Mid-Term Assignment (A)


Choose one of the following topics and write an essay of 750 to 1.500 words. Make sure you put your thesis sentence(s) in the introductory paragraph. Discuss each topic (sub-division) thoroughly in its own discussion paragraph (see Organizing an Essay and Essay Sample to refresh your memory about essay writing). Mention the source anytime you cite from someone’s works. Then list the references o the bottom of the essay. Post your essay in the reply section below by the scheduled mid-examination day.

  1. Diversity in US and Indonesia
  2. The highest respected value in Indonesia vs in US
  3. American vs. Indonesian Idealized Heroes
  4. Comparison Between American and Indonesian Consumer Preferences

Good luck!

15 Comments

  1. Diversity in US and Indonesia

    The people of the United States represent an array of ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds, all of whom help to make up the complex picture of what it means to be an American. The United States is often characterized as a nation of immigrants. Its rich heritage – often referred to as a “melting pot” – is in part due to successive waves of immigrants from around the world. The United States has welcomed more immigrants than any other country — more than 50 million in all — and today welcomes almost 700,000 persons a year. Americans have of necessity placed great value on diversity; ethnic groups have renewed and celebrated their heritage; and the children of immigrants often grow up experiencing the languages, traditions and cultures of both their American and foreign heritages.

    This enrichment through diversity thrives in America. But before this mosaic of cultures found a home, the question certainly might have been asked, “Can a nation made of such varied backgrounds even hope to succeed?” As the American example shows, the answer is a resounding “yes.”

    The triumph of the American experience owes its success to many factors. Among them is, of course, the vision of the nation’s founding fathers in establishing a government of, by and for the people. When they established a democracy they provided a constitution that guaranteed certain freedoms like freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom of religion.

    America’s founders established a society that would embrace diversity and celebrate the differences that various cultures would bring to the United States. But, as different as the many cultures, religions and ethnic backgrounds of the American mosaic are, there is a core of values that all share. This is the glue that has led to the success of the American experiment.

    Indonesia’s Diversity
    Few countries in the world could match Indonesia’s diversity of population with some 490 different ethnics living together. For the visitors, this diversity means a wealth of different architecture, handicraft, textiles, dances, languages or even religions. It would be impossible to describe all the traditions of each living ethnic. However, discover some of the amazing people who makes contemporary Indonesia.

    Enjoy a first experience to Indonesia Ethnic Diversity.
    It would take years for a traveller to discover all Indonesian islands and its inhabitants. However, to have a first approach, the ideal place is Taman Mini Indonesia in Jakarta. Stretching on 120 ha of gardens, this open air theme park shows in pavilions the lifestyle, the architecture and the artefacts of 31 Indonesian provinces. Most of the houses were dismantled to be carefully reconstructed in the park and are a testimony of the artistic skills of Indonesian various ethnics.

    JAVA
    The Javanese
    Indonesia’s dominant ethnic is the Javanese people. Java island has close to 130 million inhabitants, living from Banten to Surabaya. However, the cradle of the Javanese culture can be found in Central Java, between the cities of Semarang, Solo and Yogyakarta. These cities used to be powerful sultanates with a sophisticated court life around the Keraton, the royal palace. Sultans today are still present but their power is largely symbolic- Yogyakarta excepted-; but all the rituals and traditions remain. Visitors will not only discover the impressive carving and art pieces of the various palaces but also the traditional clothing, the art of batik textiles- each Sultanate and City has a different motive or colour-, classical Javanese dance and music.

    The Sundanese
    Sundanese people live in West Java since immemorial times. Traces of the previous grandeur of Sundanese Kingdoms can still be admired today in the city of Cirebon with the historical Sultan Palace. Cirebon is famous for its folk art with Puppets performances (Wayang) or Mask dances (Topeng). Cirebon batiks are easy to recognise with their clouds design inspired by Chinese motives. Another expression of Sundanese arts’ skills is the Angklung music. A group of musicians is then able to perform any type of music on a set of melodic bamboo instruments.
    Access: Flights to Jakarta or Bandung

    SUMATRA
    The Batak
    Batak people are among the largest ethnic groups in Indonesia and live in North Sumatra around the Lake Toba and its surrounding mountains. Visitors will notice architectural differences between the Batak living around the Lake (Toba Batak) and in the Mountains (Karo Bataks). Around the lake, Toba Bataks live in Boat shaped houses with long roofs as Karo Bataks live in square houses with a double-floor roof evocating a mountain. One Karo house can accommodate six to eight families. Bataks are known as skilled wood sculptors. Houses are decorated with intricate motives evocating the cosmos. Toba Bataks still perform traditional dances, the tortor dance, which celebrates a gift exchange for a wedding.

    The people from Nias
    This large island, which faces North Sumatra, is dominated by a society traditionally divided into aristocrats, commoners and former slaves. Niasians formerly liked to compete again each other by holding feasts of merit. They still today compete with each other in a spectacular but friendly way. Visitors can today admire “stone-jumping performances” where young men pass over three meters- stone pedestals.

    The Minangkabau
    One of the most curious ethnics in Indonesia, the Minang lives in West Sumatra. This Muslim society is based on a matrilineal practice where the descent is traced through women who inherit common goods. Minang succeed to preserve their own traditions in dances and in sophisticated costumes and in peculiar house architecture. The “Rumah Gadand” (“Great House”) is one of the most sophisticated constructions in Indonesia. It is a large wooden house decorated with intricate carvings and crowned by a high roof in shape of buffalo’s horns.

    BALI
    Balinese fascinating culture is a blend of Hindu, Buddhist and animist religions which is translated into a holistic approach to life. Rituals continue to rhythm the way of life of Balinese people. Balinese see the world populated with good and bad spirits, humans and demons. Mountains and volcanoes belong to the Gods, the sea as the evil’s habitat, the coast and plains are the place for the mankind. Houses are built along the dharma principle of reaching the perfect state of being.
    One of Balineses’ task is to keep this world in right shape through colourful processions, purification ceremonies, pilgrimages, offerings and sacrifices. Barong dances where performers wear sophisticated masks is a symbolic way to control these forces. More than in others parts of Indonesia, visitors to Bali have a fair chance to take part to these spectacular daily acts on the island. Many temples (Pura) organise festivals and religious ceremonies; Balinese noble palaces (especially in the village of Ubud) propose traditional performances of classical dances with gamelan.

    SOUTH SULAWESI
    The Toraja
    Tana Toraja in South Sulawesi is a piece of green land with lush valleys surrounded by mountains. Toraja “Tongkonan” are richly carved and painted houses crowned by a curved roof evocating a buffalo head. They are today a few villages which are still fully preserved and are like living museums. Even if the modern life took its toll on traditions, some of the Toraja rituals survive in villages. During funerals, Torajas perform traditional circle dances as well as buffalo slaughtering. A wooden figure of the dead called “Tau Tau” is then placed on a burial cliff or inside the caves where deceased will rest in peace.

    PAPUA
    Merauke is one of the last Indonesian frontiers of Indonesia as it is located deep in the Southeast of the Papua province. The area is covered by forests and large rivers which largely contribute to preserve the life of the Asmat ethnic from a rapid modernisation of their life style.

  2. Ethnocentricism Must be Quashed
    The concept of diversity encompasses acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. It is the exploration of these differences in a safe, positive, and nurturing environment. It is about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual.
    There are some examples of diversity. In this time I am going to discuss about ethnocentricism. Ethnocentricism is when people of a given culture view their particular culture as being better, or even the only one truly worthy of existence. As concerns this evil, one is right to remember the plight of people who have been historically harmed by the ethnocentric ideals of others. Two examples, ones that are admittedly graphic, are mentioned. First, the open disregard for the native people of this land will be touched. Secondly, the handling of African-Americans who were forced to come to this country in bondage is considered. It would be remiss to overlook the Native-American and African-American populations, however these cultures are not the only ones that have suffered from the ethnocentricism of others. There are many cultures represented under the headings of both Native-American and African-American people. Sadly, many of these cultures are now extinct. Those that remain have been enculturated by ethnocentric pressure from the European colonizers of North and South America, Asia, and Africa. The purpose of providing these examples of ethnocentricism is to shock readers into thinking about ones personal thoughts concerning multiculturalism—“multiculturalism” being antiethnocentricism, in a word. (To “multiculturalize” would be to attempt to attain multiculturalism within a society.)
    The cultures of the remaining Native-Americans are of particular interest since these people have attempted to retain their traditional cultures to some extent. There are innumerable accounts of how the early policy in dealing with Native-Americans was one of genocide. For example, McPherson (1988) describes how “in California alone disease, malnutrition, firewater, and homicide reduced the Indian population from an estimated 150,000 in 1845 to 35,000 by 1860.” The manifest destiny that represented hope for white Americans thus spelled doom for red Americans” (p. 46). Their cultures were not appreciated even 100 years ago, but now it is understood that, as David Whitehorse (1996, p.336) puts it, multi-cultural studies “may provide important understanding of underlying value orientation, cultural beliefs, and patterns of thought.” All of this is valuable “especially as teachers attempt to multiculturalize learning environments to match the multicultural aspects of the student population.”
    It is curious to note that activists connected the “cultural ignorance” in the 19th Century with the disgraceful acts of “war” witnessed only 30 short years ago. It was ethnocentricism that allowed these acts of violence to occur. The connection is that ethnocentricism rears its ugly head and somehow always “justifies” acts that are terrible hate crimes in disguise. By attempting to embrace other cultures, one is less likely to try and destroy them. Thus, ethnocentricism must go and fuller understanding of the cultures one is to live with should be the proper humanitarian goals taught by (and acted on by) educators.
    Historical accounts, such as those described in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin or Dee Brown’s Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, are graphic reminders of how people can be completely ethnocentric. While the actions of our ancestral white settlers are somehow often “historically justified,” it should be remembered that Stowe wrote her book in 1853 and the events at Wounded Knee took place in the very late 19th Century. The point is that only a few generations ago there were predominant feelings of distaste for non-Europeans. This gross ethnocentricism is something the country cannot tolerate. There are opposing views on how much (and even what) remains to be done to improve the conditions of Native Americans, African Americans, and minorities overall, but there is at least some positive aspect to our being at least aware of the condition of “multiculturalism deferred,” which appears to exist today. Again, multiculturalism should be taught and emulated by educators. Education is the best defense for bigotry. Studies might furthermore educate the educators.
    A second example of ethnocentricism is well documented in works by Stowe. There is little reason to go into particular detail about how African Americans were originally treated. One has no regard for a culture that one forcibly enslaves. It is sufficient to remember that the very act of educating African Americans was considered punishable. In banning African education the message is clear that the people were not respected and were meant to be forever subordinate to their white masters. The whole matter is just as unpalatable as that of the ethnocentricism visited upon Native Americans. Ethnocentricism should be abolished just as certainly as education should be provided to all people.
    Orfield (1999) argues, for example, that renewed attention must be given to multi-culturalism. He warns that recent efforts to reverse affirmative action policies are wrong. Part of his argument is that there will be a loss of diversity.
    To many researchers, the benefits of diversity seemed self-evident, so they focused on examining how best to encourage it. [Affirmative action was overturned in California and Texas in 1996, and the resulting] … anti-affirmative-action lawsuits and referenda proliferating throughout the country have roused educational leaders into clear awareness of the importance of research [into the benefits of cultural diversity] (p. 2).

    On the other hand, that two states would overturn affirmative action policies implies that the majority of the voters in these states feel that this policy no longer works. According to Williams (1997) (using data from a Lipset survey), over “70 percent of the respondents opposed preferential treatment while only 24 percent supported it. Among blacks, 66 percent opposed preferential treatment and 32 percent supported it” (p. 1). If these are true sentiments of the majority (and minority), then perhaps affirmative action should indeed be overturned. Admittedly, affirmative action may function differently today than it did when it was originally established. Whether it should even be mentioned here may be questioned, but since the intent is to “expose” and “shock,” this writer feels that affirmative action is worthy of note. It might be remembered that affirmative action was originally applied to Women and African Americans, alike. There might herein lie some thought as to how women were treated in earlier times. Still, it seems appropriate not to say more than simply “ethnocentricism must be quashed,” and leave the matter of affirmative action to the voters and legislators.
    Racism and bigotry have not been alleviated in our society. At best, ethnocentricism has been tempered through exposure for the evil that it is. The need exists to further educate students and educators alike about the requisite understanding of our diverse cultures. It is shortsighted to merely ignore cultural differences and expect that anything good a culture has to offer will be integrated into our mainstream values. Few educators would deny that steps should continue to be taken to encourage multiculturalism. It is safe to conclude that multiculturalism will have ever-increasing importance to education and the nation in the years to come. In the end (or even the beginning—thinking of this century) ethnocentricism must be quashed.

  3. COMPARISON BETWEEN AMERICAN AND INDONESIAN CONSUMERS’ PREFERENCES

    Indonesia and United State are different country. They are located in two different continents. Indonesia is in Asia, while United State is in America. Thus, their cultures and behaviors are different. Each of them has their own uniqueness. However, they are not totally different. We can find some similarities between them, especially in consumers’ preferences. There are four things that Indonesian and American consumers like in choosing things. They are comfort, cleanliness, novelty, and convenient.

    First of all, Indonesian and American like comfort. It is maybe influenced by the ancestors’ life, whose life was difficult and was not comfortable, so their descents are motivated to create a better life. For that reason, they are aware of comfort as their consideration in choosing things. For instance, if they are going to buy new clothes, they will examine the fabric of the clothes, whether the fabric is comfortable or not. However, Indonesians also consider the price of the thing they are going to buy. They prefer cheap things to expensive ones. When they find a suitable and comfort thing, they will check the price tag. If the price is too expensive, the will change their mind to buy it. Some Indonesians also like buying unoriginal things, like DVDs. We can easily find it anywhere. The reason why they buy unoriginal DVDs is because it is cheaper to watch DVD than going to cinema to watch movie. They also can watch the movie like a hundred times. The quality of unoriginal DVDs is quite good. It is forbidden, but the government seems not serious to prevent it.

    The second similarity of Indonesian and American is cleanliness. American’s cleanliness is perhaps influenced by the Puritans heritage. They believe that everyone must cleanse their body from the dirt and evil. They do not only keep their bodies, but also their stuff, houses, and even pets. They also love cleanliness for the sake of beauty and healthy, and so do Indonesian. However, in my opinion, cleanliness in Indonesia and America is not the same. American is cleaner than Indonesia. It shown from the public places in Indonesia, where garbage, such as plastics, mineral water bottles, papers, tissues, are spread everywhere. Indonesians seem do not care about the cleanliness, because they like to throw rubbish carelessly, instead of throwing the rubbish to a trash can. Furthermore, many public places do not provide trash cans.

    The third similarity is novelty. Both of Indonesian and American like something new and different. They think that brand new things can increase their pride. If they do not have enough money to buy new things, maybe because the price is very expensive, they can buy it with using credit. There are many shops offering credit for their customers. In addition, they like improving old things, for example, they like improving old cars by changing the color of the cars, or adding some features in it, like GPS–Global Positioning System, a satellite navigation system that provides location and time information anywhere. Many Indonesians also like recycling. They recycle garbage like plastics or plastics bottles to become new things, such as bags, indoor ornaments, etc. Recycling does not only help them to save their money, but also to save the world.

    The last similarity is convenience. Electronics are one sample of convenience thing. Not only American and Indonesian like using electronics, but also people around the world like using electronics to help them to do activities. Washing machines, microwave ovens, food processors, etc. are electronics that help them to reduce their time spent on housework. They also like fast-food restaurants, like McDonald’s, KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken), Pizza Hut, Hoka Hoka Bento, etc. Those restaurants serve foods like fried chickens, salads, burgers, pizzas, sandwiches, spaghettis, less than fifteen minutes. Besides, the restaurants also offer ‘take-away service’, which the customers order the foods and they can bring it to their homes.

    In conclusion, both American and Indonesian like comfort, cleanliness, novelty, and convenient. However, in my opinion, American is better than Indonesian. American like buying original stuff because they appreciate the producers and their government firmly bans it. In the view of cleanliness, America is cleaner than Indonesia. Indonesian seem ignoring their environment. That is why, flood is usual disaster that happens in Indonesia because of the ignorance of Indonesians to keep their environment.

    References:
    (2008, August). Retrieved October 25, 2012, from Yahoo! Answers: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090120141721AAkCO44

    Datesman, M. K. American Ways, An Introduction to American Culture. Longman.

    Global Positioning System. (2012, October 25). Retrieved October 2012, 25, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System

    Stuff That The Indonesian always Like. (n.d.). Retrieved October 25, 2012, from Indonesian Prefer: http://indoprefers.blogspot.com/2009/08/stuffs-that-indonesian-always-love.html

  4. American vs. Indonesian Idealized Heroes

    What will come to your mind if you are asked to define the meaning of hero? I believe most of us will answer that hero is a person who have more power than other and has an obligation to keep the world peace. If it is asked to the children nowadays, I am sure that they will answer that hero is Superman, Batman, Spiderman, Ironmaa, Benten, Avatar, or anything else that they see on the tv who always fight for the truth and human rights. Or if we asked the same question to the older people, the answer will be different. They may answer it with listing the name of National hero or may be define the hero more general, such as hero is a person who save their life, or a person who are survive for other people life or many more. For me,hero has so many meaning, but in this case I want to make a comparison between the meaing of idealized hero for Indonesian (in general) and American.
    In American, hero will define as a man who is “macho”, strength, and has the common ability to demonstrate their strength through physical violence fighting the crime. The most popular heroes in America are Cowboy, Rambo and Terminator who can fight with their fists or with their guns, or both. This image bring many influence in America, especially in film industry. There were be so many film that bring a hero as its main character. He must be a man who have an atlhelic body, have guns, and can fight too. Although in nowadays, the image of American heroes have a little bit different, the heroes are respected more for their intelligence and sensitivitythan their physical powers, but at least there must be some scenes which show a fight between heroes and the antagonist character. It means and can not be denied that American heroes are defined as a person who have more power to fight in order to keep the human rights.
    Not much different from American heroes, Indonesian heroes in earlier was also identically with a person who have more power to keep the human rights, especially when Indonesia had not been independent country. There are so many names of heroes who led a war in order to fight the invaders, such as Prince Diponegoro, Sultan Hasanuddin, Cut Nyak Dien, Teuku Umar and many more. They led the people to fight to gain the independence but their effort was failed because they were not strong enough to fight with the invanders.
    Many years later there were also heroes who tried to gain the independence with the other way, not war, but with negotiation. They were the people who had high intelligence who thought that war was not too effective if it stood alone. There must be a good talk between Indonesian people with the invander to negotiate their want to be indepedent. There were a lot of names, such as Moh Hatta, Adam Malik, and the most popular was Soekarno who was chosen as the first president of Indonesia.
    After that, Indonesian made the law which regulate the determination of national hero tittle. The first person awarded the title was Abdul Muis via Presidential Decision No. 218/1959 issued on 30 August 1959 based on criteria for a national hero was set out in Presidential Decision No. 241/1958. It defined a National Independence Hero as “a person who throughout his/her life, because of love for the nation did great service or led an organized activity to oppose colonialism in Indonesia, fighting enemies from overseas, or who did great service in the area of politics, statesmanship, socio-economics or culture by fighting for independence and the development of Indonesia”. This was refined in 1964 in Presidential Regulation No. 33/1964. This defined a Hero as somebody who died in action or as a result of heroic acts fighting to defend the nation or who although not killed at the time, was proved to have made sacrifices defending the nation and whose subsequent life was unmarred by any actions that detracted from his or hr heroic status. This definition has been used without any major changes since 1964. Until now, Indonesian has 156 national heroes.
    Beside the 156 national heroes which is determined based on the law, Indonesia also has heroes who also fight for people concerns and for people unity. The most popular is Abdurrahman Wahid who was more popular with Gus Dur. Gus Gus Dur, is derived from Gus, a common honorific for a son of kyai, from short-form of bagus (‘handsome lad’ in Javanese language); and Dur, short-form of his name, Abdurrahman. He was the hero for unity in diversity in Indonesia. He was a man who was brave to fight for the chinesses in Indonesia to have the same rights as citizents. He also a man who were brave to be frontal when expressing opinions and ideas to bring Indonesia to be a better nation. He was a person who was really care with his people. He was brave to be different with other intelectuals who were idealist and did nothing to change Indonesia to the be better.
    And now, Indonesia, specially Jakarta just have had a new heroes , they are Joko Widodo and Basuki Tjahja Purnama as the Governor and Vice Governor of Jakarta. They are the honest men and is clean from the corruption based on fact and investigation from many ources. They are also men who are brave to be different from the elder Governor and Vice Governor. They are humble, down to earth and really care with their people. These things make them be called hero by their people. The people believe that they will make Jakarta and may be Indonesia to be a better nation.
    From the explanation above we can conclude that Indonesian people define the real hero as a person who will fight for human rights without bringing any power, but the most important is they are humble, and consistant with their words and try to make it real. And little bit different with Indonesian, American people define hero as a person who can fight in order to keep the human peace and rights.

  5. I am going to discuss about the diversity in US and Indonesia. The following below is the diversity in US and Indonesia from the features, Puritan heritage, Features or attitudes inherited from the frontier, Dream, Other trends, Independence and the Constitution and Ethnicity.

    General features
    Americans have always shown a passion for freedom and democracy. Optimism, buoyancy andhopefulness are still basic features of American society, even though they have been questioned in recent times, especially during the sixties (Viet Nam War, social unrest). Death is ignored; it is a taboo. Youth is worshipped,Energy, dynamism, good health are highly valued. A salient characteristic of American society is its astonishing dynamism. Patriotism is another American feature. One of its contemporary forms is the community feeling that often flourishes in suburban neighborhoods. America is also the land of affluence. Capitalism and money: (emphasis added) Money has been and still is king in the free democracy that America seeks to be. But American capitalism, with its free and sometimes too free interplay of supply and demand, has brought material prosperity unequalled anywhere else in the world and Americanidealism, whose vigour and often total unselfishness no one can deny, is in part a response to the pervasive materialism of big business, an escape from it and also a reproof. Capitalism, in the United States, has often had a guilty conscience. Private property is perceived as a basic right by Americans. There exists an American belief in the inviolacy of private property. Even if materialism is a characteristic of American society, American idealism should not be ignored, especially as America started as a utopia to be made true.

    The Puritan heritage
    Some features inherited from Puritan times (1620-1690) still endure in contemporary American society: a deep interest in religious matters and the Bible; individualism; hard work (the Protestant work Ethic); a pervasive guilt feeling; a sense of duty; America as a utopia.

    Features or attitudes inherited from the frontier
    Some features inherited from the frontier, which lasted until 1890, also endure in contemporary American society: they are hard work, dynamism, energy, mobility—restlessness actually—,optimism, the belief in an infinite series of second chances, equality of opportunities: in frontier times, natural resources seemed to be inexhaustible. America has long been considered the land of plenty, abundance, affluence.

    Frontier times weree also the times of belief in progress, that somehow still persits today. With the scientific support of the theory of evolution, Americans see progress as ascending from the primitive past along a path in time toward a future in which the impediments of nature are dominated by individual human will and technology.

    The American Dream
    One definition of the American Dream is to raise oneself to the top by hard work and ingenuity, from rags to riches. Individual success through hard work and ingenuity implies competition with others.

    Other trends
    The Declaration of Independence (1776) established the pursuit of happiness as an inalienable right.
    Free enterprise—the economic system based on the concept of private property—is seen as as an inalienable right too.Pragmatism: It is the belief that the truth of an idea can be judged only by its practical results.
    Thus the American genius for devising and employing machines and technology. A car dependent suburban lifestyle,Comfort and cleanliness; concern with and emphasis on material things; material welfare

    Independence and the Constitution
    Mercantilism – Natural rights – Jefferson’s agrarianism, alias the garden myth, alias agrarian democracy of small, educated, virtuous, independent farmers

    Ethnicity
    Assimilation – integration – acculturation – mainstream America – Afrocentrism – Eurocentrism – ethnicity – separatism – multiculturalism. The South of America consisit of Passage to India, alias Northwest Passage, alias China trade – Eurocentrism – El Dorado – Cavalier Tradition altough New England The Pilgrim Fathers, Puritanism, predestination, election – American exceptionalism and he West of AmericaWestward expansion, civilization, progress – the frontier – Manifest Destiny

    These are the characteristics of Indonesia from the Puritan heritage, Features from the frontier, Indonesian dreams, Other trends, Independence and the Constitution, Ethnicity.

    Indonesia has Puritan heritage Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1%.
    Features or attitudes inherited from the frontier such as Hard work, Optimism,belief in progress, simple, low profile and democracy.
    Indonesian society has a more viable livelihood and assured in the old days.
    Other trends: environmental sustainability and poverty are some of the most important targets in the United Nations Millenium Development Goals. However, the relationship between employment and forestry development is unclear, especially when it comes to illegal logging.
    The Constitution of Indonesia (Indonesian: Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia 1945, UUD ’45) is the basis for the government of the Indonesia.
    The constitution was written in June, July and August 1945, when Indonesia was emerging from Japanese control at the end of World War II. It was abrogated by the Federal Constitution of 1949 and the Provisional Constitution of 1950, but restored on 5 July 1959.
    The 1945 Constitution then set forth the Pancasila, the five nationalist principles devised by Sukarno, as the embodiment of basic principles of an independent Indonesian state. It provides for a limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicial powers. The governmental system has been described as “presidential with parliamentary characteristics.
    Ethnicity: Indonesia is a hugely diverse nation.It is made up of over 17,500 islands (6,000 of which are inhabited) which are home to over 300 ethnic groups. Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%. In addition there are many cultural influences stemming back from difference in heritage. Indonesians are a mix of Chinese, European, Indian, and Malay.
    From the discussion above, between US and Indonesia there are so many diversities between both of them. Either from the features, Puritan heritage, Features and attitudes inherited from the frontier, Dream, Other trends, Independence and the Constitution or Ethnicity.

  6. Comparison between American and Indonesian Consumer Preference

    Every country has their own consumer preference and it is different from one country to another countries. Consumer preference in every country depends on some factors, such as: social factor, cultural factor, personal factor, and so on. Now I am going to compare between American and Indonesian consumer preference. I personally believe that both American and Indonesian have different and similarity consumer preference and each country have their characteristic. Now let’s see the comparison of consumer preference between American and Indonesian.
    American love of comfort, it may because the frontier experience, where life was tough and there were very comforts. Because this experience, it is created a strong desire in the pioneer and their children for goods that would make life more comfortable. Nowadays most of Americans like something that can make them comfortable. For example many American will go to a store where beds are set up and lie down on several mattresses just to get which one the most comfortable is. On the other hand Indonesian like something cheap rather than comfort. They prefer the products which are cheap although those are not comfortable. It is because the economic situation in Indonesia is not as good as in America. Indonesians do not think whether the product is comfort or not because they do not enough money to buy the comfort ones. As we know the comfortable products is commonly more expensive than uncomfortable ones.
    The second is Americans like having something that is new and different. They have been interesting in inventing something new and improving the old product. Americans like see the changes in clothing, cars, products for the home, and so on. They advertise the product to encourage the people to get rid of old products and try the new one, whether the old ones still work or not. Same with Americans, Indonesian like a new and different products. Many Indonesians are interested in new products such as cars, clothing, mobile phone, etc. They easily encourage the advertisements which offer the new product. In contrast the difference between American and Indonesian about loving new products is many Indonesian buy the products just because they interested in those without planning before buying something or perhaps they just follow somebody else. However they do not know what the specification of the products is. Indonesians do not invent and improve the product by themselves but Indonesians import many products from other countries. Besides that Indonesians like or proud of using import products, they prefer import products than local products.
    The third American desire for convenience also created the concept fast food restaurants, which are found in every city and almost every small town in the United States, and now exported all over the world. These fast food restaurants such as KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken), Mc’Donald’s, serve sandwiches, salads, fried chicken, seafood, and so on. Moreover there are also many kinds of restaurants that will deliver Chinese food, pizza, and other dishes to people’s home in about a half of hour. In many areas, there are “take-out service” that will deliver food from the menus of twenty or thirty different restaurants for a small charge. For those who prefer to prepare their food at home, American grocery stores are full convenience foods that are packaged and ready to cook, are even precooked. How about Indonesian? In Indonesia, nowadays, restaurant fast food is popular now. Many of restaurants fast food which are easily found in a mall, supermarket, or public places. Almost all of fast food restaurants in Indonesian are from America. In Indonesia is also popular delivery order in each restaurant. Just ordering by phone what you want will be delivered but some Indonesians think that eating fast food is a luxurious thing that different from Americans. Americans think that eating fast food is a usual thing.
    The last is about cleanliness. Both American and Indonesian are aware about cleanliness. There is strong emphasis on keeping all parts of the body clean, and American and Indonesian see lots of commercial for soap, shampoo, deodorants, and, mouthwash. The advertisements about those products are easily found on bill board, a posters, etc. Either Americans or Indonesians assume that important to keep their body clean. Not only their body but also their house, pet, car, cloth, and so on are also clean.
    Those all above are the comparison between American and Indonesia consumer preference. There are some similarities in consumer preference in contrast there are something differences also in consumer preference. The similarities are both Indonesian and Americans assume that cleanliness is something important. Then either American or Indonesian love eating fast food, they like new and different products. On the other hand the difference is American like comfort products but Indonesian like the cheaper ones moreover Indonesians do not invent and improve the products but American do. In short, from my point of view every country has their own characteristic consumer preference which depends on where someone lives and their social life or surrounding.

  7. Diversity in US and Indonesia
    Diversity can be defined in many different ways. What does it mean to us? Diversity is a commitment to recognizing and appreciating the variety of characteristics that make individuals unique in an atmosphere that promotes and celebrates individual and collective achievement. Not only that but also, the term “diversity” is used broadly to refer to many demographic variables, including, but not limited to, race, religion, color, gender, national origin, disability, sexual orientation, age, education, geographic origin, and skill characteristics. America’s diversity has given this country its unique strength, resilience and richness and so does Indonesia. Indonesia’s diversity has given this country its unique strength and attraction. Both the countries have their own unique, but they are still so attractive. Divesity does not talk about culture, but also talk about origin, sexual orientation, gender, religion. But in this essay i will ask you to talk about the origin, religion, and gender roles of Indonesia and America.
    First, Indonesia and America have different origin. The Republic of Indonesia, the world’s fourth most populous nation, has 203 million people living on nearly one thousand permanently settled islands. Some two-to-three hundred ethnic groups with their own languages and dialects range in population from the Javanese (about 70 million) and Sundanese (about 30 million) on Java. The name Indonesia, meaning Indian Islands, was coined by an Englishman, J. R. Logan, in Malaya in 1850. Derived from the Greek, Indos (India) and nesos (island), it has parallels in Melanesia, “black islands”; Micronesia, “small islands”; and Polynesia, “many islands.” A German geographer, Adolf Bastian, used it in the title of his book, Indonesien , in 1884, and in 1928 nationalists adopted it as the name of their hoped-for nation.Most islands are multiethnic, with large and small groups forming geographical enclaves. Towns within such enclaves include the dominant ethnic group and some members of immigrant group. Regions, such as West Sumatra or South Sulawesi, have developed over centuries through the interaction of geography (such as rivers, ports, plains, and mountains), historical interaction of peoples, and political-administrative policies. Some, such as North Sumatra, South Sulawesi, and East Java are ethnically mixed to varying degrees; others such as West Sumatra, Bali, and Aceh are more homogeneous And the Americas (or America) are lands in the Western Hemisphere that are also known as the New World. Why is America named as a new world? The voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European (and subsequently, other Old World) powers, which lead to the Columbian exchange. Diseases introduced from Europe and Africa devastated the Indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonised the Americas. Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, and forced immigration of African slaves largely replaced the Indigenous Peoples. Beginning with the American Revolution in 1776 and Haitian Revolution in 1791, the European powers began to decolonise the Americas. Currently, almost all of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; however, the legacy of the colonisation and settlement by Europeans is that the Americas share many common cultural traits, most notably the predominant adherence to Christianity and use of Indo-European languages; primarily Spanish, English, and Portuguese. More than 900 million people live in the Americas (about 13.5% of the human population), the most populous countries being the United States, Brazil, and Mexico, the most populous cities being Mexico City, São Paulo, and New York City.
    Second, religion. Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any nation. There is a well-educated and influential Christian minority with about twice as many Protestants as Catholics. The Balinese still follow a form of Hinduism. Mystical cults are well established among the Javanese elite and middle class, and members of many ethnic groups still follow traditional belief systems. Officially the government recognizes religion ( agama ) to include Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism, while other belief systems are called just that, beliefs ( kepercayaan ). And in America is known as a freedom country, so every citizen there has a freedom to have or does not have a religion. We can say that America is a country with freedom of religion. If in Indonesia knows only 5 religions (exlude mystical cults and traditional belief systems), but in America knows 2 types of religion. First, Abrahamic religions such as Baha’i Faith, Christianity, Islam, Judaism. Second Dharmic religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism. And for those who do not have a religion, we call them as Agnosticism, atheism, deism and humanism. Not only that, America also has other religion, they are Shinto, Caodaism, Thelema, Santería, Kemetism, Religio Romana, Kaldanism, Zoroastrianism, Vodou, and many forms of New Age spirituality. You can imagine how many religions there are in America.
    Third, gender roles and statuses. In Indonesia If men seek long-term work outside the village, women may tend to all aspects of farming and gardening. Women are found in the urban workforce in stores, small industries, and markets, as well as in upscale businesses, but nearly always in fewer numbers than men. Many elementary schoolteachers are women, but teachers in secondary schools and colleges and universities are more frequently men, even though the numbers of male and female students may be similar. Men predominate at all levels of government, central and regional, though women are found in a variety of positions and there has been a woman cabinet minister. As an example The vice president, Megawati Sukarnoputri, a woman, was a candidate for president, though her reputation derives mainly from her father, Sukarno, the first president. She was opposed by many Muslim leaders because of her gender, but she had the largest popular following in the national legislative election of 1999. In the United States has sharply defined gender roles: Feminity and masculinity are clearly distinguished (and enforced) through the use of formal and informal sanctions. (Although discriminatory laws are increasingly being challenged in the courts, e.g. women in combat; opening of formerly restricted olympic events to women; etc.)
    We can conclude that It’s important to remember that being diverse helps make us all unique and special. Indonesia and America have their own diversity. No matter what is your nationality, gender, religion, everybody deserves dignity and respect, and you should always treat other people the same way you’d want to be treated too. Be proud of the things that make you special, and appreciate the things that make others special too.

    http://www.lib.utk.edu/diversity/diversity_definition.html
    http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/9138364-the-diversity-of-indonesia
    http://www.worldandi.com/specialcollection/special-collection-diversity.asp

  8. Five Similarities of American and Indonesian Consumer

    Nowadays, increases in incomes will change patterns of consumption. America has been the main consumption engine and Asia the main production engine for the global economy. For the last half century the West and, above all, the United States, has greedily consumed what Asia has produced. In this globalization era, Indonesia wants to in a row with America, so the level of comsumption is equal like America. In my opinion, the valuable thing that consumers need is money. If the consumers didn’t have enough money, they can’t buy anything they need and want. Their necessity sometimes based on their prestige. So, there are five similarities that comparable American and Indonesian consumer.
    First, both American and Indonesian consumer love of comfort. Many people need comfortable in their life. While Indonesian consumer need less comfortable. It may be more economical than American consumer. American consumer need very comfortable thing. Learner asked that the American love of comfort. For example, when American consumer buy a mattress they will try until they find the harmony, although the price is expensive. Differ with Indonesian, they also love of comfort, but it is less. They also think about the price when they got the comfort mattress. While price and affordability will remain the key purchasing motivators over the short term, Indonesian consumers also have new priorities.
    Second, both American and Indonesian consumer need cleanliness. Cleanliness is also highly valued by Americans. A Protestant church in America said that cleanliness is next to godliness, so some American beliefs that they have to away from anything spots. Their body and their clothes have to clean and aromatic. Because of that belief, rarely American are not going to traditional market to buy their necessity, I think there are 90% of supermarket than traditional market in America. They want to get a pleasure when they are shopping for their needs. Equal with Indonesian, they also want to get a pleasure when they are shopping. But Indonesian are less care about cleanliness. They are still shopping in traditional market or pasar in Indonesia. When shopping for food, purchasing locally-produced products is of great importance for most Indonesian consumers (Datamonitor, 2009). Indonesian consumers would prefer the local brand of a product over an international brand, if both products were deemed equal in quality and price (Synovate, 2009). In indonesia, some family are having a Saturday night fever with shopping in supermarket. Most consumers visit supermarkets and hypermarkets on weekends. Today in Giant and Hero supermarket move toward into the eco-shopping, they use cartons and biodegradable plastic bags. This is one of the cleanliness thing in Indonesia’s market. Indonesian usually shopping for food in pasar to get the lowest price, although less cleanliness and less comfort.
    Third, both America and Indonesia consumer need something novelty. American love having things that are new and different. Perhaps this love of novelty comes from their pride in their inventiveness. Consumer preferences are shifting to reflect these new priorities, increasing the demand for fortified and functional foods, as well as shifting consumers away from traditional markets and toward modern retailers. Indonesian also having a passion to create a new thing to aid their life. For example, credit card. Many people think that they have to buy everything necessary everytime they need. But sometimes their incomes didn’t valid with their need. So, some Bank create a new thing to aid their customer having something they want in their crowd life. And some Bank release a credit card, with the tagline “Buy now-Pay later”. Everyone at some point will have a credit card to their name. However, some usedit to make certain lavish purchases and have dug themselves into a debt payment nightmare. It is important to understand this financial instrument from a personal point of view.
    Forth, both America and Indonesia consumer need something convenience. This is the best thing that American really love. Many convenience devices are help people in the world to do any housework more efficiently and fast. The growing popularity of world class consumer goods for modern Indonesian consumers, comfort and convenience in an original lifestyle,entertainment for tomorrow tastes, all these phenomenon represent a remarkable development in these prosperous 2000s. PT. Mugi Rekso Abadi (MRA) a Group of companies presenting many alternatives for smart and fashionable lifestyles. When these people relax, they want first-class accommodations, when they eat out, they expect fine food and entertainment; when they travel they want to stay in classy, yet affordable, surroundings. Today in America, there was a dramatic increase in such labor-saving devices. The labor-saving devices are designed to reduce the time spent on housework. However, the time that Americans save is quickly spent on other activities. Both of America and Indonesia consumer need labor-saving like automatic washing machines, clothes dryers, dishwashers, food processors, and microwave ovens.
    Finally, both America and Indonesia consumer love fast-food. Fast food boomed in the early and mid–1990s as the population developed a taste for Western foods and food on-the-run. Fast food, and especially higher end food service outlets declined for several years following the Asian economic crisis and were again buffeted by more recent events such as the Bali bombings. Indonesian consumers are increasingly purchasing convenience food. More urban women are entering the workforce and working after marriage and having children. With less time available for shopping and cooking, they have a growing focus on convenience. More generally, the rising pace of modern life in urban centres is driving up demand for ready-to-cook / ready-to-eat food, and Indonesians returning from study or work abroad are also importing the tendency to eat on-the-run. The trend towards convenience foods is also consistent with the traditional Indonesian love of snacking. Markets and shops offer a wide range of snacks, such as fried, baked and sweet foods, including many traditional cakes and jellies. While American consumer need fast-food. It may be more cleaner than fast-food in Indonesia. Tocqueville (2001) claimed that Americans were so busy working to acquire comforts and convenience that they were unable to relax an to enjoy leisure time when they had it.
    So, while price and affordability will remain the key purchasing motivators over the short term, Indonesian and American consumers also have new priorities. Consumer preferences are shifting to reflect these new priorities, increasing the demand for fortified and functional foods, as well as shifting consumers away from traditional markets and toward modern retailers. Both of American and Indonesian consumer need comfort, cleanliness, novelty, convenience, and fast food.

    References:
    http://www.mra.co.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46&Itemid=54

    Click to access indo_chapter2.pdf


    http://www.ats-sea.agr.gc.ca/ase/5715-eng.htm

  9. American vs. Indonesian Idealized Heroes
    At the time of the new order Indonesia related very closely with the Americans. Many of Indonesia’s economic policy adopted America. Inevitably Indonesia owed by America. Mine Freeport Indonesia, sources of the Earth’s wealth being sucked. Indonesia just got a little advantage of cooperation with the United States. The Indonesia might never feel the advantages of cooperation with America in the field of mining. Indonesia experts working in Freeport were not really absorbing the business strategy of American, but just being a worker should be subject to the rules of the game. In the field of education, many students successfully passed Indonesia and later became an expert in economics, politics, law, engineering, IT. And then they become a deciding public policy, moving the regulations in the field of macro and micro economics, a professor who is an expert in economic policy strategy. Experts in American graduates it becomes elitist education amid the slump that hit the majority of the population of the country. Not denied Education in America is much better than Indonesia. In all its facets is strong dependence of the country against all bullying Americans. In terms of regional security are still many Americans put pressure in particular Southeast Asia.
    Very appropriate if the America called the super power. In theory Americans can be countered, but in fact the dependence of Indonesia on the country’s Power is still strong. Now it appears the discourse community resistance against the determination of the United States. Many people assume the Americans have invaded Indonesia in all its facets. Being grass is about terrorism. Inevitably the Densus 88 was formed to be recognized because of the international pressure to quell completely the root of terrorism, especially the highlighted Indonesia as a terrorist base. The urgency of the United against terrorism. Densus 88 got training from the intelligence experts from the United States. The ability to narrow the terrorist acknowledged positive motion. Detachment 88 during the past few years this has been a lot of deadly terrorist kingpin motion kind of Dr. Ashahari, capturing the brain such as the Bali bombings, Imam Samudra, Nurdin M Top Joko Pitono or Dulmatin until that was recently shot in Pamulang. The roots of terrorism like the breath of this nation that the majority of Muslims and a lot of cursing or America was torn between accepting Americans like other countries.
    Fundamentalist Islamic in Indonesia prohibit Americans president come for them see America is a country emanate Muslim, for solidarity they must oppose any motion America belong protraction shake hands peace to Muslim people in the world. America first are countries which can just move to meddle household affairs other countries, but united states is now under government Obama looked united have to embrace all nations shall partners to peace more compelling than. They also must fix economy yourself topsy-turvy, hit by crisis. Although actually that Obama always trying honest that without the people he is not nothing, he is not the demigod perfect as his speech that shocked the world when campaigns and inauguration.
    United had risen through the crisis in his country with great hope and confidence in motion and promptness of its President. Obama keeps with the spirit of their updates is raring to fight poverty and acute crises and left by his predecessor. The top priority is rebuilding the economy in the country. Indonesia opened the existence of regional trade, allow the workers outside the country churning out job land community. Labor-workers dying of many factories shifted to China and Viet Nam. Americans move against you, Indonesia is proud of his shopping and utilizes advanced technology works in other countries, does not attempt to protect the production of other countries like China and even lets his product churning out domestic production.
    A small portion of society Indonesia any suspicious movement of America, but was not aware when the demo they put on the super power country products. Denouncing the terrorists and against America but American creation using technology to communicate and fight. It follows that Indonesia is pirating copyrighted works; United is trying to become a creator and icon of modernity. Indonesia seeks against American intervention in technology but do not want to attempt to create variants of the technology to be rival America. Indonesia been cried-cried to the world that the America is a country of HUMAN RIGHTS violators and war criminals for having destroyed Iraq and Afghanistan, another developing country that seeks to hold a resistance against the Americans. Indonesia’s poverty makes Indonesia the economy tumbling, fix the nature of lazy bums who make daily increases in the cities.
    Indonesia busy Americans, even though the suspect to organize oneself alone is still difficult. The social gap, the decline of morals, the corruption of morals, lose craze. Religion became a cause of conflict, education that is slowly but surely suffered a setback which must be countered.
    In conclusion, we can take the positive side of America; throw away its negative influences such as racism, capitalism, hedonism. Expose Indonesia’s cultural diversity clearly is superior to the American, the welcoming and mutual cooperation which is capable of bringing prosperity and justice. If only capital cried with the demos goes down the road against the arrival of the American’s work is counter productive. America is currently against itself, Indonesia was same central problem pushes convolve as cases century not been finished the city, and governance is still far from effective. Functioning judicial a sense of justice, which has touched corruption is strong in entrenched culture of society. If its country is strong economic advance; raw materials can be processed other countries. Gird yourself food can already filed someday Indonesia could browbeat anyone, including America though.
    References:
    http://news.wn.com/view/2012/09/01/Densus_88_member_to_be_buried_in_heroes_cemetery/
    http://ibnlive.in.com/news/barack-obama-the-rise-of-an-allamerican-hero/77308-2.html

  10. DIVERSITY IN US AND INDONESIA
    United States Introduction
    The population of the United States is 300 million people of mixed races and heritage. Although the population is predominantly of European descent, the country has been a welcoming beacon to immigrants from virtually every country and culture in the world. English is the predominant language, although languages from many foreign countries are spoken within cultural enclaves throughout the U.S. The majority of American’s (U.S.) are Christian. The United States of America consists of 50 states governed on a federal level, as well as a state level. Laws are written at both levels, and when doing business in the United States one must make sure to meet the requirements mandated by these laws. The country is very litigious so legal resources are available and specialists can be found to assist with any transaction. The culture and geographic location of an area will influence how business is done. Traditionally, the East Coast is more conservative and formal in their dress and manners than the West Coast. That is not to say a West Coast meeting carries any less importance. The climate and lifestyle are just more relaxed, which is reflected in the pace and informality.

    United States Fun Fact
    Many years ago business was conducted predominantly by men. A woman’s role was to maintain the family and home responsibilities. Evening events and dinners were strictly for social enjoying with family and friends. Social registers were maintained so only those in the “proper” group would be included. A gentleman never carried his business cards to these events, but a social card with just his name. Times have changed. Now, business is conducted continuously (thanks to breakfast meetings, e-mail, and cellular phones); and, women are now as significant in the business world as men. The U. S. was founded on the work ethic that good, honest, hard work is rewarded. Because of this work ethic, time is money and punctuality is highly regarded, so a cellular phone can save the day when automobile traffic in a major city causes unexpected delays. Brain Teaser: What do you wear to a high level meeting with a corporate executive who is worth millions, is 22 years old, lives at the beach, and has the latest computer innovation?
    Religion in the United States of America
    In analyzing Predominantly Christian countries, the primary correlation between religion and the Geert Hofstede Dimensions is a high Individualism (IDV) ranking. This indicates that predominantly Christian countries have a strong belief in individuality, with individual rights being paramount within the society. Individuals in these countries may tend to form a larger number of looser relationships. The predominant religion in the United States is Christian at 56%, and when added to Catholic practitioners (28%) , the total practice of Christianity within the US is 84%. (We have defined a predominantly Christian country as over 50% of the population practicing some form of Christianity, other than Catholicism.
    United States Appearance
     Business suit and tie are appropriate in all major cities. Wear dark colored business suits in classic colors of gray and navy. For an important formal meeting, choose a white dress shirt, for less formal a light blue shirt will still give you a conservative appearance.
     Women should wear a suit or dress with jacket in major cities. Wearing classic clothing and classic colors of navy, gray, ivory, and white will ensure you give a confident and conservative appearance.
     Rural areas and areas with extremely warm summers have more informal wardrobe requirements.
     Women may wear a business dress, or skirt and blouse, in rural areas.
     Men may conduct business without wearing a jacket and/or tie in rural areas.
     The formality of a meeting, even in rural areas, may dictate a sports jacket and tie for men. The same formality will require a woman to wear a dress, possibly with a jacket.
     Casual clothing is appropriate when not attending a work related meeting/dinner. Building a casual wardrobe using classic lines and colors (navy, gray, camel, ivory and white) will give you a look that is stylish and professional even when you are relaxing.
     Clothing, whether formal or casual, should be clean and neat in appearance.
     Men may generally wear jeans or khaki pants with a shirt for casual attire.
     Women may wear comfortably fitting slacks with a casual shirt. Wearing jeans or shorts, even in a casual setting, may be inappropriate for the city. It is better to err on the conservative side if you are not sure.

    United States Behavior
     Business conversation may take place during meals. However, many times you will find more social conversation taking place during the actual meal.
     Business meetings may be arranged as breakfast meetings, luncheon meetings, or dinner meetings depending on time schedules and necessity. Generally a dinner, even though for business purposes, is treated as a social meal and a time to build rapport.
     Gift giving is discouraged or limited by many US companies. A gracious written note is always appropriate and acceptable.
     If you do give a gift, it should not appear to be a bribe.
     An invitation for a meal or a modest gift is usually acceptable.
     If you are someplace with a line or queue, go to the end and wait your turn.
     Do not use or chew on a toothpick in public.
     Many public places and private homes do not allow smoking. In some areas laws have been passed to prevent smoking in public places.

    United States Communications
     Offer a firm handshake, lasting 3-5 seconds, upon greeting and leaving. Maintain good eye contact during your handshake. If you are meeting several people at once, maintain eye contact with the person you are shaking hands with, until you are moving on the next person.
     Good eye contact during business and social conversations shows interest, sincerity and confidence.
     Good friends may briefly embrace, although the larger the city, usually the more formal the behavior.
     Introductions include one’s title if appropriate, or Mr., Ms, Mrs. and the full name.
     Business cards are generally exchanged during introductions. However, they may be exchanged when one party is leaving.
     A smile is a sign of friendliness, and in rural areas you may be greeted with a “hello” rather than a handshake.
     Ask permission to smoke before lighting a cigarette or cigar. Due to health concerns, you may or may not be given permission.
    Indonesia Introduction
    With a population of almost 200 million people on 13,667 islands, Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago located between the continents of Asia and Australia, and between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. Only 35% of the population lives in urban areas, but there are more than 30 cities with 100,000+ populations. Plus, five cities have a population of over one million. They are Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, and Semarang, and are all located on Java. To truly understand the socio-political culture in Indonesia, one needs to understand Java.
    Although the population has a significant Malay heritage, it is also diverse with over 300 distinct cultures residing within its borders. With each culture comes a unique language or dialect; however Indonesia language, the common language of the country, unites everyone. In tourist areas and population centers English is the most commonly spoken second language. Though the large majority of Indonesians follow the Islamic faith (86.1%), the intensity of their observance for their faith varies due to the large diversity within this nation. Christianity a distant second (8.7%). One important historic note is the strong sentiment against the Chinese. Keep this in mind and be sensitive to this reality.

    Indonesia Appearance
     An umbrella is an essential wardrobe component in rainy season (September – February).
     High heat and humidity require packing enough clothing to always appear clean & fresh. You may have to change your clothes several times a day to maintain this look.
     Women should wear long-sleeve blouses and skirts that cover the knee.
     Women meeting in a more formal office should wear a suit with hosiery.
     Women are limited to clothing colors that are muted or dark. Leave brightly colored clothing at home.
     Men should wear coat and tie until appropriate to dress more casually. Follow the lead of those you are meeting with.
     Men generally wear dark slacks, long sleeve and light colored shirt, and tie (no jacket).
     “Lounge suit” requires men to wear a business suit. This term may be included on an invitation.
     Men may find in a very casual business office that a short sleeve shirt and no tie would be appropriate.
     Women must always cover their upper arms when wearing a casual blouse.
     Jeans may be worn for very casual, but never shorts for men or women. Even though the climate is warm and humid, proper attire even for very casual appearance will always dictate your choice of clothing.
     Do not crook your index finger to call someone over. This gesture is offensive.
     Do not put your hands into your pockets when talking with someone.

    Indonesia Behavior
     No physical contact between men and women is made in public, except a possible handshake.
     Be on time for any meetings. The meetings traditionally start late, and your Indonesian business associates will probably arrive late. However, you are expected on time, and should never make any comment about the meeting starting late or any person arriving late.
     Never stand with your back to an elderly person or a high ranking official. As you enter a room be aware of the people who will be in that room with you.
     Always rise when your host/hostess enters the room.
     Leaving food on your plate signifies you are impolite, so eat all the food you are served.
     Only use your right hand for eating, when touching someone, or handling money/papers.
     Talking is impolite while eating dinner. Conversation is reserved for before or after the meal.
     Never show the soles of your feet/shoes or touch anything with your foot.
     Never touch another person’s head, this includes a child’s head (such as a pat on the head).
     Never eat while walking in public, or chew on a toothpick. Yawning in public is inappropriate (cover your mouth if you must yawn).
     Remove your hat and sunglasses when going indoors.
     Gifts, though small, are frequently given.
     Gifts are not opened when given. This practice shows the recipient is gracious, not greedy.
     Religion/culture dictates specific rules for appropriate gifts. Muslim, Hindus, and the Chinese culture each have rules regarding food, alcohol, and other items. Make sure your gift is not offensive to the person you are giving it to.
     Chinese may politely refuse a gift three times before accepting it. When the gift is accepted, tell the recipient how happy you are with his or her acceptance.
     Do not give gifts of alcohol or pork. This would also include perfume since it is made with alcohol, and any leather product made from pigskin (Muslim).
     Do not give gifts containing beef or items made of cowhide (Hindu).
     Do not give gifts or pictures that show dogs. They are considered unclean.
     On Chinese New Year, give children and people you frequently deal with, who are not government employees, a gift of money. The money must be an even number of new bills, and presented in a red envelope (Chinese).
     Do not give a knife, scissors, clock, handkerchief, or straw sandals (Chinese).
     Do not give a gift that numbers four or shows a crane or stork. In selecting the gift and the gift wrapping paper stay away from the colors white, black, or blue (Chinese).
     A gift of an umbrella means you do not want to see that person again (Chinese).
    In Indonesia Communications
     Shake hands upon greeting and leaving, and always using your right hand. The handshake is limp and lasts 10-15 seconds.
     For religious reasons (Muslim and Hindu) men and women do not touch in public in this culture.
     Women do not offer a handshake to an Indonesian man. However, should a man extend his hand, always shake hands. Some Indonesian men may follow western business rules in a business setting.
     Men do not offer a handshake to an Indonesian woman. Reciprocate, however, if she initiates.
     Indonesian Chinese may bow, or combine a bow with a handshake.
     Greetings are not to be rushed. They carry importance and formality.
     Presenting your business card follows introductions. A person’s name is very important. Develop a habit of paying close attention during introduction.
     Present a business card to each person you are meeting. Offer your card with the printing positioned so the recipient can read it. Your right hand holds the card, with your left hand supporting your right wrist. Your card will be received with both hands.
     Time is taken to carefully read the card.
     When presented another person’s business card, follow this same ritual.
     Never write on a business card.
     Never carry your business cards, or place another person’s business card in a back pocket.
     Print your business cards in English, with the reverse side printed in Indonesian.
     Address each person using his/her title plus full name. A title may be an honorific title or an academic title. Rank and status is very important in this culture.
     One important honorific title is for Muslims who have made a pilgrimage to Mecca. Haji is the title for a man, Hajjah is for a woman.
     Mr., Madam, Mrs. or Miss is used if a person does not have a title. A man is addressed as Pak (Mr.) or Bapak(Sir) . A lady is addressed as Ibu.
     People are normally called by their first name, as in Mr. Robert or Miss Susan, rather than using their last name.
     Married Chinese women keep their maiden name.
     Selamat means peace and is a traditional greeting.
     “Yes, but” means no when someone is speaking to you.
     Never allow your voice to get loud, whether in anger or joy.
     Expressing anger in public through tone of voice, loudness, or body language is always inappropriate.

  11. The Similarities and Differences Respected Value in Indonesia and US

    According to Patricia Violante that respects is commonly the result of admiration and approbation together. Respect includes respect for self, respect for the rights and dignity of all persons, and respect for the environment that sustains life. Respect focuses on the moral obligation to honour the essential worth and dignity of the individual. Without feelings of respect, what is there to distinguish men from beasts? In every countries, there is the highest respected value. There are the similarities and differences of the highest respected value in Indonesia and America.

    Indonesia and America have the same respected value. As a universal, both of them respect to human rights. Indonesia and America assume that everyone has some highest respected values, that is the right to social security, right to work, the right to give freedom of religion, right to education, the right to give an opinion, the right to equal treatment under the law with others.

    The first, the right to social security. The government in America provides the facilities to its citizens to provide social benefits. For example, in America, an unemployed remains to get income but in Indonesia can not get the income if they are unemployeds. The second, right to work. The government in America used to try to give jobs for its citizens but in Indonesia, the governments less to give jobs for its citizents. It is evident from the large number of unemployed in Indonesia. The third, the right to give freedom of religion. In America, the citizens give the freedom of religion, they can choose their religion as well as they think that the religion is good for them. On the other hand, the citizens of Indonesia are also given the freedom of religion. But in Indonesia, if the citizens choose one of the religions, they have to fathom to their religion, they can not free to change their religion as easy as in America. The fourth, the right to give an opinion. The democracy in America is high, they can give their opinions, regardless of position but in Indonesia as not as easy like in America. The citizens in Indonesia are free to give their opinions but they are still look to the position. For rich people like functionaries, people can not give an opinion who carelessly because maybe they do not like the opinions, and the functionaries can take people to the law.

    The fifth, right to education. Both of them assume that education is important. According to Fiqih Martilova, education is very important for Indonesian who will take over values, good morals, culture and knowledge. On the other hand, the condition of education in Indonesia is terrible. In fact, there are many regions that have not been reached by good education. As we all know, a prosperous country must have a good education, people will get job easily and good life. To improve education system in Indonesia, the government has tried to provide education evenly to all part of Indonesian and to apply suitable education system that can make people clever and civilized. The government organizes the rules that people have to study about nine years in school. Same like in Indonesia, in the view of most Americans, education is very important. A college education has become a necessary ingredient for a good job and comfortable lifestyle. The government in America organizes the rules that people have to study until to college not only for nine years. The last, the right to equal treatment under the law with others. In America, the law does not look at the position, indiscriminate law. But in Indonesia, laws can be purchased with money, positions and others. For example, the citizens in America can be hospitalized easily without looking the position, money and others. In Indonesia, people can also be hospitalized if they are able to pay the payment at the hospital. For the rich people, they are easier to get a good service, compare with the poor people, they are more difficult to get a good service than the rich one.

    In conclusion, respect is important for people to get a peace. People can get a peace from the human rights. The human rights are related to get the prosperity. America and Indonesia have the same highest respected value, that is human rights. America and Indonesia also have the difference highest respected values, that is the right to social security, the right to work, the right to give freedom of religion, the right to education, the right to give an opinion, and the right to equal treatment under the law with others.

    References:
    Patricia Violante (2008, February).The meaning of respects. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/knowledge/43721-the-true-meaning-of-respect

    Mary Frentzou, Notes on the value of respect, 2000.

    Dr.Syahrial Syarbaini,Ph.D. Kompetensi Demokrasi yang berkarakter melalui pendidikan kewarganegaraan.2009.

  12. AMERICAN AND INDONESIAN CONSUMER PREFERENCES

    Consumer preference for a product can make or break a company. If consumers generally like a product, it can stay around for years and sell millions of copies. However, if consumers do not like the product, it could disappear very quickly if the company cannot figure out how to fix the problem. Many successful brands overseas, not necessarily they can success in Indonesia. For example: Gatorade, Kodak, Kelllog, The Body Shop, and a Diet Coke. They successfully in America but become a minority in Indonesia. Whereas, successful Indonesia brands, not necessarily they can success in America or global. Such as; energy drinks, herbs, RBT (ring back tone), and Nokia N Series which dominate the local market are apparently less attractive in America or global. American consumers are particularly fond of comfort, cleanliness, and novelty. While kosher is very important for Indonesian consumers. This essay will discuss American and Indonesian consumer preferences that have different view of comfort, cleanliness, kosher, and novelty.

    In the first place, American consumers are fond of comfort. Comfort is important for American. Max Lerner, well- known scholar in American society believes that American love of comfort perhaps goes back to frontier experience, where life was tough and there were very few comforts. This experience may have created a strong desire in the pioneers and their children for goods that would make life more comfortable. The way Americans furnish their homes, design their cars, and travel are examples of American love of comfort. While Indonesian consumers put comfort in second place. The first place is low price. Indonesia is developing country with low income where people still have desire in purchasing with low price. The Indonesians’ love of low price is seen in the way they use transportation, and choose their residence. For example; Indonesian consumers keep using public transportation like busway is less comfort. Busway is one of popular transportations in Jakarta that attract many people because they only spend Rp 3.500 for one way. Many people in Jakarta choose busway as their transportation every day although they have to jostle with many people in the bus and spend much time in waiting the bus. This also happened on a train, when Ramadan comes economy-class train tickets are always sold in which they do not mind to jostle in it, because the ticket is cheaper than other transportations. These show that comfort is belong to people are able to pay more.

    In the second place, cleanliness is culture for Americans. It is highly valued by Americans. This is seen in the way the American daily shower that is matched with deodorants, perfumes and colognes and other scented products. It is important for Americans to keep all parts of body clean and smelling good. They see lots of TV commercials for soap, shampoo, deodorant, mouthwash, and perfume. Also, they keep their clothes, their houses, their cars, and even their pets. Some Hollywood films such as; Air bud, Hachi, and Lassie show bath time for the family dog. This means that Americans also keep their pets clean. On the contrary, Indonesian consumers’ awareness about cleanliness is still low. According to JATIM today news “About 70% of Indonesia’s population is still not pay attention to cleanliness and defecate in any place” (2011). Culture of cleanliness not belongs to Indonesians. People in Indonesia are still accustomed to throw garbage in any place, it is seen that many rivers in Jakarta clogged with rubbish. In addition, bathing and washing clothes in river are common for some people especially they are lived in small town and village. Indeed, some people in Jakarta as they are lived river bank of Ciliwung usually use the river for bathing, washing, and defecating.

    In third place, kosher is very important for Indonesian consumers. Issue of kosher or not is still a major issue in the food market because the most Indonesia population is Muslims. See Ajinomoto case was rumored the product contain lard. Then the consumer gave response in rejecting this product very quickly. So that, Ajinomoto had to spend big cost and do effort to restore public confidence. Unlike Indonesia, Muslim is minorities in America so religious issue is not strong in that country. Most people in America do not care whether the food is kosher or not.

    Lastly, consumers generally love of novelty. Yet, American consumers and Indonesian consumers have different view about novelty. Lerner states that Americans love having things are new and different. They like to see changes in cars, clothing, and products for the home. Meanwhile Indonesian consumers love having things are famous brand, new limited items, and different. Anton Sitorus, the Head of Research for Jones Lang LaSalle in Indonesia believes Indonesians consumers’ characteristic is prestige. The prestige exists because Indonesian consumers like socializing and people are accustomed to measure success from the material and position. Despite Indonesia as country with low income, some people from middle class have a high passion for famous brands and a new lifestyle. It is seen that American brands such as GAP, Old Navy, Guess, NEXT, Nine West, DKNY, Ace Hardware, Starbucks, Nike, and Coach have been popular in Indonesia.

    In conclusion American and Indonesian consumer preferences have different view of comfort, cleanliness, kosher, and novelty. This is obviously due to the differences between Indonesian and American in attitude, behavior, and lifestyle.

    Bibliography
    Datesman, Maryanne Kearny dkk. (1997). American Ways. Longman: United State

    ‘Tingkat kebersihan penduduk Indonesia rendah’ 2011 [Online] Available (Oct 24, 2012)

    Sitorus, Anton. ‘It’s all about brand and price’ 2012 [Online] Available (Oct 24, 2012)

  13. “Three Most Important American Values and Beliefs to Emulate”

    The history of the American is one of enormous progress associated with remarkable innovation.The United States (U.S.) is a republic which is the third largest by population. This consists of diversity, multiethnic and multicultural country, which is effect by the immigrants from around the world. United States economy is the largest economy in the world, the United States became the only superpower of the world. They become a leader in military, economic, cultural, and political. The U.S. economy is one of the most important in the world. Many countries have made the U.S. dollar as its currency measure, meaning that valuable, or whether their currency is determined by the dollar. Some countries use the dollar as its currency. U.S. stock market is seen as an indicator of world economy. United States fairly advanced level of culture. This was proved by technological advances. In addition, the United States are also experts in the field of sophisticated weaponry.
    As a strongest country, america always needed the invention from their scientist. Innovation is the process by which individuals and organizations generate new ideas and put them into practice – is the foundation of American economic as a leader of economic world. In this essay, I will discuss the three most American values and beliefs to adopted and develop in Indonesia. Such as Individual Freedom, Self Dicipline, and Hard Work. The three values and beliefs is the most important as a foundation of the American country.
    The first values that we will discussing is Individual Freedom. Individual freedom is one of the most fundamental values in America. American people always proud with the freedom on their country. they have to feel free to choose their destiny without the intervention from other people. Individual Freedom in America are utilized by the American people to develop themselves to become much better. Ayn Rand wrote, “The Individual is the Smallest Minority on Earth. Those who Deny Individual Rights, cannot claim to be defenders of Minorities”. Americans people have the Right of Dissent, the Right to privacy, property and the freedom to believe as we so choose. To treat everyone as individuals with Equal Rights, Equal Laws, Equal Justice, and Equal Freedom for everyone individually, under the Supreme Law, the Constitution and the human Rights. When a person is free to determine his choice, and also he was ready to face the various problems in his life. And he was ready to resolve the problem by itself. most of children in America. When they have 18 years old, then they will try to get out from the house and try to live independently outside.
    If we compare with the existing culture in Indonesia, there are many children in Indonesia who do not dare to live independently. Although, they already been 18 years old and become an adult person, they are not try to go out from their parent’s house. Whereas individual freedom is the most important to improve their ability when faced some problem of life. When the children found a problem certain they trying to solve that problem with their own ability. Therefore there are many advantages the value of individual freedom from amreica to adopt and develop for Indonesian people. With individual freedom most of children in Indonesia will learn how to orginize their life as good as possible. They can get lot of friends, lot of experiences,etc.Finally, Indonesian people have to believe, especially for their children. if they have freedom and live independetly, they will can improve their ability, knowledge, and experiences.
    The second values that we will discussing is Self Dicipline. Most Americans people are also proud with the value of self dicipline. With self dicipline, they can be a success person. Because their always are planning with a good schedule. Within the domain of problems it can solve, self-discipline is simply unmatched. Moreover, it becomes a powerful teammate when combined with other tools like passion, goal-setting, and planning. The philosophy of how to build self-discipline is best explained by an analogy. Self-discipline is like a muscle. The more you train it, the stronger you become. The less you train it, the weaker you become. Just as everyone has different muscular strength, we all possess different levels of self-discipline. Americans people believe that self discipline must be apply from we are as a child. Then we will apply self discipline in our life till when we grow up as an adult person. America become a largest and strongest country in every aspect, because they apply self discipline in every part of their life. Therefore self dicipline become one of the three values which is develop in the Americans people.
    But if we see the people of Indonesia, most of indonesian people are less to aware the benefit of self discipline. As example, there are many students can’t finish their study on time. Then there are many students come late to school and lot of employee come late to office, etc. Self discipline can influence the success of someone. Why not? With self discipline you can accomplish more, and you’re more productive than others. The impotance of self discipline is we are able to reach your most difficult goals with more efficiently. Certain self dicipline have many advanteges for indonesian people, but most of them are lazier to work. Therefore its difficult to apply self discipline in the middle of indonesian people. Because they’re not aware the impotances of self discipline.
     Hard Work
    “The big secret in life is that there is no big secret. Whatever your goal, you can get there if you’re willing to work” Oprah Winfrey. When you discipline yourself to do what is hard, you will gain access to successful road. The willingness to do what is difficult is like having a key to a special private treasure room. Hard work is a culture in America even become lifestyle in most of people in America. Hard work one of the values that their apply in daily activity for success. For example, America doesn’t have religious holiday in their country. It means that there is no one employee have a vacation day. Everyday they should be working.
    That is also the essence of America dream for many foreigners. That is to say if you want to be success, hard work is requested. The land and other rich natural resources were exploited by hard work as was the industrialization of America. The wealth generated was and is still converted into material possessions and a high standard of living. Finally most of American people proud of values from hard work because they Create a purpose for their life, and live it each day. And many of the other success habits like hard work and working hard will fall automatically.
    After we discuss the three values and believes of American country which is consists of “Individual freedom”, “Self Dicipline”, and “Hard work” today we already know how the America can be the largest and the strongest country in the world. The people of Americans country always applied “Individual freedom”, “Self Dicipline”, and “Hard work” in each part of their life. And they awareness towards their culture also didn’t forget to keep their culture as foundation for their country. Therefore American worthy as the strongest country in the world.
    References
    1. http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/rightsandfreedoms/Rights_and_Freedoms.htm
    2. http://www.freedom4ever.net/
    3. http://www.whitehouse.gov/innovation/strategy/introduction
    4. http://www.studygs.net/discipline.htm
    5. http://www.pickthebrain.com/blog/self-discipline/
    6. http://www.stevepavlina.com/blog/2005/03/hard-work/

  14. American Vs Indonesian Preference Consumer

    There are many different between American and Indonesian. In this essay i want to compare the differences between American and Indonesian preferences consumer. There are many things that affect preference consumers in this two countries for example, the basic needs and the ability to buy. Country and cultural differences make a difference in the basic needs. America is a super power country. The ability to buy of American is higher than those in Indonesia. There are five main contrast preferences to buy between them, which are comfort, cleanliness, novelty, convenience and fast-food.

    The most notable difference between these two kinds of preferences is comfort. As long as the things that they want to buy make them comfort, American dares to pay expensive. They like to buy the most comfortable furniture , the most useful gadgets. In other hand, Indonesian doesn’t see the comfort to buy. They are very concerned with prestige. They dare to pay expensive for luxury brand. Indonesian consumers are very sociable encouraged them to show off. Because of the importance of the affairs of this prestige, luxury gadgets were still selling well in our country even during the economic crisis and even the gadgets are not useful for them. For example, blackberry and apple products are in demand in Indonesia market. They are even willing to queue for hours for the latest gadgets.

    Comparing both types of preference we notice another difference. There is a cleanliness factor that affects both of them. American and Indonesian consumers like the cleanliness. But, American consumers are much more care with the environment. In other hand, Indonesian people less aware to pay attention to the environment. The evidence suggests that Indonesian consumers paying less attention to the environmentally friendly attributes of products. The example in the automotive field, Indonesian consumers prefer prestige, efficient, economical, comfortable, and cheap parts attributes than environmentally friendly attributes. Perhaps with the increasing levels of education and the pressures of globalization, the Indonesian consumers will be more care to the environment.

    Novelty is another big difference between American and Indonesian consumer preferences. The novelty preference refers to the fact that American consumers are more likely to pay attention to new objects or things than those they’ve seen before. In contrast to Indonesian consumers who are more likely to pay attention to something that still happening in their country. American likes to invent and discover things that support life. In other hand, Indonesian is a consumer society. They like to buy the foreign products and.They believe in the ability of domestic products. They are more like imported products or products that have frills abroad. They believe that the foreign products have better quality. Furthermore, prestige still be a major factor in choosing foreign brands than local brands.

    Convenience is another difference between American and Indonesian consumer. Indonesia has the same opinion about this preference. But the purchasing power of Indonesian people lower than the American. Americans do not want to spend the time to a job which could be done by machines. They prefer something simple and does not take much time. They would rather spend his time for something else. Therefore, each house must have automated machines such as automatic washing machine, clothes dryer, dishwasher, etc. This is due to busyness of American society and the ability to buy. In this preference in Indonesia is only done by the rich. But if we look deeper, more people in Indonesia prefer to hire the maids than use automatic machines. For them, a work done by the engine is not as clean as humans do.

    The last, another difference between these two types of consumers is the perspective about fast-food. Indonesian eats fast food as pleasure and lifestyle in contrast to Americans who make eating fast food as a basic need. This occurs may be due to cultural differences. Indonesia has a very strong culture that every parent has an obligation to cook for the children and her husband. They only eat fast food when going out with family to the mall or when they’re socializing with friends. In other hand, as described above American really likes something instant and automatic. They do not want to waste their time for cooking. Fast food restaurants provide food in less than 5 minutes. It also has a good taste. Because of it the fast food restaurants are very popular among American. McD and many fast food restaurants rapidly growing on every street in America. Not only fast food but also soft drink become a basic need for them. According to research by the World Health Organization (WHO), the incidence of obesity which is caused by eating fast foods and drinking soft drink in America is quite high. But now, America began to campaign to reduce the consumption of fast food.

    There are the main five differences between American and Indonesian consumer preference. As we can see it comes down to a personal choice. We can take the American consumer good habits and reduce or even eliminate Indonesian consumer bad habits. Finally, we are a consumer should be smart to buy.

    Reference:
    http://forum.kompas.com/urban-life/34622-10-perilaku-konsumen-indonesia.html

    1. sorry sir some incorrect grammar

      American Vs Indonesian Consumer Preferences

      There are many different between American and Indonesian. In this essay i want to compare the differences between American and Indonesian consumer preferences. There are many things that affect consumer preferences in this two countries for example, the basic needs and the ability to buy. Country and cultural differences make a difference in the basic needs. America is a super power country. The ability to buy of American is higher than those in Indonesia. There are five main contrast preferences to buy between them, which are comfort, cleanliness, novelty, convenience and fast-food.

      The most notable difference between these two kinds of preferences is comfort. As long as the things that they want to buy make them comfort, American dares to pay expensive. They like to buy the most comfortable furniture , the most useful gadgets. In other hand, Indonesian doesn’t see the comfort to buy. They are very concerned with prestige. They dare to pay expensive for luxury brand. Indonesian consumers are very sociable encouraged them to show off. Because of the importance of the affairs of this prestige, luxury gadgets were still selling well in our country even during the economic crisis and even the gadgets are not useful for them. For example, blackberry and apple products are in demand in Indonesia market. They are even willing to queue for hours for the latest gadgets.

      Comparing both types of preferences we notice another difference. There is a cleanliness factor that affects both of them. American and Indonesian consumers like the cleanliness. But, American consumers are much more care with the environment. In other hand, Indonesian people less aware to pay attention to the environment. The evidence suggests that Indonesian consumers paying less attention to the environmentally friendly attributes of products. The example in the automotive field, Indonesian consumers prefer prestige, efficient, economical, comfortable, and cheap parts attributes than environmentally friendly attributes. Perhaps with the increasing levels of education and the pressures of globalization, the Indonesian consumers will be more care to the environment.

      Novelty is another big difference between American and Indonesian consumer preferences. The novelty preference refers to the fact that American consumers are more likely to pay attention to new objects or things than those they’ve seen before. In contrast to Indonesian consumers who are more likely to pay attention to something that still happening in their country. American likes to invent and discover things that support life. In other hand, Indonesian is a consumer society. They like to buy the foreign products and they believe in the ability of domestic products. They are more like imported products or products that have frills abroad. They believe that the foreign products have better quality. Furthermore, prestige still be a major factor in choosing foreign brands than local brands.

      Convenience is another difference between American and Indonesian consumers. Indonesia has the same opinion about this preference. But the purchasing power of Indonesian people lower than the American. Americans do not want to spend the time to a job which could be done by machines. They prefer something simple and does not take much time. They would rather spend his time for something else. Therefore, each house must have automated machines such as automatic washing machine, clothes dryer, dishwasher, etc. This is due to busyness of American society and the ability to buy. In this preference in Indonesia is only done by the rich. But if we look deeper, more people in Indonesia prefer to hire the maids than use automatic machines. For them, a work done by the engine is not as clean as humans do.

      The last, another difference between these two types of consumers is the perspective about fast-food. Indonesian eats fast food as pleasure and lifestyle in contrast to Americans who make eating fast food as a basic need. This occurs may be due to cultural differences. Indonesia has a very strong culture that every parent has an obligation to cook for the children and her husband. They only eat fast food when going out with family to the mall or when they’re socializing with friends. In other hand, as described above American really likes something instant and automatic. They do not want to waste their time for cooking. Fast food restaurants provide food in less than 5 minutes. It also has a good taste. Because of it the fast food restaurants are very popular among American. McD and many fast food restaurants rapidly growing on every street in America. Not only fast food but also soft drink become a basic need for them. According to research by the World Health Organization (WHO), the incidence of obesity which is caused by eating fast foods and drinking soft drink in America is quite high. But now, America began to campaign to reduce the consumption of fast food.

      There are the main five differences between American and Indonesian consumer preferences. As we can see it comes down to a personal choice. We can take the American consumer good habits and reduce or even eliminate Indonesian consumer bad habits. Finally, we are a consumer should be smart to buy.

      Reference:
      http://forum.kompas.com/urban-life/34622-10-perilaku-konsumen-indonesia.html

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