with the other animals to explain the principles of their system, called Animalism. They encounter many obstacles from amongst the simpler animals, which are afraid of what might happen if Jones was not around to feed them. Also, Moses the Raven is always telling the animals about an animal’s paradise called Sugar Candy Mountain, where the animals go when they die. Many of the animals believe in Sugar Candy Mountain, and the pigs have to keep on persuading them that no such place exists. Without any planning, the rebellion happens on Midsummer’s day, just before harvest. Farmer Jones gets hopelessly drunk the night before, and neglects to milk the cows or feed the animals all day. One of the cows breaks down a door to the store-shed, and several of the animals begin to help themselves from the bins. Jones now awakes and seeing this, he and his four farm hands begin whipping the animals out of the store-shed. The animals attack the humans spontaneously and furiously. They shocked men react by almost immediately running down the laneway and fleeing the farm. The farm now belongs to the animals. The animals are ecstatic. They light a great bonfire and burn every farm implement they can lay their hands on, including knives, nose-rings and whips. Napoleon serves double-rations of food to every animal, they gather to sing Beasts of England, and they go to sleep. The next morning they carry out a more detailed inspection of the farm, stopping warily outside the farmhouse. After doing a brief and cautious tour of the farmhouse, they leave, vowing that no animal should ever live there, and to preserve the farmhouse as a museum. Snowball and Napoleon now call the animals together, and surprise them by announcing that they have spent the last few months learning to write. Next they go to the main gate of the farm and paint over “Manor Farm”, replacing it with “Animal Farm”. Returning to the farm buildings, they paint the seven commands of Animalism onto the gable of the big barn;

    1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
    3. No animal shall wear clothes.
    4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    5. No animal shall drink alcohol.

    6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
    7. All animals are equal.
    In chapter three: The harvest is a great success. It is finished two days earlier than Jones and his men used to manage. The animals are so enthusiastic and excited about the fact that the food is truly their own, that no food is stolen during the harvesting. Almost all the animals have worked as hard as they possibly could, but there are some exceptions. Mollie, the vain mare, often leaves the fields early complaining about a stone in her hoof, and the cat seems to appear only for meals. Benjamin the donkey is one of the few animals who are completely unchanged by the revolution, remaining as aloof and cynical as he had been before. Sunday is a rest day, when the animals assemble at a great Meeting. This is where the work for the coming week is to be planned, and various motions discussed. All of the resolutions are put forward by the pigs. The other animals are aware of this, but as they cannot think of any resolutions themselves, they allow the pigs to lead. As the weeks go by, it becomes clear that Napoleon and Snowball rarely agree about anything. Snowball puts all his energies into forming various committees, each of which is responsible for improving some or other aspect of life on the farm. Napoleon sees no value in this, and prefers to concentrate on educating the young. For example, when two of the dogs have litters, Napoleon takes the puppies away from their mothers and secludes them in an inaccessible part of the farm, so that he can educate them properly in the principles of Animalism. Not all of Snowball’s a committee work very well, but his reading and writing classes are hugely successful. The pigs can read and write perfectly. The dogs learn to read, but will not read anything except the seven commandments. Boxer the great carthorse tries very hard to learn the alphabet, but cannot get past D. Many of the other animals can understand only one letter. Because so many animals are thus unable to read the seven commandments, Snowball reduces the seven commandments to the single maxim “Four legs good, two legs bad!” which they can remember more easily. It is soon learned that the pigs took the milk that disappeared on the first day, and are now mixing it into their mash. The pigs now issue a decree stating that all windfall apples are to be gathered up and given over for the exclusive use of the pigs. Some of the animals are puzzled by this, and wonder why the apples are not to be shared out equally. Squealer goes before them to explain. He tells them that the pigs, as the leaders, must keep their brainpower up, and that science has proven that milk and apples are essential for this. Squealer goes on to remind them that the alternative to the pigs is to have Farmer Jones back. This settles the animals, who agree that, whatever happens, they never want to live under Jones again.
    In chapter four: Snowball and Napoleon are sending pigeons to neighboring farms and beyond, to tell the animals about the rebellion. News of the rebellion has spread to the surrounding county. The farmers at first pretend not to be troubled about the rebellion, believing that the animals cannot possibly make a success of the farm. But as time passes the farmers become more and more troubled, and their animals become more and more emboldened. The tune of Beasts of England is now known by nearly every animal in the county. The farmers try to spread lies about torture and slavery on Animal Farm, but the animals of the county do not believe them. They whistle the tune and sing the words of Beasts of England, though they risk terrible beatings by doing so. More and more stories are heard of individual animals disobeying and in some cases attacking their human masters. One day in October, Jones, all his men, and half a dozen others from the neighboring farms, attack Animal Farm. They walk up the laneway through the main gate. They are all armed with sticks except for Jones, who carries a gun. The animals, however, are well prepared. After an initial skirmish where the pigeons and geese attack the humans, Snowball attacks them, supported by Benjamin, Muriel and all the sheep. The men repulse this attack with their sticks, and Snowball sounds the retreat. They fall back to the farmyard, pursued by the men, who think that they have triumphed. However, they have walked into a trap. As soon as the men are in the farmyard, a number of the larger animals emerge from the shed behind them, and cut off their retreat. Snowball’s group now attacks again. Snowball charges at Jones. Jones fires a shot at Snowball and wounds him, but this is not enough to prevent Snowball from crashing into him and sending him tumbling to the ground, the gun flying out of his hand in the process, Now Boxer joins the attack, rearing up on his hind legs and striking viciously with his hoofed forelegs. Boxer strikes one of the men on the skull, apparently killing him. At the sight of this, the other men run for their lives, back down the laneway and out the gate. The invasion is over.
    In the post-battle excitement, Boxer is extremely remorseful for killing the man, while the animals suddenly realize that Mollie is missing. They search the farm, and find her hiding in a corner. She fled the battle as soon as the gun went off. They return to the farmyard to find that the man was only stunned, and has since recovered and escaped.
    The animals celebrate their victory. The flag is raised, Beasts of England is sung. A medal for “Animal Hero, First Class” is created and awarded to Snowball. A medal for “Animal Hero, Second Class” is created, and awarded to a sheep that died when Jones fired his gun. They decide to keep the gun and place it at the bottom of the flagstaff, to be fired each year on the anniversaries of the rebellion, and of the battle.
    In chapter five: Winter is approaching. Mollie, who has been avoiding work more and more, is found to have been accepting gifts of ribbon and sugar from one of the men on the neighboring farm. Shortly afterwards she disappears, and is said to be pulling a cart in the town. No one on the farm ever sees her again, and she is never mentioned again.
    With the land now frozen solid, it is impossible to do any farming. A lot of time is spent on meetings of all the animals in the big barn, where the future policy for the farm is discussed and voted on. The divisions between Snowball and Napoleon are becoming more pronounced, and it seems that they now oppose each other on every proposal. Snowball’s eloquence allows him to control the meetings, However, Napoleon works quietly behind the scenes building support, and succeeding in getting all of the sheep onto his side. Snowball is forever proposing new plans and schemes for the improvement of the farm, all of which are opposed by Napoleon. Snowball’s most ambitious plan is for the construction of a windmill, which he says can provide heat and electricity to the farm. He accepts that it will be a huge undertaking, and is vague about some of the details. Napoleon is completely against the idea, and makes his opposition clear. Snowball continues to work on his plans, and spends hours every day in a shed working on them, drawing them out on the wooden floor. All of the animals visit Snowball regularly in the shed to watch the plans grow into something that looks very complex and impressive. Only Napoleon holds back, and when he does come to inspect the plans, he urinates on them.
    The day comes when all the animals will gather in the big barn to vote on whether or not the windmill will be built. The farm is divided into two factions at this stage, the “Vote for Snowball and the three-day week” faction, and the “Vote for Napoleon and the full manger” faction. Snowball has convinced his faction that the windmill will lead to increased leisure time for everybody, while Napoleon has convinced his faction that the distraction of the windmill will cause the animals to lose time on the harvest and starve. The meeting begins. The sheep heckle Snowball as he explains his plans for the windmill, and why it will be good for the farm. Napoleon then rises and gives a very brief and curt address, advising everyone to vote against the windmill. Snowball then speaks again. He talks passionately and eloquently, and creates a vision of a mechanized farm with heat and light, with electrical threshers and ploughs and reapers, where the animals do little or no work, and all the labor is carried out by the electricity generated by the windmill. It is clear that Snowball will win the vote.
    Just then, Napoleon stands and emits a queer sound, a kind of whimper. At this signal, nine huge dogs, the dogs that Napoleon took away as puppies months before, rush into the barn and charge at Snowball. They chase him from the barn and off the farm. He is never seen again.
    The other animals, who had left the barn to watch the chase, now return to the barn, where Napoleon addresses them. He tells them that Sunday Meetings are henceforth abolished, and that all decisions in future will be taken solely by the pigs. Any dissent is silenced by growls from the dogs, and the meeting finishes to a fifteen-minute chorus of “Four legs good, two legs bad” from the sheep. Squealer follows up in the aftermath, explaining to the shocked animals of the farm that Napoleon has taken on the leadership with great reluctance and with great sacrifice to himself. The animals are soon won over when they are reminded of what life was like under Jones.
    Three weeks after this fateful meeting, Napoleon announces that the Windmill will now be built. The animals are warned that this will mean lots of extra hard work, and a reduction in their rations. Squealer explains the apparent change of heart by convincing the animals that Napoleon had been in favor of the windmill all along, but had to appear to be against it in order to get rid of Snowball. The animals are easily persuaded.
    In chapter six: Another year passes. The animals work themselves to the bone on the harvest and on the windmill, all under the supervision of the pigs. The animals are asked to work on Sunday afternoons as well, on a voluntary basis, though any animal that did not work on Sunday had their rations halved. By autumn time, it is clear that the harvest is a poorer one than the previous year. This will make the coming winter all the more difficult. Progress on the windmill is laborious and slow. The stones with which it is to be built have to be hauled to the top of the quarry and thrown from there to the bottom, so that the stones can be broken into the appropriate sizes. It takes until the end of the summer to accumulate enough stone to begin building the windmill, work which depends almost entirely on the tremendous efforts of Boxer, who works himself harder than ever before.
    As the work on the harvest and the windmill proceeds, the animals find themselves running out of supplies. Items such as paraffin, seeds, manure and machinery could not be produced on the farm. This problem is resolved when Napoleon announces one day that Animal Farm will henceforth enter into trading arrangements with some of the surrounding farms. Hay and wheat from the farm will be sold, and the hens are told that they will have to give up some of their eggs, a sacrifice that they should be proud to make. Some of the animals are doubtful about this move, seeming to remember an agreement in the early days after the rebellion never to have anything to do with humans. Again, Squealer puts any doubts to rest in the following days, informing them that such a resolution was never written down. From then on, Napoleon engages a local solicitor to act as the middleman between Animal Farm and the outside world. The solicitor comes every Monday, and his presence makes the other animals very uneasy, but their doubts are eased by their pride in seeing Napoleon give orders to a human. Shortly afterwards, the pigs move into the farmhouse. They eat in the kitchen, relax in the drawing room, and even sleep in the beds. Some of the animals are very doubtful about this. Clover consults the seven commandments on the gable wall, and asks Muriel to read out the fourth commandment, which states, “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets.” Muriel cannot remember sheets being mentioned before. However, helped by the smooth words of Squealer, she assumes that she must have been wrong; she and the other animals accept his argument that the pigs, as the leaders, must have as much comfort as possible to facilitate their brainwork.
    The work on the windmill continues. The animals are all extremely proud of their progress so far, except for Benjamin, who expresses no opinion for or against the windmill. By November, the windmill is half finished. However, disaster strikes when a nighttime storm destroys it. The animals all gather around the ruin. Napoleon is silent for a long time, before making the sudden and dramatic announcement that the windmill was destroyed by Snowball. Some pig footprints leading away from the farm are discovered, and Napoleon confirms them to belong to Snowball. The other animals are shocked that their former leader could do such a thing. Napoleon announces that work on rebuilding the windmill will commence immediately.
    In chapter seven: The animals now face into a brutal winter. Corn is scarce, and the farm’s stock of potatoes has been destroyed by frost. By January, they are threatened with starvation. The pigs conceal this fact from the outside world by filling the store-bins full of sand, topping the bins with what few provisions they have left, and allowing their human middleman to walk past the apparently full bins. However, they must obtain food from the outside world somehow.
    At a Sunday meeting, Squealer announces that the hens must give up their eggs, so that they can be traded with the outside world for grain and meal. The hens are stunned into rebellion. They take to laying their eggs from the rafters of the coop, allowing them to smash to the ground. The pigs respond by stopping their rations completely, and threatening death on any other animals that shares their food with them. Eventually the hens relent, and they are forced to give up their eggs as soon as they are laid. All the while, the pigs spread terrible rumors about Snowball. Snowball is said to be hiding on one of the neighboring farms. He is said to be sneaking into Animal farm by night and doing untold damage. Every mishap and misfortune on the farm was now attributed to Snowball. Napoleon makes a show of doing a major tour of the farm, accompanied by his dogs, to investigate the activities of Snowball. This goes on for some weeks, when the dramatic announcement is made that Snowball was in league with Jones from the very start. Squealer tells the animals that this terrible discovery has been made from documents that the pigs have just discovered. The animals are shocked and puzzled by this. Boxer, in particular, is reluctant to accept this. He questions Squealer; he reminds him how bravely Snowball fought when the farmers tried to invade Animal Farm. Squealer tries to reassure him, but Boxer remains persistent in his belief that Snowball could never have been in league with Jones. Squealer eventually convinces Boxer by telling him that Napoleon has stated categorically that Snowball was an agent of Jones. Boxer finally relents at this, assuming that Napoleon must be correct. Boxer’s persistence in questioning Squealer, however, has been noted. An assembly of all the animals in the yard is now called. Napoleon, who now rarely leaves the farmhouse, and is never without his escort of dogs, stands before them. At a signal, the dogs charge into the crowd and drag four of the more troublesome pigs before Napoleon. At the same time, three of the dogs attach Boxer. Boxer easily fends them off. The miserable pigs are forced to confess to having been in league with Snowball, and are murdered on the spot by the dogs. Other animals come forward to confess various crimes against the farm, and each in turn is slaughtered. These are the first killings of other animals since the rebellion. The animals creep away from the meeting. Boxer, in trying to understand why this has happened, resolves that the only possible solution is to work harder. Clover, not as strong but more intelligent, has deep misgivings about what she has seen, but she cannot put them into words. She remains faithful to Napoleon, but deep down she knows that this state of affairs was not what they fought for in the rebellion. The animals try to console them by singing Beasts of England. However, they are interrupted by Squealer, who tells them that the song is henceforth abolished. It is to be replaced a song called Animal Farm, composed by one of the pigs. The animals take up the new song faithfully, but are aware that it does not compare to Beasts of England.
    In chapter eight: After the executions, Clover is again uneasy that one of the seven commandments has been broken. She asks Muriel to read her the sixth commandment again from the gable wall. The commandment reads, “No animal shall kill another animal without cause.” Clover did not seem to remember having read the last two words before, but she thought no more of it. The animals spend the following year working harder than ever. Squealer exhorts them to greater efforts, telling them that productivity on the farm has improved enormously since the rebellion, though many of the animals secretly feel hungry. Napoleon, who is now known as “Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,” and several other flattering titles, is seen in public rarely, and now employs a cockerel as a herald, as well as being accompanied at all times by his dogs. Relations between the neighboring farms, Frederick of Pinchfield and Pilkington of Foxwood, remain complex. Napoleon, through the middleman, has been trying to sell off a pile of timber to one of the other neighbor. At this time, rumors abound that Frederick is about to attack the farm. A plot to murder Napoleon is uncovered. Three hens confess that Snowball, said to be living on Pinchfield, put them up to it. The hens are executed. Napoleon announces shortly afterwards that the wood is to be sold to Pilkington of Foxwood. When, later in the year, the wheat crop is found to be full of weeds, Snowball, and by implication Frederick, is blamed. The whole farm seethes with anger and resentment against Frederick, who is now the sworn enemy of Animal farm. The windmill is completed by autumn. The animals forget their worries temporarily to celebrate this magnificent achievement. The animals are all congratulated by Napoleon. Two days later, he calls them to a meeting and announces that the wood is to be sold to Frederick. The animals are astonished, but Squealer easily explains this away as part of Napoleon’s strategy, to appear friendly with one neighbor while secretly courting the other. The sale goes ahead, and the solicitor organizes the transport of the wood off the farm, and the delivery of the banknotes to Napoleon.
    Three days later, the notes are discovered to be forgeries. Napoleon assembles the animals again and pronounces the death sentence on Frederick. At the same time, he warns them that Frederick and his men may be about to attack the farm. The attack comes the next morning. Fifteen men, six with guns, approach the farm, and the battle is joined. Messengers are sent to Foxwood requesting assistance, but Pilkington sends back a curt rejection. The animals are driven back to the farm buildings. While they are trapped there, the men plant dynamite around the windmill. In the ensuing explosion, the windmill is obliterated. The animals react to this by forgetting all about the guns and charging headlong at the men, who after a brief struggle, run for their lives. The animals are dejected at the loss of the windmill, but the pigs quickly set about the task of rebuilding morale by reminding them of the magnificent victory they have won. The day will be forever commemorated as the Battle of the Windmill. In the ensuing celebrations, the forged banknotes are forgotten. The pigs then discover a cask of whisky in the farmhouse. That night, loud celebrations are heard in the farmhouse, to the amazement of the other animals. Soon afterwards, it is announced that a small field near the orchard, originally set aside for retired animals who could work no more, was to be ploughed up and sown with barley. Muriel is troubled by this development, and she consults the fifth commandment. Again, she realizes she has remembered it incorrectly, for it says, “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.”
    In chapter nine: Rebuilding of the windmill begins immediately after the celebrations. Boxer works harder than ever, despite carrying an injury from the battle. His thoughts are now turning to retirement, for which, under the laws of Animal farm, he is due the next year. In the meantime, another cold winter with little food must be endured. Squealer bamboozles the animals with productivity figures which prove how much better off they are than when they were under Jones, although many have by now forgotten life under Jones. The strain of the resources of the farms grows, not least due to the birth of thirty-one piglets the previous autumn. Napoleon declares that a new schoolroom must be built for the piglets, who are instructed to remain aloof from the other animals. The schoolroom is in addition to the requirement to rebuild the windmill and the need to keep the farm supplied with various other requirements. Potatoes are sold, and practically every egg laid by the hens is sold to earn the money required for these supplies. All the while, the animals’ rations are being reduced, while the pigs make beer from the barley they sowed earlier in the year.
    Napoleon now introduces a weekly event called the Spontaneous Demonstration, where every animal would leave their work to march in military procession around the farm, so as to instill pride in the animals in the achievements of the farm since the rebellion. It comforts the animals to know that, no matter how hard their lives, at least they have the benefit of being their own masters. Another consolation around this time is the reappearance of Moses and his tales of Sugar Candy Mountain. Many of the animals like to believe that they will go to a better place after their deaths, and the pigs now seem to tolerate Moses, giving him an allowance of beer every day. The building work around the farm continues through the summer, heavily dependent on the extraordinary efforts of Boxer. He is showing some signs at this stage that his strength is failing. He himself is hoping to get as much done as he possibly can before he retires. Then, one summer evening, he collapses. All the animals rush to his side, unable to bear the thought that anything might happen to him. He barely has the strength to get back to his feet and to struggle back to his stall. Squealer promises to send him to the town so that the veterinary surgeon can treat him. Clover and Benjamin spend as much time as they can over the next few days nursing him. Then, while the animals are all at work, the van comes to take Boxer away. They would not have noticed, except that Benjamin gallops across the farm to tell them that Boxer is being taken away. No one has ever seen Benjamin gallop before. The animals rush to the yard in time to see the van begin to pull away. They start to wave goodbye to Boxer, but Benjamin is very agitated, and tells them to read the letters on the van. Muriel reads out the sign on the van, which describes the van as belonging to the local horse-slaughterer. The animals try to warn Boxer, who tries to kick his way out of the van, but he has no strength, and the kicking from the van soon dies away. Three days later, Squealer announces that Boxer died in the hospital. He makes a moving speech in praise of Boxer. He explains the sign on the van by saying that the veterinary surgeon bought the van from the horse-slaughterer, and had not yet replaced the sign. The animals are very relieved to hear this, and are greatly consoled by Squealer’s further descriptions of the wonderful care and treatment that Boxer received in his final hours. Napoleon pays his respects to Boxer at the meeting on the following Sunday. He tells them that it was not possible to return Boxer’s remains for burial on the farm, but that he will be commemorated with a wreath instead. Napoleon announces a memorial banquet for Boxer, which takes place in the farmhouse shortly afterwards, attended only by the pigs.
    In chapter ten: Years have passed, and many of the animals are dead. Only Clover, Benjamin, Moses and some of the pigs remember the days before the rebellion. Clover is by now very old, well past retirement age, except that no animal has actually managed to retire yet. The windmill has finally been completed. It is used for milling corn, rather than for generating electricity, and brings a good profit to the farm. Another windmill is now being built to generate electricity. There is no more talk of the three-day week, or any of the other luxuries that Snowball originally promised would accrue from the windmill. The farm is growing richer, but the animals themselves do not seem to benefit much from it. There are many pigs and dogs on the farm now. The pigs are all involved in the bureaucracy of running the farm, and are not available to do any actual work, though Squealer makes it clear to the others that what the pigs do is of vital importance to the farm. Squealer continues to impress everyone with detailed figures of how everything has improved on the farm, but deep down the animals are unable to reconcile this with the lack of improvement in their own conditions. Nonetheless, Animal Farm remains the only farm in England to be owned by the animals, and the animals remain enormously proud of this. Summer arrives. Squealer is seen to take all the sheep of the farm aside, and no-one sees them for a week. The sheep eventually return. That evening, as the animals are returning to the yard from work, Clover is heard neighing excitedly from the yard. The animals rush forward to see what is happening. They stop dead when they all see what has startled Clover. It is the sight of Squealer walking upright, on his hind legs. At this moment, all of the pigs leave the farmhouse in single file, all upright on two legs. Finally, Napoleon emerges from the farmhouse, upright and carrying a whip. It is the most shocking thing the animals have ever seen. It goes against everything that they have been taught up to then. Just as it seems that someone might object, the sheep break into a deafening chorus of “Four legs good, two legs better.” They went on for five minutes, during which the pigs walked briefly around and then returned to the farmhouse. The chance to protest is gone. Clover goes to the gable wall and brings Benjamin with her. She asks Benjamin to read for her what is on the gable wall. All the commandments are gone, and all that is written there now is “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.”
    After this, the pigs and their sows start wearing clothes and carrying whips. They begin to have more direct dealings with the neighboring farmers. One day, the pigs invite a number of the local farmers to inspect the farm. After the inspection, the pigs and the farmers return to the farmhouse for a celebration. After a time, loud noises of laughter and singing are heard through the windows. The other animals are overcome with curiosity, and they approach the farmhouse to see what is going on. They look through the windows to see the pigs and farmers seated around the living room table, playing cards, making speeches and congratulating one another. Mr. Pilkington makes a speech telling the pigs how impressed he is with Animal Farm, especially with the hard work and poor rations of the farm animals. Napoleon makes a speech in return, expressing his happiness that the mistrust between Animal Farm and the others is now at an end. He furthermore announces that the animals will cease to address each other as “Comrade,” and that “Animal Farm” will now revert to being called “Manor Farm.” As Napoleon finishes his speech to great applause, the animals outside seem to notice something changing in the features of the pigs, but what? As the applause dies down and the card game is resumed, the animals creep away from the window. However, they hurry back when they hear a furious argument break out. The argument is because Mr. Pilkington and Napoleon have both played an Ace of Spades at the same time. But as the animals look from Napoleon to Pilkington, from man to pig and from pig back to man, they find that they are unable to tell the difference.

  28. Dear sir,
    Below is my respond to the assignment of Literature II “Animal Farm”

    In the first chapter, Orwell introduces an important event in a big barn. After Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, falls asleep in drunk, all of his animals meet in the big barn at the request of old Major, a 12-year-old pig because he has a dream. Then the other animals gather in the big barn to hear his dream. The cast of characters are introduced. First came the three dogs, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher; Boxer and Clover (horses, male and female respectively); Muriel (a goat); Benjamin (an old and cynical donkey, good friends with Boxer); Mollie (a silly mare); last of all comes the cat, who looks round as usual, all animals are now present except Moses, the tame raven, who sleeps on a perch behind the back door. OldMajor delivers a rousing political speech about the evils inflicted upon them by their human keepers and their need to rebel against the tyranny of Man. After elaborating on the various ways that Man has exploited and harmed the animals, Major mentions a strange dream of his in which he saw a vision of the earth without humans. He then teaches the animals a song “Beasts of England” They all sing it as a lovely tune eliciting warm and fuzzy feelings of togetherness. They sing repeatedly until they awaken Mr. Jones, who fires his gun from his bedroom window, thinking there is a fox in the yard. Frightened by the shot, the animals disperse and go to sleep.

    In the second chapter, after three nights later the old Major dies peacefully in his sleep, all the animals spend their days secretly planning the rebellion. Because of their intelligence, the pigs are placed in charge of educating the animals about Animalism, among the pigs, Snowball and Napoleon are the most important to the revolution. Despite Mollie’s concern with ribbons and Moses’ tales of a place called Sugarcandy Mountain, the pigs are successful in conveying the principles of Animalism to the others. The rebellion occurs when Jones again falls into a drunken sleep and neglects to feed the animals, who break into the store-shed in search of a meal. When Jones and his men arrive, they begin whipping the animals but soon find themselves being attacked and chased off the farm. The triumphant animals then destroy all traces of Jones, eat heartily, and revel in their newfound freedom. After a tour of Jones’ house, they decide to leave it untouched as a museum. Snowball changes the sign reading “Manor Farm” to “Animal Farm” and paints the Seven Commandments of Animalism on the wall of the barn. The cows then give five buckets of milk, which Napoleon steals.

    In the third chapter, although they find difficulty in using farming tools which are designed for humans, the animals cooperate to finish the harvest and do so in less time than it had taken Jones and his men to do the same. Boxer distinguishes himself as a strong, tireless worker, admired by all the animals. The pigs become the supervisors and directors of the animal workers. On Sundays, the animals meet in the big barn to listen to Snowball and Napoleon debate a number of topics on which they seem never to agree. Snowball forms a number of Animal Committees, all of which fail. However, he does prove successful at bringing a degree of literacy to the animals, who learn to read according to their varied intelligences. To help the animals understand the general precepts of Animalism, Snowball reduces the Seven Commandments to a single slogan: “Four legs good, two legs bad.” Napoleon, meanwhile, focuses his energy on educating the youth and takes the infant pups of Jessie and Bluebell away from their mothers, presumably for educational purposes. The animals learn that the cows’ milk and windfallen apples are mixed every day into the pigs’ mash. When the animals object, Squealer explains that the pigs need the milk and apples to sustain themselves as they work for the benefit of all the other animals.

    In the fourth chapter, by the late summer, news of the Rebellion at Animal Farm begins to spread. Every day Snowball and Napoleon sent out flights of pigeons to tell the story of the rebellion, and to teach the anthem song “Beasts of England.” The neighboring farmers, led by Mr. Pilkington of Foxwood and Mr. Frederick of Pinchfield Farm, attempt to retake Animal Farm by force. The animals, led by Snowball, successfully fight off the invaders in what comes to be known as the Battle of the Cowshed. Snowball and Boxer are appointed as Animal Hero, First Class.

    In the fifth chapter, the winter comes, and Mollie works less and less. Eventually, Clover discovers that Mollie is being bribed off Animal Farm by one of Pilkington’s men, who eventually wins her loyalties. Mollie disappears, and the pigeons report seeing her standing outside a pub, sporting one of the ribbons that she always coveted. The pigs increase their influence on the farm, deciding all questions of policy and then offering their decisions to the animals, who must ratify them by a majority vote. Snowball and Napoleon continue their fervent debates, the greatest of which occurs over the building of a windmill on a knoll. Snowball argues in favor of the windmill, which he is certain will eventually become a labor-saving device; Napoleon argues against it, saying that building the windmill will take time and effort away from the more important task of producing food. The two also disagree on whether they should (as Napoleon thinks) amass an armory of guns or (as Snowball thinks) send out more pigeons to neighboring farms to spread news of the rebellion. On the Sunday that the plan for the windmill is to be put to a vote, Napoleon calls out nine ferocious dogs, who chase Snowball off the farm. Napoleon then announces that all debates will stop and institutes a number of other new rules for the farm. Three weeks after Snowball’s escape, Napoleon surprises everybody by announcing that the windmill will be built. He sends Squealer to the animals to explain privately to the other animals that the windmill was really Napoleon’s idea all along and that the plans for it were stolen from him by Snowball.

    In the sixth chapter, all the animals work like slaves all that year, they work harder than ever before. Building the windmill is a laborious business, and Boxer proves himself a model of physical strength and dedication. Napoleon announces that Animal Farm will begin trading with neighboring farms and hires Mr. Whymper, a solicitor, to act as his agent. Other humans meet in pubs and discuss their theories that the windmill will collapse and that Animal Farm will go bankrupt. Jones gives up his attempts at retaking his farm and moves to another part of the county. The pigs move into the farmhouse and begin sleeping in beds, which Squealer excuses on the grounds that the pigs need their rest after the daily strain of running the farm. That November, a storm topples the half-finished windmill. Napoleon tells the animals that Snowball is responsible for its ruin and offers a reward to any animal who kills Snowball or brings him back alive. Napoleon then declares that they will begin rebuilding the windmill that very morning through the winter, rain or shine.

    In the seventh chapter, the animals carry on as best they could do to rebuild of the windmill. As the human world watches Animal Farm and waits for news of its failure, the animals struggle against starvation. Napoleon uses Mr. Whymper to spread news of Animal Farm’s sufficiency to the human world. After learning that they must surrender their eggs, the hens stage a demonstration that only ends when they can no longer live without the rations that Napoleon had denied them. Nine hens die as a result of the protest. The animals are led to believe that Snowball is visiting the farm at night and spitefully subverting their labor. He becomes a constant (and imagined) threat to the animals’ security, and Squealer eventually tells the animals that Snowball has sold himself to Frederick and that he was in league with Jones from the very beginning. One day in spring, Napoleon calls a meeting of all the animals, during which he forces confessions from all those who had questioned him, and then has them murdered by the dogs. Numerous animals also confess to crimes that they claim were instigated by Snowball. Eventually, the singing of “Beasts of England” is outlawed and a new song by Minimus, Napoleon’s pig-poet, is instituted, although the animals do not find the song as meaningful as their previous anthem.

    Sir, I haven’t finished reading the chapter eight of the novel of Animal farm, but I promise I’ll post the summary of mine ASAP. Thank you.

  29. Dear all attendees of Literature 2,

    Post your complete summary of Orwell’s Animal Farm in this page. Write your summary by applying the concepts written in the article above.

    Good luck.

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