7. Romantic Period


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  1. Romantic Period

    1) It is claimed that William Wordsworth’s poetry looks inward rather than outward because in his long autobiographical poem,The Prelude which we read how an individual’s thoughts and feelings are formed. Wordsworth is the main character in most of his poems. He wanted to see into the heart of things, as he says in Lines Written above Tintern Abbey. He considers, in Daffodils’, for instance, how the past relates to the present, and The Prelude takes that as its main theme. He continued to write The Prelude for many years. It is a psychological poem in which the individual searches for personal understanding, in a manner which has become a main theme of modern literature.

    2) Wordsworth consider human memory is very important because it is the memory which continues to give life to our major experiences.

    3) The differences in subject matter of each poems are, Wordsworth’s poetry is more about the day-to-day, ordinary world while Coleridge’s poetry is more about the extraordinary and supernatural world.

    4) Jane Austen is different from other writers of her time, because she has main interest in the moral, social and psychological behavior of her characters. She wrote mainly about young heroines as they grow up and search for personal happiness. Jane Austen’s pictures are detailed, often ironic, and always about a small number of people. For my opinion, Austen contribute the new thinking for the era through her stories. She show her readers how one can make decision to gain their happiness.

    Sir Walter Scott writes about revolution, history and social change and about characters from all levels of society. Scott made the novel the most popular of literary forms in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. He created Scotland as a historical setting and gave the nineteenth-century world, especially nineteenth-century Great Britain, historical identity. He was a very popular author and an influential writer across Europe.

    5) Shelley’s Frankenstein seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels because it shows an extraordinary world in which a living being is made by a Genevan student from the bones of the dead, but becomes a monster which nobody can control. The novel shows the interest of the Romantics in the supernatural and in the attempts of man to be as powerful as God.

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  3. 1. William Wordsworth in The Prelude. It is a psychological poem in which the individual searches for personal understanding, in a manner which has become a main theme of modern literature. He wrote ‘bliss was it in that dawn to be alive’ [bliss = great pleasure]. This shows the hope for the future when French politics changed and many writers like Wordsworth hoped the same would happen in Britain. But the Reign of Terror began in 1793, the period of Napoleon followed rapidly, and by the early 1800s most of Europe was at war against France. It is claimed that William Wordsworth’s poetry looks inward rather than outward because we read how an individual’s thoughts and feelings are formed.

    2. Memory is crucial to Wordsworth throughout these poems, because it is memory that enables the individual to regain access to the pure communion with nature enjoyed during childhood. As Wordsworth explains in “Tintern Abbey,” memory works upon the individual psyche even when the individual is unaware of it, and pleasant, beautiful memories of nature work to preserve and restore the connection between the individual and the purity of the natural world. Wordsworth puts this idea most concisely in “The Solitary Reaper” when he writes of the girl’s song, “The music in my heart I bore, / Long after it was heard no more.

    3. Wordsworth and Coleridge are two major romantic poets, but their poetry’s subject matters are very different. Coleridge’s poetry is more about the extraordinary and supernatural world. Wordsworth writes frequently about nature and about ordinary people who live against the background of the world of nature.

    4. Jane Austen and Walter Scott are most important novelists of the romantic age. Mention and explain their notable contributions to English fiction.
    Jane Austen’s contributions are mainly in the moral, social, and psychological behavior of her characters. She writes about young heroines as they grow up and search for personal happiness.
    Walter Scott’s contributions are about revolution, history and social change, and characters from all levels of society.

    5. Shelley’s Frankenstein seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels because it is shows an extraordinary world in which a living being is made by a Genevan student from the bones of the dead, but becomes a monster which nobody can control. The novel shows the interest of the Romantics in the supernatural and in the attempts of man to be as powerful as God. Frankenstein can be seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels and become a later Gothic novel.

    Reference:

    http://www.sparknotes.com/poetry/wordsworth/study.html#explanation1
    http://www.wdog.com/rider/writings/wordsworth_and_coleridge.htm
    http://www.clas.ufl.edu/ipsa/2003/ginn.html

  4. AUGUSTAN PERIOD

    1. Because they did not want the same revolution happen again.

    2. First, because the women like Aphra Behn in the novel, Oroonoko, was so brave in expressing her feeling. Then seemed to enjoy her role as a speaker for women’s rights and sexual freedom. there was a growing market among the middle classes, especially among ladies, for novels, and this market grew during the eighteenth century until the novel reached a huge readership all over the world.

    3. In the first part Gulliver travels to Lilliput, where he meets the very small inhabitants. In book two, on Brobdignag, the people are enormous. Religion and politics in particular are satirized, and the king of Brobdignag, after hearing Gulliver describes the society of England, decides that ‘your natives’ are: But the satire gets even stronger: In the third book all the new learning of the Royal Society is the victim. The Royal Society was founded in I662 and 1663 `for the Improving of Natural Knowledge.’ It was a centre for science and culture, but, as Swift saw it, all the wisest men have no practical sense of how to live in the real world. And in the final book, Gulliver meets the cultured horses, the Houyhnhnms, and compares their ways with the nasty monkey-like Yahoos, who represent humanity. Swift’s satire is particularly strong because Gulliver observes another world in which ordinary human actions are criticized when performed by extraordinary characters.

    4. A Modest Proposal (1729) for example, suggested a way to solve the Irish problem of too many children—by selling the children a England to be eaten. Instead of seeing this as a satire on political solutions to the problem, Swift’s readers took it seriously: exactly what they did not do with Gulliver’s Travels! Swift’s satire characterized by shocking proposals which are treated as if they were normal and which are not commented on by the writer.

    5. The most unusual novel of the time was Tristram Shandy (1760-67) by Laurence Sterne. This is a long comic story which plays with time, plot and character, and even with the shape and design of the page. Traditionally, a plot had a beginning, a middle and an end, in that order. Sterne was the first to change this order. He wanted to show how foolish it is to force everything into the traditional plot. Sterne was the first writer to use what came to be known as the Stream of Consciousness technique, following the thoughts of characters as they come into their heads. In this he was influenced by the Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) by John Locke, and his theories about time, sensations and the relation of one idea to another.

    6. The special characteristics of gothic novel are The Gothic novel developed the imaginative range of the genre, going beyond realism and moral instruction. It explored extremes of feeling and imagination.
    Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764) started the fashion for the Gothic, and the horror novel was born. The story is set in medieval times, with castles and ghosts, appearances and disappearances, and a whole range of frightening effects which are still popular in story and film. As early as 1757, the philosopher Edmund Burke had analyzed the pleasure of the mysterious and the frightening in his long essay The Sublime and the Beautiful. A sort of delightful horror’ is the phrase Burke used to describe the kind of pleasure the Gothic novel would give. This analysis was a sign of an important break from the rational control of the Augustans, and was one of the first steps towards the focus on feeling found later in Henry Mackenzie and the early Romantic writers. Matthew Lewis’s The Monk (t796), written when he was only 21 years old, is often considered the most completely Gothic, of eighteenth-century horror stories, and was a great success at the time. The main character, Ambrosio, a monk, tries to capture a young girl who has come to the monastery for help. Ambrosio loves her but eventually kills her. He is caught and sentenced to death. The devil helps him to escape but then destroys him.

  5. Dian Maya Margareth
    0812150038
    Sir, I’m sorry, because I post this assignments late. I want to post the Old-English and Middle-English period in the provided place, but now there’s no place to leave a reply, so I post it in here. Thanks a lot and GBU..

    OLD-ENGLISH PERIOD
    1. In order to develop the English literature the most important step which they did is they spread not only Christianity among the people, but also introduced the Roman alphabet to replace the rune, or symbolic cuts and scratches on woods and stones. Because through this step people could record the oral stories into written works. It also opened the way for the production of English literature on English soil, like the writing of Caedmon.

    2. First, why the main theme is individual and social security, because in the Old-English period, there were some wars, for example battle of Etahnadune in 878, so the literary works was made to expose what the society felt. Next, the main theme is religious faith, because the literary works in Old-English period was written by Christian monks and this literature gave comfort, or provided reflection.

    3. Because of the spoken language was used long, before they can write and read. So the poetry is more effective to express the literary works.

    4. Because the monks in the monasteries who first wrote down the words of the early literature, they were the only people who could read and write, and for many centuries they guarded culture and learning. So the literary works which are produced tells about monks, histories about monks.

  6. ROMANTIC PERIOD
    1. In writing a poet, Wordsworth used poetic language, heart, feeling, imagination, and individual spirit. We read how an individual’s thoughts and feelings are formed. In The Prelude, his long autobiographical poem, Wordsworth is the main character in most of his poems. He wants ‘to see into the heart of things,’ as he says in ‘Lines Written Above Tintern Abbey’. He considers, in `Daffodils’, for instance, how the past relates to the present, and The Prelude takes that as its main theme. He continued to write The Prelude for many years. It is a psychological poem in which the individual searches for personal understanding, in a manner which has become a main theme of modern literature.

    2. Wordsworth wanted to show the importance of the human memory, because it is the memory which continues to give life to our major experiences. The memory allows us to keep our understanding of the world fresh and alive, although there is despair in Wordsworth’s later poetry when the imagination fails and memory no longer works. In this section from ‘Lines Written Above Tintern Abbey’ Wordsworth praises the power of his memory.

    3. Wordsworth’s poetry is more about the day-to-day, ordinary world; Coleridge’s poetry is more about the extraordinary and supernatural world.

    4. Jane Austen is different from other writers of her time, because her main interest is in the moral, social and psychological behavior of her characters. In Sense and Sensibility-(1811) she contrasts two sisters: Elinor who is rational and self-controlled (sense), and Marianne who is more emotional (sensibility), in a novel which is also a contrast between the Romantic and Augustan ages. In Northanger Abbey (her first novel to be written but not published until 1818, the same year as Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein) Jane Austen satirizes the plots of the Gothic novel; in Pride and Prejudice (1813), Emma (1816) and Mansfield Park (1814) she shows that it is important to know oneself in order to make the right choices in love and marriage. Although her endings are generally happy, her novels make readers feel that they have been made to think about themselves and their moral lives.
    Sir Walter Scott writes about revolution, history and social change, and about characters from all levels of society. Waverley (1814) to The Bride of Lammermoor (1819) are set in the past, but comment on the present because they show characters who are trying to understand changes in their world. He was popular because, like Shakespeare, he defined clear unchanging values in a world of rapid changes, and created exciting plots and characters who live in the memory because they are both of their time and beyond their time.

    5. Because the novel shows the interest of the Romantics in the supernatural and in the attempts of man to be as powerful as God and the story is about extraordinary world in which a living being is made by a Genevan student from the bones of the dead, but becomes a monster which nobody can control.

  7. Neeta Yuliana
    0812150027
    Class A

    1. William Wordsworth in The Prelude [introduction] wrote ‘bliss was it in that dawn to be alive’ [bliss = great pleasure]. This shows the hope for the future when French
    politics changed and many writers like Wordsworth hoped the same would happen in Britain.

    2. Wordsworth consider that human memory is very important because it is the memory which continues to give life to our major experiences.

    3. Wordsworth’s poetry is more about the day-to-day, ordinary world
    Coleridge’s poetry is more about the extraordinary and supernatural world.

    4. Jane Austen’s main interest is in the moral, social andpsychological behavior of her characters. She writes mainlyabout young heroines as they grow up and search forpersonal happiness.

    Sir Walter Scott writes about revolution, history and social change, and aboutcharacters from all levels of society. Scott uses historical facts and characters, such as the rebellion in 1745, led by Bonnie Prince Charlie, against the English king in Waverley to re-create the issues of power, politics and change from a historical period and make them relevant to the greatissues of his own time. He defined clear unchanging values in a world of rapid changes, and created exciting plots and characters who live in the memory because they are both of their time and beyond their time.

    5. Shelley’s Frankenstein seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels because novel shows theinterest of the Romantics in the supernatural and in the attempts of man to be as powerful as God.

  8. 1.Wordsworth explains in The Perlude, his long autobiographical poem about how an individual’s thoughts and feelings are formed and how the individual searches for personal understanding, in a manner which has become a main theme of modern literature. example: He wants “ to see into the heart of things,” he says in “Lines Written Above Tintem Abbey”

    2. He considered that the memory continues to give life to our major experiences and allows us to keep our understanding of the world fresh and alive.

    3. Wordsworth’s poetry is more about the day-to day and ordinary world while Coleridge’s poetry is more about the extraordinary and supernatural world.

    4. Jane Austen, she is unique among her contemporaries because she is interested in the moral, social, and psychological behavior of her characters. Her novels cover a small number of people in which the young heroines grow up and search for personal happiness. In Sense and Sensibility she contrasts two sisters: Elinor who is rational and selfcontrolled (sense), and Marianne who is more emotional (sensibility). Northanger Abbey is a satire to the plot of gothic novel. Pride and Prejudice (1813), Emma (1816) and Mansfield Park (1814) explore the importance of self-realization in making the right choices in love and marriage.
    Walter Scott, is a great poet and great novelist. His novels are called historical because they deal with real historical, old legendary, or ballad characters and events. The subject matters are majorly revolution and changes of values. Scott is very keen on creating settings and atmospheres to support characterization and ideas. Most of the novels are relatively short, and this is one of the reasons why many people like his works. His Waverley tells about a rebellion against English king in 1745. His most popular novels are Guy Mannering, The Heart of Midlothian, and Ivanhoe. All of them are first international best-selling books.

    5. Because, The novels shows the interest of the Romantics in the supernatural and inthe attempts of man to be as powerful as God.

  9. 1. William Wordsworth’s poetry looks inward rather than outward because Wordsworth wants ‘to see into the heart of things,’ as he says in ‘Lines Written Above Tintern Abbey’. Wordsworth is the main character in most of his poems.He considers, in `Daffodils’, for instance, how the past relates to the present, and The Prelude takes that as its main theme. Wordworth part Romantic poetry which is seen in his writings about the importance of life that lifts the individual spirit, write in a clear and simple way about everyday life and people. After that Wordsworth writes frequently about nature and about ordinary people, such as ‘The Old Cumberland Beggar’ and ‘The Leech Gatherer’ who live against the background of the world of nature. Wordsworth wants to show the importance of the human memory, because it is the memory which continues to give life to human major experiences. The memory allows to keep human understanding of the world fresh and alive.

    2. Wordsworth consider that human memory is very important because memory which continues to give life to human major experiences. The memory allows us to keep our understanding of the world fresh and alive, although there is despair in Wordsworth’s later poetry when the imagination fails and memory no longer works.

    3. Wordsworth and Coleridge are two very different poets, which Wordsworth’s poetry is more about the day-to-day, ordinary world, whereas Coleridge’s poetry is more about the extraordinary and supernatural world.

    4. Jane Austen is different from other writers of her time, because her main interest is in the moral, social and psychological behavior of her characters. She writes mainly about young heroines as they grow up and search for personal happiness. Jane Austen always writes about a small number of people and her observations of people apply to human nature in general, for example in her letter “Three of four families”. In the other hand, Sir Walter Scott writes about revolution, history and social change, and about characters from all levels of society. In his letter Scott uses historical facts and characters, such as the rebellion in 1745, led by Bonnie Prince Charlie, against the English king in Waverley to re-create the issues of power, politics and change from a historical period and make them relevant to the great issues of his own time. He was popular because, like Shakespeare, he defined clear unchanging values in a world of rapid changes, and created exciting plots and characters who live in the memory. Sir Walter Scott was a very popular author, an influential writer across Europe and he was the one of the first international, best-selling authors.

    5. Shelley’s Frankenstein seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels because Frankenstein by Mary Shelley (1818), the wife of Percy Bysshe Shelley, wants to shows an extraordinary world in which a living being is made by a Genevan student from the bones of the dead, but becomes a monster which nobody can control. The monster murders Frankenstein’s brother and his wife and finally Frankenstein himself. The novel shows the interest of the Romantics in the supernatural and in the attempts of man to be as powerful as God. Frankenstein can be seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels and become a later Gothic novel.

  10. 1. William Wordsworth’s poetry is claimed looks inward rather than outward because he is existing in the mind or thoughts/ concern with inward reflections in most of his poems. That’s why Wordsworth is the main character in most of his poems.
    Supporting details :
    • in The Prelude, his long autobiographical poem, we read how an individual’s thoughts and feelings are formed. The Prelude is a psychological poem in which the individual searches for personal understanding, in a manner which has become a main theme of modern literature.
    • in Lines Written Above Tintern Abbey, he wants to see into the heart of things.
    • in Daffodils, he considers how the past relates to the present.

    2. Wordsworth considered that human memory is very important because it is the memory which continues to give life to our major experiences. The memory allows us to keep our understanding of the world fresh and alive.

    3. Wordsworth and Coleridge are two major romantic poets, but their poetry’s subject matters are very different.
    Wordsworth and Coleridge describe nature in different ways. Coleridge underlines the tragic, supernatural and sublime aspect of nature, while Wordsworth uses anecdotes of everyday life and underlines the serene aspect of nature. In order to imply a connection between nature and the human mind, Wordsworth uses the technique of identification and comparison whereas Coleridge does the opposite in “The Ancient Mariner” and “Kubla Khan”. Both admire nature’s healing strength and hope that their children will grow up in a natural environment instead of growing up in cities. For Wordsworth nature seems to sympathise with the love and suffering of the persona. The landscape is seen as an interior presence rather than an external scene. His idea is that emotions are reflected in the tranquillity of nature. On the contrary, Coleridge says that poetry is clearly distinguished from nature. Reading the poems of both Wordsworth and Coleridge, one immediately notes a difference in the common surroundings presented by Wordsworth and the bizarre creations of Coleridge. Thus they develop their individual attitudes towards life.

    I will look at differences concerning people’s relationship to nature in poems by Coleridge and Wordsworth such as: `”The Ancient Mariner”, “Kubla Khan”, “The Nightingale,” “Lucy”, “Tintern Abbey,” “There was a boy”, ” Old Beggar”, “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” and “Frost at Midnight”. In “The Ancient Mariner,” Coleridge demonstrates how violating nature and her subjects brings doom to the infracted. In this poem, the poet emphasises the vengeful, dark side of the land and the sea. He creates these images in order to demand careful respect for nature. Coleridge proposes reverence and respect for nature. The mariner killed the albatross that symbolised nature and nature takes its revenge and curses the ship. Therefore, Coleridge shows us the threatening aspect of nature .He wants to show us that nature is very powerful. If we respect it, nature brings us benefits; if we violate it, it brings us doom. Because the ancient mariner killed the albatross, he has to bear the most intense personal suffering, loneliness, horror and fear. At first, Coleridge describes the world of nature as indifferent ; “The Sun’s rim dips; the stars rush out. The stars were dim, and thick the night”. Then, the seascape becomes strange; there is no more wind, the sun turns red, the water becomes like oil. They lose their quality .The water, like a witch’s oils, burnt green, and blue and white”. The sun and sea are especially threatening. “The sun came up upon the left out of the sea came he! And he shone bright, and on the right went down into the sea”. The ship is therefore sailing south, into storms and ice. The mariner has no control over the circumstances. Even though the mariners sail to the South Pole and “conquer” the earth, it is the force of nature that dominates the ship. Then, nature makes him feel lonely. For seven days he travels into waste land alone. The soul of the mariner has been travelling for seven days into wasted land with the dead mariners around him .Then nature becomes increasingly threatening. The sun is compared to a face and its mouth entraps the ship ; “as if through a dungeon-grate he peered”. Coleridge has personified nature as a kind of monster who entraps the ship. The idea of entrapment is raised by the use of the word “dungeon-grate”. He reached the highest feeling ; then nature calms down and becomes good again. At the beginning, nature is threatening, but at the end, watching the beautiful sea snake saves the mariner and nature is forgiving.

    4. Jane Austen and Walter Scott notable contributions to English fiction.
    Jane Austen is one of England’s greatest and best-loved writers. She wrote six completed novels Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, Mansfield Park, Emma,Persuasion and Northanger Abbey; and she started writing, but never completed Lady Susan and The Watsons, and several short stories. These novels are read and enjoyed by people of all ages. These novels have been translated into over 35 languages, and adapted for television, cinema, movies and stage. The characters she created are as real for us today as they were for the novels’ first readers. Each books theme is about the search by young men and women for a partner to marry. In making the right choice misunderstandings and disappointments occur, but in the end things work out well and everyone lives happily ever after!

    Sir Walter Scott wrote about revolution, history and social change, and about characters from all levels of society. Most of his early novels from Waverley (1814) to The Bride of Lammermoor (1819) are set in the past, but comment on the present because they show characters who are trying to understand changes in their world. Scott uses historical facts and characters, such as the rebellion in 1745, led by Bonnie Prince Charlie, against the English king in Waverley to re-create the issues of power, politics and change from a historical period and make them relevant to the great issues of his own time.
    He made the novel the most popular of literary forms in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. He created Scotland as a historical setting and gave the nineteenth-century world, especially nineteenth-century Great Britain, historical identity. He defined clear unchanging values in a world of rapid changes, and created exciting plots and characters who live in the memory because they are both of their time and beyond their time.He was a very popular author and an influential writer across Europe. He was one of the first international, best-selling authors

    5. Shelley’s Frankenstein seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels, because the novel shows the interest of the Romantics in the supernatural and in the attempts of man to be as powerful as God. Frankenstein can be seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels.

  11. 1. William Wordsworth’s poetry looks inward rather than outward because he wants ‘to see into the heart of things,’ as he says in ‘Lines Written Above Tintern Abbey’. He considers, in `Daffodils’, for instance, how the past relates to the present, and The Prelude takes that as its main theme. He continued to write The Prelude for many years. It is a psychological poem in which the individual searches for personal understanding, in a manner which has become a main theme of modern literature. For example: When Wordsworth wrote that the ‘child is father of the Man’ he means that adults can learn from children, however, the Augustans believed that children should be controlled as soon as possible.
    2. Wordsworth consider that human memory is very important because it is the memory which continues to give life to our major experiences. The memory allows us to keep our understanding of the world fresh and alive.
    3. Wordsworth and Coleridge are two major romantic poets, but their poetry’s subject matters are very different.
    – Wordsworth’s poetry is more about the day-to-day, ordinary world;
    – Coleridge’s poetry is more about the extraordinary and supernatural world.
    4. Jane Austen and Walter Scott are most important novelists of the romantic age.
    Jane Austen is different from other writers of her time, because her main interest is in the moral, social and psychological behavior of her characters. She writes mainly
    about young heroines as they grow up and search for personal happiness. Jane Austen’s pictures are detailed, often ironic, and always about a small number of people.
    Sir Walter Scott writes about revolution, history and social change, and about characters from all levels of society. Scott made the novel the most popular of literary
    forms in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. He created Scotland as a historical setting and gave the nineteenth-century world, especially nineteenth-century Great Britain, historical identity. Sir Walter Scott was a very popular author and an influential writer across Europe. He was one of the first international, best-selling authors. The popularity of Scott also encouraged other regional Scottish novelists, such as John Galt and James Hogg, and Edinburgh became a major publishing centre.
    5. Shelley’s Frankenstein seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels because is it shows an extraordinary world in which a living being is made by a Genevan student from the bones of the dead, but becomes a monster which nobody can control. The monster murders Frankenstein’s brother and his wife and finally Frankenstein himself. The novel shows the interest of the Romantics in the supernatural and in the attempts of man to be as powerful as God.

  12. hello, Mr Parlin i’m sorry to put my mid term here. because i can’t post my mid term in (mid term assignment place).

    Name : yesi kartika sari
    SRN : 0812150015
    1. Thomas Nashe’s The Unfortunate Traveller
    Thomas Nashe’s The Unfortunate Traveller (1594) is a parodic history of Jack Wilton, a fictional courtier from the reign of Henry VIII. In the dedication to Lord Henry Wriothesley, Nashe claims that all he can promise in this ‘fantastical treatise’ is ‘some reasonable conveyance of history and variety of mirth’. This novel is describing the adventures of jack wilton during the war against France, and also his adventures in Italy. In his adventures, he witness many violent happen, and the worst things is when he saw Italian people shoot another Italian in the throat. Before the Italian shoot another Italian, the one who hold a gun forces another Italian to pray to the devil. Luckily jack was able to escape and finally return to England.
    The form of this work, in the first place, is of great interest, for it resembles the picaresque type indigenous to Spain. But this need not imply that Nashe was a mere imitator; on the contrary, though he may have derived a definite stimulus from Lazarillo de Tormes, the elements of his work represent a spontaneous English growth. The Spanish rogue-novel was the outcome of a widespread beggary brought about by the growth of militarism and the decline of industry, by the increase of gypsies and the indiscriminate charity of an all-powerful church. Similar social conditions prevailed in Elizabethan England, though from different causes, and the conditions which produced Lazarillo produced The Unfortunate Traveller. It has, moreover, been shown that, while Lyly and Sidney were indebted to Spain for certain elements in their works, yet the ultimate origins of English courtesy-books and of the Euphuistic manner, were wholly independent of Spanish influence. And so, in general, it may be said, that parallels existing between the Spanish and English literatures of the time were the result of similar national conditions, of influences which were common to both.
    Retrieved : http://queensofnaples.livejournal.com/13972.htm
    http://www.bartleby.com/213/1619.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Unfortunate_Traveller
    2. Romeo and Juliet
    Juliet and Romeo is a great tragedies story in the year between 1598 and 1607. There are two households in verona, italy. and they are ancient enemys.(the capulets-juliet and montagues-romeo) romeo and juliet met at a capulet ball where romeo is trying to get over his previous “love” rosaline who didn’t love him back. r and j expirenced love at first sight. Juliet has to leave the ball and romeo seeks her at her window. they find out that they are from enemy families..but rebel and plan to marry. So the next day juliet sends her nurse to romeo to confirm her love for him. romeo (and later juliet) meet with a friar. and he thinks marrying the couple will solve the families fueds..so they marry secretly. after when juliet is back home she finds out her parents have arranged juliet to marry a count paris (not knowing about her marrriage to romeo) and this is where the chaos begins. later romeo also gets run out of town by killing juliets cousin tybalt for killing romeos friend mercutio. so juliet is alone and is planned to get married against her wishes. the friar tells her to drink poison that makes her appear dead for 42 hrs but isnt, so she wont have to marry paris, and be put in the family vault and he also planned to send someone to tell romeo the plan so romeo can pick her up from the vault and they can go be together without their parents knowing. Unfortunately romeo didnt get the message, went to the vault, thought juliet was dead, killed himself, shortly after julliet woke up and the friar showed up and tried to convinvce her to turn into a nun because of romeos death, but she killed herself too. the deaths ended family feud.
    In the Nineteenth century, Romeo and Juliet was performed with dramatic Relatively little alteration, and it Became one of Shakespeare’s most-produced plays and a MainStay of the English stage. Romeo and Juliet is a very tragic story, in the 19th century is the story of this very popular in its time and often at the convention Elizabeth theater, the story contains elements of dramatic social because their romance is complicated and there is no support from both their family the story ended very tragically
    Retrieved: http://www.world-english.org/stories_romeo_juliet.htm
    http://povcrystal.blogspot.com/2011/02/shakespeare-in-love.html

    3. The Canterbury Tales- by Geoffrey Chaucer
    The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. The prize for this contest is a free meal at the Tabard Inn at Southwark on their return. After a long list of works written earlier in his career, including Troilus and Criseyde, House of Fame, and Parliament of Fowls, the Canterbury Tales was Chaucer’s magnum opus. He uses the tales and the descriptions of its characters to paint an ironic and critical portrait of English society at the time, and particularly of the Church. Structurally, the collection resembles The Decameron, which Chaucer may have read during his first diplomatic mission to Italy in 1372
    Geoffrey Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales, a collection of stories in a frame story, between 1387 and 1400. It is the story of a group of thirty people who travel as pilgrims to Canterbury (England). The pilgrims, who come from all layers of society, tell stories to each other to kill time while they travel to Canterbury. Chaucer intended that each pilgrim should tell two tales on the way to Canterbury and two tales on the way back. He never finished his enormous project and even the completed tales were not finally revised. Scholars are uncertain about the order of the tales. As the printing press had yet to be invented when Chaucer wrote his works, The Canterbury Tales has been passed down in several handwritten manuscripts.
    Retrieved: http://www.librarius.com/cantales.htm
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Canterbury_Tales
    4. Thomas More’ s Utopia
    This story is about a fictional island in the Atlantic Ocean, Peter Giles. One day, More sees Giles speaking to a bearded man whom More assumes to be a ship’s captain. Giles soon introduces More to this new man, Raphael Hythloday, who turns out to be a philosopher and world traveler. The three men retire to Giles’s house for supper and conversation, and Hythloday begins to speak about his travels. Hythloday describes the geography and history of Utopia. He explains how the founder of Utopia, General Utopus, conquered the isthmus on which Utopia now stands and through a great public works effort cut away the land to make an island. Next, Hythloday moves to a discussion of Utopian society, portraying a nation based on rational thought, with communal property, great productivity, no rapacious love of gold, no real class distinctions, no poverty, little crime or immoral behavior, religious tolerance, and little inclination to war. It is a society that Hythloday believes is superior to any in Europe.
    Thomas More wrote Utopia is looking forward to a world of individual freedom and equality governed by Reason, at a time when such a vision was almost inconceivable. Hythloday believes Utopia to be the greatest social order in the world. As he says, “Everywhere else people talk about the public good but pay attention to their own private interests. In Utopia, where there is no private property, everyone is seriously concerned with pursuing the public welfare.” In Utopia, no man worries about food or impoverishment for themselves or any of their descendants. Unlike the rest of the world, where men who do nothing productive live in luxury, in Utopia, all people work and all live well. Only this, in Hythloday’s mind, is truly just. Hythloday believes societies other than Utopia are merely conspiracies of the rich, “whose objective is to increase their own wealth while the government they control claims to be a commonwealth concerned with the common welfare.” These societies are realms of greed and pride. And pride causes men to measure their welfare not by their well-being, but by having things that others lack, which is irrational and un-Christian.
    Retrieved : http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/utopia/summary.html
    http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/rfletcher/bl-rfletcher-history-5-utopia.htm
    5. Edmund Spenser ‘s The Faerie Queene
    The Faerie Queene tells about several knights, each representing a particular virtue on their guest for the Faerie Queene, Gloriana (her castle is the ultimate goal or destination). Redcrosse, the knight of Holiness, is much like the Apostle Peter: In his eagerness to serve his Lord, he gets himself into unforeseen trouble that he is not yet virtuous enough to handle. Florimell represents Beauty. Una represents purity, truth, and wholesomeness. Guyon is the knight of temperance must destroy the fleshly temptations of Acrasia’s Bower of Bliss. There are many characters also appears in The Faerie Queene such as Artegal, Cambell, triamond etc. Edmund Spenser has not finished in writing this poem, so the reader never know what is the end of the story. Even the Faerie Queen herself never has her unifying court scene at the end. The Faerie Queene is an incomplete English epic poem by Edmund Spenser. The first half was published in 1590, and a second installment was published in 1596. The Faerie Queene is notable for its form: it was the first work written in Spenserian stanza and is one of the longest poems in the English language. as praise of Queen Elizabeth I. In a completely allegorical context, the poem follows several knights in an examination of several virtues. In Spenser’s “A Letter of the Authors,” he states that the entire epic poem is “cloudily enwrapped in allegorical devises,” and that the aim of publishing The Faerie Queene was to “fashion a gentleman or noble person in virtuous and gentle discipline.The Faerie Queene found political favour with Elizabeth I and was consequently a success, to the extent that it became Spenser’s defining work.
    Spenser’s The Faerie Queene is a poem seemingly based upon a fiction world, with a very real political background. Characters such as the Faerie Queene herself as representative of figures in history that are very recognizable – like Queen Elizabeth. King Arthur is also seen throughout the story, and the other characters are based upon the virtues we all known from biblical stories and everyday life. Una represents purity, truth, and wholesomeness, and the Redcrosse Knight, who is the main character, represents pride.Spenser only completed half of The Faerie Queene he planned. In a letter to Sir John Walter Raleigh, he explained the purpose and structure of the poem. It is an allegory, a story whose characters and events nearly all have a specific symbolic meaning. The poem’s setting is a mythical “Faerie land,” ruled by the Faerie Queene. Spenser sets forth in the letter that this “Queene” represents his own monarch, Queen Elizabeth.
    Retrieved:http://voices.yahoo.com/edmund-spensers-faerie-queene-2964010.html?cat=38
    http://www.sparknotes.com/poetry/fqueen/context.html

  13. Dear Mr.Parlin,
    I’m so sorry sir, I send my task of midterm test in here because I have sent it from yesterday until now but it isn’t accept in the mid-term test’s place..thank you

    1. Romeo and Juliet
    Romeo and Juliet is the one of dramatic love story which famous in young lovers. It tells about the power of love from the couple lovers (Romeo and Juliet). Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. Its plot is based on an Italian tale, translated into verse as The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet byArthur Brooke in 1562 and retold in prose in Palace of Pleasure by William Painter in 1582. This story was began by feud between two families has caused much has caused much disruption in the city of Verona, Italy. The Capulets and the Montagues cannot seem to get along, and there have been many deaths among the two families because of it. Prince Escalus of Verona warns the two families that if the feud does not stop, the punishment will be death. The stage opens with servants of the Capulet and Montague families. They get into a minor argument. Romeo, a Montague, enters the stage. He has recently been denied the love of Rosaline. He is miserable over this. His friend and cousin, Benvolio, enters and decides that they will go to the Capulet feast, in disguises, so he can prove to Romeo that other pretty women exist. They all exit. At the feast, Romeo meets Juliet, the daughter of Capulet. Instantly, they fall in love. After the feast, Romeo sneaks into the Capulet orchard and visits Juliet. Here, they proclaim their love for each other. They decide to marry the next afternoon but their family didn’t agree their relationship. Juliet’s mother suggested that Juliet should be married with Paris but Juliet didn’t love him. Suddenly, Juliet drank a poison that made a trick for her family which it can make sure her family if she passed away, she didn’t marry to Paris. Suddenly, Romeo saw her that has passed away; he drank a poison because he really loved her then after Juliet got up and saw the situation that Romeo has passed away, she was sad and she killed herself.
    Based on this story, the people think that the story of Romeo and Juliet has a power society because it tells about the power of love between Romeo and Juliet and the conflict between their families have improved the effect of the society value in this story.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.wikisummaries.org/Romeo_and_Juliet
    http://www.bookrags.com/notes/rj/SUM.html
    2. The Dream of the Rood
    The source as well as the authorship of The Dream of the Rood remain unknown. Authorship of the poem has been credited by many critics to Cynewulf (c. 770-840), author of the epic poem Elene, and by others to Caedmon (fl. 658-680). The earliest evidence of the text of The Dream of the Rood is found on the Ruthwell Cross, a large freestanding stone cross, which is inscribed with passages from The Dream of the Roodrendered in the Northumbrian dialect. Scholars have been unable to concur upon a date for the cross, proposing any time from the fifth to the twelfth century, although many have agreed that the eighth century—the Golden Age of Northumbria—is the most probable date. The most complete text of The Dream of the Rood is found in the Vercelli Book, a manuscript of Old English prose and poetry unanimously assigned to the second half of the tenth century. Some commentators believe that The Dream of the Rood is possibly a later version of a lost poem by Caedmon; this theory is supported by one scholar’s speculation that the Ruthwell Cross was inscribed on the upper panel with the phrase “Caedmon made me.” However, this assertion has been called into question by others who have been unable to find any convincing traces of Caedmon’s name on the cross.
    The poem has been the subject of literary and historical study for generations and has been interpreted in a variety of ways. Profound and moving of itself, The Dream of the Rood also provides a valuable window into early Christian England. The dream vision uses strong, virile images of Christ in order to reach members of the Anglo-Saxon warrior culture, who valued strength above humility. This may have been a deliberate strategy to convert pagans to Christianity. It also reflects how the image of Jesus was adapted to suit different cultures.
    Retrieved from:
    http://historymedren.about.com/od/generalliterature1/p/dream_rood.htm
    http://www.enotes.com/dream-rood-61424-criticism/dream-rood
    3. Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar
    The Tragedy of Julius Caesar has enough known for the people. This story has written by by William Shakespeare in 1599. Although the title of the play is Julius Caesar, Caesar is not the most visible character in its action; he appears in only three scenes, and is killed at the beginning of the third act. Marcus Brutus speaks more than four times as many lines, and the central psychological drama is his struggle between the conflicting demands of honour, patriotism, and friendship. Julius Caesar is a highly successful but ambitious political leader of Rome and his goal is to become an unassailable dictator. Caesar is warned that he must “beware the Ides of March” . The prophecy comes true and Caesar is assassinated. Marcus Brutus is a well respected Roman senator who helps plan and carry out Caesar’s assassination which he believes will rid Rome of a tyrant. Caesar’s friend Mark Antony provides the famous funeral oration (“Friends, Romans, and countrymen…”) Brutus and Cassius meet their inevitable defeat. Brutus, the noble Roman, whose decision to take part in the conspiracy for the sake of freedom, plunges his country into civil war.
    Julius Caesar is a dramatization of actual events. He was assassinated in 44 B.C. It is believed that his mother endured agonising surgery in order to extract him at birth. This belief gave rise to the term “Caesarean birth”. Not only that, Julius Caesar Quote One! The Julius Caesar play contains famous quotes about life, death, love and hate by William Shakespeare. Although set in different times many of the most famous quotes about life and love by William Shakespeare are still relevant today and cover many different subjects and feelings, some of which are illustrated in our quote collection from Julius Caesar. Famous quotes about Life, Love, Hate, Music, Education, War Trauma, Deception, Betrayal, Death and Revenge. Many people continue to use a quote or words of William Shakespeare in famous quotes about life.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.william-shakespeare-quotes.info/julius-caesar-quotes/index.htm
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Caesar_(play)
    4. The Caterbury Tales
    The Canterbury tales was written by Geoffrey Chaucer that a collection in a frame story between 1387 and 1400. It is the story of a group of thirty people who travel as pilgrims to Canterbury (England). The pilgrims, who come from all layers of society, tell stories to each other to kill time while they travel to Canterbury. If we trust the General Prologue, Chaucer intended that each pilgrim should tell two tales on the way to Canterbury and two tales on the way back. He never finished his enormous project and even the completed tales were not finally revised. Scholars are uncertain about the order of the tales. As the printing press had yet to be invented when Chaucer wrote his works, The Canterbury Tales has been passed down in several handwritten manuscripts. The Host of the Tabard Inn sets the rules for the tales. Each of the pilgrims will tell two stories on the way to Canterbury, and two stories on the return trip. The Host will decide whose tale is best for meaningfulness and for fun. They decide to draw lots to see who will tell the first tale, and the Knight receives the honor.
    The Canterbury Tales was written during a turbulent time in English history. The Catholic Church was in the midst of the Western Schism and, though it was still the only Christian authority in Europe, was the subject of heavy controversy. Lollardy, an early English religious movement led by John Wycliffe, is mentioned in the Tales, as is a specific incident involving pardoners (who gathered money in exchange for absolution from sin) who nefariously claimed to be collecting for St. Mary Rouncesval hospital in England. The Canterbury Tales is among the first English literary works to mention paper, a relatively new invention which allowed dissemination of the written word never before seen in England. Political clashes, such as the 1381 Peasants’ Revolt and clashes ending in the deposing of KingRichard II, further reveal the complex turmoil surrounding Chaucer in the time of theTales’ writing. Many of his close friends were executed and he himself was forced to move to Kent in order to get away from events in London.
    Retrieved from:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Canterbury_Tales
    http://www.gradesaver.com/the-canterbury-tales/study-guide/short-summary/
    5. Edm und Spenser’s Faery Queen
    The Faerie Queene is a romantic epic, the first sustained poetic work since Geoffrey Chaucer. In this work, Spenser uses the archaic language of Chaucer as a way to pay homage to the medieval poet. Spenser saw himself as a medievalist, but cognizant of his audience, he uses the modern pronunciation of the Renaissance. Spenser uses biblical allegory to tell his story, but the poem is much more than just a religious poem. Its purpose was to educate, to turn a young man into a gentleman. There are two levels of allegory present. One level examines the moral, philosophical, and religious and is represented by the Red Cross Knight, who represents all Christians. The second level is the particular, which focuses on the political, social, and religious, in which the Faerie Queene represents Elizabeth I. Spenser was not born to a wealthy household, as were so many of the other great Renaissance poets, such as Philip Sidney. This fact is important, since his work is colored by this lack of wealth. Spenser needed a patron to provide for his support while he worked, and patrons expect that the artists they support will write flattering words. This was certainly the case with Spenser’s work, The Faerie Queene, which is meant to celebrate Elizabeth I and, oftentimes, flatter her. In this work, Spenser presents his ideas of what constitutes an ideal England. He also thought that he could use his text as a way to recall the chivalry of a past era, and thus, inspire such actions again. Spenser influenced many of the poets who followed, including John Milton, Percy Shelley, John Keats, Lord Byron, and Lord Tennyson.
    Critical sincerity has required us to dwell thus long on the defects of the poem; but once recognized we should dismiss them altogether from mind and turn attention to the far more important beauties. The great qualities of ‘The Faerie Queene’ are suggested by the title, ‘The Poets’ Poet,’ which Charles Lamb, with happy inspiration, applied to Spenser. No poem in the world is nobler than ‘The Faerie Queene’ in atmosphere and entire effect. Spenser himself is always the perfect gentleman of his own imagination, and in his company we are secure from the intrusion of anything morally base or mean. But in him, also, moral beauty is in full harmony with the beauty of art and the senses.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.enotes.com/faerie-queene
    http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/rfletcher/bl-rfletcher-history-5-spenser.htm

  14. THE ROMANTIC AGE

    1. Why is it claimed that William Wordsworth’s poetry looks inward rather than outward?
    Because he involves his individual thoughts and feelings in his work. He puts himself as a main character in most of his poems. For instance, he wants “to see into the heart of things” as he says in “ Lines written Above Tintern Abbey”, in “Daffodils” how the past relates to the present, and “Prelude” as a psychological poem in which the individual searches for personal understanding, in a manner which has become a main theme of modern literature.

    2. Whi did Wordsworth consider that human memory is very important?
    Because human memory is the memory which continues to give live to our major experiences. It allows us to keep our understanding of the world fresh and alive.

    3. Wordsworth and Coleridge are two major romantic poets, but their poetry’s subject matters are very different. Explain the differences.
    The subject matter in Wordsworth is more about the day-to-day. It is an ordinary world. Coleridge’s poetry is more about the extraordinary and supernatural world.

    4. Jane Austen and Walter Scott are most important novelists of the romantic age. Mention and explain their notable contributions to English fiction.
    Jane Austen’s contributions are mainly in the moral, social, and psychological behavior of her characters. She writes about young heroines as they grow up and search for personal happiness. Her works are :
    – Sense and Sensibility (1811) is about two sisters: Elinor who is rational and self controlled (sense) and Marianne who is more emotional (sensibility).
    – Northanger Abbey satirizes the plot of the Gothic novel.
    – Pride and Prejudice (1813), Emma(1816), Mansfield Park (1814) tell that it is important to know oneself in order to make the right choices in love and marriage.
    Walter Scott’s contributions are about revolution, history and social change, and characters from all levels of society. His works are :
    – Waverley (1814) against the English king to re-create the issue of power, politics and change from a historical period and make them relevant to the great issues of his own time and Bride of Lammermoor (1819) show the characters who are trying to understand changes in their world.

    5. Why is Shelley’s Frankenstein seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels?
    Because her novels show an extraordinary world in which a living being is made by a Genevan student from the bones of the dead, but becomes a monster which nobody can control. The novel also shows the interest of romantics in the supernatural and in the attempts of man to be as powerful as God.

  15. Dear Mr Parlin,
    Here is my answers:
    1. Wordsworth claims that his poetry looks inward rather than outward because his autobiographical poem, we find how his love for Nature under went successive changes .In his early child hood , he like a roe mounted over the hills ,tall rocks , walked through the secluded valleys , enjoyed landscape , etc .Nature was an appetite to him. Wordsworth , follows Russuae , and believes that so long man is away from nature , he gets corrupted . The poems , focus on the idea that the recollections of the beauty of Nature return as bliss of solitude in one’s dreary intercourse of artificial city- life.Again Wordsworth advocates the use of rustic language as the diction of poetry .This signifies the linguistic communication with Nature .The propagation ,-there is no difference between the language of prose and poetry , is a revulation , that reforms the style of one’ thoughts .

    2. Wordsworth consider that human memory is very important because the memory allows us to keep our understanding of the world fresh and alive, although there is despair in Wordsworth’s later poetry when the imagination fails and memory no longer works.

    3. Differences between Coleridge and Wordsworth Concerning People’s Relationship to Nature Although Wordsworth and Coleridge are both romantic poets, they describe nature in different ways. Coleridge underlines the tragic, supernatural and sublime aspect of nature, while Wordsworth uses anecdotes of everyday life and underlines the serene aspect of nature. In order to imply a connection between nature and the human mind, Wordsworth uses the technique of identification and comparison whereas Coleridge does the opposite in “The Ancient Mariner” and “Kubla Khan”. Both admire nature’s healing strength and hope that their children will grow up in a natural environment instead of growing up in cities. For Wordsworth nature seems to sympathise with the love and suffering of the persona. The landscape is seen as an interior presence rather than an external scene. His idea is that emotions are reflected in the tranquillity of nature. On the contrary, Coleridge says that poetry is clearly distinguished from nature. Reading the poems of both Wordsworth and Coleridge, one immediately notes a difference in the common surroundings presented by Wordsworth and the bizarre creations of Coleridge. Thus they develop their individual attitudes towards life.

    4. Jane Austen and Walter Scott are most important novelists of the romantic age. Jane Austen is different from other writers of her time, because she has main interest in the moral, social and psychological behavior of her characters. She wrote mainly about young heroines as they grow up and search for personal happiness. Jane Austen’s pictures are detailed, often ironic, and always about a small number of people. Sir Walter Scott writes about revolution, history and social change and about characters from all levels of society. Scott made the novel the most popular of literary forms in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. He created Scotland as a historical setting and gave the nineteenth-century world, especially nineteenth-century Great Britain, historical identity. He was popular because, like Shakespeare, he defined clear unchanging values in a world of rapid changes, and created exciting plots and characters that live in the memory because they are both of their time and beyond their time. Sir Walter Scott was a very popular author and an influential writer across Europe.

    5. Shelley’s Frankenstein seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels because the shows an extraordinary world in which a living being is made by a Genevan student from the bones of the dead, but becomes a monster which nobody can control. The novel shows the interest of the Romantics in the supernatural and in the attempts of man to be as powerful as God.

  16. Dear sir.
    Below is my answer
    1. It is claimed that William Wordsworth’s poetry looks inward rather than outward because in his long autobiographical poem, we read how an individual’s thoughts and feelings are formed. Wordsworth is the main character in most of his poems. He wants to see into the heart of things, as he says in Lines Written above Tintern Abbey. He considers, in Daffodils’, for instance, how the past relates to the present, and The Prelude takes that as its main theme. He continued to write The Prelude for many years. It is a psychological poem in which the individual searches for personal understanding, in a manner which has become a main theme of modern literature.

    2. Wordsworth considered that human memory is very important because the memory which continues to give life to our major experiences. The memory allows us to keep our understanding of the world fresh and alive, although there is despair in Wordsworth’s later poetry when the imagination fails and memory no longer works.

    3. Wordsworth and Coleridge are two major romantic poets, but their poetry’s subject matters are very different, explanation differences
    Coleridge’s poetry is more about the extraordinary and supernatural world. Wordsworth writes frequently about nature and about ordinary people who live against the background of the world of nature.
    Coleridge is also well known for his conversation poems. Although Coleridge’s poetry is different in many ways from Wordsworth’s, his conversation poems are similar to Wordsworth’s, and poems such as Dejection Frost at Midnight and This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison [bower = sheltered place] have everyday observations about an ordinary environment, and are written in a clear and simple conversational style.

    4. Jane Austen and Walter Scott are most important novelists of the romantic age. Mention and explain their notable contributions to English fiction
    Jane Austen is different from other writers of her time, because her main interest is in the moral, social and psychological behavior of her characters. She writes mainly about young heroines as they grow up and search for personal happiness. Jane Austen’s pictures are detailed, often ironic, and always about a small number of people. Sir Walter Scott writes about revolution, history and social change and about characters from all levels of society. Scott made the novel the most popular of literary forms in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. He created Scotland as a historical setting and gave the nineteenth-century world, especially nineteenth-century Great Britain, historical identity. He was popular because, like Shakespeare, he defined clear unchanging values in a world of rapid changes, and created exciting plots and characters that live in the memory because they are both of their time and beyond their time. Sir Walter Scott was a very popular author and an influential writer across Europe.

    5. Shelley’s Frankenstein seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels because it shows an extraordinary world in which a living being is made by a Genevan student from the bones of the dead, but becomes a monster which nobody can control. The novel shows the interest of the Romantics in the supernatural and in the attempts of man to be as powerful as God.

  17. Dear all,
    After studying the “Romantic Period”, answer of each of the following questions briefly but concisely.Answer each of the following questions briefly but concisely.

    1. Why is it claimed that William Wordsworth’s poetry looks inward rather than outward? Support your answer by providing it with one or more example.

    2. Why did Wordsworth consider that human memory is very important?

    3. Wordsworth and Coleridge are two major romantic poets, but their poetry’s subject matters are very different. Explain the difference.

    4. Jane Austen and Walter Scott are most important novelists of the romantic age. Mention and explain their notable contributions to English fiction.

    5. Why is Shelley’s Frankenstein seen as one of the first modern science fiction novels?

    Good luck!

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