Anayzing Fiction


Anayzing Fiction

Parlindungan Pardede

Universitas Kristen Indonesia

To analyze literary works, including fiction (novel or short story), means to look critically at the work in order to understand how the parts contribute to the whole. To analyze a fiction, one’s understanding of the details of the work of fiction are extremely important, a fullest understanding about the work can only be attained by paying close attention to the fictional elements that built it. Thus, when analyzing a short story, you need to consider elements such as the characters, plot, setting, literary devices, point of view and themes.

Analysis is a trial to find truth. Literary analysis is not merely a summary or review, but rather an interpretation of the work and an argument about it based on the text by using relevant theories. The process of analysis is to divide a problem into various parts, which may then be examined more easily; their natures, functions, and interrelationships may be more fully understood when they are examined one by one. For example, if you have the problem in chemical qualitative analysis of discovering the elements in a chemical solution, you can make only one test on the solution at a time. Because if you tried to make all your tests at once you would not be able to control or distinguish your results.

Although the work of literature you are to analyze is an entirety, you must make separate inquiries to discover its full meaning and to appreciate it fully. You could not talk about everything in Hemingway’s Cat in the Rain at once, for example, without being guilty of the greatest superficiality. It is better to narrow the scope of your topic by talking about the theme(s), characterization, plot, setting, or the style. Never attempt to discuss the whole elements in a single analysis written in less than ten pages! To try to discuss everything at once would certainly distort something and omit others. Thus, the first thing to consider in analyzing a short story is to make the subject small enough so that you can go deeply into it.

A serious objection sometimes arises about literary analysis. Although scientific analysis is necessary, it is said that too much literary analysis ‘spoils’ appreciation of a work, or in that making an analysis, you `murder’ literature as you ‘dissect’ it. This objection is not valid, for the purpose of analysis is not to cut up literature like a frog and leave it in pieces. No matter how completely you analyze a work, the work will remain healthy and untouched. For example, the theme or setting of Orwell’s Animal Farm has not been changed by all the critical essays that have been written about them. But what has changed is what people see or perceive about them. Critics at one time saw evidence that Orwell hated communism for the novel is basically considered as a satire towards Russia. More recent analysis of the work, however, manages to show that what Orwell criticizes in the work is the misuse of power in ruling a country. The effect of these and other analysis has been to uncover the work’s rich complexity and its basic affirmation of life, and ultimately to rise it in critical esteem. Such is the real business of literary analysis. By pointing out the author’s insights into problems of life, and by describing various aspects of his skill, literary analysis aims at the appreciation of literary excellence.

It is therefore important for you to keep literary analysis in perspective: analyzing a work is a means toward appreciation and evaluation, not an end in itself. It is an honest attempt by you, the reader, to discover the truth about a work and to base your appreciation on your thought and discovery, no on a vaguely aesthetic reaction. If you analyze the work to know and to like it better, you have really dismissed the entire objection.

Another way to think of literary analysis is that it is a way of fulfilling the objectives of good reading. If you had a choice, you would no doubt prefer to be a good reader than a bad reader. Once you have finished the writing and literature classes, you may never again have to write a literary analysis. Invariably, however, you will continue reading and also talking about what you have read. If you establish a good reading habit now, reinforced by the exactness of mind required for writing, then your future discussions will be forever improved. The topics you write today will have a residual impact on your future reading habits.

As you think about what to put in your topic of theme, remember that literary analysis is a way of getting at the heart of the work. To this end, you may decide to explore one of these areas: (1) theme (2) plot, (3) character, (4) style, and (5) background and influences. Usually there will be overlapping among these; for instance in writing about the theme (idea) of the work you may have to relate it with point of view and characterization employed in the work. In my analysis of Greene’s The Third Man (click the sample links on the bottom of this page to view the article), for instance, I argue that the theme is presented through the plot and characterization. I also prove that the author uses the first person point of view of Calloway, a policeman, to emphasize that the theme must be interpreted through the viewpoint of a police or keeper of laws. To take another example, in the analysis of the plot of Buckley’s Gold-Mounted Gun, it is shown that the plot is effectively used to present the theme.

To sum up, the topic of an analysis of fiction should be particular and has a relation to the work. The analysis is supposed to focus on one of the elements of fiction. However, relating it to other elements in order to support an idea is highly recommended. Since a literary analysis is an interpretation of the work and an argument about it based on the text by using relevant theories, anytime you state an idea, it is a must to support it by using literary evidences (citations from the work) or logical arguments.

Analysis Samples (click the title to read the text)
The Plot of Buckley’s “Gold-Mounted Gun”
The Main Theme of Graham Greene’s “The Third Man”

36 Comments

  1. CHARACTER OF ANALYSIS OF MATT “The Adopted Son” by Guy De Mauppasant
    Introduction
    Fiction is the form of any narrative or informative work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not factual, but rather, imaginary—that is, invented by the author. Although fiction describes a major branch of literary work, it may also refer to theatrical, cinematic or musical work. Fiction contrasts with non-fiction, which deals exclusively with factual (or, at least, assumed factual) events, descriptions, observations, etc. (e.g.: biographies, histories).processed result of author’s imagination. The material of fiction is based on author’s experience and observation on life. Some novels or short stories are inspired by reality but the material is not presented same with the underlying reality. In process of creating the story, the author chooses and modifies the material which he has to present his purpose.
    This analysisof “The Adopted Son” is attempt to help the readers to appreciate fiction. The short story is interesting to analyze because the story presents good character aspect and can be applied in life in order to reveal the importance of learning by experience in one’s life.
    This paper is focused on character aspect. The analysis is carried out by using the structural approach because all discussions only based on the content of the short story. The presentation of analysis result uses conventions of academic writing.
    Analysis
    A. Synopsis of “The Adopted Son”
    In the beginning, In this story, there are two poor families, Tuvache’s and Vallin’s, are faced with similar situations, whether they want to give their child to the family of d’Hubieres for adoption. The Vallin decided to let their son, Jean, to adopted. The interesthing point is since the Vallin made that decision, they could lived better. Their son lived happily with his foster parents. But still, he loves his biologic parents.

    B. Analysis of Character
    There are eight main characters, that are: Mr.and Mrs. Tuvache, Charlot, Mr.and Mrs. Vallin, Jean, Mr. d’Hubieres and Mrs. D’Hubieres. The major character here is Charlot. Mother and father are the minor characters, they function is to support the presence of Charlot Tuvache.
    1. Charlot Tuvache
    We could see in this story, that Charlot is so angry with hie parents. He can’t accept the reality that he is poor. He knows his history when someday d’Hubieres family wanted to adopt him. He can’t accept that Jean lived happily.
    Charlot has a bad side, he regreting to be a son of Tuvache’s. He chose to leave his family to find a good live. He hurts his parents feeling.
    2. Mrs. Tuvache
    This woman is full of love to her children. She never regret for not let her son, Charlot, to get adopted by d’Hubiers. At the end of this story, she just crying a lot because his son getting mad at her.
    3. Mr. Tuvache
    In this story, Mr. Tuvache is like his wife. Love his children and refussed the offer from d’Hubieres. He is a kindhearted father that will work hard to earn a living. But at the end, he can’t say anything on his son’s anger.
    4. Jean.
    Jean is a kindhearted son. Eventhough he had adopted by d’Hubieres, he still loves his biological family. He knows he is Vallins. And still give respect to his parents, both.
    5. Mr. and Mrs Vallin.
    actually, they love their son. But they accept the opportunities that came to them to reach a better life when d’Hubieres came to adopt their son. They think about Jean’s future. Their decision is really help their live.
    6. Mr. d’Hubieres
    He loves his wife, and want to do anything to make her happy. Together with his wife, he loves Jean too and gave all best for his “son”. He is wise when he still let Jean to come to his biological parents.
    7. Mrs. D’Hubieres
    She has a rich husband. Unfortunately, she didn’t have a child in her marriage. She loves children, that is why she eager to adopt a son. She is very kind, wwe could see how she very softly to the children.
    Conclusion
    the message of this story is “adoption can be a way to help your child to have a good live if you are unable to earn a living”. De Mauppasant, the reader is really good in make an example of a poor family. They succeed because they can let their son being adopt. They love their son. This love make their son could get a good life. Some people may say that adoption is not good. But if we think about the children, their future, then it is not wrong if we let the children being adopt. Love can do everything to give happiness for the one we love.

  2. sir, i’ve already sent my assignment in your blog,but I sent it @ ” short story mid term”,, that’s why,now I send it back to you in this blog.
    A PLOT ANALYSIS OF Mo McAuley ‘Mr. STICKY’S’
    Introduction
    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense if offers. Compares to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experience, emotion and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to relity. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to see the relationship among the actions and events that develop the plot. Some others may find it intricate to make out the theme. Some others find it complicated to figure out the characters’ qualities. Satill some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and Mr.Sticky in particular. The short story is interesting to analyze because it tells about the child who want to know about natural’s life in her enviropment.
    Synopsis of Mr.Sticky
    No one knew how Mr. Sticky got in the fish tank,because he’s very small as she peered at the tiny water snail. Just a black dot. But abby believe a snail will grow up. There is Gerry, the fat orange goldfish, was dozing inside the stone archway. Jaws was already awake, swimming along the front of the tank with his white tail floating and twitching. It took Abby a while to find Mr. Sticky because he was clinging to the glass near the bottom, right next to the gravel. At school that day she wrote about the mysterious Mr. Sticky who was so small you could mistake him for a piece of gravel. Some of the girls in her class said he seemed an ideal pet for her and kept giggling about it. That night Abby turned on the light to find Mr. Sticky clinging to the very tiniest, waviest tip of the pond weed. It was near the water filter so he was bobbing about in the air bubbles. She tried to imagine what it must be like to have to hang on to things all day and decided it was probably very tiring. She fed the fish then lay on her bed and watched them chase each other round and round the archway. When they stopped Gerry began nibbling at the pond weed with his big pouty lips. He sucked Mr. Sticky into his mouth then blew him back out again in a stream of water. The snail floated down to the bottom of the tank among the coloured gravel. But she don’t want a snail to get too big.
    At school that day, Abby drew an elephant. She needed two pieces of expensive paper to do both ends but the teacher didn’t mind because she was pleased with the drawing and wanted it on the wall. They sellotaped them together, right across the elephant’s middle. In the corner of the picture, Abby wrote her full name, Abigail, and drew tiny snails for the dots on the ‘i’s The teacher said that was very creative.
    At the weekend they cleaned out the tank.There’s a lot of algae on the sides. They scooped the fish out and put them in a bowl while they emptied some of the water. Mr. Sticky stayed out of the way, clinging to the glass while Mum used the special ‘vacuum cleaner’ to clean the gravel. Abby trimmed the new pieces of pond weed down to size and scrubbed the archway and the filter tube. Mum poured new water into the tank. Abby looked on all sides of the tank. There was no sign of the water snail. That evening Abby went up to her bedroom to check the tank. The water had settled and looked lovely and clear but there was no sign of Mr. Sticky. She lay on her bed and did some exercises, stretching out her legs and feet and pointing her toes. Stretching was good for your muscles and made you look tall a model had said on the t.v. and she looked enormous. When Abby had finished, she kneeled down to have another look in the tank but there was still no sign of Mr. Sticky. She went downstairs. Her mum was in the study surrounded by papers. She had her glasses on and her hair was all over the place where she’d been running her hands through it. She looked impatient when she saw Abby in the doorway and even more impatient when she heard the bad news. Abby felt her face go hot and red. It always happened when she was angry or upset.
    Abby angry and go to her bedroom, the door to the bedroom opened and Mum’s face appeared around the crack. Abby tried to ignore her but it was hard when she walked over to the bed and sat next to her. She was holding her glasses in her hand. She waved them at Abby.her mum show the pair of the snail, and bring the magnifying glass to saw both of them. They sat beside each other on the floor. On their knees they shuffled around the tank, peering into the corners among the big pebbles, at the gravel and the pondweed. Her mum cried and pointing something, there, tucked in the curve of the archway, perfectly hidden against the dark stone, sat Mr. Sticky. And right next to him was another water snail, even smaller than him. There is surprise because there is Mrs.Sticky.They both laughed and climbed into Abby’s bed together, cuddling down under the duvet. It was cozy but a bit of a squeeze. Abby put her head on her mum’s chest and smiled.
    Analysis of plot
    Mr.Sticky has a regular structure so that it can be neatly divided into four stages : exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. Exposition paragraph introduce the reader with the place and time setting and the two major characters, i.e. a snail got in the fish tank, the snail come suddenly. Abby, the little girl, found it,she gave a snail’s name was Mr.Sticky and she wanted to see the snail grow, so she let it lived in her tank with the fish.
    The conflict is directly proceeded with first complication i.e. Abby’s mother cleaned up the tank and Abby’s mother didn’t tell to abby that she had moved the snail to another thing.
    And the climax is reached when the tank is cleaned,then abby played with the fish and she look for the snail,she moved her finger to left and right to get attention but there was not a snail. She was angry then asked her mother, after that she cried.
    Soon after the climax, Mo McAuley presented the denouement, i.e. Abby’s mother persuaded her daughter and give surprise to her because there are two snail in the glass thing, abby was happy and she tried to looked at 2 snails ( Mr. Sticky and Mrs.Sticky) by a magnifying glass.
    Conclusion
    Although a snail as Mr.Sticky does not do anything, it can be the objective of this story, so that the story is written using a chonological plot is far from boring. Because this story is suitable for the children who like read this book, they can get many knowledge and they will think about the interesting moment that they ever done.
    Bibliography :
    Pardede, Parlindungan.2008. An Introduction to the study of fition. Jakarta
    http://www.eastoftheweb.com/short-stories/UBooks/MrStic.shtml

  3. Sorry sir I change my short story become “They Say I’m Fat”
    Analysis of “They Say I’m Fat”
    By: Jhon Hawern

    Introduction
    Short story is the result of an author’s imagination. A short story is usually taken from an experience or observation of the author. Even short stories are usually drawn from a true story. The author usually makes a short story based on experience or observations which seem more realistic or close to real life readers. This analysis is one attempt to analyze the character of the figures in the story “They Say I’m Fat”.

    Synopsis Story
    This story tells about a girl named Gina who has chubby cheeks and a super body fat. She was having bad luck because his body fat makes him insecure. Everyone who saw him would always want to pinch his cheeks. Rudi Even when high school friends always wanted to pinch her cheeks Gina. Gina thinks when he entered the university there will be no friends to pinch his cheeks, but the fact is there still a nosy friend Gina to ridicule fat even though she no longer dared to pinch his cheeks.

    When entering the university Gina started to like a guy named Gunawan. Gunawan is a classmate Gina’s view of others, he is an ordinary guy wrote. But there is something that makes Gina interested in the attitude of Gunawan, who can accept what is.

    Lately Gina felt that Gunawan was medekati him. Proximity Gina and Guanwan cause unpleasant rumors among students as the issues and gossip that is not clear where it came from originally. But Gina did not ignore the rumors that circulated was because Gina Gunawan considers that it is only a friend.

    But the more he did not ignore the rumors, gossip and more widespread as a result of rumors that Gunawan earned the nickname “uhuy”. For info, actually said “uhuy” be awarded as the third person singular pronoun for people who are more in the process PDKT.

    In Gina’s mind, he felt that Gunawan not have the heart to Gina because she sees in behavior Gunawan, who treats all women with the same behavior. One day Gina Gunawan invited to lunch when they sat together . in this condition becomes crisp. Gina finally began talks with pretending to borrow lecture notes.

    At the start of talks Gunawan talked about issues that chubby cheeks Gina. Due to hear statements Gunawan, who talked about the problem Gina, making Gina feel discouraged and offended. But when he saw Gunawan who inadvertently discuss the problem Gina felt guilty because it was offended.

    Then Gunawan want to say something to make the heart Gina curious. With Gina’s curiosity to know what to say by Gunawan, Gina waited. After a long wait with a sense of wonder and fantasy that makes Gina blushed. Where is the thinking part that talks are going to say is about feeling Gunawan Gunawan against Gina. However the thought Gina was contrary to what you want in expressed by Gunawan. It turns out unexpectedly, Gunawan just want to borrow money to Gina because Gunawan was broken out.

    B. Analytical characterizations
    In this analysis are discussed in detail and characterizations Gina and Gunawan whereas other minor characters such as Rudi and Yanti.

    1. Gina
    In this story Gina described as a girl who has a problem with excessive weight, so he has always been a subject of ridicule my friend’s class. With the ridicule of his friends he often felt offended and discouraged. Character of Gina in this story is so confident with her body condition.

    2. Gunawan
    Gunawan was a boy who can socialize well to all his friends. He is a friend of Gina who can accept what Gina is.

    3. Rudi
    In this story Rudi is described as an ordinary person. He is who Gina likes. He is also a good friend Gina who had been friends a long time with Gina.

    4. Yanti
    Yanti is Gina’s friends while he was in college. Jackie was a good person and that always makes the heart cheerful Gina happy.

    Conclusion
    Based on the results of the analysis the authors argue that Gina’s story is one that does not have a sense of confidence with her body shape. After we read this we can see the author wanted to convey that we should be confident with whatever our condition because in the eyes of God all the same.

  4. THE KING MIDAS AND THE GOLDEN TOUCH
    written by Upton Sinclair

    *INTRODUCTION

    As a work of literature, short stories is a result rather than an author’s imagination or thought. The content of a fiction usually the result of an observation or experience of the author. Even a short story is not simply the result of an imagination but also comes from a true story. Short stories are usually based on an experience or observation of even a true story written by authors, who in turn look more realistic and closer to the lives of its readers. The discussion is focused on the short story character analysis of the main character, and character of the entire discussion is done only based on the content of stories.

    *SYNOPSIS OF THE KING MIDAS AND THE GOLDEN TOUCH

    King Midas story about a king who is very rich compared with other kings. King Midas lived with his golden treasure so much. He was very fond of gold, even in the palace there is a fortress that is specific to save the gold. King Midas is very greedy, because he never had enough with the gold he had. Once, when King Midas was counting his gold came a fairy, and King Midas-gold also asked to be given more abundant again. He always wants more gold, even she thinks that happiness lies only in the gold it has, for King Midas and the gold is the most beautiful thing in this world. Even gold is much more important than his son, Marygold. While, the fairies granted his request to give more gold, then anything that King Midas touched directly will definitely turn into gold. To ensure the appointment of the fairies, he touched upon awakening whatever is around him, and magical items whatever it touches turns to gold. King Midas is very happy about it. But after a while he found it difficult because, food and drink turned into solid gold, even his son Marygold turned into a golden statue. With feelings of sadness and regret he continues to call fairies to restore the situation as before, especially her little daughter who had been let. King Midas finally realize that true happiness lies not in the number of gold he had.

    *CHARACTER ANALYZE (King Midas)

    The characterization of the King Midas used the expository and dramatic method to describe the King Midas. In this story the King Midas is the greedy man and ungrateful man for what he had (like the King’s said) :

    “”As you see, I have this room full of gold, but I should like much more; for gold is the best and the most wonderful thing in the world.”

    “If I could have but one wish,” said the King, “I would ask that everything I touch should turn to beautiful yellow gold.”

    In general, the King Midas and the Golden Touch story reveals the life of King Midas who always wanted to get a lot of gold. King Midas interest in gold, making him forget the life around it. King Midas has more importance than any gold, including his son, Marygold. With greed and lack of gratitude, he hoped whatever it touches or anything around it can be turned into gold. King Midas think gold is the most beautiful and most important in his life, and assume that true happiness is in the gold he had. But in the end, because his desire is so strong in gold brings him in a loneliness, sadness and destruction. King Midas gets a chance to turn everything into gold with just a touch, and he was so happy. Until the end, he can not eat and drink because all into gold, and with feelings of sadness he saw his daughter also turned into a golden statue. King Midas characters in this story looks so interested in gold, which makes him a greedy and there is no gratitude. In this story of King Midas must feel sorrow only because of the desire and greed.

    *CONCLUSION

    Based on the results of character analysis is done, I would argue that in the King Midas and the Golden Touch, Sinclair was able to describe the character of King Midas, the greedy, no sense of gratitude, not caring for others, and considered a treasure far more important than anything which is able to brings the reader to imagine the real life. The main factors that indicate success in mengahadirkan Sinclair King Midas greed is the number of plot lines that show the desire of King Midas gold.

    The success of King Midas Sinclair described the figures can not be separated in two respects. First, apply the depiction of character in Sinclair expository method. Second, the sentences used in this story is relatively simple and easy to understand readers.

    The use of expository and dramatic methods in describing the character King Midas greatly assist readers in knowing the character of King Midas. In the expository method the authors describe the behavior of King Midas with very clear. The use of dramatic methods in this story are seen in action, speech, and mind of the protagonist King Midas.

    With the various actions and utterances of King Midas, authors were able to convey a moral message for the readers. Where from this story, the writer said that we should not become a human being greedy, always want the more things without words of gratitude, should care for one another, and never assume that an abundance of gold and treasure the truth does not guarantee happiness . For that story of the King Midas and the Golden Touch is worth reading, because it provides a variety of good moral messages through the character of King Midas.

  5. Sir I want to change this story become “A couple’s dream”

    Analysis of the main character in the story “a couple’s dream”
    By: Adhi Karya

    Introduction
    As literature, Fiction, (novel, novelette, short stories), is the result of the author’s imagination. The short story is usually made from life experiences or events experienced by the author.
    Although fiction is an attempt to express the experience of life, they often have difficulty understanding that in reading fiction. As a result, the messages conveyed by the author are not understood completely. These capabilities also occur due to lack of the ability of readers to analyze the text.
    Analysis of these characterizations is one effort to assist the reader in understanding the short story in general and specifically. The discussion in this analysis focused on the main character.

    A. Synopsis novel
    Two childrens sitting on the class, along with another childrens, they want to drawing on A3 paper, entitled “My Dream “. Nusa and Rei a child attending kindergarten, they’re drawing ideals their dream. Rei drawing robot because he wants to be an engineer while Nusa have a dream to build a nice big house for father, grandmother, Nusa, and Rei can play together with the robots in the dream by Rei. Since that they become friend.

    Nusa and Rei graduated kindergarten together. Rei and Nusa continue to Senior high schools in the same school. Nusa’s father was a successful businessman. Nusa’s father had succeeded in developing a small shop, which he founded before Nusa was born into a large company that has many branches in different regions. Rei lives with his grandparents since childhood. Rei’s grandfather was a building contractor. Nusa and Rei are enjoying their adolescence. They meet, travel, and play freely like there is nothing that can hinder their joy.

    Nusa and Rei graduated High School together. Nusa and Rei continue their education to college the same country. Nusa majored in management at the suggestion of his father. Nusa is planned to be a substitute for his father at a later date. Nusa supports parents’ plans. Rei chose the architecture, different majors with Nusa. Rei is often argued with his grandfather about his duties. Rei was busy with college activities, while Nusa busy with the activities of organization in his campus.
    Nusa and Rei graduated from the university together. Nusa offered to continue his studies by his parents, but Nusa decided to look for work experience first. Nusa got a job as a marketer at an international bank. The work at the bank is the dream of many people. Work in air-conditioned office in the city center with facilities and a satisfactory salary. Rei got a scholarship to study abroad. Nusa provide support to Rei. At first, Nusa and Rei still reverberate e-mail each other. E-mail from Nusa contains a story about him and his friends, accomplishments achieved, until boredom at work. E-mail from Rei contains a story about him and his college friends, photographs of him, and words of encouragement for Nusa strands. Over time, the reply from Rei and Nusa was slowly. The phone also rarely returned. Their relations increasingly rare the gulf between them increasingly wide and deep.

    Two years later they were almost never communicate again. Nusa decided to quit her job and she applied to a famous private university abroad. Nusa think that higher education will make her better. Nusa choose the master management. Rei was already somewhere they have not been communicating. The next day head to the airport there Nusa and Rei met they discussing about their past when I was in junior kindergarten. Nusa remembered the picture of she and Rei create images to make a nice house for her father and her grandmather, while Nusa create images of robots. Rei into the architecture department of desire his own, while the entrance Nusa management majors of his own accord based on the advice his father.

    It was time to separte with Rei. Nusa hugged Rei for a while. Rei Nusa leaded to the departure gate. They split up again. Nusa leave Rei for her future, but this time Nusa said to himself that – it’s never too late to change.

    B. Analytical characterizations
    even though in “A couple’s dream” there are five figures are included in the main character are Nusa and Rei. Their presence greatly affects on this story. In this story the other characters such as Nusa, Nusa’s father, grandmother’s Nusa, Rei, and Rei’s grandparents is only a supporting actor. In the following analysis, in this analysis we discussed in detail only Nusa characterizations and Rei.

    1. Nusa
    At the beginning of the story, Nusa described as a good-hearted girl who has a dream to build a large and beautiful house for her father, and grandmother. Nusa has friend Named Rei their have been friends since they were on the kindergarten until now. While in college majoring in management Nusa pick up his father’s advice. Nusa is planned to be a substitute for his father at a later date. Nusa supports parents’ plans. After graduating from college Nusa searching her experiance by working until finally her job Nusa felt so bored and tired of her job. She think that higher education will make him better. When Nusa separte with Rei. Nusa said to himself that – it’s never too late to change. In this story the author uses Expository character.

    2. Rei
    Rei is described as young leaders proved wise when he had the ideals he continued his ideals. Since childhood, Rei make a robot. When he entered college majoring in architecture Rei choose, different majors with Nusa little friend sitting on a park bench when a child. Rei into the architecture department of his own desire, Rei lives with his grandparents since childhood. Rei’s grandfather was a building contractor. Rei got a scholarship to study abroad. In this story the author emphasizes that a resolute Rei.

    Conclusion
    Based on the results of the analysis conducted, the authors argue that the main character in “a couple’s dream” has a different character shown in figure Nusa and Rei. Nusa a girl who has aspirations to build a big house but have majored in management majors are required to by herfather. While Rei a resolute man he aspired to create a robot when he was continue in university as he majored in architecture. In this case I wanted to convey the message that if we have the ideals that we want as a child then we must try to make it happen. Until a later date we will not regret it.

  6. A Setting analysis “The Lottery”
    By Shirley Jackson

    Introduction
    “The Lottery” is a short story by Shirley Jackson, first published in the June 26, 1948, issue of The New Yorker. Jackson’s fiction is noted for exploring incongruities in everyday life, and “The Lottery,” perhaps her most exemplary work in this respect, examines humanity’s capacity for evil within a contemporary, familiar, American setting. Noting that the story’s characters, physical environment, and even its climactic action lack significant individuating detail, most critics view “The Lottery” as a modern-day parable or fable which obliquely addresses a variety of themes, including the dark side of human nature, the danger of ritualized behavior, and the potential for cruelty when the individual submits to the mass will.

    Synopsis “The Lottery”
    On a warm day in June 27th, the townspeople, starting with the children, begin to assemble for the lottery to begin at ten in the morning. It will conclude in time for lunch. While the girls chat to one side, the boys, including Bobby Martin, Harry Jones, and Dickie Delacroix, begin to pocket stones. Shortly thereafter, the men and women begin to gather, chatting amongst themselves before standing together as families.
    The lottery is conducted by Mr. Summers, who has no children and whose wife is unpleasant. He is assisted by Mr. Graves, who follows him to bring the stool upon which Mr. Summers places a very worn black box. The black box used for the lottery is even older than the oldest town citizen, Old Man Warner. Mr. Summers stirs the slips of paper inside the black box. Originally, chips of wood were used, but as the town’s population increased, Mr. Summers was forced to switch to paper in order to fit all of the slips inside the box.
    Before commencing the lottery, several lists had to be made: heads of households, heads of families, and members of each family. Mr. Summers efficiently tends to all of the details and prepares to start the lottery. Mrs. Tess Hutchinson is nearly late, but she arrives just in time to join her family in the crowd. She stands next to her husband, Bill, and their children.
    Mr. Summers makes sure that everyone who needs to be at the lottery is present and accounts for those who are unable to attend. Then, the lottery begins.
    Mr. Summers begins to call the names of each family alphabetically, and each head of the household, usually the husband and father, comes forward to take a slip of paper from the black box. As this happens, Mr. Adams mentions to Old Man Warner that a nearby village is considering giving up the lottery. Old Man Warner expresses derision for this suggestion, calling those people a “pack of young fools”.
    Once all of the heads of households receive slips, they simultaneously check them. Bill Hutchinson has selected the special slip, and his family is singled out. Tess Hutchinson expresses her discontent and accuses Mrs. Summers of not giving her husband enough time to select his slip. Nonetheless, Mr. Summers rearranges the box so that it holds only five slips for the Hutchinson family. The family comes forth, and each of them, Mr. and Mrs. Hutchinson and their three children, select one of the five slips in the box.
    One by one, the children, then Mr. Hutchinson, reveal that their slips of paper are blank. The town realizes that Tess holds the remaining piece of paper with the black dot. The villagers start to collect stones, Mrs. Delacroix selecting one that is so large she can hardly carry it. As Tess Hutchinson protests, everyone, even her own children and husband, descend upon her and stone her to death.

    Setting Analysis

    Shirley Jackson takes great care in creating a setting for the story, The Lottery. She gives the reader a sense of comfort and stability from the very beginning. It begins, “clear and sunny, with the fresh warmth of a full-summer day; the flowers were blossoming profusely and the grass was richly green.” The setting throughout The Lottery creates a sense of peacefulness and tranquility, while portraying a typical town on a normal summer day. With the very first words, Jackson begins to establish the environment for her plot. To begin, she tells the reader that the story takes place on an early summer morning. This helps in providing a focus of the typicality of this small town, a normal rural community. She also mentions that school has just recently let out for summer break, which of course allows the children to run around at that time of day. Furthermore, she describes the grass as “richly green and “the flowers were blooming profusely. These descriptions of the surroundings give the reader a serene feeling about the town. The location of the square, “between the post office and the bank, proves the smallness of this town, since everything centralizes at or near the town square and it acts as the primary location for the remaining part of the story, playing a significant role at the end setting of the story. Up to this point, nothing unordinary has happened, which might later reflect an ironic ending. Eventually, small hints about the unusualness of this town are added. The author points out significant buildings that surround the town square, but fails to describe a church or a courthouse, which are common buildings to all communities. In this, there seems to be no central governing body for this town, such as a court or a police station. Also, oddly enough, these people celebrate Halloween but not Christmas, Easter or Thanksgiving, the largest holidays that normal people celebrate. However, Halloween implicates a certain proneness to defiant, evil activities. In addition, the children are building a great pile of stones in one corner of the square.” An impression of the children as normal children gathering rocks is counterbalanced by their ironical construction a massive pile of stones in one corner, as if they were punished through labor. The introduction of the black box acts as the major turning point for the setting. It symbolizes an immoral act to the villagers as “the villagers kept their distance from it. The introduction of the black box into the setting changes the mood and the atmosphere of the residents as they become uneasy around it. Furthermore, the black box changes the mood from serene and peaceful to ominous, where the moment of illumination reaches climax at the very end of the story. Through her use of subtle details in the setting, Shirley Jackson foreshadows the wicked emotional ending, which lacks official authorities, by the incoherent mentioning of stones. Indeed, the story starts to feel more and more uncomfortable, and the commonplace attitude of the townspeople remains even during the stoning of Mrs. Hutchinson. They are all unaffected by the outcome except for, obviously, the victim of their collaborate murder. Near the end, one of the women casually tells the victim to “be a good sport” as they slaughter her with stones. In spite of the peaceful mood created by the town setting, everyone commits a brutal act by stoning an innocent person. Throughout The Lottery, the setting plays a significant role in portraying irony in the plot. However, Shirley Jackson does not end her story with a resolution to the plot, but she illustrates the irony she sees in the world through a creative ironical setting. Indeed, the setting expresses The Lottery’s theme of a hidden reality beneath the surface of everyday lives.

    Conclusion
    The short story “The Lottery” gives the reader a false sense of rural tranquility as the narrator describes the farmer’s communication, the children gathering rocks, the rural scenery and the upcoming activity of the lottery. People are hurrying towards the event as if it will be something good. One is never old that something will be won but the title speaks for the idea of winning something good. When Tessie is chosen to be the one to die, she receives no emotional response from the community remembers other than a sense of irritation at her complaints and disruption of the process. They stone her to death and return to their activities like nothing happened. The people’s acceptance of such a cruel fate administered by their own hands and their blank responses to their actions is really where the horror lies.

    Bibliography
    http://www.americanliterature.com/Jackson/SS/TheLottery.html

  7. CHARACTER OF ANALYSIS OF MATT HARTZOG’S “THE FOOTBALL HERO”

    Introduction
    Same with other literatures, fiction is processed result of author’s imagination. The material of fiction is based on author’s experience and observation on life. Some novels or short stories are inspired by reality but the material is not presented same with the underlying reality. In process of creating the story, the author chooses and modifies the material which he has to present his purpose.

    Considering that story in fiction is based on the author’s experience and observation on life, fiction seems more realistic or closer with reality, so more familiar to readers. The impression is caused because both short story and novel generally tell about certain aspects in ordinary people life. Therefore, enthusiasts of fiction are much more than connoisseurs of poetry or drama.

    Even fiction is a work of retelling of life experience, the readers often face difficulty to comprehend the fiction. Consequently, the values of humanism and art which given by the author often can not be understood fully. Most likely the difficulty is caused by lack of literature analysis ability among the readers.

    This analysis is attempt to help the readers to appreciate fiction in general and “The Football Hero”, a short story by Matt Hartzog in particular. The short story is interesting to analyze because the story presents good character aspect and can be applied in life in order to reveal the importance of learning by experience in one’s life.

    This paper is focused on character aspect. The analysis is carried out by using the structural approach because all discussions only based on the content of the short story. The presentation of analysis result uses conventions of academic writing.

    Analysis
    A. Synopsis of “The Football Hero”
    In the beginning, Ethan Johnson is a football player. He is a poor man and lives with only his mother. His father was dead when he was child. Now, he studies in one school and joins the football team. He is a good football player and smart student. He tries to get a scholarship through keep practicing.

    Ethan likes to drink. One day, he is driving and gets an accident. It injures his neck and spine. The accident happens because before driving, he drunk an alcohol. His mother cries for him and also his best friend, George comes to him and gives a support.

    The test for main football player begins. He practices, works, and exercises and also he is very confident to face the test. After the test is done, he is looking for the result. He can not find his name in the list. Unfortunately, there is no his name in the list. It indicated that he is failed. The coach says that it is to big a risk to allow him joins the football team with his injury.

    In adversity and dissatisfaction, he was remembered by his father’s words. Before his father dead, he ever told to him that he should be like the river, relentless and always moving forward. These words strengthened and woke him from the adversity. Finally, in the end of the story, he was one of the most famous sports writers and alcohol activists in the country.

    B. Analysis of Character
    There are five characters “The Football Hero”, all characters consist of human figures: Ethan Johnson, mother, father, George, and the coach. By seeing development of the story, the major character of this story is Ethan Johnson. Mother and father are the minor characters, they function is to support the presence of Ethan Johnson. George and the coach are foil, they are presented only to create bustling atmosphere in order to the story seems more realistic.

    1. Ethan Johnson
    The first thing that we can see in Ethan Johnson is he loves her parent. He only has mother, his father was dead when he was child, so he do everything to make her happy: “He knew his mother was lonely after the passing of his father so he did all he could to keep her happy, even if it meant leaving the biggest party of the fall to be home.”

    Ethan Johnson is a smart boy. He gets offer from top colleges: “Ethan had been on track to break every single local and state career record for high school players, and was already getting offers from top colleges in his junior year.”

    Ethan also has a bad side, he likes to drink an alcohol and drunk: “Ethan had been drinking after a big victory over cross town rivals, The Glendale Mountain Bears.” It causes an accident, it injures his neck and spine: “He had done this but now due to the injuries in his neck and spine that he had suffered that fateful night.”

    Ethan is hard worker. He always keeps practicing and does a hard work to reach his dream: “Ethan trained with the team all year. He worked out and exercised non-stop. Ethan had in addition to his football dreams, begun to work against drunk driving.”

    The most important Ethan’s Character is he never gives up. Even there are a lot of accident and problem in his life, he can rise from the adversity and sorrow: “He was once the biggest football hero in town, and now he was just that, a former football hero with nothing…. He had done this but now due to the injuries in his neck and spine that he had suffered that fateful night. After spending months learning to walk again, after all the training and working he had gotten himself almost back to where he was physically before the wreck, he had still lost it all.” From this diversity and sorrow, he is remembered by his father’s words which say that not to give up: “The emotion rushed through him like the Mississippi river his father had once taken him to see. His father told him to be like the river, relentless and always moving forward.” Because of his father’s words, Ethan has strength to rise from his adversity and sorrow and now he reaches his dream and become a successful man: “Ethan Johnson is now one of the most famous sports writers and alcohol activists in the country. He may never score another touchdown, but he is the most successful football player to ever live.”

    2. Mother
    The dominant character of mother is her lover nature. She loves his son very much. It proved by when Ethan gets an accident, she cries: “Next thing that Ethan heard was the sound of his mother’s quiet sobs coming from across the room.”

    3. Father
    In this story, father was dead but he always supports his son not to give up through his words: “His father told him to be like the river, relentless and always moving forward.” Because of these words, Ethan has strength to rise and become a successful man.

    4. George
    George is Ethan’s best friend since pre-school. He is a kind man. He supports Ethan when he gets an accident: “Leaving already, you barely caught a buzz”, this was the unmistakable voice of George.”

    5. The Coach
    The coach of Ethan’s football team is a wise man. The coach does not allow Ethan to join in football team because his injured neck and spine from the accident: “It’s to big a risk”. This is the only answer the coach had given him.”

    Conclusion
    On the whole of the story, element of character in “The Football Hero” is used by Matt Hartzog to present theme: “to reach our dream, we have to keep practicing and never give up although there are a lot of problems in our life.” Ethan Johnson describes a man who rises from adversity. When he gets an accident, his mother cries for him, and his best friend, George comes to him and gives a support. Even he trains, works, and exercises hard, the coach does not allow him to join the football team because his injury. It makes him in adversity and sorrow. Then, his father’s words bring him to rise from adversity and lead him to reach his dream. Hartzog also stressed that in order to rise from adversity, we can not rely on others but it depends on ourselves.

    Bibliography
    http://www.helium.com/items/2155447-football-hero

    1. Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI.

  8. A PLOT ANALYSIS OF
    FLANNERY O’CONNOR’S “A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND”

    Introduction

    Fiction is type of book or story which is written about imaginary characters and events and not based on real people and facts. It’s a fantasy essay of the author. fiction describes the experiences, emotions and behavior of human life that seems like a true story. not all readers are able to comprehend the story presented by the author. This is due to a lack of understanding of literary style. According to Kurland, D (2000) with fiction, the meaning is dependant on the perceptions, imagination, and feelings of the reader. However, we demand that an interpretation be based on evidence on the page. The art of understanding is understanding one’s own interests, values, and desires and how they affect what one looks for and how one thinks about what one finds.
    As well as short story “A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND” is interesting to analyze because it converts people who have not yet fully accepted the Christian faith. O’Conner, herself being a strong believer in Christianity, probably thought that writing this story will help make people who aren’t really living by the Christian rules to seriously consider doing so. This analysis deals with plot of the short story which is focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND

    A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND is a short story written by the Flannery O’Connor, a religious writer. It starts when grandmother complaining to her son, Bailey, that she would rather go to Tennessee for vacation than Florida. The family resolves to go to Florida regardless. She spites them by rising early and waiting in the car, dressed in her Sunday best, so that if she should die in an accident she will be recognized as a lady.

    Grandmother is talking along the trip, retelling her youth in the Old South and commenting on various things what she sees. When the family stops at a diner, called which called The Tower, for lunch, she engages the owner, Red Sammy, in conversation about an escaped murderer known as the Misfit. The grandmother agrees with Sammy’s assertion that a good man is increasingly hard to find.

    After having lunch, they continue their trip to Florida. Grandmother is trying again to detour the family away from Florida, by telling stories about a nearby home that she had visited as a child. Upon hearing that it has secret passages, the children become fixated on visiting the house, and they pester their father until he agrees to follow the grandmother’s directions. When her directions lead them down an abandoned dirt road, she realizes that the house is, in fact, in Tennessee and not Georgia. Flustered, she upsets her cat, which panics, causing Bailey to lose control and end up in a ditch. The children view the accident as an adventure, the grandmother feigns an internal injury in order to gain sympathy.

    While the family is waiting for help, three men get out, the leader a shirtless, bespectacled man. All three men have guns. The man in glasses instructs his cohorts to inspect the family’s car and engages Bailey in polite conversation until the grandmother identifies him as an escaped convict known as “The Misfit.” The Misfit shot his own father, he says, though he says that’s what he’s been told –he doesn’t believe it. As The Misfit instructs his accomplices to murder the family one by one, the grandmother begins pleading for her own life by flattering The Misfit. When the Misfit ignores her pleas, she becomes speechless. Panicked, she attempts to witness about Jesus. The Misfit becomes visibly angry: he is angry with Christ for having given no physical evidence for His existence, casting doubt about the legitimacy of Christianity. He does not want to waste his life serving a figure who may not exist, nor does he want to displease an almighty God who may exist; he has settled on the idea that “There’s no pleasure but meanness.” The grandmother suddenly exclaims “Why you’re one of my babies. You’re one of my own children!”, and reaches out and touches The Misfit. He recoils and shoots her three times.

    After the Misfit murders the family, he cleans his glasses, concluding that the grandmother would have been a good woman, if it had been somebody there to shoot her every minute of her life. When his accomplice comments on the fun that they’ve had in killing, the Misfit tells him, “It’s no real pleasure in life.”

    2. Types of Plot

    A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND is written in a chronological plot. From the beginning until the end of the story all events are arranged in order of time and the place where the story takes place.

    3. Stages and Elements of Plot
    A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND has four stages : exposition, complication, climax, and resolution. The first paragraph is presented exposition. The first paragraph tells the readers about the time and place and the major characters in the story. The story begins when the grandmother insists and tries to convince her son, Bailey, and his wife to take the family to east Tennessee for vacation instead of Florida.
    “The grandmother didn’t want to go to Florida. She wanted to visit some of her connections in east Tennes- see and she was seizing at every chance to change Bailey’s mind” (first paragraph).

    The complication happens when the family drives deep into the woods. The grandmother suddenly remembers that the house was in Tennessee, not in Georgia until she (grandmother) upsets her cat, which panics, causing Bailey to lose control and end up in a ditch. The children view the accident as an adventure, the grandmother feigns an internal injury in order to gain sympathy. The climax comes when the Misfit kills the grandmother and the family.

    Conclusion

    “A Good Man is Hard to Find” is an exceptionally well-written short story with both tension and provoking religious content. The ending doesn’t come as much of a surprise, though, it still is good for a short story. The plot may be a bit illogical when given more thought, but overall this is an exciting and interesting work, which can be enjoyed by non-Christian readers as well.

  9. The Characterization Analysis of “Hansel and Gretel”
    By : Sri Dewi A
    NIM : 1012157009

    Introduction
    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experiences, emotions, and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to reality. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to throughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for, instance, find it difficult to see the relationship among the actions and events that develop the plot. Some others may find it intricated to make out the theme. Some others find it complicated to figure out the characters’ qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented.
    To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. Literary analysis is indeed an intricated process because it necessitates a good understanding of the works elements and how these elements combined to create a unified literary work.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and Hansel and Gretel, a short story by Brothers Grimm in particular whose their works are best known as story tellers of European folk tales. The Brothers Grimm, Jacob Grimm (January 4, 1785-September 20, 1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (February 24, 1786-Dcember 16, 1859), were german academics, linguists, and cultural researchers who collected folklore and published several collections of it as Grimm’s Fairy Tales, which became very popular. The short story is interesting to analyze because it shows how the heroic children survive their horrible ordeal against unsurmountable odds.
    This paper focus on the characters of the short story. The analysis is carried out by using the structural approach and is based on the transcendental phenomenology. This study also aims to analyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.

    Analysis

    A. Synopsis of Hansel and Gretel
    Hansel and Gretel is a short story written by showing a family relationship between two little children, their father and step mom. A forest is taken as a setting of this short story where those two little children have to be survive in a very hard situation. It starts when their step mom told their father who is a woodcutter to bring the two children at the forest and just leave them there. They are so poor that they cannot afford to feed them anymore. While in the forest, the two stumbled upon a house make of candies and chocolates. Because they are both hungry, they go inside to eat, not knowing that the woman who lives there is a witch who eats little children. The witch puts Hansel in a cage and let Gretel do the house choirs. She also told Gretel to never forget to feed her Brother. But when Gretel finds out that if her brother becomes fat, the witch will cook and eat him. She tells Hansel about this and they come up with a plan. When the time comes that Hansel will be cooked, Gretel tells the witch that there is something wrong with the oven. So the witch gets inside the oven to take a look, Gretel takes the opportunity and shoves her more inside the oven. She releases Hansel and they run away from the witch’s house. Just in time, their father is looking all over the forest for them. He realizes that he can’t live without his two kids. As the two kids meet their father, they live peacefully without their step mom. . This story shows how tight the bond of a family is. A family is always there to help and give support. Even if it means risking their own life just to save their love ones.

    B. Character Analysis
    Hansel and Gretel short story has five characters and all of them are as human being. Hansel, Gretel, their father and step mom, and a witch. The major character of the short story is Hansel and Gretel. Their roles are very important to make this story run well. They involve themselves in every part of this story. Their father, step mom and a witch are presented as minor characters to support the major characters. They involve themselves in certain part of this story. In this study, all the characters are discussed as follow :
    1. Hansel
    Hansel is a child who has a great love to his sister. He shows his love by taking care of his sister. He makes her as convenient as he can especially when they are left in the woods by their parents. It is stated “Don’t cry, trust me! I swear I will take you home even if father doesn’t come back for us” (p 7 ), “Don’t be afraid. I am here to look after you” (p 13). He is also a smart boy when he has to use his mind to handle the tricky way of his step mom. He collects t he pebbles to make a track of way home when he and his sister are left in the woods.
    2. Gretel
    Gretel is a calm little girl who needs a protection from her brother. Her scary feeling of her step mom behavior makes her uncomfortable and worry how to get out from the problem she has. “I’m frightened!” wept Gretel bitterly. “I’m cold and hungry and I want to go home!” (p 12). In addition, Gretel is a helpful girl who helps her brother in order not to be eaten by a wicked witch when they gets in a gingerbread house and her brother is caught in the trap. She finds the way how to stop a cruel witch by pushing her into the oven then finally they can get out from that house and get their way home.
    3. Hansel and Gretel’s father
    Hansel and Gretel’s father is a wood-cutter who is obedient to his wife (Hansel and Gretel’s stepmother). Even though he loves his children much, he can’t stop his wife running her plan that can make his children suffer from the hunger. He does not know how to do when his wife keep on trying to persuade him to abondan his children in the woods. He is a type of person that has lack of confident so he is not able to control his wife in treating his children. His static characterization is showed when he still proves his love by searching his children in the woods after his wife died at the end of the story. Then finally he meets them and they live happily. “Your stepmother is dead. Come home with me now, my dear children!” (p 27).

    4. Hansel and Gretel’s step mom
    The character of a step mom in this story is round. She is a wicked, cruel, mean, uncaring, and self-centered individual. In Hansel and Gretel, the stepmother was a wicked person that disliked her step-children and thought only of herself. Her fear of dying from starvation was evident in the story. She told her meek husband that “There is not enough food in the housefor us all. There are too many mouths to feed. We must get rid of the two brats”.(p 2)
    “Take them miles from home, so far that they can never find their way back! Maybe someone will find them and them a home” (p 3). As stated in the quote, it proves that the evil stepmother is naïve and only thinks of herself when it comes to survival.
    5. Witch
    The character of a witch in the story of Hansel and Gretel is round as well. She is portrayed as being a mean, tricky, cruel, old and evil person. She is so consumed by hunger that she devises a plan to fatten the children, so that she can eat them. The witch stated “I shall fatten you up and eat you”(p 21). “Let me feel yor fingers” (p 23).
    Brothers Grimm use a dramatic method to present the short story entitled “Hansel and Gretel”. They present the characters in the story by doing their actions and saying.
    Conclusion
    My overall view of the story, Hansel and Gretel, is that in spite of the shortcoming of their submissive father and their evil stepmother that the children do survive their ordeal of being abandoned. I am a very strong believer that the innocence of childhood should be cherished and that any adult that plays a role in a child’s life has the responsibility to protect that innocence. Furthermore, it shows now people can do cruel and unimaginable acts to others in order to survive. But the ending of the story shows hope and restores the reader’s belief that good does triumph over evil. Hansel and Gretel is a short story about the loss of innocence of two young children by the adults that are supposed to protect them from harm.
    This story is appropriate for the children. The detail is understandable for children. If you get the story through book, there are pictures on every page, so that also helps the children to be able to understand the story better. I like how creative the author is and how the story ends happily.
    Bibliography
    • Bottigheimer, Ruth. 1987. Grimms’ Bad Girls and Bold Boys.
    • Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction.

  10. AN ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERS OF ANTON CHEKHOV’S “A PINK STOCKING”
    (CRISTINE NATALIA)
    INTRODUCTION
    Inspite of the fact that fiction is the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers, material of a fiction is usually based on the author’s experinces or observation about life. Even, mostly novels or short stories are influenced by reality. In the process of making story, the author chooses dan modifies the ideas that he owned in accordance with his purpose. Remember that a story in fiction is based on experience or observation about life, or reality , fiction has impression more realistic and near with real life, so more friendly for people to read it. This short story “ a pink stocking” is one of good stories from anton chekhov. When we read the title at first time, it will make us curious about the story and there are many things that we can learn from this story.
    SYNOPSIS
    A Pink Stocking when an evening, rainy day and no prospect of the rain ceasing. In the room, there are husband and wife. Somov, the man who was angry when he knew his wife, Lidotchka did not understand to make a good letter or in the other words, she was rather foolish. He felt that his wife made him ashamed because she did not master the very rudiments of knowledge. His wife is a little lady who wore a light blouse and pink stockings and she was quite young become a wife or mother. The wife regretted and blamed her mother for her shallownes. In the dinner time, Somov was getting drunk and he realized about what he had done to his wife was such a stupid thing. He thought perhaps people are right when they say that woman’s shallowness rests on very vocation and her vocations are to love her husband, to bear the children, and to mix salad. He thought that the learned women are tedious, strict, and unyielding and it’s better and easier to live with simple ones like his wife, Lidotchka.
    ANALYSIS CHARACTER
    In the “A Pink Stocking” there are two characters only, Somov and Lidotchka. Seen from the characteristic intensity in the developing story, the major character in this story is Somov. Lidotchka is the minor that has role to support the character of Somov. So, there are two characters that will be discussed in this analysis.
    1. Somov
    At the fisrt time we can see character Somov in this story is not like to stay at home or properly he does not like with rain may be it causes he can not go anywhere. He grumbled at the weather and he is insufferably bored because he has nothing to do (p.4-5). Somov is also curious about other person did. It is showed by he want to read his wife’s letter.
    Somov is a arrogant husband. After he read the letter. He began to blame his wife about her careless in writing the letter. “ what’s the matter! You’ve covered six pages, wasted a good two hours scribbling, and there’s nothing in it at all! If there were one tiny idea! One reads on and on…”oh, I’m not talking about mistakes! The awful grammatical howlers!no stops nor commas” …..”I had no idea you were such a duffer at grammar….and yet belong to a cultivated, well-educated circle: you are the wife of a university man, and the daughter of a general! Tell me, did you ever go to the school?”
    He demands his wife to have knowledge because she is a mother and a wife but at the same time he does not like a learned woman. After he rethinks his statements to his wife, he realizes that it’s better to have a simply wife that never pokes her nose into anything, does not understand so much and never obstrudes her criticsm. It caused by he has thoughts about learned women are usually bookish, pedantic and unyielding.
    2. Lidotchka
    In the beginning of the story, Lidotchka as a pretty young lady who wears a light blouse and pink stockings. It describes that she is still young. We can see it from how she writes the letter to her sister varya, there are many blots, smears, and finger-marks.
    Eventhough She is not good in writing a letter. She is a good wife and mother. She can cooks and keeps her children. After her husband comments about she did, she feels oppressed and miserable. But she against her husband’s statement “that’s running to extremes, my girl! What’s the good of being a blue stocking! A blue stocking is the very deuce! Neither man or woman…..I hate blue stockings! I would never have married a learned woman.” And she replies “there’s no making you out..”…”you are angry because I am not learned and at the same time you hate learned woman:….” this conversation shows us actually she is not really foolish or blind of knowledge may be she just does not want to have squarell with her husband.
    CONCLUSION
    Overall, the characters in “A Pink Stocking” are used for to show the theme: “a husband must receive his partner life eventhough she has lack of knowledge and as a husband should support or push her to add her knowledge as a basic knowledge that she can share with others.”
    There is a interesting thing in this story is “a pink stocking” is not about outfit that usually worn by women but in this story a pink stocking is about the woman who has vocation as like wife or mother in the world or the woman who has much knowledge about everything (high education). In this story, the author also mention about “a blue stocking”. It describes about a learned woman, bookish and pedantic. It is antonym of a pink stocking.

  11. Name : Ema Marit
    revised mid-term short story analysis ” Seventeeth Summer ” By Maureen Daly
    CHARACTERIZATION IN THE SHORT STORY
    “SEVENTEETH SUMMER “ BY MAUREEN DALY

    Intoduction
    A short story is a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, often in narrative format. This format tends to be more pointed than longer works of fiction, such as novellas (in the 20th and 21st century sense) and novels. Short story definitions based on length differ somewhat, even among professional writers, in part because of the fragmentation of the medium into genres. Since the short story format includes a wide range of genres and styles, the actual length is determined by the individual author’s preference (or the story’s actual needs in terms of creative trajectory or story arc) and the submission guidelines relevant to the story’s actual market. Guidelines vary greatly among publishers.
    Many short story writers define their work through a combination of creative, personal expression, and artistic integrity. They attempt to resist categorization by genre as well as definition by numbers, finding such approaches limiting and counter-intuitive to artistic form and reasoning. As a result, definitions of the short story based on length splinter even more when the writing process is taken into consideration.
    Maureen Daly (March 15, 1921 – September 25, 2006), was an American author best known for her novel Seventeenth Summer (1942), one of the first to target a teenage audience.
    She was born in County Tyrone, Ulster, Ireland in 1921 and grew up in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, U.S. Daly won an O. Henry Award for her short story, Sixteen, while still at high school. Seventeenth Summer was written before she turned twenty. By 1982, it had gone into 45 hardback editions.
    She was one of what Time Magazine referred to as “the celebrated Daly sisters,” four sisters who were known for their writing and work in, journalism, fashion and advertising. In 1947 she married mystery and crime thriller writer William P. McGivern. They co-wrote “Mention My Name in Mombasa; the Unscheduled Adventures of an American Family Abroad,” which covered their times and adventures living oversees, including Africa, Torremolinos, Spain and Dublin and a visit to her birthplace, Castlecaulfield.
    Daly also worked as a journalist on papers and magazines including the Chicago Tribune, Ladies’ Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post. She later wrote a food column in the Palm Springs Desert Sun. She was awarded the American Freedom Foundation Medal in 1952.
    This paper deals with the character of the short story. Disscussion are focused on the charateristic analysis.
    ANALYSIS
    A. Synopsis of “ Seventeenth Summer “
    Seventeenth Summer is a book about a 17-year-old girl named Angeline “Angie” Morrow. It takes place in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. Angie gets asked out on her first date by the local high school’s basketball star, Jack Duluth, 18. They fall in love but soon the summer will end, for Angie has to go to college in Chicago, and Jack is going back to his home in Oklahoma to help his uncle with the bakery business. Jack falls in love with Angie, but Angie never says that she loves him back, so the question is, does she? The novel ends with Angie leaving for college and the two have a heartfelt goodbye.
    By the time Jack and Angie’s last day comes around the frost is coming in to kill the tomatoes. The love has a distinct beginning at the start of summer and a distinct death at the end of summer.
    While Jack introduces Angie to a crowd that is inconsistent with the one she was raised in, she is still able to maintain her sense of propriety. She never turns into a Jane Rady. In contrast Lorraine does not keep her sense of propriety and because of this is embarrassed to be with her own family. First on the Fourth of July, then when she sees Angie and Jack out on a date, and finally when she leaves for school early.
    The adolescent work was controversial for its time; though it deals with a chaste relationship between Jack and Angie, it addresses the topic of sexuality and desire in a way that had not yet been addressed in a work of adolescent fiction. Also it shows underage drinking and smoking.
    Everyday she would wake up to, “All the windows were wide open and the sun lay in bright patches on the living-room rug and the hollyhocks grew straight and high around the back door and everywhere there was a feeling of warmth and oneness- as if there was no difference between inside the house and outside.” There was just not that much originality in the story. Mornings in the family just seemed too ordinary, perfect, even unrealistic.
    B. Characterization
    The short story of “ Seventeeth Summer “ has nine persons , there are : Angeline, Jack Duluth, Jane Rady, Lorraine Morrow, Margarete Morrow, Art, Fritz , Martin,Kitty Morrow. The main character is Angeline.
    Angeline “Angie” Morrow: Main character and narrator of the novel. She dates Jack and the book shows their young love. Her family is very proper and although she starts hanging out with a rougher crowd she remains proper and wholesome throughout the novel. While the book tells a lot about Jack’s feelings for Angie, she rarely records herself expressing love to Jack. Is Angie leaving out details as a narrator or is she not the kind of girl that loves out loud?
    Jack Duluth: The star of the high school basketball team and Angie’s boyfriend. He is a good boy , he really loves to angie (but he never know that angie love him too) , he always helping his uncle (to the uncle’s bakery), he is local high school’s basketball star
    Jane Rady: Jack’s ex-girlfriend. A girl, who unlike Angie, knew how to act around boys. According to Angie “She knew how to dance with her head back so her hair fell long and smooth as silk thread.” She really loving to Jack but Jack just love to angie, She doesn’t like angie. While Jack introduces Angie to a crowd that is inconsistent with the one she was raised in, she is still able to maintain her sense of propriety. She never turns into a Jane Rady.
    Lorraine Morrow: Angie’s sister who had been gone at her second year of collage and is home for the summer. While she dates a lot in collage she does not date very much when she comes back home. Lorraine does not keep her sense of propriety and because of this is embarrassed to be with her own family. First on the Fourth of July, then when she sees Angie and Jack out on a date, and finally when she leaves for school early
    Margarete Morrow: Angie’s sister. She is the most popular of all the sisters. She is in with all the right people. She really famous than all the sister , he always showing her smile.
    Art: Margarete’s boyfriend. Art really loving Margarete, he pround that he to be a Margarete boy friend (Margarete is most populer)
    Fritz: Jack’s best friend and right hand man , a good friend , he is Jack’s besfriend. He always helping Jack.
    Martin: A guy that dates Lorraine over the summer. He is rude, always asking her out at the last minute and finally standing her up and disappearing.
    Kitty Morrow: Angie’s youngest sister. She is ten and likes to play, she is a young girl and pretty, she is a nice sister.
    CONCLUSION
    After I finished the book, I have come to a conclusion: Seventeenth Summer is a simple, easy read, but a slow one because of its redundant events. It is a simple message in life has showed up in many books before. As in, if you want something really bad, if you try your hardest, and you put all your heart into it, then you are going to get. Just don’t give up if it means so much to you. Which is a message that shows up a lot in all genres of books. This is a love story: the first kiss, problems in the relationship, and a fairy-tale ending. .
    Everyday she would wake up to, “All the windows were wide open and the sun lay in bright patches on the living-room rug and the hollyhocks grew straight and high around the back door and everywhere there was a feeling of warmth and oneness- as if there was no difference between inside the house and outside.” There was just not that much originality in the story. Mornings in the family just seemed too ordinary, perfect, even unrealistic.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    ^ Vogel, Nancy. “The Semi centennial of Seventeenth Summer: Some Questions and Answers.” The ALAN Review 21 (Spring 1994): 41.
    ^ Burton, D H Dwight. The Novel for the Adolescent. The English Journal. 40.7. 363–369.

  12. Analyze Characterization of The Short Story Fat and Thin
    Introduction
    The short story is a part of the fiction in which the authors use personal experience, seems realistic to be more familiar to readers. Although the fictional story based on real events fictional fiction is still difficult to understand because of the lack of ability to analyze literary values in the story. Discussion in this paper focuses on the analysis of the main character, and because the discussion will be done only on the basis of the content within story.
    Synopsis
    This story tells the story of two old friends meet again in a long time without seeing us. to bring his family and his life experiences were telling each other that are not forwarded. Porifiry and Misha told each other stories to children of their childhood and their wives. He recalled an amusing incident while they, continuing her childhood. Misha asks what his friend rushed u was told what had happened until their reason for living in the area of Misha. Porifiry told that the work that brought him to this place. job as a lecturer does not generate much profit, but a side job that brought him to this places as a head clerk in the same department and to serve here. The thin Porifiry proud of his work, then asked his friend to what was to become a work of fat with a slight decrease in the work of Misha that he knows. Misha the fat guy answer that makes a thin Porify surprised. Due to the unexpected Porify, his childhood friend now has two major employment stars in the country. Because thin does not want to seem jealous, thin behaved like there is no problem and then porify act like Misha is a very honorable man.
    Analysis of characterization
    Fat and thin are not quite the kind of Fables story, because in most cases is the human figure in it. For the short story works of Martial Arts stories contained in it Fat and Thin is a story that is easy to understand because the story we often encounter in relation on daily life. One of them, if we want to explore the history of Fat and thin, the characters in it concrete manifestation of human nature in general. The author also emphasizes that, as a rule, the cavalier attitude of belonging for everyone. Although attitudes are actually based to see the success rate to encourage yourself to become more sought after. In the following analysis, which is discussed in detail only the characterizations Porifiry and Misha and two other figures.
    1. Misha
    At the beginning of the story of Misha portrayed as an aspect of fat as
    “it’s look like just dined in the station and his greasy lips shone like ripe cherries and he smell of sherry and fleur d’orange.”
    Misha to be plump seems very soft, because it shows his desire for his companions with a little touched. In general, the character of Misha in this story is very frightening because it seems one of the characters in this story shows the attitude of fear
    ““Nafanail thought a little and took refuge behind his father’s back”.
    Also at that figure Misha portrayed as someone who only held as a joke.
    “Do you remember how they used to tease you? You were nicknamed Herostratus because you burned a hole in a schoolbook with a cigarette,”
    2. Porifiry
    Porifiry was described inversely proportional to the very obese Misha. Porifiry which has affected area, where he lived for Misha was placed in the head section. Porifiry who feel proud of the work which developed to expose his friend who is not involved.
    “I served as a clerk, you know, and now I have been transferred here as a head clerk in the same department. I am going to serve here. And what about you? I bet you are a civil councillor by now? Eh?”
    But Porifiry more surprised when his intention to show off to your friends, even surprised himself. It turns out that Misha has a much higher than Porifiry position
    “”No dear boy, go higher than that,” said the fat man. “I have risen to privy councillor already . . . I have two stars.”
    3. Porifiry wife and son
    Porifiry wife and son didn’t told this described it just porifiry son had two times impression wasn’t happy with Misha as a friend of his father.
    “Nafanail thought a little and took off his cap.” and
    “Nafanail thought a little and took refuge behind his father’s back.”
    Conclusion
    the conclusion of this story is the friendship not only judged by the higher position. presumably through analysis of these stories, Fat and thin can be enjoyed by every reader.

  13. Name: Christine Valentina Sitorus
    Number: 0812150033 (BS A ’08-FKIP)

    Analysis of Harmonica by Glenn Carver

    Introduction

    Short story is a kind of literary work written by the author. Short stories written by authors based on creative ideas that contain the imagination. Imagination that is in the author stated in the form of short stories or novels. Material from a fiction in the story is usually based on the experience of the author or can be based on observations of the author in life. Thus, the material of a fiction may include from two things. However, in reality a matter of fiction is not made exactly the same as the underlying reality. In the manufacturing process, the author chose to modify the material that he had taken in accordance with its purpose. He will solve the purpose material with its own.

    The fiction story is based on author’s experience or author’s observation in life. This makes the short story or novel is more favored by the people rather than poetry or drama. We can read a short story or novel that tells a story like certain aspects of community life. Novel or short story has a style that is easily understood by the reader, because it is written with the usual sentences, do not use the word figuratively. Thus, the reader can immediately understand the contents of short stories or novels. This is what makes a novel or short story is preferred by the community than poetry or drama.
    There’s something that makes people can not understand the contents of short stories or novels. Sometimes, they are difficult to understand the content of novels or short stories. This is due to their lack of understanding about the skills of literary analysis. Although fictional is life experiences that do not vary much with the reality experienced by the reader as I have expressed above, the reader often difficult to understand the contents of the short story or novel. The effect is artistic values or human values delivered by the author of a novel or short story can less understood overall.

    I wrote this paper for the midterms test and also to understand sis of the work of Glenn Carver short story Harmonica. Glenn Carver is simple in his writing style so I can understand the contents of short stories entitled “Harmonica”. Short story made by Glenn Carver is easily to understood because of a general nature.

    The discussion in the paper that I made is focused on aspects of characterizations. The analysis that I made using purely structural because the discussion that I made only on the basis of the content on the short story alone. Presentation of analytical characterizations in the story Harmonica Glenn Carver’s work is based on academic writing can be understood by students and lecturers who read it.
    I hope through writing I can make the reader understand the characterizations contained in a short story titled Harmonica by Glenn Carver.

    Synopsis Harmonica

    This story begins with a father who possesses little boy who take the box from the attic. Small children to see what brought by his father. And he brought the piece that already using. The boy looked at the picture and pay attention. The photo was taken in the mountains and there is a harmonica in the photo. In the photograph there is a man who wear a collared shirt, tie, vest, and hat that made of fabric. The man was smiling when photographed. His hands displayed a harmonica in front of him on a velvet cushioned base. Who observed the child was the harmonica is not the same as hers, and the little boy looked disappointed. As he studied it, the father said that a man in this photo is his grandfather who won the race music. His father said again that his grandfather always buy harmonica wherever he went and he also always played a Highland March. But when his grandfather died, his families want a harmonica, so that uncle Alf. Since these arguments come, his father lay it in the casket.

    In the afternoon, the boy ran away and went to the tomb. When he saw gravestones that have been soiled, clean it and there is immediately on the gravestone was written a name, his name is Goddard. Then there he played his harmonica while looking at the headstone. Not feel the sun had disappeared and the air grew cold. Shortly, after seen a man who reach into his pocket to take harmonica. The man laughed and asked him to play harmonica together. Suddenly, the man disappeared. The boy was shocked to see what had happened. He walked toward the gate. Because the fog is so thick, that child can only see the gate and around the gate. A clip clop came closer and out of the mist loomed a high wagon pulled by two horses. Inside the two people, one of them are teenagers and the other an old man with a thick mustache and wearing a hat while smoking. The man nodded to him and suddenly disappeared. A clip clop it disappeared too. The little boy walked away, then he walked to the Walker County Road Towards the pub. Soon after he arrived at a place called the bar. He also entered the performance bar. He saw many men in it wearing a hat. He also heard a group of people where an instrument is playing music with his mouth. He also walked. A man approach the boy and pinch his cheeks. Then he put down his harmonica, then take a bottle containing a drink, then he drink it.

    Gor saw the little boy. The men’s groups who were there welcome his arrival. Then Gor shrugged his shoulders. And Alf was playing his shoulder and confronts head forward. And Alf was shaken out. Everyone who is in the bar saw the incident and they do not drink them. Then they walked together out of the room.

    The boy had come out as well. He walked the streets looking at the vehicles parked at the curb. He walked down the street with all their strength. Then he looked into the pub and he saw a man standing outside a shaved head. He was re-opened the door of the bar. That seems just a bartender who leaned on the table. He was confused and he remembered his harp. Then he checked his coat and he found a harmonica that is in the coat. He waited for a bus that comes. 2 minutes later, the bus arrived and he was frantically to the bus. He exhaled slowly and then he tried to play the harmonica again. He plays the melody of the Highland March when the bus is moving so fast.

    Characterization in “Harmonica” by Glenn Carver

    In this story there are persons consist of father, child, grandfather Gor, UncleAlf, bartenders, and men who become drinkers. The main character of this short story is a little boy. Meanwhile, father, grandfather Gor, matching uncle Alf is a minor character. Figures’ support that serves to complement the story so that it becomes an interesting story to become more noticeable is the man who became drinkers and the bartender.

    1. The child

    A minor child is curious, timid, and loving . He is also good to playing the harmonica. I can say that he was a lover because when his father showed pictures of his grandfather, he felt lost because his grandfather had died. He felt not accept the fact that his grandfather had died. He walked to the grave, then he felt someone was coming. He was very afraid of it because a man who appeared, suddenly disappeared. Fear arose in him and his heart was pounding.
    This can be seen in this part: The boy felt his heart thump fast. He Walked out of the dip and looked towards the gate. Then when he walked into the bar, he was hesitant to step up his leg. However, because of curiosity, he finally approached the place where someone is playing music that sounds the melody. This is seen in part: He took the tune from the chorus, thencrouched Stood upright, pushed the harmonica across his mouth, cheeks sallow, concave then filled.

    He also good to play the harmonica. In each place we told that he always play a harmonica. He has the skills that made him happy, when he was alone during the bus ride. In the solitude, he was able to play the melody March Highland because the talent he has got. He also always showed his skills in front of crowds. For example, at the bar, he plays a harmonica with someone who was playing the melody. He joined with him.

    2. The father

    In the story, the father has a good-hearted nature. He showed photos of his grandfather, and he also describes the photo. He was very enthusiastic to tell about grandfather’s experience is in the photo.

    He also a lover because she wanted to share their stories to their children and want to clarify who is in the picture and explain how the grandfather’s experience with the instrument he played music, that called harmonica.

    This is seen clearly at the beginning of this short story: His father retrieved the box from the loft. It had an alpine scene on the front and inside was a long double sided metal harmonica.
    The boy looked at an old black and white photographs, creased then flattened with little tears at the edges.It showed a manin a collar and tie with a waistcoat and he wore a clothcap. He stared straight into the camera as he smiled and his hands displayed aharmonica in front of him on a velvet cushioned base.

    3. The grandfather

    The character of an old man is clever. It gets in the competition of music. However, he had died. He left his ability to his grandson, that is a little man who became the main character was.

    In this short story depicted grandfather who appears and disappears suddenly back in front of the boy’s. so many visions experienced by the little boy since he went to the tomb of his grandfather until he arrived at the bar: It was a man in a cloth gap who looked him hard in the eye then reached in his toppocket for a harmonica. The man laughed showing bare gums and began to play withcupped hands. He paused, then held the harmonica up and pointed it as an invitation to aduel. Then he played on, faded and disappeared, A clip clop came closer and out of The mist loomed a high wagon Pulled by twohorses. Two figures sat side by side at the front on a bench: a teenage boy and an older man with a cap and a thick Moustache smoking a pipe. The wagon was loaded with sacksfull in the front and empty sacks folded flat at the back. Could he smell the wet black coal. Dust and small fragments bounced, dropped off the back of the cart and left a trail of black grit down the road. The man nodded to him and the wagon trundled past and disappeared,faded clip clops, absorbed in the fog.

    4. Uncle Alf

    The nature of uncle Alf is jealous and wants to seize grandfather’s harmonica. However, the father of the little boy had put the harmonica into his coffin so the uncle can not take grandfather’s harmonica. His heart was there in part: “That’s an Engraved gold plate on the top, it says Gor, short for Goddard. That harmonica everywhere he took and he used to take his teeth out to play the Highland March. When he died my uncles all wanted it, especially uncle Alf. I put that harmonica in his Coffin to stop all their arguments “.

    5. Men who drink at the bar

    In the short story does not explain how the nature of this man. In this short story only illustrated that they were drinkers at the bar who participated in the incident bar coloring.

    6. A bartender
    The nature of this bartender seems not clear in the story. Within this short story, it exists only in the bar and leaned against the corner of the table. The story of this bartender there at the end of the story before the boys went up the bus. This is contained in the section: The barman leaned on his elbow on the counter.

    Conclusion

    Overall, the elements of the characterizations in the Harmonica Glenn Carver used to present the theme: “the small boy was described as someone who lost a grandfather because his grandfather died. In the loneliness, he always remembered his grandfather and if it was on hallucination where his grandfather was sometimes appear and disappear suddenly. In the solitude too, he always plays his harmonica and he was able to create a beautiful melody entitled Highland March. At the time of his grandfather died, Uncle Alf trying to take my grandfather’s harmonica. However, the father of the little girl hid it and put it in the casket. The contents of this short story is a father and son who value experience and they loved his grandfather’s grandfather.
    One of the most interesting thing in this short story is the story of a little b boy who has a talent that was inherited grandfather to him so he can create a beautiful melody.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to The Study of Fiction. Jakarta
    Carver, Glenn. Short Story

  14. NAME : DIAN MAYA MARGARETH
    NIM : 0812150038
    ANALYSIS OF THE SHORT STORY
    THE DANGER OF LYING IN BED BY MARK TWAIN
    Introduction
    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experiences, emotions, and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to reality. In the process of the creation story, the author chooses and modifies its contents according to his/her purposes. Although fiction is an attempt to reveal life experiences that may not be very different from the realities faced by the readers. They still often have difficulties to understand what they have read. Consequently, human values and artistic brought authors often cannot be understood.
    This paper is an effort to help readers who want to know the contents of Mark Twain’s short story, ‘The Danger of Lying in Bed.” The writer were interested in the analysis of the story is because the author is very famous Mark Twain. In addition, that with a very unique perspective on title, finally, the writer would like to scrutinize this story. Mark twain writing style that has a simple but difficult to guess. The discussion in this paper focuses on the major character in this story.

    ANALYSIS
    A. Synopsis “The Danger of Lying in Bed”
    The story of the dangers lying in bed begins with a conversation between a ticket-agent with the writer. The writer does not want to buy an accident insurance ticket when he wants to travel by railway. Because he have traveled sixty thousand miles during the three years, but the accident insurance ticket never gives the useful to him. He never had an accident during that time. Before this happened, he always buy the accident insurance ticket when he wants to travel by rail. He always read the newspaper in the morning, and the railway accidents were on headline in the newspaper. Until he thinks that already too much money he spends just to buy the accident insurance ticket, but the accident never comes to him.
    He starts to count on what caused the highest mortality. The result astounds him, because the peril is not in traveling, but in lying in bed. In his study he found that 3000 people died in a railway accident within recent year. But how shock him knowing 13.000 people died because they are lying in bed. So he will never sleep in bed again. In the end of the story he gives an advice to the readers, do not stay at home any more than you can help, but when you have got to stay at home a while, buy a package of those insurance tickets and sit up nights.

    B. Analytical Characterizations
    In this story there are two human figures, a man and the ticket-official man. Seen from the intensity of the role performed in the story development, the major character is the man or the author, and the minor character is the ticket-agent.

    1. The man
    Twain describes the characteristics of the man is dramatic. Because through what he done, said and thought represented his characters. At the beginning of the story the author has shown his distrust of the usefulness of an accident insurance tickets, when the ticket – agent asks if he has insurance ticket, he did not directly answer. He even describes the activities of the journey he had traveled by train and also buys insurance ticket, but it never occurred to him, we can see it in, “The man in the ticket-office said: “Have an accident insurance ticket, also?” “No,” I said, after studying the matter over a little. “No, I believe not; I am going to be traveling by rail all day today. However, tomorrow I don’t travel. Give me one for tomorrow.” The man looked puzzled. He said: “But it is for accident insurance, and if you are going to travel by rail–” “If I am going to travel by rail I don’t need it.” I think, to be person who distrust something, is good. Because the phenomenon which happened in this lives must be learn by ourselves. Next, he also a smart man, when he did the calculations based on the mortality rate of train accidents and compared with the results of mortality that are only lived in the house, seen in the page 3 line 4. “though where they get the raw material is clear beyond the jurisdiction of my arithmetic” Not all smart people are also those diligent, but he proved that his intelligence motivate him to do research that is sometimes considered not too important to be done. Then, he is very curious. Twain proved this in, “I have haunted the census through and through.” Implicitly, he is a critical man. Because he did the research only for reach what they want to know. The last, he is a good man, after did the research and got the result. He told it to others, and gives an advice. We can see it in, “Don’t stay at home any more than you can help; but when you have GOT to stay at home a while, buy a package of those insurance tickets and sit up nights. You cannot be too cautious. His advice is so funny but that what is really happened in this live.

    The ticket-agent
    Discipline in performing their duties when he was seen checking the accident assurance: “”Have an accident insurance ticket, also?”
    I think both of the man in this story is the protagonist because he did not do the crime things.

    C. Conclusion
    In conclusion, The Danger of Lying in Bed by Mark Twain success to persuade others to do what the author suggested, that the too much worried in our lives never make us enjoy this life. So, just be a calm people who through this live normally. Overall this man’s name is never mentioned by Twain. This can be interpreted that every human being is also experiencing such circumstances, sometimes we buy a good trip bus ticket, airplane, train, or whatever means of transportation, we charge accident insurance, or even someone who deliberately followed the accident insurance program to get ready – ready to take to be the worst that will happen. Twain may choose any of a number of ways telling his story by using what we calls with point of view. We may determine the point of view by identifying the viewer through whose eyes we see the action. In this story, Twain uses first person narrator, one of the characters, referring to himself as “I”, tells the story. He can reveals what he thinks or feels but is unable to relate the inner feelings of any other characters. Finally, first-person narration by the protagonist gives us the greatest possible sense of involvement in the story. Application of the method of dynamic character changes also managed to make the reader want to know what will happen in the end. Selection of words that are used quite strange but interesting, facilitate understanding of the character in this story.
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    http://www.mtwain.com/l_shortstoryandessay.html
    • Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI

  15. A PLOT ANALYSIS OF HENRY O “The Gift of the Magi”
    (Neeta Yuliana)

    Introduction

    Fiction is the form of any narrative or informative work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not factual, but rather, imaginary—that is, invented by the author. Fiction has many kind of type, and one of the other is short story. Short story definitions based on length differ somewhat, even among professional writers, in part because of the fragmentation of the medium into genres. Sometimes readers difficult to thoroughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. The difficulties can be encountered both in the themes, characters, plot, point of view, etc.

    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general “The Gift of the Magi”, a short story by O Henry. This story is interesting to analyze because it touching. The chronological is unbelievable. The sacrifice of character is very touching. This story teaches us to sacrifice an upright.

    This paper deals with the plot deals with the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology, i.e. a study aimed to analyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.

    Analysis

    1. Synopsis of The Gift of the Magi
    On the day before Christmas, Della has only $1.87 in savings with which to buy a gift for her husband, James Dillingham Young. Flopping down on the couch of their apartment, she cries—howls, actually.

    She had squeezed every spare penny out of household expenses, and still there was not enough for the wonderful present she dreamed of getting for Jim. Times are tough. Jim’s salary, formerly $30 a week, is now only $20 a week.

    Suddenly, Della gets an idea. Whirling about the room, she lets down her hair. It is one of two prized possessions between her and Jim, the other being the gold pocket watch handed down to him from his father. A moment later, Della goes down the street to Madame Sofronie’s shop, where the sign reads “Hair Goods of All Kinds.” There, Della sells her hair for $20.

    After shopping for two hours, she finds just the right gift, a platinum fob chain to replace the old leather strap attached to his watch. It is simple and elegant, and it costs $21, leaving Della 87 cents. After returning home, she uses curling irons to give herself a new hairdo, puts coffee on, gets pork chops ready for frying, then prays that Jim will like her new look. It is seven o’clock. When he walks in, he stares at her. His gaze is long and unrelenting. Worried that he is displeased with her appearance, Della tells him that she sold her hair “because I couldn’t have lived through Christmas without giving you a present.” Jim seems bewildered.
    “You’ve cut off your hair?”
    “Cut it off and sold it,” Della says.
    “You say your hair is gone?”

    A moment later, he comes out of his “trance” and enfolds Della in his arms. Then he takes a package from his overcoat and tosses it onto a table. He tells his wife nothing she could do would make him love her any less. However, he adds, the package will explain why he reacted strangely upon seeing her. After opening the present, she cries out with joy, then bursts into tears. Her gift is a set of expensive, turtoise-shell combs she had long eyed in a shop window. To comfort him, she says, “My hair grows so fast, Jim!”

    Then Della gives him his present. As the reader by now suspects and as the story confirms, Jim had sold his pocket watch to buy the combs.

    However, like the three wise men of long ago, Della and Jim had given perfect gifts. After all, the narrator says, they “sacrificed for each other the greatest treasures of their house.” What they gave as presents was worth far more than the chain and the combs.

    2. Types of Plot
    The Gift of the Magi is written by employing a chronological plot. From beginning until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place.

    3. Stages and elements of plot
    The plot of The Gift of the Magi has a regular structure so that it can be neatly divided into four stages: exposition, complication, climax, and denouement. The first 5paragraphs of the story are employed as an exposition. These paragraphs introduce the reader with the place (paragraph 3 line 1) and time setting (paragraph 1 line 4) and the major characters, Della (paragraph 1 line 4). That’s all about exposition.

    The complication of this story contained in paragraph 6. We can see that Della didn’t have enough money to buy present to give to her husband, Jim.
    “She had been saving every penny she could for months, with this result. Twenty dollars a week doesn’t go far. “ (paragraph 6 line 4).

    The other complication contained in paragraph 8. Della has a idea to sell her beautiful hair, so that she can buy the present to Jim, her husband. She sells her hair to Madame Sofronie.
    “Will you buy my hair?” asked Della.
    “I buy hair,” said Madame. “Take yer hat off and let’s have a sight at the looks of it.” (paragraph 12 line 4)

    The last complication in this story is Jim is shocked by Della’s short hair. Jim unbelievable his wife, Della has sell her lovely her hair when Jim had purchased gifts hair-related circuitry.
    “Jim stopped inside the door, as immovable as a setter at the scent of quail. His eyes were fixed upon Della, and there was an expression in them that she could not read, and it terrified her. It was not anger, nor surprise, nor disapproval, nor horror, nor any of the sentiments that she had been prepared for. He simply stared at her fixedly with that peculiar expression on his face.” (paragraph 21)

    The climax of this story is when Della open her present from Jim. She surprised because her husband gave her a beautiful comb.
    “White fingers and nimble tore at the string and paper. And then an ecstatic scream of joy; and then, alas! A quick feminine change to hysterical tears and wails, necessitating the immediate employment of all the comforting powers of the lord of the flat. For there lay The Combs–the set of combs, side and back, that Della had worshipped long in a Broadway window. Beautiful combs, pure tortoise shell, with jewelled rims–just the shade to wear in the beautiful vanished hair. They were expensive combs, she knew, and her heart had simply craved and yearned over them without the least hope of possession. And now, they were hers, but the tresses that should have adorned the coveted adornments were gone.” (paragraph 31).

    Denouement of this story is Della hug his husband and they celebrate Christmas with great joy. As like the magi, who brought gifts to the Babe in the manger. They invented the art of giving Christmas presents. Being wise, their gifts were no doubt wise ones, possibly bearing the privilege of exchange in case of duplication.

    4. Conclusion
    Although The Gift of the Magi is written in a simple chronological plot, it is really interesting due to Henry’s expertise in arranging the events that keeps the readers’s curiosity to finish reading the story. He also makes the story far from boring by varying the use of the summary and scenic method to tell story.

  16. Dear Mr.Parlin
    I try to make the revision my analysis of ‘The Fisherman and his Wife’
    ( by Sue Arengo )

    Introduction

    Similar to other types of literature, short stories, is the result of refined imagination of the author. In the process of the creation story, the author chose and modify the material in accordance with its objectives.
    Short story is more familiar to the public or the reader, this is very reasonable, in because of the short story is generally told about certain aspects that are prevalent in the lives of ordinary people.

    Analysis

    A. Synopsis The Fisherman and his Wife
    The story of the Fisherman and his wife started with a picture of a fisherman and his wife lives in a hut. Every day the husband went to sea to catch fish. One day he saw a very strange fish and beautiful. It turns out; the fish was a magic prince. So the fisherman was finally released back into the sea. When he got home, his wife asked where the fish catch is. The fisherman explained what had happened when he caught a magic fish. When the wife heard what her husband, had done, the wife became very angry and considers her husband had acted very foolishly.
    Since the wife knows about the magic fish, she always asked her husband to go to sea, and asked the magic fish to provide home and decent living for them. The fish is always magic to grant the fisherman. In addition, it turns out, she never felt satisfied with what she could, she was always asking for more and more. Until one day, the wife asked her husband to ask the magical fish to make her become the Emperor of the entire world.
    In addition, when the fish was surprised to hear a request from the fisherman’s wife, the magic fish became so angry that it restore the lives of the fisherman and his wife at the beginning of life.

    Analysis characterizations

    In the Fisherman and his wife story, there are three figures, which consist of two human figures – the fisherman and his wife and one figures of animals – a fish.

    1. Character of the fisherman as a husband
    The first visible in the fisherman is a good attitude, patient and not greedy. He was also very fond of his wife, though his wife who is never satisfied like that always uses his attitude. The fisherman has got a protagonist and static character. He is a minor in this story. As a husband, he always tries to make his wife happy in her life.

    2. Character of the fisherman’s wife
    Character’s wife in this story in describing someone who is never satisfied with what has been gained, and even seem very greedy. It is illustrated with the sentence stating that she wanted to rule the world. The statement of wife is “I want to be Emperor of the entire world”. The wife has an antagonist and a major character. She is dynamic to get anything that she wants
    .
    Conclusion

    Although the Fisherman and his wife is a very simple short stories, but the meaning of this story is very good for learning each person and very good for a child’s education. Where every person must learn to want to be grateful with what has been gained, and not a greedy person in all respects.

    Bibliography
    Classis Tales : The Fisherman and his Wife – Retold by Sue Arengo ;
    OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS – http://www.oup.com/elt

  17. A PLOT ANALYSIS OF
    Brothers Grimm “The Twelve Dancing Princesses”

    Introduction

    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literature genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Fiction is generally representative. The experiences, the emotion, and ideas about human life that it embodies are also valid for some group larger than the immediate set of particular characters involved in the action. Sometime the group represented is a fairly limited one which may not included the reader.
    The reason I choose this short story is to full fill my midterm exam and beside that the story is quite interesting, it tell us about the story of a king, a poor soldier, and his twelve daughters. Although the father locks the room carefully, the princesses escape from their bedroom every night and return in the morning with worn-out shoes. Innumerable suitors try to disclose the secret, but they fail and lose their lives as punishment. Only an old wounded soldier manages, with magic help, to follow the princesses to an underground castle where they dance with twelve princes. In return for his success, the king allows the soldier to marry on of his daughters and because of his own age, he takes the oldest.
    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Twelve Dancing Princesses
    The Twelve Dancing Princesses is a short story written by Brothers Grimm. This story is about twelve princesses slept in twelve beds in the same room. Every night their doors were securely locked, but in the morning their shoes were found to be worn through as if they had been dancing all night.
    The king, perplexed, promised his kingdom and a daughter to any man who could discover the princesses’ secret within three days and three nights, but those who failed within the set time limit would be put to death.
    An old soldier returned from war came to the king’s call after several princes had failed in the endeavor to discover the princesses’ secret. Whilst traveling through a wood he came upon an old woman, who gave him an invisibility cloak and told him not to eat or drink anything given to him by one of the princesses who would come to him in the evening, and to pretend to be fast asleep after the princess left.
    The soldier was well received at the palace just as the others had been and indeed, in the evening, the eldest princess came to his chamber and offered him a cup of wine. The soldier, remembering the old woman’s advice, threw it away secretly and began to snore very loudly as if asleep.
    The princesses, sure that the soldier was asleep, dressed themselves in fine clothes and escaped from their room by a trap door in the floor. The soldier, seeing this, donned his invisibility cloak and followed them down. He trod on the gown of the youngest princess, whose cry to her sisters that all was not right was rebuffed by the eldest. The passageway led them to three groves of trees; the first having leaves of silver, the second of gold, and the third of diamonds. The soldier, wishing for a token, broke off a twig as evidence. They walked on until they came upon a great lake. Twelve boats with twelve princes in them were waiting. Each princess went into one, and the soldier stepped into the same boat as the youngest. The young prince in the boat rowed slowly, unaware that the soldier was causing the boat to be heavy. The youngest princess complained that the prince was not rowing fast enough, not knowing the soldier was in the boat. On the other side of the lake was a castle, into which all the princesses went and danced the night away.
    The princesses danced until their shoes were worn through and they were obliged to leave. This strange adventure went on the second and third nights, and everything happened just as before, except that on the third night the soldier carried away a golden cup as a token of where he had been. When it came time for him to declare the princesses’ secret, he went before the king with the three branches and the golden cup, and told the king all he had seen. The princesses saw there was no use to deny the truth, and confessed. The soldier chose the eldest princess as his bride for he was not a very young man, and was made the king’s heir.

    2. Elements of Plot

    a.) Exposition
    Twelve princesses are describing every night their doors were securely locked, but in the morning their shoes were found to be worn through as if they had been dancing all night.

    Exposition:
    The twelve princesses are which every night their doors were securely locked, but in the morning their shoes were found to be worn through as if they had been dancing all night.

    b.) Conflict:
    A king bemoans the fact that his daughters keep disappearing at night and ruining their best slippers.

    Conflict:
    The king made it known to all the land that if any person could discover the secret and find out where it was that the princesses danced in the night, he would have the one he liked best to take as his wife, and would be king after his death. But whoever tried and did not succeed, after three days and nights, they would be put to death.

    c.) Complication
    The twelve princesses stood listening behind the door to hear what he would say.

    Complication:
    As soon as the time came when he was to declare the secret, he was taken before the king with the three branches and the golden cup; and the twelve princesses stood listening behind the door to hear what he would say.
    The king asked him. ‘Where do my twelve daughters dance at night?’
    The soldier answered, ‘With twelve princes in a castle underground.’ And then he told the king all that had happened, and showed him the three branches and the golden cup which he had brought with him.

    d.) Rising Action
    A king bemoans the fact that his daughters keep disappearing at night and ruining their.

    e.) Climax
    The soldier revealing the truth to the father and choosing the sister whom he wishes to marry.

    Climax:
    The king asked the soldier which of the princesses he would choose for his wife, and he answered, ‘I am not very young, so I will have the eldest.’ And they were married that very day, and the soldier was chosen to be the king’s heir.

    f.) Falling Action
    The princesses saw there was no use to deny the truth, and confessed.

    g.) Resolution
    When it came time for him to declare the princesses’ secret, he went before the king with the three branches and the golden cup, and told the king all he had seen.

    Theme

    Besides his success in a making simple chronological plot interesting, another achievement of Brothers Grimm in writing The Twelve Dancing Princesses is his ability to effectively present the theme through plot. The theme of the story is the ideas that” Fairy tales feature magic, and this one features an invisibility cloak”.

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, I can conclude that this story is a good choice to pupils because have exciting story and some moral values. Besides that pupils, can understand easily this story. I can conclude that this short story of “The Twelve Dancing Princess” is a good story and can teach us much kind of the moral values.

  18. Night Sir..
    sorry if I posting my analysis twice, the first posting is not correct and this is the true of my analyze.. Thx for your attention..

    “ A Day’s Wait “ by Ernest Hemingway

    Introduction

    Fiction is an imaginary but usually plausible and ultimately truthful prose narrative which dramatizes changes in human relationship. the author draws his material from experience and observation of life , but he selects and shapes them to his purposes, which includes entertainment and the illumination of human experience .

    Analysis
    The synopsis of “ A Day’s Wait “
    “A Day’s Wait” deals with the familiar Hemingway theme of heroic fatalism or fatalistic heroism, namely courage in the face of certain death. It is a testament to Hemingway’s skill and his dedication to this theme that he can make fatalistic heroes out of 9-year-old boys as easily as out of middle-aged has-been prizefighters on the run from gangsters and 76-year-old Spanish war refugees. The tragedy in this story is not, of course, that the hero Schatz is doomed, but that he believes himself to be doomed when he is in fact fine.
    Schatz’s heroism is quietly but strikingly demonstrated in his words and actions over his day’s wait. The most dramatic manifestation of Schatz’s heroism is the difference between his demeanor during the day described by the story and his demeanor the next day. The narrator says “He was evidently holding tight onto himself about something” before the father goes out hunting, and when Schatz realizes he will be fine, “The hold over himself relaxed too, finally, and the next day it was very slack and he cried very easily at little things that were of no importance.” The little boy is stoic in the face of what he believes will be certain death; he holds his emotions in with iron self-control all day, and even suggests that his father leave the room if he is distressed to see his son dying. He also forbids anyone to come into his room out of concern for their health, even though by doing so he condemns himself to die alone.
    Aside from Schatz’s own behavior, the other element of the story that makes Schatz’s heroism striking is the behavior of his father, which unintentionally worsens Schatz’s mental turmoil. Shortly after Schatz suggests that his father need not stay with him if the spectacle of his son’s death will bother him, the father leaves the house for hours to enjoy himself in the winter sunshine with the family dog, a gun, and a covey of quail. The juxtaposition of the father’s enjoyment with Schatz’s self-controlled, tragic, and solitary stoicism sharpens the reader’s sense of Schatz’s heroism.

    The Theme of A Day’s Wait

    At the end of the story when the boy knows that he will not die he becomes his old self again,he starts to complain about little things that are of no importance just like before he thought he would die. This shows how death lets things appear in a different way, everything that seemed to be important before is not important anymore.
    The first theme is the innocence of a child. The boy would never talk about his feelings and fear, probably because he does not want other people to worry about him. He might not want to hurt them. The question arises why the boy does not want to sleep. The father does not worry about it, because he knows there is nothing to worry about, but the son maybe does not want to miss how it feels to die since he really believes he has to die. He does not know if it hurts and since death means endless sleeping he might be afraid that he will never wake up again.
    The second theme is “Don’t’ give up so easily.” Schatz refused to fight his illness to the end. He gave up and is awaiting death because of his belief about the higher temperature.
    The third is, “After the storm there must be calm.” We see Schatz reaching a state of calming down after he realized that he is not going to die. His calming down state of mind is a result of the differences in the temperature which his father explained to him after he learned about what the boys in France told his son about the temperatures above forty-five degree causing death.

    Conclusion
    This story shows how a bad or difficult situation can chance to influence a person´s life. It becomes clear that especially children need the help of adults to understand what death and illness means. We learn that we have to help children to grow up and that we have to help them to understand the world around them, because as we can see in this story without the help they worry too much about things that they do not have to worry about.

    Bibliography
    A Day’s Wait (1936), at the Internet Movie Database.
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI

  19. CHARACTERIZATIONS IN MIKE KRATH “HIGH AND LIFTED UP”

    Introduction

    Fiction is an imaginary but usually plausible and ultimately truthful prose narrative which dramatizes changes in human relationships, the author draws his material from experience and observation of life, but he selects and shapes them to his purposes, which includes entertainment and the illumination of human experience. In the other opinion, Fiction is the form of any narrative or informative work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not factual, but rather, imaginary—that is, invented by the author. Some people say that when we are reading a story, we should pay attention about the characteristics of the story and to find the elements of fiction.
    Based on the opinion about fictions that a story in fiction is based from author’s experience or observation in his/her life or true story, fiction more realistic that some people more familiar about it. Although there are many short stories as well as Novel that telling about life but some people more interesting to read a story in fiction because it is realistic and near with the true life. So, it is fair that some people more likely about fiction than poetry or drama.
    In this paper, the author wants to help the people to get the meaning of the story or elements in a fiction so that they are going to understand about the purpose of a story and the content of the story. The author feels interest to analyze the story of High and Lifted up because the author’s of this story is Mike Krath who the people more interesting about his skill to make a short story. The story of High and Lifted up tells about a child who has a high fantasy. He always thinks the life about the future and he assumes the something in his area is going to be a life in the future.
    The discussions of this paper are focused on characterizations aspects. The analysis was carried out by using structural approach because all of discussion in this story comes from the content of the story.

    Analysis
    A. Synopsis of High and Lifted Up
    High and lifted up is a short story written by using the season of the life as a background. It starts when mailman barely arrived into the door to gives a letter suddenly it blows out of the mailman’s hands when the mother wants to take it in front of the door. Mrs. Pennington runs to pick up the mail but she can’t take it. Tommy as her child is watching the incident; he wants to go out to help his mother to take the mail. But when he is going out, he look many interesting events such as he look the leaves which are leaping from swaying trees, landing on the roof, jumping of the roof, and then chasing one another down the street in tiny whirlwinds of merriment. And he thinks that if he is leaf, he wants to fly to around the world. Suddenly, he meets a maple leaf that blew in front of him. Tommy asks to the maple leaf about the life, the old leaf say that the journey may be short, but the end is the beginning. The old leaf invites of Tommy to follow him into the city dump. Tommy confuses and he decides to follow the old leaf. He decides to do like that because he wants to know the end of the old leaf’s life. But suddenly the old leaf doesn’t follow it, and it lifted up into the air. His mother is calling of Tommy, she doesn’t want her boy follows the old leaf and runs into the city dump. So, Mrs. Pennington takes some leaves and keep them in her pocket then she orders to her boy to enter into the car and come back to home. Tommy smiles and looks at the sky and in the car he thinks and asks to himself that where the old leaves will go.

    B. Analysis of The Characterizations.
    In “ High and Lifted Up “ there are four figures which consists of Mrs.Pennington as a Tommy’s mother, Tommy as Mrs.Pennington’s child, and the old leaf and the maple leaf are minor characters who serve as a complement to the story that the story becomes more interesting.

    1. Mrs. Pennington
    In this story Mrs. Pennington has a good heart. She loves her little son; she always keeps her little son from the danger.
    Suddenly, a car pulled up. It was Tommy’s mom.
    Mrs. Pennington wasn’t about to let her little boy run into the city dump.
    “Not so fast,” she said getting out of the car. “You are not allowed to play in there. Don’t you see the smoke?” (p.3)
    Based on the sentences above that Mrs. Pennington is looked as a good mother because she doesn’t want her boy is wounded. She doesn’t want if her boy to play in city dump because it is danger for her boy. In the sentence of this story “Tommy, I have your jacket. Please put it on.” (p.1) that make me more interesting about how Mrs. Pennington as Tommy’s mother do all of the things for her boy is when she gives a Jacket to keep his body cause the outside is a windy day. She does all of the things for her boy as she loves him and it is the attention from Tommy’s mother. She is wise when her boy has a problem, she tries to solve about her boy’s problems. She wants to be a good mother for the little boy and she also want that his boy can get the best in his life. Her boy has many ambitions, so she wants to help her boy to make his ambition become true.

    2. Tommy
    Tommy is a child that has a good heart. He is a smart student and intrepid but he is easily influenced by one’s seduction. He wants to do all of the things in other to become his ambition become true. In the sentences of this story such as,
    “Mom,” he said, “may I go outside?”
    “Be careful,” she said. “It’s so windy today.”
    Tommy crawled down from the window-seat and ran to the door. He opened it with a bang. The wind blew fiercely and snatched the newly recovered mail from Mrs. Pennington’s hands and blew it even further into the house. (p.1)
    From the sentences above, we can think that Tommy loves his mother. He wants to go outside to take the mail which is blown to the air because his mother can’t take it. He also has great expectations, so he will do all of the things so that his ambitions become true. He is also easily swayed by flattery of others which it will make his dream come true. When the leaves to try invite Tommy, then he thinks that the leaves’ invite are true and they can make his dreams become true.
    He is easily influenced by one’s seduction.
    The wind blew Tommy and the maple leaf along. Tommy thought of his choices. He wanted to continue to play.
    “Okay,” Tommy said, “I will go with you to the dump.” (p.2)

    3. The old leaf
    The old leaf has a character wise. It gives some chooses about the meaning of life to Tommy that are contain a good life or bad life in the future.
    “If the wind blows you in that direction,” the old leaf said, “you will end up in the city dump.”
    “I don’t want that,” Tommy said.
    “If you are blown in that direction, you will fly high into the air and see things that no leaf has seen before.” (p.2)

    4. The maple leaf
    In contrast to the old leaf, it likes having fun in its life because it thinks that the life is short. So, it must be spend its time to have fun than to do something that many purpose to become it’s better in the life.
    “Where do you think we are going?” Tommy asked the leaf.
    “Does it matter?” the leaf replied. “Have fun. Life is short.”
    Follow me to the city dump,” the maple leaf said. “Most of my friends are there.”(p.2)

    Conclusion
    Finally, the story of “High and Lifted up” is a great example of how a child is able to “believe” he is anything. This story uses the descriptive paragraph because it describes about the nature and the things such leaves, the weather, the life, and air. It is the interesting story because it can give some information to the children that we should not easily trust others who are not necessarily going to give him the best thing to us. There are some people who want to try to trap our lives so that we believe them. Based on this messages that can be taken is that we should not be too trusting to a person not necessarily because he has good intentions.

    Bibliography

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiction
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to the study of fiction. Jakarta: FKIP UKI.
    http://www.eastoftheweb.com/short-stories/childrenindex.html

  20. CHARACTERIZATIONS IN “The Little Match Girl” by Hans Christian Andersen.

    Introduction

    Works of fiction can be interpreted as an imaginary and aesthetic works. In terms of literary prose also called fiction (fiction). Fiction in this sense the term means fiction / fantasy story. This was caused a work of narrative fiction that it does not lead to the truth of history. Fiction is the result of contemplation dialogue, relationships and life of the author to the environment. Although fantasy, fiction is a reflection. Besides works of imaginative fiction is based on an awareness and responsibility in terms of creativity as a work of art. Fiction offers an ideal model for the author’s life and affirm her figure as works of art which was the dominant aesthetic element. Based on the above it can be concluded that the fiction is the work of an imaginary (imaginary) and the aesthetic that tells the dynamics of human life in its interaction with self, family, neighborhood, and with God. Fiction is the fruit of contemplation by human beings about the life she lived. Fiction can also be interpreted as a custom / fantasy stories, which are not entirely, depart from reality or history. Even works of fiction are often beyond reason to think the man himself.
    This paper is one effort to help people appreciate the short story in general. simple writing style makes his works, which generally presents the theme of universal and easily understood.

    A. Analysis The Little Match Girl

    The Little Match Girl by Hans Christian Andersen about a little girl sent out barefoot in the snow to earn money for her parents. Firstly, the weather is against the ‘chilled –to –the-bone’ little “maiden.” It is snowing – the sort of sub-zero weather where even the poorest person would not have dared to lose precious body heat by venturing out unprotected. Furthermore, no self-respecting mother would have allowed a fragile child outside without some protection from the cold. Yet The Little Match Girl‘s golden tresses are uncovered, her head unprotected from the bitter excesses of the icy blasts.

    Her “tiny white feet” are also bare, as she has obviously been sent out to sell matches in the snow in a pair of ill-fitting slippers. These soon come adrift in the panic of avoiding the relentless wheels of the ruthlessly driven carriages whose drivers are oblivious or indifferent to her plight. We hear that the slippers may have belonged to her mother, and in the face of such neglect, we wonder if her mother is dead. We deplore the injustice of the theft of one of her slippers as we imagine her tiny feet, reddened by the frost-biting chill of the snow and ice under their soles. Andersen gives us an accurate depiction of the mottled effect on the skin of her little heels with his choice of the colors of red and blue. Few fairytales for children can fill our hearts with such pathos. Next we are told that no one has bought even “one farthing’s” worth of the match bundles that she carries in an old apron.
    But worse is to come. We then hear how, weakened by cold and hunger, The Little Match Girl’s senses are assailed by the warm aroma of roast goose (the traditional meal for New Year celebrations) and the festive lights and roaring fires which blaze behind the windows of the opulent town-houses. All that the fast-fading little match seller has to look forward to at her home is the prospect of more beatings in return for an unsuccessful night’s work.
    In desperation, the child finds a dank corner in which to sit huddled, and is tempted to light a single match for the minimal cheer it will bring to her raw fingers and aching heart. Weakened, perhaps by hunger-induced delirium, she sees visions of the elegant town-house interiors with their tables laden with succulent feasts.
    The Little Match Seller also imagines the face of the only person who ever loved her – her dead grandmother. Entranced and overjoyed, she calls out to the lady and begs to join her above in the stars. Imagining the bone-chilling coldness of her body, we readers may find ourselves wondering if, after all, this may prove a “happy release.” as the dear little maiden’s outlook looks bleak indeed. This fact seems all the more depressing when we remember that in some ways, times have not changed and that there are missing and exploited children in cities and villages all over the world today.

    In the particular case of The Little Match Girl. The next morning, The Little Match Girl’s stiff little frame, frozen where it sat against a wall, is all the more macabre for the blissful smile upon the face of the corpse.

    B. Characterizations.

    In The Little Match Girl There are three characters consisting of four human figures a poor little girl, mother, father, and grandmother. Seen from the intensity of role on the run in the development of the story, the main character in this short story is a poor little girl. Mother, father and grandmother is a minor character that serves to support the existence of a poor little girl. In this article, which analyzed only characterizations protagonist and the characters are minor.

    1. Figure a poor little girl

    The first seen in the person of the poor little girl is the characterizations protagonist. A poor little girl maiden walked on with her tiny naked feet, that were quite red and blue from cold. She carried a quantity of matches in an old apron, and she held a bundle of them in her hand. Nobody had bought anything of her the whole livelong day; no one had given her a single farthing. She crept along trembling with cold and hunger–a very picture of sorrow, the poor little thing!
    At the cold hour of dawn, sat the poor girl, with rosy cheeks and with a smiling mouth, leaning against the wall–frozen to death on the last evening of the old year. Stiff and stark sat the child there with her matches, of which one bundle had been burnt. A poor little girl weakened by cold and hunger. In desperation, the child finds a dank corner in which to sit huddled, and is tempted to light a single match for the minimal cheer it will bring to her raw fingers and aching heart. Weakened, perhaps by hunger-induced delirium, she sees visions of the elegant town-house interiors with their tables laden with succulent feasts.
    In addition to the above properties, the poor little girl also described as someone who is not happy. Impression is clearly illustrated by its dissatisfaction with life in nature.

    2. Mother
    Since the beginning of the story, the mother is portrayed as a mother figure who is not so fond of her own child. His mother not has attention to her own child. Furthermore, no self-respecting mother would have allowed a fragile child outside without some protection from the cold.

    3. Father
    Since the beginning of the story, the father is portrayed as a father figure who is not so fond of her own child. Her father not has attention to his own child. Her father will gives a blow to her if she had not sold any matches and could not bring a farthing of money.

    – Conclusion
    In conclusion, the external conflict of the little match girl versus the cold weather is resolved at the end of the story when the little match girl dies. The little match girl dies due to the freezing weather and goes to heaven to be with her grandmother where she will never again be cold or hungry.

  21. Analysis
    The synopsis of “ A Day’s Wait “
    “A Day’s Wait” deals with the familiar Hemingway theme of heroic fatalism or fatalistic heroism, namely courage in the face of certain death. It is a testament to Hemingway’s skill and his dedication to this theme that he can make fatalistic heroes out of 9-year-old boys as easily as out of middle-aged has-been prizefighters on the run from gangsters and 76-year-old Spanish war refugees. The tragedy in this story is not, of course, that the hero Schatz is doomed, but that he believes himself to be doomed when he is in fact fine.
    Schatz’s heroism is quietly but strikingly demonstrated in his words and actions over his day’s wait. The most dramatic manifestation of Schatz’s heroism is the difference between his demeanor during the day described by the story and his demeanor the next day. The narrator says “He was evidently holding tight onto himself about something” before the father goes out hunting, and when Schatz realizes he will be fine, “The hold over himself relaxed too, finally, and the next day it was very slack and he cried very easily at little things that were of no importance.” The little boy is stoic in the face of what he believes will be certain death; he holds his emotions in with iron self-control all day, and even suggests that his father leave the room if he is distressed to see his son dying. He also forbids anyone to come into his room out of concern for their health, even though by doing so he condemns himself to die alone.
    Aside from Schatz’s own behavior, the other element of the story that makes Schatz’s heroism striking is the behavior of his father, which unintentionally worsens Schatz’s mental turmoil. Shortly after Schatz suggests that his father need not stay with him if the spectacle of his son’s death will bother him, the father leaves the house for hours to enjoy himself in the winter sunshine with the family dog, a gun, and a covey of quail. The juxtaposition of the father’s enjoyment with Schatz’s self-controlled, tragic, and solitary stoicism sharpens the reader’s sense of Schatz’s heroism.

    Theme of A Day’s Wait

    This is the first theme of the story : the innocence of a child. The boy would never talk about his feelings and fear, probably because he does not want other people to worry about him. He might not want to hurt them. The question arises why the boy does not want to sleep. The father does not worry about it, because he knows there is nothing to worry about, but the son maybe does not want to miss how it feels to die since he really believes he has to die. He does not know if it hurts and since death means endless sleeping he might be afraid that he will never wake up again.
    I personally like the story because it shows how a bad or difficult situation can chance to influence a person´s life. It becomes clear that especially children need the help of adults to understand what death and illness means. We learn that we have to help children to grow up and that we have to help them to understand the world around them, because as we can see in this story without the help they worry too much about things that they do not have to worry about.

    The second theme is “Don’t’ give up so easily.” Schatz refused to fight his illness to the end. He gave up and is awaiting death because of his belief about the higher temperature.

    The third is, “After the storm there must be calm.” We see Schatz reaching a state of calming down after he realized that he is not going to die. His calming down state of mind is a result of the differences in the temperature which his father explained to him after he learned about what the boys in France told his son about the temperatures above forty-five degree causing death.

  22. here is my revision:
    Sri Darma S (08122150046)
    Literature II
    Character analysis of
    Saki’s “The open Window”
    Introduction
    Like any other literary works, short story also comes from author imagination. Short story or any other fiction commonly based on people experience. But the author doesn’t write it as it the same just like in reality, but he put some modification based on his imagination to make it more interesting. Eventhough fiction is people imagination but we can find some the values of humanity in it.
    “The Open Window” is Saki’s most popular short story. It was first collected in Beasts and Super-Beasts in 1914. Saki’s wit is at the height of its power in this story of a spontaneous practical joke played upon a visiting stranger. The practical joke recurs in many of Saki’s stories, but “The Open Window” is perhaps his most successful and best known example of the type. Saki dramatizes here the conflict between reality and imagination, demonstrating how difficult it can be to distinguish between them. Not only does the unfortunate Mr. Nuttel fall victim to the story’s joke, but so does the reader. The reader is at first inclined to laugh at Nuttel for being so gullible. However, the reader, too, has been taken in by Saki’s story and must come to the realization that he or she is also inclined to believe a well-told and interesting tale.
    This paper is focused on character analysis.Analysis is conducted using stuctural approach, because the entire discussion is pure based on the short story and also this paper is intendeed for Literature II task for Mid term.

    Analysis
    A. Synopsis of The Open Window
    The Open Window is a story which talk about a man, Framton Nuttel he is in the country undergoing a rest cure for his nerves to cure and is calling on Mrs. Sappleton at the request of his sister. He had brought a letter of introduction from his sister who four years earlier had lived there. He met Mrs. Sappleton’s niece Miss. Vera alone in the house. Vera was very clever at making instant stories and playing tricks, and romance at short notice was her speciality. The story contains her two such tricks. Her initial questioning of Nuttel revealed that he was new to the place, he did not know her aunt in person and that he was of weak nerves. She pointed to the open French window which served also as a door and told him about a tragedy happened in that house. Mrs. Sappleton’s husband and her two younger brothers through that window had gone three years before for shooting birds in the marsh and had never returned. It is said that they, along with their dog, had disappeared in a bog. The window was always kept open so that the four ghosts could return at any time any day.
    Franton was frightened. When Mrs. Sappleton returned home, she also talked about keeping the window always open, and elaborated on shooting birds in the bog.
    Mr. Nuttel was further frightened who in many ways tried to divert the subject of conversation, but who to listen? Then Mrs. Sappleton announced that the hunters were returning. Vera looked out pretending fear. Mr.Nuttel felt very sorry for coming into that house. He looked through the open window and saw three hunters and a dog coming to the house. It was enough for him. He thought them to be real ghosts. He took his hat and stick, ran out through the front door and through the gate, hit a man and disappeared into the darkness beyond. Mrs. Sappleton commented that he might have seen some ghost to have disappeared that way without saying a word of good- bye or apology. The hunters were wondering who the man was. Vera explained to them that it was a nerve-sick visitor and made up another story to support that frantic escape. The man while in India was once chased by a pack of wild dogs and had to spent night in a newly dug grave with the dogs just above him. Since then he was nervous about and afraid of dogs. It was their dog that terribly frightened him to flee. The story ends with the three men coming in asking about the hasty Mr. Nuttel and the fact that the neice loves to tell stories.

    Character Analysis
    In this story we can find there are many characters are there. They are Framton Nuttle, Vera, who is as a self possessed young lady fiften, Framton Nuttel’s sister, Mrs. Sappleton, Mrs. Sappleton’s husband. We can find from the story that the main character is Framton Nuttle. Vera as companion figures that support the character of the main character. While Mrs. sappleton is a figure who serves to support the existence of the main character Framton and Vera. The other figures as extras is Framton’s sister and also Mrs. Sappleton
    1. Framton Nuttle
    The main character is frampton Nuttel. He suffers from nervous problems, and loves talking about his ilnesses. “”A most extraordinary man, a Mr. Nuttel,” said Mrs. Sappleton; “could only talk about his illnesses, and dashed off without a word of good-bye or apology when you arrived. One would think he had seen a ghost.”” He is also very timid, and easily deceived as we see from how ready he believes Vera’s story. Framton Nuttle’s sister once spend time in the same town to which framton has come for relaxation. She has given him a number of letters of introduction with which he is to make himself known to a number of people in the town. Mrs. Sappleton is the recipient of such a letter and it is that brings Nuttel to her home. Mr. Nuttel’s name is ironic in the sense that is comes from words that mean crazy, mentally unstable, nuts, etc. And that is exactly how his character is described in the story.
    2. Vera (self possessed young lady fiften)
    Vera is the other main character. She is clever, quick-witted, very inventive and has cruel, ironical sense of humour; she is sly. She enjoys terrifying frampton (whose doctors have warned him not to get into frightening situatios). She is also a good actress-she manages to make frampton believe that she is also terrified of the “ghost”, for instance. Vera’s name comes words that mean truth or honesty, while in reality vera lies and manipulates the truth due to the circumtances of her situation. Vera breaks this silence by taking advantage of Mr. Nuttel and how he does not know anyone in the area and creates a story to scare him and make him believe that her aunt Mrs. Sappleton is crazy and unbalanced. The statement by Vera, “then you know particulary about my aunt?” reveals and ironic twist for Mr. Nuttel. Vera leads him to believe that Mrs Sappleton and two younger brothers death and also the reason she keeps the window open. When eventually mrs. Sappleton arrives, mr. Nuttel truly believes that her husband and two brothes are dead. Therefore, when mr. Sappleton and the brothers return, mr. Nuttel gets very scared and runs w way as if “ he had seen a ghost.” When the Sappletons comment on Mr. Nuttel’ s quick departure, vera assures the family that he left because he was scared of dogs because of a bad experience the had a couple years ago.
    3. Framton Nuttel’s sister
    Framton’s sister is a loving care sister. She loves her brother and was worried about her brother healthiness that why she suggested him to have some relaxation in the town where she have ever stayed there. Framton Nuttel’s sister once spent time in the same town to which Framton has come for relaxation. She has given him a number of letters of Introduction with which he is to make himself known to a number of people in the town. Mrs. Sappleton is the recipient of such a letter, and it is this that brings Nuttel to her home.
    4. Mrs. Sappleton
    Mrs. Sappleton kind, polite but quite absorbed in her own concerns. She isn’t very interested in her visitor, but tries to be kind to him. We can guess that she is also fooled by Vera. She was also lied by vera when she believed vera’s story about why Mr. Nuttle run away when he looked her husband and her two brothers
    5. Mrs. Sappleton’s husband
    Mrs. Sappleton’s husband doesn’t really appear enough in the story for their characters to be established.
    Conclusion
    In my opinion, The Open Window has been one of the most interesting stories that I have ever read. The story it’s a little ironic on how the role were changed, I mean, a spoiled girl who could cheat a sweet old man with no problem. On the other hand, it’s obvious how people is changing in every generation; children are more and more disrespectful and spoiled. As moral, the adults should pay attention of children’s behavior in order to set them limits on time.
    But for me, it was interesting and amusing because it caught my attention all the time. And it also created me a doubt if this adolescent called Vera, had some values that the story showed about her at the beginning because for me she caused an embarrassing situation to Mrs Framtom.
    Finally, what I can conclude from this short story is that “Children are not so naïve as we think”.
    References
    http://www.enotes.com/open-window/summary
    http://bush1150.tripod.com/id17.html
    http://sites.google.com/site/vpageeshs/short-stories/open-window—analysis
    http://losarciniegas.blogspot.com/2011/02/open-window.html

  23. The Brownie`s Magic
    (By Enid Blyton)

    (1)
    One night the snow came. It fell quietly all night through, and in the morning, what a surprise for everyone! The hills were covered with snow. The trees were white. The bushes were hidden, and the whole world looked strange and magical.
    Bobbo the brownie looked out of his cave in the hillside. The path down to the little village was hidden now. The path that ran over the top of the hill had gone too.
    “Snow everywhere,’’ said Bobbo. “Beautiful white snow! How I love it! I wish I had watched it falling last night, like big white goose feathers.”
    He saw someone coming up the hill, and he waved to him.
    “Ah!” he said, “there is my clever cousin, Brownie Bright-Eyes. I wonder what he has brought to show me today. He is always bringing me wonderful things.”
    Brownie Bright-Eyes walked up the hill in the snow, making deep footprints as he came, for he carried something large and heavy.
    “What have you got there?” said Bobbo, when Bright-Eyes at last came to his cave. “You are always bringing me something strange and wonderful to see, Bright-Eyes.”
    “I have made a marvellous mirror,” panted Bright-Eyes, bringing the shinning glass into the cave. “I do think I am clever, Bobbo. I made this magic mirror myself. I think I must be the cleverest brownie in the world.”
    “Don`t boast,” said Bobbo. “I don`t like you when you boost.”
    “I am not boasting!” cried Bright-Eyes crossly. “Wait till you do something clever yourself, and then scold me for boasting. It`s a pity you don`t use your own brains.”
    “I do,” said Bobbo. “But you are always so full of your own wonderful doings that you never listen to me when I want to tell you something.”
    “I don`t expect you would have anything half so wonderful to tell me as I have to tell you,” said Bright-Eyes. “Now – just look at this mirror.”
    (2)
    Bobbo looked at it. It was a strange mirror, because it didn`t reflect what was in front of it. It was just dark, with a kind of mist moving in the glass. Bobbo could see that it was very magic.
    “I can`t see anything,” said Bobbo.
    “No, you can`t – but if you want to know where anyone is – Tippy the brownie for instance – the mirror will show you!”
    “What do you mean?” asked Bobbo, astonished.
    “Now look,” said Bright-Eyes. He stroked the shining mirror softly. “Mirror, mirror, show me where Tippy the brownie is!”
    And at once a strange thing happened. The mist in the glass slowly cleared away – and there was a Tippy the brownie, sitting in a bus. The mirror showed him quite clearly.
    “Isn`t that wonderful?” said Bright-Eyes. “You couldn`t possibly have told me where Tippy was, without the help of the mirror could you?”
    “Yes, I could,” said Bobbo. “I knew he was in the bus.”
    “You didn`t!” said Bright-Eyes.
    “I did,” said Bobbo.
    “Then you must have seen Tippy this morning,” said Bright-Eyes.
    “I haven`t,” said Bobbo. “You found out where he was by using you magic mirror, but I, Bright-Eyes, I found out by using my brains! So I am cleverer than you.”
    Bright-Eyes didn`t like that. He always wanted to be the cleverest person anywhere. He frowned at Bobbo.
    “I expect it was just a guess on your part that Tippy was in the bus,” he said. “Now – can you tell me where Jinky is – you know, the pixie who lives down the hill?”
    “Yes,” said Bobbo at once. “He`s gone up the hill to see his aunt, who lives over the top.”
    (3)
    Bright-Eyes rubbed the mirror softly. “Mirror, mirror, show me where Jinky is!” he said. And at once the mirror showed him a pixie, sitting in a chair, talking to a plump old lady. It was Jinky, talking to his aunt!
    “There you are, you see – I was right,” said Bobbo, pleased. “I am cleverer than your mirror. It uses magic – but I use my brains. I can tell you a lot of things that you could only get to know through your magic mirror – but which I know by using my very good brains. Ha, ha!”
    “What can you tell me?” asked Bright-Eyes.
    “I can tell in the night, although I did not see or hear him,” said Bobbo. “I can tell you that six rabbits in the snow down the hill this morning. I can tell you that Mother Jane`s ducks left the frozen pond today and went to her garden to be fed.”
    “You must have seen them all. That`s easy,” said Bright-Eyes.
    “I tell you, I have not seen anything or anyone today except you,” said Bobbo. “I know all this by using my brains.”
    “What else do you know?” asked Bright-Eyes, thinking that Bobbo must really be cleverer than he thought.
    “I know that the sparrows flew down to peck crumbs that Mother Jane scattered for them,” said Bobbo. “I know that Crek-Crek the moorhen took a walk by the side of the pond. I know that mother Jane`s cat ran away from Tippy`s dog this morning. And I know that Tippy`s cow wandered from its shed, and then went back to it.”
    Bright-Eyes stared at Bobbo in wonder. “You are very clever to know all this, if you did not see anyone,” he said. I shall ask my magic mirror if what you say is true!”
    He stroked the glass and asked it many things – and each time the glass showed him that what Bobbo said was true! There was the cat chasing the dog. There was the moorhen walking over the snow. There was Tippy`s cow wondering all about!
    “Please tell me your magic,” said Bright-Eyes to Bobbo. It must be very good magic to tell you all these things.”
    (4)
    “Well – come outside and I will show you how I know them all,” said Bobbo, beginning to laugh. They went outside, and Bobbo pointed to the crisp white snow. There were many marks and prints in it, as clear as could be.
    “Look,” said Bobbo, pointing to some small footprints that showed little pointed toes. “Tippy always wears pointed shoes – and do you see how deep his footprints are? That shows that he was running. Why was he running? To catch the bus! That`s how I knew where he was, without having seen him.”
    “How did you know about Jinky going to see his aunt?” asked Bright-Eyes.
    Bobbo pointed to some very big footprints. “Those are Jinky`s marks,” he said. “He has enormous feet. The footprints are going up the hill, and the only person Jinky goes to see over to the top is his aunt. So I knew where Jinky was!”
    “Very clever,” said Bright-Eyes.
    “And I knew that Red-Coat the fox had passed in the night because there are his footprints,” said Bobbo, pointing to a set of rather dog-like marks that showed the print of claws very clearly. “I knew it was Red-Coat because I saw the mark his tail made here and there behind his hind feet – see it?”
    Bright-Eyes saw the mark of the fox`s tail in the snow, and the line of footprints too.
    Bobbo took Bright-Eyes farther down the hill. He showed him the rabbit-prints – little marks for the front feet and longer, bigger ones for the strong hind feet. He showed him where Mother`s Jane`s ducks had walked from the pond to her garden.
    “You can see they were ducks because they have left behind them the mark of their webbed feet,” he said. “And you can see where the sparrows fed because they have left little prints in pairs – they hop, you see, they don`t walk or run – so their prints are always in pairs.”
    “And there are the moorhen`s marks,” said Bright-Eyes. “He has big feet rather like the old hen at home, although he is a waterbird. But he runs on land as well as swims on water, so he doesn`t have webbed feet. Look how he puts them one in front of the other, Bobbo, so the footprints are in a straight line!”
    (5)
    “And there are the marks made by Tippy`s cow,” said Bobbo. You can tell each hoof-mark quite well. And Mother`s Jane`s cat ran here – look at the neat little marks. And Tippy`s dog ran here – you can tell the difference, because the cat puts her claws in when she runs, so they don`t show in her footprints, but the dog doesn`t – so his do show!”
    “Bobbo, you are very, very, very clever,” said Bright-Eyes. “You are cleverer than I am. It is better to use your eyes and your brains, than to use a magic mirror! I think you are the cleverest brownie in the world!”
    Would you like to be as clever as Bobbo? Well, go out into the snow, when it comes, and read the footprints you find there! You will soon know quite a lot.

    CHARACTERIZATION IN THE “THE BROWNIE`S MAGIC” BY ENID BLYTON

    Introduction
    Fiction is a composition of writer`s imagination. It comes from writer`s opinion based on the experience or observation in real world or life, but actually the story is not exactly as what it be underlined. It can be modified by the writer accordance with the purpose of the writing or what the writer wants to convey.
    Fiction is so familiar for many people as most of the materials are about the social life, human life or problem that is so close with the readers and happening in the real life and it can contain of message, intention, or criticism that sometimes can arouse and touch the readers. Though we know that fiction is so familiar and many people like to read it, it does not mean that to understand the content or material of the fiction there are no difficulties. Sometimes they get difficulties to get the meaning of the story and finally they cannot reach the message or intention that writer wants to tell about.
    This paper is made as the effort to help some people to appreciate the fiction generally, and especially The Brownie`s Magic. Writer`s interest of analyzing of characters in this fiction as the writer, Enid Blyton is the famous children `s story writer in 20th century who is one of the six popular writers in the world and registered in the data of translation of UNESCO. She had written many fictions for children and can make adventure story that contains moral and educational message for children. The discussion of this paper is focused on characterization of the major characters. Analyzing is done by using pure structural approach, as all of the discussion is done only based on content of the fiction.

    Analysis
    A. Synopsis
    Bobbo- the brownie wakes up in one morning and finds that the path down to the village and hillside are covered with snow as along night the snow came at that winter. As he is seeing for the beautiful morning, his cousin – Brownie Bright-Eyes is coming up the hill and he waves his hand since he knows that his cousin actually will come and show wonderful things to him. That is true that Bright-Eyes certainly brings something – that is a marvellous mirror – mirror which he has made by himself. He shows the mirror actually also to show that he is a clever one. Bright – Eyes always says that he is proud of himself as he can make something which is new, strange, and wonderful and Bobbo cannot use his brain to create something.
    That morning Bright – Eyes begins to show what will happen with the mirror. The mirror can show all of the people activities. He challenges Bobbo to guess what people do before the magic mirror answer it. Fortunately that Bobbo can answer all of the guesses exactly. Bright – Eyes be surprised, but he is still angered and try again, again and again but Bobbo still can guess it. Bright-Eyes is so amazed and finally Bright-Eyes should consider that Bobbo is cleverer than him after he looks and knows how Bobbo can analyze the marks and signs on the snow.

    B. Analyzing of Characters
    The Brownie`s Magic is the short story for the children that is a part of many series of Blyton`s stories. This story actually is very simple as we read it with unique names of the characters, but it contains the message especially to educate the children about how they behave to their friends or other people and how they should respect for other people.
    The theme which be lifted in this story is about “Respecting other people”. There are many characters in this story as we read it in the part when Bobbo guess the people activities. There are Tippy, Jinky, Jinky`s aunt, and also animal characters such as Red-Coat the fox, six rabbits, Mother Jane, Mother Jane`s ducks, sparrows, Crek-Crek, Tippy`s Dog, Tippy`s cow. They personate as the figuran to complete the story and make the story be like a real and interesting but actually the major characters are only two there are Bobbo and Brownie Bright-Eyes which one is protagonist and the other is antagonist to convey message of the theme about how people should be and respect other people.

    1. Bobbo
    In this story Bobbo is described as the protagonist character. He is a friendly one as he waves his hand to his boast cousin who is coming up the hill (p. 1). Bobbo also is a brownie who is a kind brownie and respectful of someone. He actually knows that when his cousin comes and shows something new, his cousin will boast to him, but he still can state that his cousin is clever one:

    “Ah”, he said, “there is my clever cousin, Brownie Bright-Eyes. I wonder what he has brought to show me today. He is always bringing me wonderful things.” (p.1).

    He is patient and modest to be up against his cousin:

    “I do,” said Bobbo. “But you are always so full of your own wonderful doings that you never listen to me when I want to tell you something.” (p. 2).

    Beside of his hospitality, he can be a distinct one to remind his cousin: “’Don`t boost, I don`t like when you boast.’ (p. 1). The last character is he is smart and tricky as he can guess all of the guesses by analyzing many marks and signs in the snow to guess what people do in that morning exactly:
    “I tell you, I have not seen anything or anyone today except you,” said Bobbo. “I know all this by using my brains.”
    “I know that the sparrows flew down to peck crumbs that Mother Jane scattered for them,” said Bobbo. “I know that Crek-Crek the moorhen took a walk by the side of the pond. I know that mother Jane`s cat ran away from Tippy`s dog this morning. And I know that Tippy`s cow wandered from its shed, and then went back to it.” (p. 3-5).

    2. Brownie Bright-Eyes
    Brownie Bright-Eyes is Bobbo cousin. He is also clever as he can make a new and wonderful thing that sometimes can astonish other people (p. 1). It is good, but because of that he also is a boast brownie:
    “I have made a marvellous mirror,” panted Bright-Eyes, bringing the shining glass into the cave. “I do think I am clever, Bobbo. I made this magic mirror myself. I think I must be the cleverest brownie in the world.” (p. 1).

    He is a brownie who likes to oppose what his cousin says to remain him to be no boast:
    “I am not boasting!” cried Bright-Eyes crossly. “Wait till you do something clever yourself, and then scold me for boasting. It`s a pity you don`t use your own brains.”(p. 1).
    He becomes a brownie that does not like to see and respect for other`s opinion, especially when Bobbo says that he also wants to show what he can do:
    “I don`t expect you would have anything half so wonderful to tell me as I have to tell you,” said Bright-Eyes. “Now – just look at this mirror.’ (p. 1).

    C. Conclusion
    After analyzing the fiction above, the writer think that the author only emphasizes on two major characters directly as a protagonist and antagonist. It is made certainly to make children be more easy to read and then get the message or intention. The author describes the characters by using different methods for each major character. To describe Bobbo, the author uses dramatic method which the describing is through what Bobbo does and says, while to describe the antagonist – Bright-Eyes – the author does it by using discussion of other characters or expository method and also dramatic method. A part of his characters are discussed by other characters or mentioned by Bobbo, while a part other by his saying or what he does. In the ending of the story Bright-Eyes development of character is dynamic that he does not be a boast person again.

    Through two major characters, Blyton wants to say that there two kinds of people characters in this life, good and bad, but anytime the characters can be changed depending on willingness of each characters. Through Bobbo, Blyton wants to tell that be a smart people, it is not needed to be boasting and always respect for other people ability and what he or she has done. Then through Bright-Eyes, the author conveys that a boast person is not liked by other people. No one wants to have boast friend.

    Bibliography:
    Blyton, Enid. 1989. A Book of Pixie Stories. London: Dean, an imprint of The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited.

    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI.

  24. A plot Analysis of a Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens

    Introduction

    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experiences, emotions, and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to reality. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to thoroughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for example, find it difficult to see the relationship among the actions and events that develop the plot. Some others may find it intricate to make out theme. Some others find it complicated to figure out the characters qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented.
    To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. Roberts (1977:6) explains that literary analysis is the process of breaking up a literary work into smaller units so that each of the elements nature, function, and meaning could be deeply discerned, and the correlation among the elements nature, function and meaning could be easily defined.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general “Christmas carol”, a short story by Charles Dickens. The short story is interesting analyze because it is a wonderful story that embodies the author’s signature humor, characterizations and happy endings.
    This paper deals with the plot deals with the plot of the short story. Discussions are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomenology, i.e. a study aimed to analyze a phenomenon by using a set of theories the basis of the analysis.
    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of Christmas Carol
    A mean-spirited, miserly old man named Ebenezer Scrooge sits in his counting-house on a frigid Christmas Eve. His clerk, Bob Cratchit, shivers in the anteroom because Scrooge refuses to spend money on heating coals for a fire. Scrooge’s nephew, Fred, pays his uncle a visit and invites him to his annual Christmas party. Two portly gentlemen also drop and ask Scrooge for a contribution to their charity.

    Later that evening, after returning to his dark, cold apartment, Scrooge receives a chilling visitation from the ghost of his dead partner, Jacob Marley. Marley, looking haggard and pallid, relates his unfortunate story. Marley hopes to save Scrooge from sharing the same fate. After the wraith disappears, Scrooge collapses into a deep sleep.
    He wakes moments before the arrival of the Ghost of Christmas Past, a strange childlike phantom with a brightly glowing head. The spirit escorts Scrooge on a journey into the past to previous Christmases from the curmudgeon’s earlier years. Invisible to those he watches, Scrooge revisits his childhood school days, his apprenticeship with a jolly merchant named Fezziwig, and his engagement to Belle, a woman who leaves Scrooge.
    The Ghost of Christmas Present, a majestic giant clad in a green fur robe, takes Scrooge through London to unveil Christmas as it will happen that year. He discovers Bob Cratchit’s crippled son, Tiny Tim, a courageous boy whose kindness and humility warms Scrooge’s heart. Scrooge finds the jovial gathering delightful and pleads with the spirit to stay until the very end of the festivities. Toward the end of the day, he shows Scrooge two starved children, Ignorance and Want, living under his coat. He vanishes instantly as Scrooge notices a dark, hooded figure coming toward him.

    Types of Plot

    Christmas carol by Charles dickens is written by employing a chronological plot. From the beginning until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place. This story takes Scrooge to the scenes of his boyhood and youth, which stir the old miser’s gentle and tender side by reminding him of a time when he was more innocent. The Ghost of Christmas Present, takes Scrooge to several radically differing scenes a joy-filled market of people buying the makings of Christmas dinner.
    The Ghost of Christmas Past takes Scrooge back to his unhappy childhood, revealing that the young boy’s experiences with poverty and abandonment inspired a desire to succeed and gain material advantage. Unfortunately, Scrooge’s burgeoning ambition and greed destroyed his relationship with his fiancee and his friends.
    2. Stages and Elements of Plot
    The plot of Christmas carol has a regular structure so that is can neatly divided into four stages: exposition, complicated, climax, and resolution. The author of this story also knows how to interact all the readers in story especially in his starting of the story. Usually our readers look at starting climax of the story before they read some book. Then the readers must want to know what happened to Christmas carol. So the readers want to read this story more until in the end.
    The climax of this story occurs when Scrooge visits the site of his own grave during the visit from the ghost of Christmas future. He comes to a realization about his own treatment of others. The Ghost of Christmas comes appears in a dark robe and shrouded in mystery. Silently, the ghost reveals the ambivalent reaction to news of Scrooge’s own death. Scrooge realizes that he will die alone and without love, and that he has the power and money to help those around him—especially Bob Cratchit’s ailing son, Tiny Tim. Scrooge begs the ghost for another chance and wakes in his bed on Christmas morning, resolved to changing his life by being generous and loving to his family, employees, and the poor.
    The exposition of Christmas Carol, we learn that the main character is Scrooge, that his partner died on this very night years ago, and that Scrooge is a tight-fisted business man who has no use for Christmas. Scrooge sees businessmen discussing the dead man’s riches. Scrooge, anxious to learn the lesson of his latest visitor, begs to know the name of the dead man. After pleading with the ghost, Scrooge finds himself in a churchyard, the spirit pointing to a grave. Scrooge looks at the headstone and is shocked to read his own name. He desperately implores the spirit to alter his fate, promising to renounce his insensitive, avaricious ways and to honor Christmas with all his heart. Whoosh! He suddenly finds himself safely tucked in his bed.
    The complication of this story is Scrooge is visited by the ghost of his former partner, Jacob Marley. In life Marley was very similar in attitude and temperament to Scrooge: remote, cruel, and parsimonious. Marley announces that Scrooge will be visited by three more specters: the Spirits of Christmas Past, Present, and Yet to Come. The Ghost of Christmas Past takes Scrooge back to his unhappy childhood, revealing that the young boy’s experiences with poverty and abandonment inspired a desire to succeed and gain material advantage.
    The resolution of this story is when Scrooge wakes up on Christmas morning–after he has been visited by all 3 ghosts and realizes that being miserable won’t get him anywhere in life. He now carries Christmas joy around all the time throughout the year.

    3. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    A theme is a moral message in a story. In “A Christmas Carol” Scrooge is a greedy old man who only cares about money. He soon learns about himself and how he acts. The theme of this story is that money should not matter. This message relates to Scrooge. Scrooge was greedy and was obsessed with his money. Once he had money he would not let it go, even if others needed it. At work his employee Bob Cratchit would shiver all day because Scrooge refused to buy heating coals for a fire. Bob was his employee after Jacob Marley had passed away. Marley was Ebenezer Scrooge’s equally greedy partner. He soon hoped to save Scrooge from suffering a similar fate.
    Conclusion
    This is above all else a story of redemption. Scrooge is redeemed when he is forced to take a moral inventory and realizes that he is severely lacking. Scrooge’s sins are greed and selfishness. He cares only for gathering money for money’s sake. Note that he does not spend it. By contrast, the innocent characters in the book like Bob Cratchit and Tiny Tim, Fred and Belle care for others first and foremost. They do not have much money, but if they do get money they spend it on the ones they love. This story may be more interesting for young man. It can affect for young man to read this story. Because the author add some action to make this story becomes exciting.

    Bibliographyhttp://www.sparknotes.com/lit/christmascarol/section2.rhtml

  25. CHARACTERIZATIONS IN MARIA GOODIN “SOMEONE TO CARE FOR”

    Introduction
    Fiction is a fiction created by the author, where the story comes alive in it because of the imagination, wishful thinking or fantasy the author. Basic writing fiction is to revive a character, place andatmosphere into a story, such as talking and asking ourselves, by looking at events around, the shadow of the event that we want.
    In the literature, when someone hears the word “short story”, an association of thought will directly lead to the kind of fiction that are short. Short story is indeed a form of fiction short duration, dense, intense, and suggestive. Short story creative process requires certain elements or limited, are sorted and chosen selectively and effectively. Short story focuses on one character in one situation at one time. Short story is a story that limits them in discussing one of the elements of fiction in the smallest aspects. An abbreviation for ashort story is not influenced by the shorter form of the novel, but due to a very limited aspect of the problem. With these restrictions, a problem will be illustrated much more clearly and far more memorable to readers. The impression left by a short story should be sharp and deep that once we read it will not easily forget. [http://sastra-perlawanan.blogspot.com].
    This paper helps readers appreciate fiction in general, and Someone to Care For by Maria Goodin specifically. Authors were interested to analyze this short story for the author, Maria Goodin is one of the authors that better reflect her interest in psychology and the human mind works. Her skill as a writer proved by won the City of Derby Short Story Competition. [http://www.cityofderbywritingcompetition.org.uk].
    This paper focuses on aspects of the characterizations. Analysis is conducted using a structural approach based purely on the content of stories.

    Analysis
    A. Synopsis of Someone to Care For
    “Someone to Care For” begins with an overview her friend Natalie can’t see the point in he. She says that he does is burp, fart, dribble, grin inanely and emit a series if unintelligible noises. Admittedly she hasn’t seen him at his best, but the woman still think that’s a little harsh.
    The first time Natalie came to visit the man were asleep on his back, gurgling little spit bubbles, a thin strand of drool running down your chin. Natalie just stared at he as if he were a creature from another planet. She made no secret of the fact that she wasn’t impressed.
    The second time she came to visit the man crawled across the carpet towards her and vomited on her expensive new shoes. The woman tried to make light of it, explaining that it’s mainly just liquid and wipes off easily, but she really did look quite appalled.
    The woman can understand why Nathalie thinks he is an idiot, but it’s easy for her to judge. She already has everything she ever desired. The woman never wanted the impressive job title, the sports car or the big flashy house. The entire woman ever really wanted was to be a mother. The man might not be the most sophisticated man in the world, but he has a good heart and all the other necessary parts to help her fulfill that dream.
    The woman knows exactly why having a baby is so important to her: the woman wants someone she can take care of. The woman finds it incredible that another flailing, helpless human being could rely on her to look after them. Babies are so utterly incapable of looking after themselves, so dependent on others for their wellbeing. From their failure to control their bodily functions to their inability to use their tiny undeveloped brains, they are so completely useless without someone to care for them. The woman wants to be needed like that.

    B. Analysis Of The Characterizations
    In “Someone to Care For” there are three figures which consists of Nathalie, woman (I) and man (you). Judging from the intensity of the role of the run, the main character in this short story is woman (I). Natalie and man (you) is a minor character who serves as a complement to the story that the story becomes more interesting.

    1. The Character Of The Woman
    The woman is loving and loyal. She never worried when her friend, Natalie is disgusted with her husband. She continued to support her husband even though he is often drunk:
    My friend Natalie can’t see the point in you. She says that all you do is burp, fart, dribble, grin inanely and emit a series if unintelligible noises. Admittedly she hasn’t seen you at your best, but I still think that’s a little harsh. (p.1).

    This woman is also a very good figure. She tried to eliminate bad habits husband so that her husband can behave well especially when Natalie was visiting the house:
    I’d secretly hoped that things would be better the next time Natalie came to visit. I thought she might like you better if you had your trousers on and were conscious. To be fair you didn’t let me down on either of those counts, but if I’m going to be picky then I wish you’d been sober and hadn’t vomited on her. (p.2).

    In addition to the above properties, this woman also has a dream to create a happy home life:
    I never wanted the impressive job title, the sports car or the big flashy house. All I ever really wanted was to be a mother. You might not be the most sophisticated man in the world, but you have a good heart and all the other necessary parts to help me fulfill that dream.
    I know exactly why having a baby is so important to me: I want someone I can take care of. (p.3).
    She wants to be a mother and having a baby. A baby needs for care and attention because a baby cannot take care of herself. Therefore, she wanted to be someone who can care for the baby:
    Babies are so utterly incapable of looking after themselves, so dependent on others for their wellbeing. From their failure to control their bodily functions to their inability to use their tiny undeveloped brains, they are so completely useless without someone to care for them. I want to be needed like that. (p.3).

    2. The Man
    In contrast to his wife, he is portrayed as a husband who likes to get drunk and always rely on his wife:
    Later, when you woke up screaming about a pain in your head which you assumed must be a brain hemorrhage; I gently explained that you had simply consumed an excessive amount of alcohol. I then sat by your side, holding your hand and stroking your forehead in a bid to reassure you. Three days later when you had recovered, I firmly reiterated this link between lager and suffering and said I hoped you had learnt your lesson. You looked ashamed, said you wouldn’t do it again and then promptly went out and got wasted. (p.2).

    He did not care about his wife. He’s having fun at a nightclub:
    I assumed that when I told you she was coming for dinner you would come home from the pub before ten o’clock, but of course you bumped into Spongy down at the Queens Head and the two of you decided to celebrate the fact that you were wearing the same socks. I understand how important these things are to you, and I do appreciate the fact that you phoned me from the pub six times with a string of terrible excuses, but could you not have come for the Chicken Chasseur I had prepared? Instead you fell through the front door three hours late, addressed Natalie as Bob, crawled towards her on all fours and then chucked up all over her feet. It wiped off just as I said it would, but I don’t think that made Natalie like you any better. (p.2).

    Her husband still cannot change. He was still doing the bad habits such as drunkenness. He does not care about the response to his friend’s wife, Natalie.

    3. Natalie
    Natalie is an independent businessman. She never wanted a husband or a baby because she just wants to focus on her career:

    Natalie likes being a career woman, rushing between meetings in her power suit, clutching her Starbucks Coffee and her laptop. She’s never wanted a husband or a baby, ….. (p.1).

    She also people who speak frankly if there is something very strange:
    The first time Natalie came to visit you were asleep on your back, gurgling little spit bubbles, a thin strand of drool running down your chin. Natalie just stared at you as if you were a creature from another planet. She made no secret of the fact that she wasn’t impressed. (p.1).

    On the other hand, Natalie also wanted to be noticed by the woman just like a baby:
    Natalie says I don’t need a baby to fulfill my dream. She says I’m already there. (p.3)

    This is because as long as his life, Natalie just doing her own activities without a husband. She wants to get the figure of a friend who could love her and watched her.

    Conclusion
    Overall, the elements of the characterizations in “Someone to Care For” by Maria Goodin used to present the theme: “A husband should pay attention to his wife and responsible in taking care of the household to form an intact family.” The woman is described as a patient and faithful wife. She was always loving and caring husband. She received all the shortcomings of her husband, though her husband does not care about her.
    The interesting thing in this story is the woman and the man is not named by Maria Goodin. In other words, the character of the woman and the man in this story may appear in real life, this story might have occurred in domestic life.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    http://www.eastoftheweb.com/short-stories/UBooks/SomeCare719.shtml

  26. A PLOT ANALYSIS OF O. Henry’S
    “The Princess and the Puma”
    Introduction
    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting and the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experiences, emotions, and ideas about human life in a way which seems very close to reality. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to thoroughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for instance, find it difficult to see the relationship among the actions and events that develop the plot. Some others may find it intricate to make out theme. Some others find it complicated to figure out the characters qualities. Still some others may encounter difficulties to relate the determine and relate viewpoint to the theme presented.
    “The Princess and the Puma” by O. Henry (September 11, 1862 – June 5, 1910) is a wonderful short story that embodies the author’s signature humor, characterizations and twist endings. Though not as famous as his masterpiece “The Gift of the Magi”, this piece still shows why O. Henry was considered (and still is by many) to be one of the greatest short story authors of all time. he is renown for his unique wit and humor and trademark ironic endings. “The Gift of the Magi” is a beloved and poignant classic while “The Ransom of Red Chief” perhaps the most amusing story ever written. “The Princess and the Puma” is a fairly typical O. Henry story that is concise and tightly written barely running over 2,400 words.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis
    “The Princess and the Puma” takes place in the American old west on a fifty thousand acre ranch owned by a man named Ben O‘Donnell, known as “The Cattle King“ by the locals. The story focuses on an encounter between his daughter, Josefa O’Donnell, and a ranch hand named Ripley Givens, who had intentions of marrying the young woman.
    Tired from a long day of travel, Ripley Givens had decided to camp along a river bank. After setting up camp, he decided to fill his can in the river. To his surprise, he saw Josefa O’Donnell kneeling on the bank, getting a drink herself. Behind her, crouched in the brush, sat a one hundred pound “ Mexican Lion”.
    With his revolver yards away at the campsite, Ripley did the only thing that he could think of: He threw himself between Josefa and the beast as it lunged for her. It knocked him to the ground and caused him to hit his head on a tree root. As he wrestled the beast bare-handed, he heard two loud cracks. Josefa had shot the beast twice in the head.
    Feeling a bit foolish about being saved, he concocted a story that he was trying to save the lion from her, and that it was a camp pet that the hands all called Bill. With a bit of convincing, she seemed to believe his story, eventually stating how kind a man he was to take care of an animal in such a way. He escorted her back to her home, and as their horses rode side by side, she held his hand in hers.
    Later that night, after Ripley had left, she told her father that she had killed the “Mexican Lion” that everyone called “Gotch-eared Devil”, the one who had been responsible for the death of a man and several heads of cattle.

    2. Types of Plot
    The princesses and the puma are written by employing a chronological. From the beginning until the end of the story all events in the story are arranged based on the order of the time they take place. The queen had been a Mexican girl from Laredo. She made a good, mild, Coloradoclaro wife, and even succeeded in teaching Ben to modify his voice sufficiently while in the house to keep the dishes from being broken. When Ben got to be king she would sit on the gallery of Espinosa Ranch and weave rush mats
    3. Elements of Plot
    a). Exposition
    The exposition (or background information) of the story is that there is a very wealthy cattle rancher who has a daughter, Josefa, who is very skilled at riding and shooting.
    Exposition :
    The princess is feisty Josefa O’Donnell who embodies the best qualities of her parents. She possessed the warmth and beauty of her mother and Ben’s common sense and “faculty of ruling.” Josefa can ride and shoot, has a head for figures and plays with her kitten. She is a desirable matrimonial catch and Ripley Givens, foreman at the Espinoza spread, has set his cap for “a royal matrimonial alliance.” The author’s humorous take on cattle kins is apparent in the observation “often it only signifies that its owner wears the crown in token of his magnificent qualities in the art of cattle stealing.”
    b). Conflict
    The lion lay motionless. Givens, feeling aggrieved, and suspicious of fouls, shook his fist at the lion, and shouted: “I’ll rastle you again for twenty —” and then he got back to himself.Co Givens did what he could. His six-shooter was thirty-five yards away lying on the grass. He gave a loud yell, and dashed between the lion and the princess.
    Conflict :
    The “rucus,” as Givens called it afterward, was brief and somewhat confused. When he arrived on the line of attack he saw a dim streak in the air, and heard a couple of faint cracks. Then a hundred pounds of Mexican lion plumped down upon his head and flattened him, with a heavy jar, to the ground. He remembered calling out: “Let up, now – no fair gouging!” and then he crawled from under the lion like a worm, with his mouth full of grass and dirt, and a big lump on the back of his head where it had struck the root of a water-elm. The lion lay motionless. Givens, feeling aggrieved, and suspicious of fouls, shook his fist at the lion, and shouted: “I’ll rastle you again for twenty —” and then he got back to himself. Josefa was standing in her tracks, quietly reloading her silver-mounted .38. It had not been a difficult shot. The lion’s head made an easier mark than a tomato-can swinging at the end of a string. There was a provoking, teasing, maddening smile upon her mouth and in her dark eyes. The would-be-rescuing knight felt the fire of his fiasco burn down to his soul. Here had been his chance, the chance that he had dreamed of; and Momus, and not Cupid, had presided over it. The satyrs in the wood were, no doubt, holding their sides in hilarious, silent laughter. There had been something like vaudeville – say Signor Givens and his funny knockabout act with the stuffed lion.
    “Is that you, Mr. Givens?” said Josefa, in her deliberate, saccharine contralto. “You nearly spoiled my shot when you yelled. Did you hurt your head when you fell?”
    “Oh, no,” said Givens, quietly; “that didn’t hurt.” He stooped ignominiously and dragged his best Stetson hat from under the beast. It was crushed and wrinkled to a fine comedy effect. Then he knelt down and softly stroked the fierce, open-jawed head of the dead lion.
    c). Complication
    Josefa O’Donnell was the surviving daughter, the princess. From her mother she inherited warmth of nature and a dusky, semi-tropic beauty
    Complication:
    Josefa O’Donnell was the surviving daughter, the princess. From her mother she inherited warmth of nature and a dusky, semi-tropic beauty. From Ben O’Donnell the royal she acquired a store in intrepidity, common sense, and the faculty of ruling. The combination was was worth going miles to see. Josefa while riding her pony at a gallop could put five out of six bullets through a tomato-can swinging at the end of a string. She could play for hours with a white kitten she owned, dressing it in all manner of absurd clothes. Scorning a pencil, she could tell you out of her head what 1545 two-year-olds would bring on the hoof, at $8.50 per head. Roughly speaking, the Espinosal Ranch is forty miles long and thirty broad—but mostly leased land. Josefa, on her pony, had prospected over every mile of it. Every cow-puncher on the range knew her by sight and was a loyal vassal. Ripley Givens, foreman of one of the Espinosal outfits, saw her one day, and made up his mind to f! orm a royal matrimonial alliance. Presumptuous? No. In those days in the Nueces country a man was a man. And, after all, the title of cattle king does not presuppose blood royal. Often it only signifies that its owner wears the crown in token of his magnificent qualities in the art of cattle stealing. One day Ripley Givens rode over to the Double Elm Ranch to inquire about a bunch of strayed yearlings. He was late in setting out on his return trip, and it was sundown when he struck the White Horse Crossing of the Nueces. From there to his own camp it was sixteen miles. To the Espinosal ranchhouse it was twelve. Givens was tired. He decided to pass the night at the crossing.
    d). Climax
    Josefa rode closer. A little hand seemed to grope. Givens found it with his own. The ponies kept an even gait. The hands lingered together, and the owner of one explained.
    climax :
    O’Donnell was sitting on the ranch gallery

    “Hello, Rip!” he shouted—”that you?”

    “He rode in with me,” said Josefa. “I lost my way and was late.”
    “Much obliged,” called the cattle king. “Stop over, Rip, and ride to camp in the morning.”
    But Givens would not. He would push on to camp. There was a bunch of steers to start off on the trail at daybreak. He said good-night, and trotted away.
    An hour later, when the lights were out, Josefa, in her night-robe, came to her door and called to the king in his own room across the brick-paved hallway
    “Say, Pop, you know that old Mexican lion they call the ‘Gotch-eared Devil’—the one that killed Gonzales, Mr. Martin’s sheep herder, and about fifty calves on the Salada range? Well, I settled his hash this afternoon over at the White Horse Crossing. Put two balls in his head with my .38 while he was on the jump. I knew him by the slice gone from his left ear that old Gonzales cut off with his machete. You couldn’t have made a better shot yourself, Daddy.”

    4. The Use of Plot to Present the Theme
    Josefa O’Donnell, a princess, is a pistol wearing, roping, riding cowgirl, which is a total reversal of the princess archetype. In reading this story the reader thinks that the hero, Ripley Givens, will save the princess from a mountain lion that is crouched waiting to spring on her at a watering hole. Instead Porter sends the narrative in a whole new direction, where instead she supposedly saves him from the mountain lion and does not marry him at the end of the story. One technique that is typical of Porter is his surprise endings. In The Princess and the Puma, Josefa discovered that the mountain lion she shot was in fact a pet of Given’s farm and he was trying to save him, not her. In the end the reader discovered that the mountain lion had in fact been harassing several ranches and may not have been Given’s pet after all. These themes and techniques are typical of most of all Porter’s short stories. American Writers wrote, “The stories usually have a comic tone, to be sure, but distinctly uncomic possibilities often exist just at the fringes.”

    Conclusion
    The author of this article enjoyed “The Princess and the Puma” due to the realism of the characters and the feasibility of the plot. The prose was excellent and interspersed with bits of humor, which can be expected of any story written by O. Henry.

    Bibliography
    http://www.helium.com › … › Literature › American Literature

  27. RIRIS NAINGGOLAN
    0812150008
    A PLOT ANLYSIS OF
    EDGAR ALLAN POE “ THE TELL-TALE HEART”
    INTRODUCTION
    Fiction is undoubtedly the most interesting ang the most widely read literary genre due to the realistic sense it offers. Compared to other types of literary works, fiction embodies experiences, an ideas about human life in a way seems very close to reality. Despite this fact, readers often find it difficult to throughly comprehend a fiction they are reading. Some readers, for instance, find it difficult to see the relationship among the actions and events that develop the plot.
    To a higher extent, such difficulties are caused by the readers’ lack of literary analysis competence. Literary anlysis is indeed an intricated process because it necessitates a good understanding of the work elements and how these elements are combined to create a unigfied literary work.
    This analysis is a venture to aid readers to appreciate fiction in general and The Tell-Tale Heart, a short story by Edgar Allan Poe. The writer interests to analyze this story because of the plot of this story is very complicated to understand. In this short story tells about how a man or a murder to kill an old man.
    Edgar Alann Poe (born Edgar Poe, January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was ana American author, poet, editor and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story and is considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre. He is further credited with contibuting to the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a fiinancially difficult life and career.
    This paper deals with the plot of The Tell-Tale Heart. Discussion are focused on the stages of the plot and the use of the plot to present the theme. This paper made bucause of as an example of analysis in Literature II class, the analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the transcendental phenomology, i.e. a study aimed to analyze a phenomenon by using of theories the basis of the analysis.
    ANALYSIS
    1. Synopsis of The Tell-Tale Heart
    “The Tell-Tale Heart” is a short story by Edgar Allan Poe which was first published in 1843. It follows an unnamed narrator who insists on his sanity after murdering an old man with a “vulture eye”. The murder is carefully calculated, and the murderer hides the body by dismembering it ang hiding it under the floorboards. Ultimately the narrator’s guilt manifests itself in the hallucination that the man’s heart is still beating under the floorboards.
    It is unclear what relationship, if any, the old man and his murderer share. It has been suggested that the old man is a father figure, or whether the narrator works for the old man as a servant, perhaps, that this vulture eye represents some sort of veiled secret, or power. The ambiguity and lack of details about the two main characters stand in stark contrast to the specific plot details leading up to the murder.
    The story was first published in James Russell Rowell’s The Pioneer in January 1843. “The Tell-Tale Heart” is widely considered a classic of the gothic fiction genre on of Poe’s most famous short stories.
    2. Types of Plot
    A story is essentially the relating of sequence of events. In a broad sense the term story encompasses all the elements we are dealing with here-characters, events, setting, themes, point of view, and the language in which these are conveyed-but more strictly it designates the action, the story line, or the plot.
    The “The Tell-Tale Heart” is written by employing a chronological plot. From the beginning util the end of the story all events are arranged based on the order of the time.
    3. Stages and Elements of Plot
    ‘The Tell-Tale Heart’ has a regular structure. In this story we can find steps begin from: expository, complication, climax and resolution. In the first paragraph of this story we known as an expository. In the beginning, the story introduce the reader the two main character, the murder and the old man with a ‘vulture eye’. But in this story the writer doesnt’t know exactly who is the murder, as we can see at this piece of the story:
    True!—nervous—very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but why will you say that I am mad? The disease had sharpened my senses—notdestrpyed—not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard many things in hell. How, then, am I mad? Hearken! And observe how healthy—how calmly I can tell you the whole story.
    From this piece of this story t he narrator can be as the murder. This story is a first-person narrative of an unnamed narrator, who insists he is sane but suffering from a disease (nervousness) which causes “over-acuteness of the senses”.
    The complication of this story begun when the old man with whom he lives has a clouded, pale, blue “vulture-like” eye which so distresness the narrator that he plots to murder the old man, though the narrator states that he loves the old man, and hates only the eye. The narrator insists that his careful percision in committing the murder shows thet he can’t possibly be insane. For seven nights, the narrator opens the door of the old man’s room, a process which takes him a full hour. However, the old man’s vulture eye always closed, making it possible to “do the work”.
    The climax of this story is on the eight night, the old man awakes and sits up in his own bed while the narrtator performs his nightly ritual. The narrator doesn’t draw back and, after sometime, decides to opne his lantern. A single ray of light shines out and lands precisely on the old man’s eye, revealing that it is wide open. Hearing the old man’s the heart beating unusually and dangerously quick from terror, the narrator decides to strike, jumping out with a loud yell and smothering the old man with his own bed. The narrator disremembers the body and conceals the pieces under the floorboards, making certain to hide all signs of the crime. Even so, the old man’s scream during the night causes a neighbor to report to the police. The narrator invites the trhee police officers to look around. He clims that the screams heard were his own in a nightmare. Confident that they won’t find any evidence of the murder, the narrator brings chairs for them nad they sit in the old man’s room, right on the very spot where the body is concealed, yet they suspect nothing, as the narrator has a pleasent and easy manner about him.
    The resolution of this story when the narrator, however, begins to hear a faint noise. As the noise grows louder, the narrator comes to the conclusion that it is the heratbeat of the old man coming from under the floorboards. The sound increasess steadily, though the officers seem to pay no attention to it. Shocked by the constant beating of the hart and a feeeling that not only are the officers aware of the sound, but that they also suspect him, the narrator confesses to kill the old man and tells them to tear up the floorboards to reveal the body.
    In my opinion, the narrator of this story is generally assumed to be male. The opening is an in-progress between the narrator and another person who is not identified in any way. It is speculated that the narrator is confessing to a prison warden, judge, newspaper reporter, doctor or psychiatrist. This sparks the narrator’s need to explain himself in great detail. What follows is a word study or terror but, more specifically, the memory of terror as the narrator is relating events from thye past. The first word of thge storr,”True!”, is an admissin of his guilt.
    The story is driven not by the narrator’s insistence upon his innocence but by insistenec on his sanity. His denial of insanity is based on his systemic and precision—a rational explanation for irrational behavior. This rationality, however, is undermined by his lack of motivation. Despite this, he says the idea of murder,”haunted me day and night”.
    The relationship between the old man and the narrator is ambiguous, as are their names, their occupations, and where they live. In fact, that ambiguity adds to the tale as an ironic to the strict attention to detail in the plot. The narrator may be a servant of the old man’s or, as is more often assumed, his son. In that case, the “vulture” eye of the old manis symbolizing parental surveillance and possibly the paternal principles of right and wrong. The eye may also represent secrery, again palying on the ambiguous lack of detail about the old man or the narrator. Regardless, their relationship is incidental; the focus of the story is the preverse scheme to commit the perfect crime.
    4. Conclusion
    In my conclusion this story is written in a complex story, it’s really interesting due to the writer to arrange the events. I can take the lesson from this story that hated always makes us do something bad. But the writer succeeds to employ the interesting plot to keep the reader’s curiosity.

    REFERENCES

    The Tell-Tale Heart (1960), at the Internet Movie Database.
    Poe, Edgar Allan. 1843. The Tell-Tale Heart.
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2008. An Introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI

  28. A Character Analyis of The Lottery Ticket by Anton Chekhov.

    A. Introduction

    Short story is a fictional work which depicts one character’s inner conflict or conflict with others. It usually has one thematic focus.

    The short story, as the name suggests is basically “short” which runs in length from a sentence to four pages, or to novellas that can be 100 pages long. And therefore, it shows the characteristics of both the short story and the novel. Since some works overlap the definitional lines of the three forms of fiction namely short stories, novella, and novel, it is better to consider the term as approximate rather than absolute.

    Short stories usually produce in the reader an emotional and intellectual response. Novels, on the contrary, generally represent conflicts among many characters developed through various episodes, which stimulate a complexity of responses in the reader.

    This analysis is venture to aid readers to a appreciate in general and Lottery Ticket, a short story by Anton Chekhov in particular. The short story is interesting to analyze because it teaches us how we should be grateful for what God has given us.

    This analyze deals with the character of the the short story. Discussion are focused on the types of character and the use of to present the theme. The analysis was carried out by using the structural approach and was based on the real life.

    B. Analysis

    1. Synopsis of Lottery Ticket
    An older couple with a family holds what could be a winning lottery ticket, but resists checking the numbers while they daydream about what they might do with the money.

    It examines how, at first, their reaction to the possibility of wealth is joyful; but rather than share their dreams and communicate their wishes, it looks at how Ivan Dmitritch and his wife, Masha, recede into their own worlds.
    It attempts to show how money definitely does not buy love and how, in fact, it has the potential to destroy it.

    2. Types of Character

    a. Ivan Dmitrich
    He was a middle class man who lived with his family on an income of twelve hundrd a year and was very well satisfied. He was greedy who are never satisfied with what he had.

    b. Masha
    Masha is Ivan Dmitrich’s. She wife was a woman who always felt jealous of people who are more fortunate than herself.

    C. Conclusion
    The conclusion of this short story is how money definitely does not buy love and how, in fact, it has the potential to destroy it.

  29. The Golden Swan

    Long time ago, there lived a King. He was lazy and liked all the comforts of life. He never carried out his duties as a King. “Our King does not take care of our needs. He also ignores the affairs of his kingdom.” The people complained. One day, the King went into the forest to hunt. After having wandered for quite sometime, he became thirsty. To his relief, he spotted a lake. As he was drinking water, he suddenly saw a golden swan come out of the lake and perch on a stone. “Oh! A golden swan. I must capture it,” thought the King. But as soon as he held his bow up, the swan disappeared. And the King heard a voice, “I am the Golden Swan. If you want to capture me, you must come to heaven.” Surprised, the King said, “Please show me the way to heaven.” “Do good deeds, serve your people and the messenger from heaven would come to fetch you to heaven,” replied the voice. The selfish King, eager to capture the Swan, tried doing some good deeds in his Kingdom. “Now, I suppose a messenger will come to take me to heaven,” he thought. But, no messenger came. The King then disguised himself and went out into the street. There he tried helping an old man. But the old man became angry and said, “You need not try to help. I am in this miserable state because of out selfish King. He has done nothing for his people.” Suddenly, the King heard the golden swan’s voice, “Do good deeds and you will come to heaven.” It dawned on the King that by doing selfish acts, he will not go to heaven. He realized that his people needed him and carrying out his duties was the only way to heaven. After that day he became a responsible King.

    CHARACTERIZATION OF MAJOR CHARACTER OF
    “THE GOLDEN SWAN” BY NANCY SPRINGER

    Introduction
    Fiction is the author’s imagination which based on the experience or, sometimes, based on the true story. Generally, novel or short story tells about the daily life aspects because almost the novels or short story related to event in our daily life. So, this is why fiction becomes an interesting story.
    Sometimes, some fiction has many aspects which are difficult to analyze. But, the story about “The Golden Swan” is interesting to analyze because characters in the story teach the reader of experiences of life easily. This paper deals with the characteristic of the story. Discussions are focused on the stage of characteristics in the story.

    Analysis
    1. Synopsis of The Golden Swan
    The story of The Golden Swan starts from the character of the king who doesn’t do his duty well and he doesn’t take care to his people. One day, he goes to the forest to hunt. He is become thirsty and then he drinks at the lake in the forest when he wants to drink the water, he suddenly see the golden swan and he wants to capture it but the swan ignores it. It said that if the king wants to capture it, the king must go to the heaven because it comes from heaven and it is a messenger from heaven. The king asks the way go to heaven. The golden swan tells him that if he wants to go to heaven, he must do his duty of king, such as serve his people by love. Then, the king tries to do its advice to do his duty well and serve his people by love. Finally, the king became a responsible king.

    2. Characterization of The Major Character
    In The Golden Swan, there are 3 characters. They are the king, the golden swan, and the people of the king. The main character is the king, the minor character is the golden swan and the confidant character is the people of the king. The king becomes a main or major character because over the entire story developed by character of the king. The golden swan is the minor character and it function as support the existence of the king. Whereas, the people of the king function as the confidant character. He presented to make the situation become lively so that the story impressed more realistic. In this paper, the analysis is focus on the main or major characteristic of the story.
    The king in this story is the people who serve his people without love. He never takes care to his people. He doesn’t do his duty well. It proved when his people said: “Our King does not take care of our needs. He also ignores the affairs of his kingdom.” The king is very selfish too. He does everything that he wants to serve his self only. This character is proved when he wants to capture the golden swan: “Oh! A golden swan. I must capture it,”
    Beside the character above, the king is imaged as a people who hard work to catch his desire. He wants to go to heaven because he wants to capture the golden swan. However, the golden swan gives him a requirement to go to the heaven. The king should be a good king for his people and serve them by love: “Do good deeds, serve your people and the messenger from heaven would come to fetch you to heaven.” Because of that, the king tries to be a good king for his people. The characters of the king can change when he has a dream to capture the golden swan. He tries to get his dream by do the requirement that given to him.

    3. Conclusion
    Finally, the character of the king in The Golden Swan story imaged that the king try to get his dream to capture the golden swan in the heaven by do the requirement that given from the swan and because of that he can change his bad character such as doesn’t serve his people by love and his selfish character become the king who love his people and care to them.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Pardede, Parlindungan. 2006. An introduction to the Study of Fiction. Jakarta: FKIP-UKI

  30. ANALYSIS CHARACTER
    IN SHORT STORY “FOOTNOTE TO YOUTH”
    BY JOSE GARCIA VILLA

    (Lapang Ari Nazara)

    A. Synopsis Footnote to Youth
    Footnote to youth is a story about young love that usually happens to youth especially on this generation. The story started when Dodong started homeward or going home as fast as he can, thinking on how he would break the news to his father about wanting to marry Teang because Dodong knows that he is seventeen and he is legal and mature enough to have a family and to face life. The initial incident is that when Dodong already breaks the news to his father. The story takes place in a nearby barrio with a farm that is being managed by Dodong’s parents. It was a story of a boy who was only 17 when he decides to marry his love one. He asked for the permission of his father and his father unsurely asked him if he really wants to get married at that early age. His father didn’t hinder in his decision. Dodong love Teang so much that he could not wait for the right age to settle down in a relationship that is hard to escape. It’s the “marriage”. At the age of 17 Dodong and Teang got married without thinking of the risk being in an uneasy part of life. They just follow what they feel. They don’t think what would happen in their future. They bore six successive children.

    B. Analysis characterizations
    There are 5 characters in “Foot to Youth”- Dolong, Teang, Blas, Lucio, and Dolong parents. And the first character is Dolong. Teang is Dodong’s wife, Blas is Dodong’s eldest son, Lucio – Teang’s suitor when she was still unmarried and Dolong parents as support. In this paper, the writer only analysis the first character.
    Dodong Character
    Represents the typical youth that experiencing a lot of uncertainties in life that make him realize that he sacrifice his youth just for the sake of proving himself that he can manage his own life because he is matured enough to face this life’s challenges.

    1. Dolong is taking risks in marrying at an early age. An approach can be applied when Dodong at an early age decided to get married.
    “I am going to marry Teang,” Dodong said. His father looked at him silently and stopped sucking the broken tooth. The silence became intense and cruel, and Dodong wished his father would suck that troublous tooth again. Dodong was uncomfortable and then became angry because his father kept looking at him without uttering\ anything. “I will marry Teang,” Dodong repeated. “I will marry Teang.”
    2. Dodong felt sad because he knows how difficult the life is when they got married in their young age.
    3. Dodong felt guilty because he already know what will happen in his son’s future life.

    C. Closing
    Dodong wants to marry Teang in their young age.They are only seventeen years old. His father allowed hi because he dont want Dodong to be hurt. When they got married they had many children.Teang is beautiful,but,because of stress he became like an old woman. One of their children is Blas. In that time,Blas also wants to be married. Like Dodong he was also a young teenager. The one that he wants to marry is Tona. Tona is also a beautiful girl like Teang. When Blas told to Dodong that he wants to marry Tona, Dodong felt sad because he knows how difficult the life is when they got married in their young age. Even if he is a farmer, a farmer’s salary is not much for a big family. But Dodong has no choice, so he allowed Blas to marry Tona. Because of that, Dodong felt guilty because he already know what will happen in his son’s future life

    1. Dear Mr Lapang,
      I appreciate your initiative to be the first to post the assignment. However, I’d like you to redonsider the followings:
      1. Don’t you think the title would be better if it runs “Characterization in Villa’s Footnote to Youth”?
      2. Where is the introductory section of your essay?
      3. Your analysis will be much better if you also discuss whether each of the character is major, minor, protagonist, antagonist, dynamic, static, etc.
      4. Please support your idea with appropriate literary evidences (citations from the short story) or logical arguments. Write in good essay–all paragraphs are fully developed and interrelated one to another.

      Since you still have two more days before the deadline (November 17, 2011), it’s a good idea for you to revise and repost this essay.

      Good luck.

  31. Dear all,

    Please post your (revised) mid-term short story analysis in the reply section below. The deadline is Thursday November 17, 2011, 24.00 a.m.

    Good luck!

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