Mid-Term Assignment (B)


Choose one of the following topics and write an essay of 750 to 1.500 words. Make sure you put your thesis sentence(s) in the introductory paragraph. Discuss each topic (sub-division) thoroughly in its own discussion paragraph (see Organizing an Essay and Essay Sample to refresh your memory about essay writing). Mention the source anytime you cite from someone’s works. Then list the references o the bottom of the essay. Post your essay in the reply section below by the scheduled mid-examination day.

  1. Diversity in US and Indonesia
  2. The highest respected value in Indonesia vs in US
  3. American vs. Indonesian Idealized Heroes
  4. Comparison Between American and Indonesian Consumer Preferences

Good luck!

14 Comments

  1. I’m very very sorry, sir for posting this essay not in time.

    Diversity in USA and Indonesia
    Diversity is variation for each other that make one is different from others. Talking about diversity is talking about many things such as custom, language, the way of thinking, religious, the color of skin, food, job and many else. Countries in this world have their own diversity in it, for example USA and Indonesia. As we know, USA and Indonesia have the same thing, i.e. both of is countries of diversity. But, the diversity in each is different. USA as a developed country is a country of countries, but Indonesia as developing country is a country of tribes. But, the diversity has the same purpose, build a new knowledge of variation.

    America is a nation composed almost entirely of immigrants. Immigrants began arriving in the Americas since at least 1492 and in what is today the United States since the early 1500s, immigrants continue to arrive five hundred and fifteen years later. After a process of genocide, displacement, pacification and relative assimilation of indigenous peoples, Anglos, Dutch, French and Spanish immigrants began formulating and instituting public and government policies that would sanction the importation and exploitation of other minorities whose labor would develop the vast resources of America, generate incredible wealth, build its infrastructure and establish cities, towns and industries that would be administered by the dominant Anglogroups. The ancestry of the people of the United States is widely varied and includes descendants of populations from around the world. In addition to its variation, the ancestry of people of the United States is also marked by varying amounts of intermarriage between ethnic and racial groups. While some Americans can trace their ancestry back to a single ethnic group or population in Europe, Africa, or Asia, these are often first- and second-generation Americans. Generally, the degree of mixed heritage increases the longer one’s ancestors have lived in the United States (see melting pot). A large number of Americans are descended from Africans (12.9%), the majority of whom were brought as slaves as early as the 17th century throughout the 19th century during the Transatlantic slave trade, with smaller numbers having immigrated since then from Africa or the Caribbean. But in 1963, U.S. Congress passed laws prohibiting discrimination in voting, education, employment, housing, and public accommodations.

    In contrary with America, Indonesia differs in cultures, from Sabang until Merauke. The culture of Indonesia has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Indonesia is centrally-located along ancient trading routes between the Far East and the Middle East, resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Islam and Christianity, all strong in the major trading cities. The result is a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures. Indonesia is home to various styles of music. The traditional music of central and East Java and Bali is the gamelan, musical orchestra, native of West Java, received international recognition as UNESCO has listed the traditional West Java musical instrument made from bamboo in the list of intangible cultural heritage. The soft Sasando music from the province of East Nusa Tenggara in West Timor is completely different. Sasando uses an instrument made from a split leaf of the Lontar palm (Borassus flabellifer), which bears some resemblance to a harp.

    Beside religion and music, Indonesia also differs in dance, painting and sculpture. Indonesian dance reflects the diversity of culture from ethnic groups that composed the nation of Indonesia. Austronesian roots and Melanesian tribal dance forms are visible, and influences ranging from neighboring Asian countries; such as India, China, and Middle East to European western styles through colonization. Each ethnic group has their own distinct dances; makes total dances in Indonesia are more than 3000 Indonesian original dances. However, the dances of Indonesia can be divided into three eras; the Prehistoric Era, the Hindu/Buddhist Era and the Era of Islam, and into two genres; court dance and folk dance. What Indonesian painting before the 19th century are mostly restricted to the decorative arts, considered to be a religious and spiritual activity, comparable to the pre-1400 European art. Artists name are anonymous, since the individual human creator was seen as far less important than their creation to honor the deities or spirits. Some examples are the Kenyah decorative art, based on endemic natural motifs such as ferns and hornbills, found decorating the walls of Kenyah long houses. Other notable traditional art is the geometric Toraja wood carvings. Balinese painting is initially the narrative images to depict scenes of Balinese legends and religious scripts. The classical Balinese paintings are often decorating the lontar manuscripts and also the ceilings of temples pavilion. Indonesia has a long history of stone, bronze and iron age’s arts. The megalithic sculptures can be found in numerous archaeological sites in Sumatra, Java to Sulawesi. The native Indonesians tribes have their own distinct tribal sculpture styles, usually created to depict ancestors, deities and animals. The pre-Hindu-Budhist and pre-Islamic sculptures can be traced in the artworks of indigenous Indonesian tribes. The most notable sculptures are those of Asmat wooden sculpture of Papua, the Dayak wooden mask and sculpture, the ancestral wooden statue of Toraja, also the totem-like sculpture of Batak and Nias tribe. All of that are influence the architectures of Indonesian building, such us home, school building, and also office.

    Even though America is country of immigration, it can manage the population and make America has become a developed country and also a super power country. The government has succeeded to build a great. They have succeeded to use the diversity as a place where they created so much excellent works for all kinds of people in that country. How about Indonesia? If we see the culture in Indonesia, we can also being a super power country. From this essay we should learn how to make the diversity itself being a way to be a great nation, not as path to a split.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Indonesia

    Click to access loupe.pdf


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancestry_of_the_people_of_the_United_States

  2. The Diversity in Indonesia and US

    Indonesia is a unitary state. The leader of the country is a president. Indonesia has been known as diversity. There are a variety of races and religions. Indonesia consists of many islands from Sabang to Merauke. Indonesia is located between two continents (Asian and Australian Continental) and two oceans (Pacific and Indian Ocean). The number of islands in Indonesia reached 17.000 units. Population reaches 245 million are unique and friendly but the most corrupt in the world.

    United States or also is known as the United State of America (USA). American country is led by a president, too. America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states. Americans located between two continents (the continent of Australia and Asia) and two oceans (the Pacific and Indian Ocean). America is one of the most advanced countries in the world. America’s master in the field of defense, technology, and economy. Population of over 300 million people and most like to find the problem.

    After we see a brief description of the above Indonesia and America, there will be a lot of difference between Indonesia and America. I will describe four different edikasi terms of social and cultural.

    First, most theories! In Indonesia, the school only emphasizes theory only when there is a laboratory but rarely used. As my time in high school, English in ‘listening’ but did not go to the lab to be replaced with a ‘story telling’. Most are not dare to practice only know theory. In Indonesia there is a lesson of Religious Education, and another one that is new because rampant corruption Anti-Corruption education. In America there is in fact no such lessons, does not mean they are brutal and have no morals. But they already know and practiced since childhood.

    Second, in the U.S. are obese instead of the poor. In Indonesia, still adhere to the motto of the fat is the wealthiest. However, the assumption that fat is the upper middle class to America, do not apply. Why is that? “According to Prof. Rizal, it is due to diet. People from the middle to upper socioeconomic likely to have sufficient knowledge about health, so they can choose which foods are healthy, and are also able to provide funding for such exercise gym “, (Irfan A., 2012). Fast food or junk food is cheaper, practical, and early satiety. In fact, junk food contains a lot of bad fats and high calories that lead to obesity and disease. But in Indonesia, the upper middle class prefer junk food. They affected the lifestyle and still are influenced by the assumption that fat is rich. “Based Riskesdas 2010, there were 19 percent of children in Jakarta who are obese, on average come from upper middle class economy”, (Irfan A., 2012).

    Third, fight science classes. I’m just still wondering why science class is very superior than the IPS in high school. IPS also nice. Indeed, when I was high school science classes. I chose it because I like calculations. Then the support of values to enter the selection. In science classes, math lessons are very deep, so it more challenging for me. Terms incoming College of is the science classes. However, that is not fair is a friend who wanted to continue to College of Medicine but was fall because they are not eligible to become a student of science class. As for me, do not like and went on to College of Medicine . At that time there was more pathetic again is kind-hearted friend to replace the science class to social class, but was not allowed by the teacher. That for me is deadly the ideal child. In stark contrast to education in the United States, the institution related to liberate students choose majors and subjects they like. This is consistent with the liberal view of the American people.

    The lastly, a police or an animation filmmaker? Surely, children in Indonesia when asked – and answer the question rather be a cop. The reason, more authoritative, maintain security, more respected, and salaries. In fact I have seen, in East Jakarta where I live are still suburbs, highways can be more jammed. Even then, I saw myself floundering Traffic Police can’t set up traffic order. Now a lot of cops who do not maintain the good name of the profession as well. Unlike in America, though only cartoon films and filmmakers to plunge into superior oscar nomination. “Famous animated films like Rango Hollywood, Rio, Cars 2, and Kung Fu Panda 2, into this best list. Not only films that have been released, the animated films that have not been released as The Adventures of Tin Tin and Happy Feet Two has also been included in the list of the strongest candidates to be entered as an official nominee will be”, (TopTenTop, 2012).

    In conclusion, it’s a striking difference between Indonesia and the United States. There are many possible difference is however only the opinion of the educational and social culture that I described. From the essay ‘The Diversity in Indonesia and US’ may be useful for the reader.

    Sources
    http://www.pjnhk.go.id/content/view/4317/32/
    http://toptentop.blogspot.com/2012/04/10-film-animasi-terbaik-unggulan-oscar.html?m=0

  3. Diversity in US and Indonesia
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic consisting of fifty states and a federal district. The country is situated mostly in central North America, where its forty-eight contiguous states and Washington, D.C., the capital district, lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans,bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, with Canada to the east and Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also possesses several territories in the Pacific and Caribbean. At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km2) and with over 314 million people, the United States is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area, and the third-largest by both land area and population. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries.
    The United States is a diverse country, racially and ethnically Six races are officially recognized: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more races; a race called “Some other race” is also used in the census and other surveys, but is not official. The United States Census Bureau also classifies Americans as “Hispanic or Latino” and “Not Hispanic or Latino”, which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that composes the largest minority group in the nation.
    White Americans (non-Hispanic/Latino and Hispanic/Latino) are the racial majority, with a 72% share of the U.S. population, according to the 2010 US Census. Hispanic and Latino Americans comprise 15% of the population, making up the largest ethnic minority. Black Americansare the largest racial minority, comprising nearly 13% of the population. The White, non-Hispanic or Latino population comprises 66% of the nation’s total.

    White Americans are the majority in every region, but comprise the highest proportion of the population in the Midwestern United States, at 85% per the PEP or 83% per the ACS. Non-Hispanic Whites make up 79% of the Midwest’s population, the highest ratio of any region. However, 35% of White Americans (whether all White Americans or non-Hispanic/Latino only) live in the South, the most of any region.

    55% of the “Black or African American” population lives in The South. A plurality or majority of the other official groups reside in the West. This region is home to 42% of Hispanic and Latino Americans, 46% of Asian Americans, 48% of American Indians and Alaska Natives, 68% ofNative Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, 37% of the “two or more races” population (Multiracial Americans), and 46% of those designated “some other race”.
    America’s founders established a society that would embrace diversity and celebrate the differences that various cultures would bring to the United States. But, as different as the many cultures, religions and ethnic backgrounds of the American mosaic are, there is a core of values that all share. This is the glue that has led to the success of the American experiment.

    Diversity Indonesia
    Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago with over 17,000 islands. The country stretches 5,100 km along the equator between Australia and Asia and is bordered by the Pacific and Indian Oceans at the Equator. Few countries in the world could match Indonesia’s diversity of population with some 490 different ethnics living together. With a fascinating, colourful and sometimes tumultuous past, Indonesia is a place of rich and diverse culture. Indonesia is “Ultimate in Diversity”. And also Indonesia is a country in south east Asia that has very wide area. The country that is located at the equator line has ocean territory with the largest islands in the world. More than 13000 islands stretching from Sabang as the east edge to Merauke as the west.

    As a country consisting of many islands and vast territory, Indonesia has abundantly of natural resources, culture and natural beauty. The country is known as the source of some important minerals such as: oil, natural gas, coal, tin, gold, etc. With its fertile land in the tropical area, Indonesia is also the home for the tropical forest. The Indonesia tropical forests most are located in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua which are the biggest islands in this country.

    This country is also known as a place for several rare plants and animals. Komodo, a dragon (big Chameleon) the left animal from the prehistoric can be found in the Komodo island which is located in the eastern part of Indonesia. Some Asian elephants and tigers that are very rare can still be found in Sumatra living naturally in the wild forest. The Rafllesia a unique flower which only blossom one every few years is also can be found naturally in the Sumatra forest.

    Indonesia also has a wealth of culture and art. There are about 1.128 local ethnics and 700 local languages throughout its islands. Every place has their unique own social culture and art life. Many tourists go to Bali purposes to see the uniqueness of local culture instead of enjoying the natural beauty view in there. In Central Java there are Solo and Yogyakarta, the center of the Javanese culture that is very unique and special. Both regions have a palace and kingdom that keep the the continuity of the Javanese cultural. Papua, which is the eastern area of this country has a traditional society with his “black people” that are natural and exotic. There are still many unique cultural diversity in the Indonesia country that are also interesting in the world cultures. Some famous cultural relics also can be found in this country. The Borobudur temple which is located in Magelang a city near Yogyakarta, was built in 8th century and listed as one of the 8 world wonder.
    Each province has its own language, ethnic make-up, religions and history. Most people will define themselves locally before nationally. In addition there are many cultural influences stemming back from difference in heritage. Indonesians are a mix of Chinese, European, Indian, and Malay.

    Although Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world it also has a large number of Christian Protestants, Catholics, Hindus and Buddhists. This great diversity has needed a great deal of attention from the government to maintain a cohesion. As a result the national motto is “Unity in Diversity”, the language has been standardised and a national philisophy has been devised know as “Pancasila” which stresses universal justice for all Indonesians. Group Thinking, Due to the diverse nature of Indonesian society there exists a strong pull towards the group, whether family, village or island. People will define themselves according to their ethnic gourp, family and place of birth. The family is still very traditional in structure, Family members have clearly defined roles and a great sense of interdependence.

    REFERENCES
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_and_ethnicity_in_the_United_States
    http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/indonesia.html
    http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/9138364-the-diversity-of-indonesia

  4. I’m really sorry Sir. Because I use Listra’s email to send my task. When I send my task by using my email, it can’t read. Thank you
    Name : Erista Panjaitan
    NIM : 0912150033
    Based on 4 topics above, I will choose the topic about diversity in US and Indonesia. United States and Indonesia are different countries. America is a country known as the United States of America. Have a system of the federal Government and is the origin of the presidential system of Government. The country also possesses several territories in the Pacific and Caribbean. At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km2) and with over 314 million people, the United States is the third or fourth largest country by total area, and the third-largest by both land area and population. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. One of the nation’s super-power in the world which is one of the most advanced countries in the world. Almost superior in all areas, the most striking is the defense, technology, and economics. In addition, it is also the biggest problem maker in the world after Russia. Indonesia, officially the Republic of is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 17,508 islands.[5] It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world’s fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president. The nation’s capital city is Jakarta. Indonesia is also known as the unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. Country with 17,000 islands with a presidential system of Government with based on Pancasila. The large island nation located between two continents and two oceans. One of the country’s transit trades is quite crowded. A pretty bad relationship with Malaysia and is one of the most corrupt in the world and the consumerist.
    After we know by glimpses of the two countries; then will there are millions of differences between the two countries. Based on the background of United States and Indonesia I will talk about diversity in US and Indonesia. There are four diversities between US and Indonesia. They are how to communicate with each other, giving opinion, time, and food.First of all is how to communicate with each other. In the United States when communicating with other people then Americans tend to be simple, straightforward, clear, and firm. A simple example is Americans may be accustomed to calling people by name, even if it is his or her father. While in Indonesia if communicate we usually pay attention to situation such as age, position, location, and relationship. In Indonesia we are familiar with speech, manners, until behavior of the communities in which we live. Instead of our father, if calling older people use the name would scold soundly.
    The second is giving opinion. Indonesian if want to express opinions tend to be convoluted in terms of arguing, sometimes should spin before to say something, but the point/goal is not as complicated as intended. For example if the Government held a session of the MPR/DPR to establish a policy then meeting participants would argue with rambling, even with the long hours they also cannot take a decision. Very different to American if they want to deliver, their will express the opinion to the point and they don’t usual pleasantries.
    The third is time. The Indonesian undervalue the time if there is an appointment Indonesian is sometimes not on time. For example, of course you are familiar with the term of rubber time. Yes, the clock is a very flexible as rubber. When there is a meeting at 9 a.m., people departed at 9 pass 15 and arrive too late at 9.30. Although it is late 30 minutes turned out to be someone else come over late again. Finally, meeting can be started at 10.30 am. In contrast to the American, they are very appreciative of the time, because they do not like it when rubber appointment. If you come late then you are considered to be disrespectful and do not appreciate the time.
    The last is food. In America eat divided into 3 meals; eat appetizers, main meals, and desserts. The most famous American fast paced, busy and practical, prefer the convenience of eating in front of the television. Americans prefer to eat fast food and can be easily found. For example American likes to eat fast food such as hamburger, pizza, KFC, nugget, and etc. Whereas, in Indonesia all the food are main food. And the Indonesia more familiar with rice. Usually people in Indonesia say Indonesia has not been eating rice that has not been satisfied and despite usually eat rice, they still like to add to.
    In conclusion, the United States and Indonesia have a lot of diversity such as culture, politics, religion, lifestyle and others. Although each country has a lot of diversity but each country remains one.
    REFERENCES
    http://yafi20.blogspot.com/2011/03/4-perbedaan-terbesar-orang-indonesia.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States
    http://zukapersona.wordpress.com/2011/03/26/4-perbedaan-terbesar-orang-indonesia-dan-amerika/
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia

  5. I’m sorry Sir. This is the correct answer.
    From forth topic above, I am interested with the first topic namely “The Diversity in US and Indonesia”. America is one in a developed country world which knows as a superpower. All countries in the world recognize and acknowledge progress America including Indonesia. While Indonesia is a developing country and is not very well known in the world. There are many differences between the United with Indonesia. They are:
    How to communicate
    It is about how to communicate, which divide into two. The first is communication content is simple, straightforward, and clear. That’s style of American people to communicate. Second is context communication. Second is context communication, situations such as age, position, location, and relationships affect how to communicate (most countries in Asia, including Indonesia). A simple example is probably in America people accustomed to call the person with his name, even if it was her father. While in Indonesia we are familiar with, manners, said to the behavior of the communities where we live. Never mind the father, the older one we cannot call his/ her name.
    The second interesting enough is a matter of duty and working relationship. In countries such as the United States, everyone is focused on finishing the job and be individualists. A friendly person is rarely found in the Office while out of the Office. While on the other hand, Indonesia for example, we are very concerned with elements of cooperation. RT/RW, and more. We are very concerned with the good relationship that is long-term, either in the Office or out of the Office
    The most interesting is when we discuss the question of tradition and modern. Again, there are countries like America in the extreme modern side always concerned with aspects of the change for the better, focus on the present and the future, as well as a throw over the old traditions. On the other stand the Indonesia people are still concerned with history and tradition. Easiest question of marriage, childbirth, death, we still follow the traditions, whether religious or ethnic.
    TIME
    The American people greatly appreciate the time, they never ignore the time and they say time is money. time is very important to them and they are very timely. While Indonesia was a very not appreciate the time. Indonesian often do something that is not important so it is a waste of time, they are rarely on time and always gain time, that’s the culture of Indonesia

    EDUCATION
    Americans strongly support the educational knowledge. They do not care if they get the value of a low value that is not a problem for them, and they are more concerned with knowledge of the value of a good or bad. of research they made contact with their teachers, lecturers or professors lecturers. teachers can build relationships with students outside the classroom, but in their class to hold opinions. while education in Indonesia is very different from education in America. if they get good value from the knowledge of students. In Indonesia one is cheating on tests, Indonesia just plagiarizing written work.

    INVITATION
    Invitation difference Americans and people of Indonesia are very different. in America the first invitation produces no appointment and no more than a “polite” people of the United expression. And invite someone they have to defermine, when, where, what time, etc. Mean while the Indonesian people are very different if an invite to arrived at his house even though only an expression but an appointment for them. So, they did not say when, where, what, when, they will soon come.
    they do not care about questions like that, that they were important: come keundangan.

    POLITENESS
    Indonesia mostly taken from Islamic religious modesty
    e.g. eat with your right hand, it includes politeness, because most Moslem Indonesia. so they are sensible according to his religion.
    if other countries (United States) was free, even Caucasian people when there is a nude beach does not mean he wanted to change clothes or shower but naked (without clothes).
    religion of Islam teaches politeness one should not arbitrarily change clothes in place.
    even in the religion of Islam teaches close the genitals.

    CLEANLINESS
    In America they are maintaining the cleanliness, especially in their kitchen because when you come in their house, they will invite you in and show all her household. While in Indonesia is very concerned about cleanliness, sometimes when we invite someone to show the contents of the house, they do not respond because the situation does not allow.
    Taken from:
    http://ariacahyadiawih.blogspot.com/2011/04/perbedaan-ciri-negara-indonesia-dengan.html
    http://lamunan-sejenak.blogspot.com/2007/10/perbedaan-kebudayaan-22.html

  6. From forth topic above, I am interested with the first topic namely “The Diversity in US and Indonesia”. America is one in a developed country world which knows as a superpower. All countries in the world recognize and acknowledge progress America including Indonesia. While Indonesia is a developing country and is not very well known in the world. There are many differences between the United with Indonesia. They are:
    How to communicate
    It is about how to communicate, which divide into two. The first is communication content is simple, straightforward, and clear. That’s style of American people to communicate. Second is context communication. Second is context communication, situations such as age, position, location, and relationships affect how to communicate (most countries in Asia, including Indonesia). A simple example is probably in America people accustomed to call the person with his name, even if it was her father. While in Indonesia we are familiar with, manners, said to the behavior of the communities where we live. Never mind the father, the older one we cannot call his/ her name.
    The second interesting enough is a matter of duty and working relationship. In countries such as the United States, everyone is focused on finishing the job and be individualists. A friendly person is rarely found in the Office while out of the Office. While on the other hand, Indonesia for example, we are very concerned with elements of cooperation. RT/RW, and more. We are very concerned with the good relationship that is long-term, either in the Office or out of the Office
    The most interesting is when we discuss the question of tradition and modern. Again, there are countries like America in the extreme modern side always concerned with aspects of the change for the better, focus on the present and the future, as well as a throw over the old traditions. On the other stand the Indonesia people are still concerned with history and tradition. Easiest question of marriage, childbirth, death, we still follow the traditions, whether religious or ethnic.
    TIME
    The American people greatly appreciate the time, they never ignore the time and they say time is money. time is very important to them and they are very timely. While Indonesia was a very not appreciate the time. Indonesian often do something that is not important so it is a waste of time, they are rarely on time and always gain time, that’s the culture of Indonesia

    EDUCATION
    Americans strongly support the educational knowledge. They do not care if they get the value of a low value that is not a problem for them, and they are more concerned with knowledge of the value of a good or bad. of research they made contact with their teachers, lecturers or professors lecturers. teachers can build relationships with students outside the classroom, but in their class to hold opinions. while education in Indonesia is very different from education in America. if they get good value from the knowledge of students. In Indonesia one is cheating on tests, Indonesia just plagiarizing written work.

    INVITATION
    Invitation difference Americans and people of Indonesia are very different. in America the first invitation produces no appointment and no more than a “polite” people of the United expression. And invite someone they have to defermine, when, where, what time, etc. Mean while the Indonesian people are very different if an invite to arrived at his house even though only an expression but an appointment for them. So, they did not say when, where, what, when, they will soon come.
    they do not care about questions like that, that they were important: come keundangan.

    POLITENESS
    Indonesia mostly taken from Islamic religious modesty
    e.g. eat with your right hand, it includes politeness, because most Moslem Indonesia. so they are sensible according to his religion.
    if other countries (United States) was free, even Caucasian people when there is a nude beach does not mean he wanted to change clothes or shower but naked (without clothes).
    religion of Islam teaches politeness one should not arbitrarily change clothes in place.
    even in the religion of Islam teaches close the genitals.

    CLEANLINESS
    In America they are maintaining the cleanliness, especially in their kitchen because when you come in their house, they will invite you in and show all her household. While in Indonesia is very concerned about cleanliness, sometimes when we invite someone to show the contents of the house, they do not respond because the situation does not allow.
    Taken from:
    http://ariacahyadiawih.blogspot.com/2011/04/perbedaan-ciri-negara-indonesia-dengan.html
    http://lamunan-sejenak.blogspot.com/2007/10/perbedaan-kebudayaan-22.html

  7. 1. Diversity in US and Indonesia
    The history of education in the United States, or foundations of education, covers the trends in educational philosophy, policy, institutions, as well as formal and informal learning in America from the 17th century to today. Education in the United States is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: local, state, and federal, in that order. Child education is compulsory. There are also a large number and wide variety of higher education institutions throughout the country that one can choose to attend, both publicly and privately administered. Public education is universally available. School curricula, funding, teaching, employment, and other policies are set through locally elected school boards with jurisdiction over school districts with many directives from state legislatures. School districts are usually separate from other local jurisdictions, with independent officials and budgets. Educational standards and standardized testing decisions are usually made by state governments.The ages for compulsory education vary by state. It begins from ages five to eight and ends from ages fourteen to eighteen.Compulsory education requirements can generally be satisfied by educating children in public schools, state-certified private schools, or an approved home school program. In most public and private schools, education is divided into three levels: elementary school, middle school (sometimes called junior high school), and high school (sometimes referred to as secondary education). In almost all schools at these levels, children are divided by age groups into grades, ranging from kindergarten (followed by first grade) for the youngest children in elementary school, up to twelfth grade, the final year of high school. The exact age range of students in these grade levels varies slightly from area to area. Post-secondary education, better known as “college” in the United States, is generally governed separately from the elementary and high school system, and is described in a separate section below.n most jurisdictions, secondary education in the United States refers to the last six or seven years of statutory formal education.Secondary education is generally split between junior high school or middle school, usually beginning with sixth or seventh grade (at or around age 11 or 12), and high school, beginning with ninth grade (at or around age 14) and progressing to 12th grade (ending at or around age 18). Junior high school refers to grades seven through nine.Higher education in the United States includes a variety of institutions of higher education. Strong research and funding have helped make United States colleges and universities among the world’s most prestigious, making them particularly attractive to international students, professors and researchers in the pursuit of academic excellence. According to the Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Academic Ranking of World Universities, more than 30 of the highest-ranked 45 institutions are in the United States (as measured by awards and research output).[1] Public universities, private universities, liberal arts colleges, and community colleges all have a significant role in higher education in the United States.The United States has a total of 4,495 Title IV-eligible, degree-granting institutions: 2,774 4-year institutions and 1,721 2-year institutions, an average of more than 115 per state. As of 2010, the US had 20.3 million students in higher education, roughly 5.7% of the total population. About 14.6 million of these students were enrolled full-time.The 2006 American Community Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau found that 19.5 percent of the population had attended college but had no degree, 7.4 percent held an associate’s degree, 17.1 percent held a bachelor’s degree, and 9.9 percent held a graduate or professional degree. Only a small gender gap was present: 27 percent of the overall population held a bachelor’s degree or higher, with a slightly larger percentage of men (27.9 percent) than women (26.2 percent). However, despite increasing economic incentives for people to obtain college degrees, the percentage of people graduating from high school and college has been declining as of 2008.[6] 70.1% of 2009 high school graduates enrolled in college. Historically, 76% of those who graduate in the lower 40% of their high school class will not obtain a college degree. The survey found that the area with the highest percentage of people 25 years and over with a bachelor’s degree was the District of Columbia (45.9 percent), followed by the states of Massachusetts (37 percent), Maryland (35.1 percent), Colorado (34.3 percent), and Connecticut (33.7 percent). The state with the lowest percentage of people 25 years and over with a bachelor’s degree was West Virginia (16.5 percent), next lowest were Arkansas (18.2), Mississippi (18.8 percent), Kentucky (20 percent), and Louisiana (20.3 percent).The character of Indonesia’s educational system reflects its diverse religious heritage, its struggle for a national identity, and the challenge of resource allocation in a poor but developing archipelagic nation with a young and rapidly growing population. Although a draft constitution stated in 1950 that a key government goal was to provide every Indonesian with at least six years of primary schooling, the aim of universal education had not been reached by the late 1980s, particularly among females–although great improvements had been made. Obstacles to meeting the government’s goal included a high birth rate, a decline in infant mortality, and a shortage of schools and qualified teachers. In 1973 Suharto issued an order to set aside portions of oil revenues for the construction of new primary schools. This act resulted in the construction or repair of nearly 40,000 primary school facilities by the late 1980s, a move that greatly facilitated the goal of universal education.
    Primary and Secondary Education
    Following kindergarten, Indonesians of between seven and twelve years of age were required to attend six years of primary school in the 1990s. They could choose between state-run, nonsectarian public schools supervised by the Department of Education and Culture or private or semiprivate religious (usually Islamic) schools supervised and financed by the Department of Religious Affairs. However, although 85 percent of the Indonesian population was registered as Muslim, according to the 1990 census, less than 15 percent attended religious schools. Enrollment figures were slightly higher for girls than boys and much higher in Java than the rest of Indonesia.
    A central goal of the national education system in the early 1990s was not merely to impart secular wisdom about the world, but also to instruct children in the principles of participation in the modern nation-state, its bureaucracies, and its moral and ideological foundations. Since 1975, a key feature of the national curriculum–as in other parts of society–had been instruction in the Pancasila. Children age six and above learned its five principles–belief in one God, humanitarianism, national unity, democracy, and social justice–by rote and were instructed daily to apply the meanings of this key national symbol to their lives. The alleged communist coup attempt in 1965 provided a vivid image of transgression against the Pancasila. Partly to prove their rejection of communist ideology, all teachers–like other members of Indonesian bureaucracy–swore allegiance not only to the Pancasila, but to the government party of functional groups.
    Inside the public school classroom of the early 1990s, a style of pedagogy prevailed that emphasized rote learning and deference to the authority of the teacher. Although the youngest children were sometimes allowed to use the local language, by the third year of primary school nearly all instruction was conducted in formal Indonesian. Instead of asking questions of the students, a standard teaching technique was to narrate a historical event or to describe a mathematical problem, pausing at key junctures to allow the students to fill in the blanks. By not responding to individual problems of the students and retaining an emotionally distanced demeanor, the teacher is said to be sabar (patient), which is considered admirable behavior.
    Nationally, the average class size in primary schools was approximately twenty-seven, while upper-level classes included between thirty and forty students. Ninety-two percent of primary school students graduated, but only about 60 percent of those continued on to junior high school (ages thirteen through fifteen). Of those who went on to junior high school, 87 percent also went on to a senior high school (ages sixteen through eighteen). The national adult literacy rate remained at about 77 percent in 1991 (84 percent for males and 68 percent for females), keeping Indonesia tied with Brunei for the lowest literacy among the six member nations of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
    In the early 1990s, after completion of the six-year primary school program, students could choose among a variety of vocational and preprofessional junior and senior high schools, each level of which was three years in duration. There were academic and vocational junior high schools that could lead to senior-level diplomas. There were also “domestic science” junior high schools for girls. At the senior high-school level, there were three-year agricultural, veterinary, and forestry schools open to students who had graduated from an academic junior high school. Special schools at the junior and senior levels taught hotel management, legal clerking, plastic arts, and music.Teacher training programs were varied, and were gradually upgraded. For example, in the 1950s anyone completing a teacher training program at the junior high level could obtain a teacher’s certificate. Since the 1970s, however, the teaching profession was restricted to graduates of a senior high school for teachers in a primary school and to graduates of a university-level education course for teachers of higher grades. Remuneration for primary and secondary school teachers compared favorably with countries such as Malaysia, India, and Thailand. Student-teacher ratios also compared favorably with most Asian nations at 25.3 to 1 and 15.3 to 1, respectively, for primary and secondary schools in the mid-1980s when the averages were 33.1 to 1 and 22.6 to 1 for Asian-Pacific countries.
    Indonesia’s institutions of higher education have experienced dramatic growth since independence. In 1950 there were ten institutions of higher learning, with a total of 6,500 students. In 1970 there were 450 private and state institutions enrolling 237,000 students, and by 1990 there were 900 institutions with 141,000 teachers and nearly 1,486,000 students. Public institutions enjoyed a considerably better student-teacher ratio (14 to 1) than private institutions (46 to 1) in the mid-1980s. Approximately 80 to 90 percent of state university budgets were financed by government subsidies, although the universities had considerably more autonomy in curriculum and internal structure than primary and secondary schools. Whereas tuition in such state institutions was affordable, faculty salaries were low by international standards. Still, university salaries were higher than primary and secondary school salaries. In addition, lecturers often had other jobs outside the university to supplement their wages.
    Private universities were operated by foundations. Unlike state universities, private institutions had budgets that were almost entirely tuition driven. Each student negotiated a one-time registration fee–which could be quite high–at the time of entry. If a university had a religious affiliation, it could finance some of its costs through donations or grants from international religious organizations. The government provided only limited support for private universities.
    Higher education in the early 1990s offered a wide range of programs, many of which were in a state of flux. Nearly half of all students enrolled in higher education in 1985 were social sciences majors. Humanities and science and technology represented nearly 28 percent and 21 percent, respectively. The major degrees granted were the sarjana muda (junior scholar; roughly corresponding to a bachelor’s degree) and the sarjana (scholar or master’s degree). Very few doktor (doctoral) degrees were awarded. Few students studying for the sarjana muda actually finished in one to three years. One study found that only 10 to 15 percent of students finished their course of study on time, partly because of the requirement to complete the traditional skripsi (thesis). In 1988, for instance, 235,000 new students were admitted for sarjana muda-level training and 1,234,800 were enrolled at various stages of the program, but only 95,600 graduated.
    Discussion about how to improve Indonesian higher education focused on issues of teacher salaries, laboratory and research facilities, and professor qualifications. According to official figures, in 1984 only 13.9 percent of permanent faculty members at state institutions of higher learning had any advanced degree; only 4.5 percent had a doctorate. Since doctoral programs were rare in Indonesia and there was little money to support education overseas, this situation improved only slowly. Despite these difficulties, most institutions of higher education received large numbers of applications in the late 1980s and early 1990s; in state institutions less than one application in four was accepted. One of the most serious problems for graduates with advanced degrees, however, was finding employment suited to their newly acquired education.
    The University of Indonesia, founded in Jakarta in the 1930s, is the nation’s oldest university. Other major universities include Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia’s oldest postindependence university, founded in 1946) in Yogyakarta; Catholic University and Institut Teknologi Bandung, both in Bandung; and the Institut Pertanian Bogor in Bogor. In the early 1990s, there also were important regional universities in Sulawesi, Sumatera Utara, Jawa Barat, and Irian Jaya.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_education_in_the_United_States
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higher_education_in_the_United_States
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secondary_education_in_the_United_States
    http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/56.htm. Source: U.S. Library of Congress

  8. I am very interested in the topic of the third namely, American vs. Indonesian Idealized Heroes. In my eyes, a hero is someone who sacrifices their life for what they believe in, doesn’t let barriers keep them from fulfilling their goals, and learns from experiences so that they can educate others. I think that the person who has all of these qualities is Soedati Warsito Rasman. This woman is brave, believes in what he or she believes in and is willing to do their best. Her husband was the governor of Kalimantan. For me, she is a hero, but not many people know about her, she is an amazing woman. And let us see, this is how her story begins. Soedati was born on October 2, 1937, in Pemalang, a little town in Indonesia. She was the 8th child in her family out of a total 13. Her parents’ names are Banon Hardjoamidjojo and Isparin. There are only two girls in the family. Her life wasn’t exactly perfect, because, at that time, Holland was taking over Indonesia — but she was enjoying her life. At a young age, she endured tough things. When she was only 11 years old, her father was sent to prison because he didn’t want to work with the Japanese, her brother caught on fire while he was working, and her mother became ill. It all happened at the same time, but, luckily, she was brave enough to continue with all the house chores. She would visit her father in prison, her brother in the hospital, and take care of her mother at the same time.When she was in high school, she helped her sister-in-law teach students who could not read or write. She didn’t get paid for doing this. She did it because she cared. By the time she was in college, she was active in GMNI (Gerakan Mahasiswa Nasional Indonesia), an organization of college students. When she finished college, she was chosen by the residents of Malang to be in congress. When she was a member of the Pertiwi organization she was already not liked by many people. They all envied her because of her success. She was also a congresswoman in Bandung. She always liked to help people and also tried to make the environment around her better. She noticed that two towns, Lawang and Kepanjen (in Indonesia), needed storm walls and she also noticed that many people had died because they weren’t being treated for their medical emergencies quickly enough. She worked very hard and successfully got two ambulances and two storm walls for the towns. She did not stop there — she was still not satisfied. She also noticed that good medicine was not available in the towns, so she went to Jakarta and got a permit to open a pharmacy. She did it all by herself. She had helped so many people. She was chosen to represent PNI and she was the only woman that was chosen. She also noticed at that time that the roads were not as smooth as they are now, so she decided to fix them, too. Not only did she care about her family, but she also cared about poor people. She and her friends made a factory where they would get water from a river and turn it into clean water and sell it to poor people at very low prices. She also organized people to make bridges and buildings in Malang, Mojokerto, Jombang, Tulungagung, Ponorogo, Magetan, Gresik, Lamongan, Bojonegoro, Tuban, Sidoarjo, Surabaya, Jember, Blitar, and dan Banyuwangi.When her husband, Warsito Rasman, became the governor of Kalimantan, Soedati was very eager to help the people in Kalimantan, because it was not yet a very modernized city. She would go to villages with her colleagues and help village people build their houses. Although her husband was the governor, she did not want to be known as Mrs. Governor. She did all of this, not because she was the wife of a governor, but because she cared about the people’s lives.One day when she was in town, she noticed many young men who were not in school and not working. She decided that she would build a school and dormitories for young men. The school was especially created for young men who are not in school and do not have any money to continue with their studies. She completed the school with many auto repair tools and other equipment. The school for boys became a big success. Next, she wanted to build a school and dorm for girls where they would not just be taught the regular curriculum, but also how to cook, design dresses, and many other helpful things. After both schools became successful, she built a hospital for pregnant women. She saw that many women in Kalimantan died because they gave birth in the streets. She also realized that Kalimantan’s people had many talents, especially in making clothes. She promoted handmade clothes from Kalimantan and she named them Batik Kalimantan, which is still famous. But, she didn’t stop there. She saw many gay men on the streets without jobs. She didn’t want them to have unhappy lives so every month or so she would hold events for them like song and dance competitions so that they have a better life. Soedati has made a big difference in many peoples’ lives and wI believe that she does not fully realize how many people she has helped. She is a wonderful person.I as a young generation was motivated. She still helps many people right now through good characteristics many people become understand that live is just not about yourself but, we must be caring other people as a human being we must be help and it is a message that I have taken from soedati’s story. Otherwise from United State there is a black man who was great his is Martin Luther King. He had saved people’s right. He worked for civil right in the 1950s and 1960s. He fought for the rights of African Americans and many people, blacks as well as whites, supported him. In 1964 he received the Nobel Peace Prize. King was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. He had a brother, Alfred and a sister, Christine. Both his father and grandfather were ministers. His mother was a school teacher who taught him to read even before he started school. Martin was a very good student. He even skipped two grades. He had many hobbies like reading and singing and like every boy of his age he got interested in basketball and football. After he graduated from college Martin Luther King got married and decided to become a minister, like his father. Martin Luther King saw how badly black people were treated and during the 1950s he became involved in the Civil Rights movement. In 1955 a black woman, Rosa Parks, was arrested because she didn’t give up her seat to a white person on a bus. This incident made many blacks angry .They protested and decided to boycott the city’s buses. Martin Luther King became the president of this boycott. White terrorists started to bomb King’s home and wanted to force him to give up his fight for equal rights. But King wasn’t afraid. He continued working for the black people in America. At that time, blacks and whites were separated in schools, restaurants, sport and in other fields. In the 1960s King and his organisation started more and more protest marches and demonstrations. He met with the American President John F. Kennedy who shared his opinion on equal rights. In 1963 Martin Luther King organized a big protest march in Washington D.C. Hundreds of thousands of Americans, black and white, took part. At the Lincoln Memorial King held his most famous speech : “I have a dream”! The march was a big success. After Kennedy was killed in November 1963, the next American government passed a law that gave blacks the same rights as white people. It is called the Civil Rights Act. The new law gave blacks the same opportunities in education and work. It also gave them the right to vote. In his later life, Martin Luther King found out that not all blacks wanted to fight for equal rights the way he did. Some groups became aggressive and used violence. They used the slogan “Black Power”. King also fought against poverty. He said that there were too many rich people in America and that the poor people should be given more money by the government. Martin Luther King’s life came to a sudden end. On April 4, 1968 he was killed by a white racist, James Earl Ray. People all over the world mourned King’s death. He was buried in Atlanta, Georgia. After his death many people were shocked and blacks started riots in many American cities. Today, Martin Luther King is an American hero. He had made lots of change for the black people, he helped black people’s right so that their live become better than before. And after King’s movement there is no violence again between blacks and whites people even their right had equal right now.

    http://www.english-online.at/people/martin-luther-king/martin-luther-king-and-the-civil-rights-movement.htm
    http://www.myhero.com/go/hero.asp?hero=SOEDATI_RASMAN_Surabaya_Indonesia

  9. I chose the topic number three “American vs. Indonesian Idealized Heroes”. For an ideal hero in America in my opinion is Neil Alden Armstrong or usually that we know Neil Armstrong (born in Ohio, USA, August 5, 1930 – died August 25, 2012 at the age of 82 years). He was an astronaut, test pilot, flight engineer, university professor, and United States Marine Airmen. He was the first to walk on the Moon. Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was an officer in the U.S. Navy and had served in the Korean War. After the war, he became a test pilot at Air Station Speed National Aviation Advisory Committee, now the Dryden Flight Research Center, where he recorded nearly 900 flights. He graduated from Purdue University and completed graduate studies at the University of Southern California. I was very impressed when Armstrong first time driving a first flight with a rocket plane was on August 15, 1957 using a Bell X-1B to the height of 114 miles (183.5 km). Aircraft nose landing gear broke on landing, which happened on 12 flights before the Bell X-1B due to the aircraft design. He later flew the North American X-15; Armstrong was able to fly seven times before September 1962, and the X-15 flight end, he reached an altitude of 207.500 feet (0,063,246 km). Armstrong received many honors and awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Congressional Space Medal of Honor, Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy, Sylvanus Thayer Award, the Collier Trophy from the National Aeronautics Association, and the Congressional Gold Medal. Dude In Armstrong, 31 mi (50 km) from the Apollo 11 landing site, and asteroid 6469 Armstrong are named in honor. Armstrong also entered in the Aerospace Walk of Honor and the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame. Armstrong and the crew of Apollo 11 is a recipient of the Gold Medal Langley of the Smithsonian Institution in 1999. Across the United States, many primary and secondary school, named Neil Armstrong as a form of homage to him, and many places in the world have streets, buildings, schools, and places named Armstrong and / or Apollo. In 1969, folk songwriter and singer John Stewart recorded “Armstrong”, a tribute to Armstrong and his first foothold on the Moon. Purdue University announced in October 2004 that their new engineering building would be named Neil Armstrong Hall of Engineering in his honor, the building was to cost $ 53.2 million and opened on October 27, 2007 at a ceremony attended by Armstrong and fourteen other Purdue Astronauts . In 1971, Armstrong was awarded the Sylvanus Thayer Award by the United States Military Academy at West Point for his service to the state. Neil Armstrong Air and Space Museum is located in his hometown of Wapakoneta, Ohio, although no official relationship with Armstrong, and the airport in New Knoxville where he took flying les named Neil Armstrong. Michael Collins, President George W. Bush, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during the celebration of the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 flight, July 21, 2004. Armstrong’s authorized biography, First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong, published in 2005. Over the years, Armstrong rejected the offer biographies of authors such as Stephen Ambrose and James A. Michener, but agreed to work with James R. Hansen after reading one of Hansen’s biography. In the Space Foundation survey in 2010, Armstrong was the most popular space hero .
    The press often questioned Armstrong about his views on the future of space flight. In 2005, Armstrong said that a manned mission to Mars will be easier than the challenge in 1960: “I think that despite the many difficult questions posed, the question is not as hard and as much as we faced when we started the [space program] Apollo 1961. “In 2010, he opened a rare criticism of the cancellation decision Ares 1 launch vehicle and the Constellation moon landing program. In open letter was also signed by Apollo veterans Jim Lovell and Gene Cernan, he wrote, “For the United States, the nation’s space exploration leader for nearly half a century, without descending into low Earth orbit and with no human exploration capability to go beyond Earth orbit indefinitely , define our nation to become one of the nation’s second or third. ” Armstrong also publicly expressed concerns initially about the Apollo 11 mission, which he believed had a 50% chance of landing on the moon. “I was very surprised the mission is successful,” he said later. Subsequently, on November 18, 2010, at age 80 years, Armstrong said in a speech Science & Technology Summit in The Hague, Netherlands, that he would offer his services as commander of the flight missions to Mars if requested. Therefore, I am very interested in the Armstrong an American hero who always strive and work hard to achieve a wish that has been embodied in his life.
    Meanwhile, Indonesia’s hero very exemplary is Ir. Soekarno. Actually he is not only a hero, but a great inspiration too. I choose him because I guess he is the great orator who was ever born in Indonesia. Many people were influenced by him until now. But not all people in the world know him, so I want to tell the story about him. Born in Blitar, East Java, on Jun 10, 1901, He was named Kusno Sosrodihardjo but he was renamed Soekarno because he often got ill. There was a story when he was born. Soekarno was born in the morning , and there was a myth that the child who was born when the sun rises will be predicted to be a big figure on his time. Many people called him Son of the Sun. Stories about his childhood is known that he had a great attitude to communicate with other people. Growth as a talented boy, Soekarno continued his study to HBS in Surabaya. Then he went to Institute of Technology in Bandung (Bandung Institute of Technology) on Civil Department. He spent only 3 years to finish his study. He was not only a smart student but also active in Movement Party called PNI . He was arrested in 1929 by Dutch Colonial Authorities because of his activity in Indonesia Pro-Independence Movement. When he was released, he became a popular hero. He was arrested several times during the 1930’s and was put in jail when Japan occupied the archipelago in 1942. When Japan came to Indonesia, He was still active in Movement Party. On November 10, 1943 Soekarno became the leader of BPUPKI that was supported by Japan. One Indonesian pride in the Soekarno era in which Indonesia had achieved progress in rocket technology. Even the era of the 1960s, Indonesia became the second country in Asia and Africa which successfully launched a homemade rocket called kartika 1. Even now when talking about the development of missile and rocket technology, seem far behind Indonesia, but Indonesia had become a successful developing country rocket. The development of rocket technology in Indonesia began to advance in the early 1960’s with the assistance of the Soviet Union. Until the 14th of August, 1964, Indonesia finally launched homemade rockets named Kartika one weighing 220 kg of rocket launching station Pameungpeuk, arrowroot, West Java. This launch makes Indonesia became the second country in Asia and Africa were able to develop the manufacture of missile and rocket technology after Japan. After that also the development of rockets and missiles more lively in Indonesia, Indonesia even launched two rockets kartika weighing 66.5 kg and a mileage of 50 km. Then Indonesia also purchase a variety of missiles surfance to air missile (sam) from the Soviet Union. But unfortunately, after the old order fell, missile and rocket technology is less developed in the era of the new order, and make Indonesia increasingly far behind compared to other countries not only in Asia but in the world. Only later in 1987, Indonesia through eight re-create the rocket called rx-250 LPN. The rocket is a rocket fueled by liquid and solid weight of 300 kg has a length of 5.30 meter power range 70 km. In the era of President Soekarno Indonesia once feared the world in the 1960’s. Indonesian military strength is one of the largest and strongest in the world. At that time, even the Dutch forces are not comparable to Indonesia, and the Americans are very concerned with the development of our military forces are heavily supported by the latest technology of the Soviet Union. 1960, the Dutch still entrenched in Papua. Seeing the power of the Republic of Indonesia are more severe, Western-backed Dutch design tricks to create a puppet state that seemed to be independent, but still under the control of the Dutch. President Sukarno immediately took extreme action, its purpose, reclaim papua. Sukarno immediately issue notice “secession” in Yogyakarta, and the contents are: 1. Establishment of the puppet state of Papua foils made the Dutch colonial. 2. Fly of flags the red and white all over western Irian 3. Be prepared for a general mobilization, maintaining independence and unity of the nation’s homeland. Thanks to the proximity of Indonesia with the Soviets, Indonesia then get help massive naval forces and advanced air military in the world with a giant, U.S. $ 2.5 billion. Currently, the Indonesian military forces being the strongest in the entire southern hemisphere. The main strength of Indonesia at the moment it is one of the main secession warships in the world’s largest and fastest-made Soviet Sverdlov class, with a 12-caliber 6-inch giant cannon. It is kri Irian, a giant weighing 16,640 tons with a crew of 1270 people, including 60 officers. Soviet, never even gave this strong ship on any other nation, except Indonesia. Finally, on August 17, 1945 Indonesia declared the Independence day, and he became the first President of Indonesia. He passed away in 1970 and was buried in Blitar, East Java. Indonesian people were full of sadness. Although he had gone, his spirit is still alive and influences many people until now.

    The Resources :
    http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong
    http://www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/about/bios/neilabio.html
    http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soekarno

  10. he diversity of the United States and Indonesia can be defined in many different ways. Diversity is a variation for each other we can appreciate various characteristics of each each different people different. . Indonesia’s diversity has given this country its unique strength and attraction. Both the countries have their own unique, but they are still so attractive. Divesity does not talk about culture, but also talk about origin, sexual orientation, gender, religion. But in this essay i will ask you to talk about the origin, religion, and gender roles of Indonesia and America. The name, the Indian islands of meaning is created by the British, j. r. Logan, in malaya in 1850. Derived from the Greek, indos (Indian) and nesos (Island), has a parallel in the Melanesian Islands, black; Micronesia, small islands; and French Polynesia. many of the Islands. Germany geography, adolf bastian, which is used in the title of his book, Rodel, in 1884, and in 1928, nationalists was adopted as the name of the country. hoped-for them the Most multiethnic Archipelago, with groups large and small that make up the geographic enclaves. Cities and towns in the enclave, including the dominant ethnic groups and some members of immigrant groups, such as the Area of West Sumatra or South Sulawesi, has been developed over the centuries through the interaction of geography (such as a river, Port, plains and mountains), interaction history, society and the political-administrative policy. First, Indonesia and United are 2 different countries culture because it has a different origin. Indonesia as the country’s fourth most populous country with a population of about 200 people that live settled in almost a thousand one permanent island. Some, such as North Sumatra, South Sulawesi, and East Java are ethnically mixed to varying degrees; others such as West Sumatra, Bali, and Aceh are more homogeneous And the Americas (or America) are lands in the Western Hemisphere that are also known as the New World. Some, such as North Sumatra, South Sulawesi, and East Java are ethnically mixed to varying degrees; others such as West Sumatra, Bali, and Aceh are more homogeneous And the Americas (or America) are lands in the Western Hemisphere that are also known as the New World. Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, and forced immigration of African slaves largely replaced the Indigenous Peoples. Beginning with the American Revolution in 1776 and Haitian Revolution in 1791, the European powers began to decolonise the Americas. Another difference in eating food between the United States and Indonesia is the taste of the food. In general, Americans prefer a sweet taste or a little bit salty in their food. In contrast, most Indonesian people like a hot and spicy taste in their food. Also, Indonesian would like to eat food that still warms instead of food that is not warm anymore. Therefore they always warm their food before eating. On the other hand, American people admit to eat food that isn’t warm, like sandwiches.
    Second, religion. Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any nation. There are educated and influential Christian minority with about twice as many Protestants as Catholics. The Balinese Hindu forms still following. Mystic established cults among the Javanese elite and middle class, and members of many ethnic groups still follow a traditional belief system. Women who are found in the urban labour force in the shop, small industries, and markets, as well as top-class business, but almost always in an amount less than the men. A lot of female primary school teachers, but teachers in secondary schools and colleges and universities are more often male, although the number of male students and women may be similar. the different of driving a car is ones as the examples.. For example, crossing street without traffic light. People in the United States more respect to the pedestrian than in Indonesia in this situation. In Indonesia, a driver doesn’t care about pedestrian, if they don’t across the street on the appropriate place, like at traffic light. They keep driving fast, although they see pedestrian want to across the street. In contrast, in the U.S. driver always respect to pedestrian, although they across the street without traffic light. Thirdly, system of education. The United States is very unique in the world because the accreditation or the system for setting national standards of quality in education is not administrated by government, but by committees of educators and private agencies like the Middle State Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and the Society of Engineers. Meanwhile, Indonesia is administrated by the government.
    These are the characteristics of Indonesia from the Puritan heritage, Features from the frontier, Indonesian dreams, Other trends, Independence and the Constitution, Ethnicity.
    In addition there are many cultural influences stemming back from difference in heritage. It’s important to remember that being diverse helps make us all unique and special. Indonesia and America have their own diversity. They have many differences such as culture, education, concept of work, etc. According to me, US is better than Indonesian. US are a home to all, such that no one group can call itself more “American” than another. And the fusion of cultures here is so unique and so exceptional that citizens can be just as proud of their original cultural heritage as they are to be an American. Indonesia is a country in south East Asia that has very wide area.

  11. CONSUMERISM DISTINCTION BETWEEN INDONESIA WITH AMERICA

    I am very interested in the topic of the fourth. That is comparison between American and Indonesian consumer preferences. Before we further discuss the differences consumerism between Indonesian with American, it would be better if we know what culture is, because it relates to the culture. In my opinion culture means human’s activities or habitual action or inheritance or custom to the regulation their generation although the culture doesn’t have the written role. From the above understanding we can give an idea of consumerism into 2 countries. If we talk about Consumerism, it is definitely related to economic. In terms of economic, American is distinctly different with Indonesia. America or also known as United States of America, one of the super-powers in the world which is one of the most advanced countries in the world. Almost superior in all areas, the most striking is the economic, technology, and defense. America is a developed country while Indonesia is developing country. Social structure is closely related to the structure of life chance. Although we know, life style is different between way of style.
    We know Indonesia is rich country in natural resources abundant but poor in human resources. Sovay Gerke said that life styling refers to symbolic dimension and can be defined as a display of a standard of living that facts unable afford. So, From Sovay Gerke’s opinion I can conclude that consumerism demonstrated inability to create anything, like Indonesian life style and way style. If we see from economic and consumerism, There are three things that distinguish Indonesian and American they are, Indonesian just knows to imitate or copy something from another, Indonesia only know to buy and buy something without thinking how to make or create these objects, and the last Indonesian prefer to buy cheaper goods but must be qualified. We will discuss one by one deeper.
    The first, Indonesia just knows to imitate or copy something from another. This is seen clearly, that Indonesian known as nation’s bandwagon. Many teenager and even parents in Indonesia imitative style Caucasian. Why I said like that, because it is realities. For examples, many people in Indonesia like very much to paint their hair blond like Caucasian, wearing wire teeth, wearing contact lenses, wearing clothes that are not appropriate to wear, always but hand phone every turn of the models, and much more while, American life style are totally different. They prefer to be themselves and more creative. The second Indonesia only knows to buy and buy something without thinking how to make or create these objects. For Examples, Indonesian people buy modern cars like Rolls- Royce and Mercy from America, I read in Republika online that TNI AU bought four fighter aircraft from united states, and much more. The most famous stores in America are Sears, Roebuck and Company, so many people shopping here also Indonesian that has much money. Indonesian never thinks how to make or create these, Indonesian also never think how should we do so we not have to buy all these things from the broad. The last, Indonesian prefer to buy cheaper goods but must be qualified. Hmmmmm if I talk like this, I remember with my mother. I give simple example, if my mother shopping just brings not much money but my mother’s purchases so much until the basket is full, it is indicate that Indonesian really like a bargain. Let we see a big example, many businesses in Indonesia want little capital but lots of advantages. How can that be?
    From my writing above, I just say Indonesia tend bandwagon and very consumerism. It will cause the level of consumption of goods outside Indonesia enormous, moreover the cause if not unqualified advertisement in the mass media and the pressure of friends (peer group). Actually, from the three differences, Americans are not different but they have a clear concept about their finances. With the help of financial advisor, financial planning system easy, added with insurance so they do not have to worry if the car or their most expensive goods suddenly shattered. But the obvious differences are the ability Americans in seeking much money, more creative, work hard/study hard, like a challenge, be themselves, time is money and independent or standalone. I hope, we should be able to learn to be more advanced than our shortcoming. What’s wrong with learning from developed countries like America or United State?. I know this is a very difficult thing. But let’s start from the smallest things and then big and the biggest thing will be easier to execute next. I also hope my writing can be useful for all of us who have read it. Thank you very much and God Bless Us.

    http://mbokmenik.wordpress.com/2011/11/11/konsumerisme-dan-proses-pembentukan-gaya-hidup-lifestylisasi1/

    http://zukapersona.wordpress.com/2011/03/26/4-perbedaan-terbesar-orang-indonesia-dan-amerika/
    http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sears,_Roebuck_and_Company

  12. Diversity in US and Indonesia

    Now days, people are unique in culture from other because they are different in many ways. Maybe we will think what is diversity? Is there any benefit from diversity? By analogy with biodiversity, which is thought to be essential to the long-term survival of life on earth, it can be argued that cultural diversity may be vital for the long-term survival of humanity; and that the conservation of indigenous cultures may be as important to humankind as the conservation of species and ecosystems is to life in general. The General Conference of UNESCO took this position in 2001, asserting in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity that “…cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature”. On this short essay, I am going to explain about the meaning of diversity, the benefit of the diversity and the unique of cultural diversity in the US and Indonesia.

    Some of people still confuse about the meaning of diversity in personal. The concept of diversity encompasses acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. It is the exploration of these differences in a safe, positive, and nurturing environment. It is about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual.
    The concept of cultural diversity has a very wide scope and is being practiced by people and organizations all over the world. Broadly this idea includes hiring people of diverse races, different religions and promoting the entry of working staff from different countries. Although the practice of this concept has gained momentum in the past few years, but its existence is quite old and cultural diversity continues to live all around us. It exists in different communities and households, from small suburbs to big cities and that too all through the world. Diversity is an element of the society and has now become an important part of businesses as well. The many benefits of cultural diversity such as promotes humanistic values, improves productivity and profitability, helps to create a pool of talent, and exchange of innovative ideas.
    US are a home to all, such that no one group can call itself more “American” than another. And the fusion of cultures here is so unique and so exceptional that citizens can be just as proud of their original cultural heritage as they are to be an American. Our Diversity in America collection takes a good look at what it means to be “American” and examines the rich heritages that make up our country. Each culture provides its own special and irreplaceable contribution to our understanding of America today, and The World & I Online showcases this here. From Asia to Europe to Africa to Latin America, some 128 articles trace each nationality’s broad history and important contributions to the American way of life. Diversity in America not only presents a host of intimate snapshots of culture and heritage, but documents the struggles of nationalities to integrate into the “melting pot” society of America, and highlights the strength and integrity of various cultural leaders and thinkers.
    Indonesia is a country in south East Asia that has very wide area. The country that is located at the equator line has ocean territory with the largest islands in the world. More than 13000 islands stretching from Sabang as the east edge to Merauke as the west. There are about 1.128 local ethnics and 700 local languages throughout its islands. Every place has their unique own social culture and art life. Many tourists go to Bali purposes to see the uniqueness of local culture instead of enjoying the natural beauty view in there. In Central Java there are Solo and Yogyakarta, the center of the Javanese culture that is very unique and special. Both regions have a palace and kingdom that keep the continuity of the Javanese cultural. Papua, which is the eastern area of this country has a traditional society with his “black people” that are natural and exotic. There is still much unique cultural diversity in the Indonesia country that is also interesting in the world cultures. Some famous cultural relics also can be found in this country. The Borobudur temple which is located in Magelang a city near Yogyakarta, was built in 8th century and listed as one of the 8 world wonder.

    To sum up, there is much unique cultural diversity in the US and Indonesia country. The concept of diversity encompasses acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. US are a home to all, such that no one group can call itself more “American” than another. And the fusion of cultures here is so unique and so exceptional that citizens can be just as proud of their original cultural heritage as they are to be an American. Indonesia is a country in south East Asia that has very wide area. There are about 1.128 local ethnics and 700 local languages throughout its islands. Every place has their unique own social culture and art life.

    The Resources:
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_diversity
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Indonesia
    3. http://www.worldandi.com/specialcollection/special-collection-diversity.asp

  13. 1. Diversity in US and Indonesia
    U.S. culture is western culture, according to my data search of diversity U.S., has historically been very influenced by European culture. This developed since long before the United States became a country with a unique culture of social characteristics such as dialect, music, arts, social habits, cuisine and folklore.
    Competitiveness of the United culture includes conservative and liberal elements, military and scientific, political structures, risk taking and free expression, materialist and moral elements.
    The United States has often been regarded as a “melting pot”, but recent developments tend towards cultural diversity, pluralism and the image of a salad bowl not a melting pot.
    U.S. food cooking (Cuisine of the United States) is a kind of culinary developing countries of the United States, ranging from the mainland to the islands of Hawaii. These dishes are popular in the United States of various countries in the world economy and as ekspanasi American restaurant outlets that sell hamburgers, fries, hot dogs, pizza (with its own peculiar) and barbecue. Reflecting the influence of various immigrant and native tribes, the United States cuisine is one of the world’s richest culinary.
    Indonesia is one of the most unique in my opinion, because Indonesia has several different ethnic groups and cultures are very numerous, and I just want to express something about Indonesia, the country of my birth place I love best, and if we are out of school since learning about the various sorts of things about Indonesia, I think Indonesia is the most unique of the diversity of race, culture and food in Indonesia.
    In terms of food in Indonesia is very diverse types and tastes, as we know there is food Gudeg From Java, Nasi Padang , lontong opor, lontong sayur, pecel lele, pecel ayam and many kind of soto like soto ayam, soto rawon ,soto karebo , and from cakes of diversity like lemper, arem-arem, pisang hijau, kue lupis, kue lapis, kue serabi, etc. There are also food from the culinary mixing tionghua with Indonesia, like mie ayam, kwetiaw, bihun and many kind of cakes, and this food drive the economy of the small industries in the backing industry, and economy of street vendors, and the industry as we know it is a small economy’s most enduring industries of various kinds of economic crises.
    The uniqueness of the others are from diverse ethnic, I did not know whether there are countries overseas that have as many tribes and cultures of Indonesia, of the tribe we could call no spare Javanese, Sundanese, Batak, Dayak and other tribes in the various islands Indonesia and Indonesian culture that I was the most unique cultures in harmony with mutual respect between one tribe to another tribe, and from different tribes and different religions we can work together to create a harmony between the difference is very difficult, because usually the difference it can create envious hatred of each human ego, but in Indonesia is different and instead of difference itself creates a harmony.
    Side Culture of Indonesia, Indonesia is a country with a wealth of culture that is very much the product of the culture of Indonesia itself very diverse and very unique in my opinion, as in the case of batik clothing, Batik now has a formal dress to work Friday in some offices, and for the inauguration of a particular state also wear batik, as we remember Bill Gates visit some time ago also using Batik, very interesting is not it, and Chinese President Hu Jintao also wear batik during a visit to Indonesia in terms of diverse musical instruments are also very unique like a musical instrument Angklung, gamelan, and various other musical instruments from Indonesia, and musical instrument angklung and gamelan are many who are interested to learn it.
    In terms of other cultures quite caught my attention is the traditional dance, I think the traditional dance is a dance that can be very exciting and creative industries or the arts, as we know there are many different kinds of dances from Indonesia artistry of this one, which is no dance tor-tor of North Sumatra, etc.
    Tourism spending in Indonesia is divided into two types: the traditional shopping center with the bargaining process between a buyer and a seller and a modern shopping center. Traditional markets generally sell items of daily needs are located in a single building or a particular way. Modern shopping centers can be found in the metropolitan cities, especially on the island of Java such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung and Semarang. Most modern shopping centers can be found in the city that has more than 170 shopping centers.

    Thank You

    GBU

    Martha Hotnida (0912150051) BS/B

  14. Diversity in US and Indonesia

    The United States of America (commonly called the United States, the U.S., the USA, America, and the States) is a federal constitutional republic consisting of fifty states and a federal district. A country of central and northwest North America with coastlines on the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Whereas, Indonesian is a country of southeast Asia in the Malay Archipelago including Sumatra, Java, Timor, Sulawesi, the Moluccas, parts of Borneo and New Guinea, and many smaller islands. US and Indonesian located on different continents so that have various differences. There are four diversity between US and Indonesian. They are eating food, driving a car, system of education, and concept toward age.
    Firstly, eating food in the United States and Indonesia. Indonesian people eat the same food every day for lunch and dinner. That is rice. Rice is a main food for Indonesian folk. Even so, they eat it with other foods, like meat and vegetables. On the other hand, American people eat a variety of foods each day. In particular, they eat pizza, sandwiches, pasta or noodles, and sometimes meat for dining. Another difference in eating food between the United States and Indonesia is the taste of the food. In general, Americans prefer a sweet taste or a little bit salty in their food. In contrast, most Indonesian people like a hot and spicy taste in their food. Also, Indonesian would like to eat food that still warms instead of food that is not warm anymore. Therefore they always warm their food before eating. On the other hand, American people admit to eat food that isn’t warm, like sandwiches.
    Secondly, the different of driving a car. For example, crossing street without traffic light. People in the United States more respect to the pedestrian than in Indonesia in this situation. In Indonesia, a driver doesn’t care about pedestrian, if they don’t across the street on the appropriate place, like at traffic light. They keep driving fast, although they see pedestrian want to across the street. In contrast, in the U.S. driver always respect to pedestrian, although they across the street without traffic light. Thirdly, system of education. The United States is very unique in the world because the accreditation or the system for setting national standards of quality in education is not administrated by government, but by committees of educators and private agencies like the Middle State Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and the Society of Engineers. Meanwhile, Indonesia is administrated by the government.
    Lastly, concept toward age. Hard work is considered as an important value in a culture involving interaction among the individualism. United States is a country which respects on freedom. The American emphasis on concrete achievements and “doing” means that age is to be feared, the less you can do or contribute to society. In America, age is not highly valued, for the older you the less you can accomplish. Age is also suspect because new is usually better in American culture, and the elderly are generally out of touch with what is new. The Americans emphasize on physical beauty and youth. In American culture, good performance or good looking is important in work circumstance because someone who is good looking will take other’s attention easily. For instance, by having sympathetic face and friendly smile either man or woman will make others feel comfort. They have new ideas to create something new. In other words, the youths tend to be creative ones. Also, the younger workers have strong physic making them not to be easier to get sick, so that they have much more effective time to work. Besides, American judges the worth’s worker based on the worker’s productivity, not seniority. For examples, someone who has high productivity no matter he or she is young or old will be more value than the one who does not. In this case, the worker is demanded to have high quality and productivity. They never consider on ‘how old are you” but they consider on “how many productivity and contributions you have done”. They work professionally to reach the best what they can do. Furthermore, to get higher position is easy for American workers. Therefore, no wonder if someone who is still young has become a leader of a company or director. In contrast, Indonesia is a country which has politeness norm and appreciate what it is called “tata karma”. For Indonesians, age is highly valued. The older you are, it means you have made many contributions. You will be respected more. The elders are considered having many experiences or what it is called as experienced workers since they have been working for many years. Older workers are seen as being more likely to think before they act and being more loyal, conscientious, reliable, and dependable. In making decision, they never consult or even pay attention to the younger worker because the older ones think the younger is too young to know what they are going to do. Moreover, Indonesian judges the worth’s worker based on seniority, how long she or he has been working. In Indonesian culture, seniority is one of the heritage cultures. The system which is applied that is juniors must respect the seniors. In working circumstance, this system exists and has been being applied by the workers. Basically, seniority is aimed to create the harmony among the workers. In other words, the older and the younger can respect each other. The older workers considering as experienced workers teach how to work well and give good guidance and suggestions to the younger ones, so that they become salute and good team work. Furthermore, to get higher position is not easy for Indonesians because they should follow some certain determined procedures and rules. That’s why a leader of an institute or a director of a company in Indonesia basically comes from the older generations.
    In conclusion, from the explanation above we can get many information about diversity of some country like US and Indonesian. They have many differences such as culture, education, concept of work, etc. According to me, US is better than Indonesian. Especially in system of education and hard work. It makes US more advanced than Indonesian and the people of US also become successful. For example, many incredible discoveries have been found by the Americans because they have the hard work and creativity to achieve what they want.
    References:
    Bosgentongs Ideal’s Blog. (2009). Retrieved on October 29, 2012, from: http://bosgentongs.com/2009/07/07/the-differences-of-american-indonesian-concept-toward-age/
    Putri, M.R. (2011). Some Differences between Indonesian and American Culture. Retrieved on October 29, 2012, from: http://rimmaspeechless.wordpress.com/2011/04/18/some-differences-between-indonesian-and-american-culture/

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