Final-Term Assignment


Final-Term Assignment

Dear all attendees of Lit. III Class (VIIIC/Exc.),

To see your understanding of the topics discussed during the first half of the term, choose five out of the following ten items. Write two paragraphs for each chosen item. In the first paragraph summarize the work. In the second, show how the work is related to the sociological, historical, political, and/or religious backgrounds of the period in which it was written (you can focus on one or more background).  Write each paragraph in about 100 words and post it on the reply section below. Put all references you use on the bottom of your writing. Use The Owl and the Nightingale as a model for writing each work. Deadline for posting: Friday, April 28, 2012, 12:00 pm.

  1. John Bunyan‘s The Pilgrim’s Progress
  2. Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko
  3. Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe
  4. Wells’ The Time Machine
  5. Dickens‘s Great Expectations
  6. Emily Bronte‘s Wuthering Heights
  7. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein
  8. Austens Pride and Prejudice
  9. Walter Scott’s Waverley
  10. Stevenson’s Treasure Island

Good Luck!

19 Comments

  1. Name : Welliana Febrianti Iba
    NIM : 012150004 / BS-B

    The Dream of the Rood
    Cynewulf

    The Dream of the Rood tells about the narrator`s dream on his vision speaking to the Cross that Jesus was crucified. The poem consists of three parts. The first, the narrator sees the Cross and considers it as the glorious tree and one which covered with gems. The second, the Cross is symbol of Jesus` death. He imagines the Cross first beginning when the tree is cut and instead brought not for the criminal but for Jesus crucified. It describes that the Lord and the Cross are one, stand together as the victors to save the man. The third, the narrator shares his reflections of his vision when it has finished, but it the man is left with his thought. He praises to God for his vision and hopes for eternal life and great wishing to once again be near to the glorious Cross.

    This poem describes the base value of Christianity that considers Jesus and Cross are one, support one another to be the victors by Crucifying. How the writer imagines that God define the tree as the important part in relation with Jesus` Crucified. This poem at that time gets many critics which state that the poem display the Christianity and paganism which paganism is believed considering of pre-Christianity. The critic comes as the writer considers the Cross as the tree which has great meaning in Crucified of Jesus. How the Tree (Cross) should stand strongly.

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dream_of_the_Rood
    http://www.enotes.com › Literature –

    Utopia
    Sir Thomas More

    Utopia by Sir Thomas More expresses about inspiration of a beautiful and great happiness. Utopia is a place which focuses on politic and social organization where the life seems to be fair, peace, happy, and prosperous. It starts when Thomas More has a conversation with Raphael, a Hebrew for “God has healed” about the world and civilization which in real does not properly bring the society to the fairly life, so the Utopia comes to describe the life which there is no private ownership but public ownership.

    Inspiration of land “Utopia” comes as the answer of which better place to live, when the condition as a result of Renaissance interest in relation of the State and individual influences England and makes it England was suffering through war, lawlessness, the wholesale and foolish application of the death penalty, the misery of the peasants, the absorption of the land by the rich, and the other distressing corruptions in Church and State. Utopia exists as the dream land which nation can stay without any problems causing by Renaissance.

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_More
    http://www.cliffsnotes.com/…/utopia-and-utopian-lit...
    classiclit.about.com/…/bl-rfletcher-history-5-u…

    Beowulf

    Beowulf is a heroic epic poem about a hero of a Geats named Beowulf. Bravely and strongly he does his adventures and fights against the worst strengths. The story initially starts when he arrives to the Kings of Danes but he is attacked by the monster Grendel. Successly he kill the monster with his hands without using any tools and guns and also the Grendel`s mother using sword. Beowulf then becomes the king of Geats, but it is terrorised by the dragon which has four heads. Beowulf can defeat the dragon although he is hurt. He was died and buried in a burial mound by the sea.

    Beowulf is the first important work of literature in English which written using Old English. It is written as the element of religious tension quite common in Christian Anglo-Saxon writing with the set is concerned on Scandinavian culture before the migration. It explains about the heroic code, how the strong kings keep and protect their people from other tribes. Heorot in Beowulf is described as the places where the warriors would gather in the presence of their lord to drink, boast, tell stories, and receive gifts. The place actually is located near the religious place, such as Church. However, at that time that place was risking as it was the dangerous time which paranoid sense of foreboding and doom that runs throughout Beowulf evidences the constant fear of invasion that plagued Scandinavian society.

    http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/beowulf/context.html
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf

    Faery Queene
    Edmund Spencer

    Faery Queene is poem that tells about the journey of the Red Cross knight and Una to fight the dragon and rescue Una`s parents from that dragon. When they take the shelter in the forest, they should find monster named Error and fight toward him. The Red Cross leaves Una in the forest and continue his journey without considering that he is accompanying by the devil, Duessa, which escape from the prison. The Duessa then leads him to the castle and find Lucifera, the misters of Pride and ask him to do the six wizards which will lead to the sin. Una who is rescued by Fauns and Satyrs finally should be happy as she meets the Red Cross. They then rescue Una`s parents. Also this poem tells about the glorious and victory of Elizabeth I.

    The Red Cross is the Christianity or Saint Peter. He enthusiastically becomes the servant of God. His partner Una is the Truth and Holiness which should be together with the Christianity value or base. However, there is the time when the Christianity stays and ignores the Truth and let be led by the devil or darkness to come to the sin. Fortunately, that the Truth can be saved and state as the Christianity`s by the good Christian, that is considered as the Protestantism, while the darkness or devil is the Catholic Church. It happens when the religious aspects is mixed with the politic, which is described in that poem as Elizabeth I.

    http://www.enotes.com › Literature

    The Canterbury Tales
    Geoffrey Chaucer

    Canterbury tales is a collection of stories which is told by the thirty one people including Chaucer, who travel as pilgrims from the Tabard Inn in Southwark to St. Thomas a Becket`s shrine at Canterbury Cathedral (England). The pilgrims come from different kind society. They tell the story to kill the time and each person should tell two stories when they go and two stories when they go back. As the story just to kill the time, the theme of the stories is different each other according to their experiences and or what they know and like to tell. Therefore, Canterbury tales does not have the ending of the story.

    Canterbury tales contains the themes such as feminism and anti-feminism, Christianity, Words and language, tellers as dramatic voices, fables, fiction and fabliaux, quitting, vengeance and paying debts, sex and adultery, justice and judgement, and seriousness and silliness.

    http://www.librarius.com/cantales.htm
    http://www.bl.uk › … › English literature
    http://www.gradesaver.com/the-canterbury-tales/

  2. 1. Cynewulf’s The Dream of the Rood
    The Dream of the Rood is one of the Christian poems that written by Cynewulf. It tells about someone who dreams about a tree on which Jesus’ cross was made from it. Firstly, he told that in his dream, he saw wondrous, beautiful rood-trees which lifted into the air, accessorized with gems and covered by gold. The dreamer was lying a long time there, until he heard the tree spoke. Then, the tree told its story. It was started when the tree was cut down from the edge of the forest and men made the tree to become a cross. The cross then was placed on a hill. After that, he saw men brought Jesus on to the cross. The cross refused to bow down when the tree saw the earth tremble. Jesus and the cross became one as the enemies pierced them with dark nails. A short time later, Jesus finally died and all of the creation wept. Subsequently, the men cut down the cross to the earth and buried it together with Jesus’ corpse. The cross then arose to the heaven and commanded to the dreamer that he had to tell this vision to human mankind. After got the vision, the dreamer prayed for the cross and hoped that he could find the tree and honor it well. He hoped that the time when the cross of Jesus which he saw on his dream will fetch him and will bring him to where great bliss is or maybe simply called heaven.

    The Dream of the Rood begins with the narration of the speaker of a dream he had. In his dream he sees a tree covered with gold and surrounded by angles. While he is gazing at the tree it starts to bleed heavily from its right side. It, then, addresses the dreamer. The tree is the cross of the crucifixion, and it portrays the details of the story. Jesus is described as a mighty warrior and a hero. The cross itself has been dug out after the crucifixion and now it dwells with Jesus and has the power to heal those who pray to him. The cross requests the dreamer to tell other people of this vision. One who knows the story of the crucifixion will gain an after-life. After the dream the speaker dedicates his life to contemplation and spiritual devotion so after his death he could enter the heaven kingdom of Jesus.
    Wikipedia. Retrieved May 4, 2012/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dream_of_the_Rood

    2. Mendelville’s Travel
    The Travels of Sir John Mandeville (1356 or 1366) has been coined as the first travel narrative. Mandeville, claimed to be a knight, traveled for many years around Eur-Asia, Africa, and surrounding areas. The text seems to be heavily charged with Western Christianity, doused with information about the holy land and events of the bible. While abroad, he worked for the sultan and knew the great khan. The text is full of descriptions of exotic and unheard-of creatures, many are descriptions of mutated or deformed humans. Some accounts of his travels and encounters could be reputable, while others are slightly outrageous or otherwise undocumented by anyone else. Copies of the book were supposedly owned by Da Vinci, Colombus, and Chaucer, among others. There exist over 300 extant manuscripts, and this is considered the first time we really are leaving Europe and the bounds of Western Christianity.

    Mandeville acknowledges the talents and capabilities of other cultures, but says that they still do not worship perfectly. Mandeville is a Christian, he claims that even though he had a great incentive to convert to other religions he stayed true to his Western Christian beliefs (Catholicism at this time).
    Humanistic Studies. Retrieved May 3, 2012. http://hust.wetpaint.com/page/The+Travels+of+Sir+John+Mandeville

    3. Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet
    Romeo and Juliet is the most famous love story in the English literary tradition. Love is naturally the play’s dominant and most important theme. The play focuses on romantic love, specifically the intense passion that springs up at first sight between Romeo and Juliet. In Romeo and Juliet, love is a violent, ecstatic, overpowering force that supersedes all other values, loyalties, and emotions. Love is the overriding theme of the play, but a reader should always remember that Shakespeare is uninterested in portraying a prettied-up, dainty version of the emotion, the kind that bad poets write about, and whose bad poetry Romeo reads while pining for Rosaline. Love in Romeo and Juliet is a brutal, powerful emotion that captures individuals and catapults them against their world, and, at times, against themselves. The powerful nature of love can be seen in the way it is described, or, more accurately, the way descriptions of it so consistently fail to capture its entirety.

    In the course of the play, the young lovers are driven to defy their entire social world: families (“Deny thy father and refuse thy name,” Juliet asks, “Or if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love, / And I’ll no longer be a Capulet”); friends (Romeo abandons Mercutio and Benvolio after the feast in order to go to Juliet’s garden); and ruler (Romeo returns to Verona for Juliet’s sake after being exiled by the Prince on pain of death in 2.1.76–78). At times love is described in the terms of religion, as in the fourteen lines when Romeo and Juliet first meet. At others it is described as a sort of magic: “Alike bewitchèd by the charm of looks” (2.Prologue.6). Juliet, perhaps, most perfectly describes her love for Romeo by refusing to describe it: “But my true love is grown to such excess / I cannot sum up some of half my wealth” (3.1.33–34). Love, in other words, resists any single metaphor because it is too powerful to be so easily contained or understood. Romeo and Juliet does not make a specific moral statement about the relationships between love and society, religion, and family; rather, it portrays the chaos and passion of being in love, combining images of love, violence, death, religion, and family in an impressionistic rush leading to the play’s tragic conclusion.
    Sparknotes. Retrieved May 3, 2012. http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/romeojuliet/canalysis.html

    4. Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar
    The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, also known simply as Julius Caesar, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599. It portrays the 44 BC conspiracy against the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, his assassination and the defeat of the conspirators at the Battle of Philippi. It is one of several Roman plays that Shakespeare wrote, based on true events from Roman history, which also include Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra. Although the title of the play is Julius Caesar, Caesar is not the most visible character in its action; he appears in only three scenes, and is killed at the beginning of the third act. Marcus Brutus speaks more than four times as many lines, and the central psychological drama is his struggle between the conflicting demands of honor, patriotism, and friendship. Marcus Brutus is Caesar’s close friend and a Roman praetor. Brutus allows himself to be cajoled into joining a group of conspiring senators because of a growing suspicion—implanted by Caius Cassius—that Caesar intends to turn republican Rome into a monarchy under his own rule. The early scenes deal mainly with Brutus’s arguments with Cassius and his struggle with his own conscience. The growing tide of public support soon turns Brutus against Caesar (this public support was actually faked; Cassius wrote letters to Brutus in different handwritings over the next month in order to get Brutus to join the conspiracy). A soothsayer warns Caesar to “beware the Ides of March,” which he ignores, culminating in his assassination at the Capitol by the conspirators that day, despite being warned by the soothsayer and Artemidrous, one of Caesar’s supporters at the entrance of the Capitol. Caesar’s assassination is one of the most famous scenes of the play, occurring in Act 3 (the other is Mark Antony’s oration “Friends, Romans, countrymen”.) After ignoring the soothsayer as well as his wife’s own premonitions, Caesar comes to the Senate. The conspirators create a superficial motive for the assassination by means of a petition brought by Metellus Cimber, pleading on behalf of his banished brother. As Caesar, predictably, rejects the petition, Casca grazes Caesar in the back of his neck, and the others follow in stabbing him; Brutus is last. At this point, Caesar utters the famous line “Et tu, Brute?” (“And you, Brutus?”, i.e. “You too, Brutus?”). Shakespeare has him add, “Then fall, Caesar,” suggesting that Caesar did not want to survive such treachery. The conspirators make clear that they committed this act for Rome, not for their own purposes and do not attempt to flee the scene. After Caesar’s death, Brutus delivers an oration defending his actions, and for the moment, the crowd is on his side. However, Mark Antony, with a subtle and eloquent speech over Caesar’s corpse—beginning with the much-quoted “Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears”—deftly turns public opinion against the assassins by manipulating the emotions of the common people, in contrast to the rational tone of Brutus’s speech. Antony rouses the mob to drive the conspirators from Rome. Amid the violence, the innocent poet, Cinna, is confused with the conspirator Lucius Cinna and is murdered by the mob. The beginning of Act Four is marked by the quarrel scene, where Brutus attacks Cassius for soiling the noble act of regicide by accepting bribes (“Did not great Julius bleed for justice’ sake? / What villain touch’d his body, that did stab, / And not for justice?”) The two are reconciled; they prepare for war with Mark Antony and Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian (Shakespeare’s spelling: Octavius). That night, Caesar’s ghost appears to Brutus with a warning of defeat (“thou shalt see me at Philippi”). At the battle, Cassius and Brutus knowing they will probably both die, smile their last smiles to each other and hold hands. During the battle, Cassius commits suicide after hearing of the capture of his best friend, Titinius. After Titinius, who wasn’t really captured, sees Cassius’s corpse, he commits suicide. However, Brutus wins that stage of the battle – but his victory is not conclusive. With a heavy heart, Brutus battles again the next day. He loses and commits suicide. The play ends with a tribute to Brutus by Antony, who proclaims that Brutus has remained “the noblest Roman of them all”because he was the only conspirator who acted for the good of Rome. There is then a small hint at the friction between Mark Antony and Octavius which will characterise another of Shakespeare’s Roman plays, Antony and Cleopatra.
    Julius Caesar raises many questions about the force of fate in life versus the capacity for free will. Cassius refuses to accept Caesar’s rising power and deems a belief in fate to be nothing more than a form of passivity or cowardice. He says to Brutus: “Men at sometime were masters of their fates. / The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, / But in ourselves, that we are underlings” (I.ii.140–142). Cassius urges a return to a more noble, self-possessed attitude toward life, blaming his and Brutus’s submissive stance not on a predestined plan but on their failure to assert themselves. Ultimately, the play seems to support a philosophy in which fate and freedom maintain a delicate coexistence. Thus Caesar declares: “It seems to me most strange that men should fear, / Seeing that death, a necessary end, / Will come when it will come” (II.ii.35–37). In other words, Caesar recognizes that certain events lie beyond human control; to crouch in fear of them is to enter a paralysis equal to, if not worse than, death. It is to surrender any capacity for freedom and agency that one might actually possess. Indeed, perhaps to face death head-on, to die bravely and honorably, is Caesar’s best course: in the end, Brutus interprets his and Cassius’s defeat as the work of Caesar’s ghost—not just his apparition, but also the force of the people’s devotion to him, the strong legacy of a man who refused any fear of fate and, in his disregard of fate, seems to have transcended it.
    Wikipedia. Retrieved May 03, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Caesar_%28play%29

    5. Christopher Marlowe‘s Dr. Faustus
    Doctor Faustus, a talented German scholar at Wittenburg, rails against the limits of human knowledge. He has learned everything he can learn, or so he thinks, from the conventional academic disciplines. All of these things have left him unsatisfied, so now he turns to magic. A Good Angle and an Evil Angel arrive, representing Faustus’ choice between Christian conscience and the path to damnation. The former advises him to leave off this pursuit of magic, and the latter tempts him. From two fellow scholars, Valdes and Cornelius, Faustus learns the fundamentals of the black arts. He thrills at the power he will have, and the great feats he’ll perform. He summons the devil Mephostophilis. They flesh out the terms of their agreement, with Mephostophilis representing Lucifer. Faustus will sell his soul, in exchange for twenty-four years of power, with Mephostophilis as servant to his every whim. This history of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus, commonly referred to simply as Doctor Faustus, is a play by Christopher Marlowe, based on the Faust story, in which a man sells his soul to the devil for power and knowledge. Doctor Faustus was first published in 1604, eleven years after Marlowe’s death and at least twelve years after the first performance of the play. “No Elizabethan play outside the Shakespeare canon has raised more controversy than Doctor Faustus. There is no agreement concerning the nature of the text and the date of composition and the centrality of the Faust legend in the history of the Western world precludes any definitive agreement on the interpretation of the play.

    Insofar as Doctor Faustus is a Christian play, it deals with the themes at the heart of Christianity’s understanding of the world. First, there is the idea of sin, which Christianity defines as acts contrary to the will of God. In making a pact with Lucifer, Faustus commits what is in a sense the ultimate sin: not only does he disobey God, but he consciously and even eagerly renounces obedience to him, choosing instead to swear allegiance to the devil. In a Christian framework, however, even the worst deed can be forgiven through the redemptive power of Jesus Christ, God’s son, who, according to Christian belief, died on the cross for humankind’s sins. Thus, however terrible Faustus’s pact with Lucifer may be, the possibility of redemption is always open to him. All that he needs to do, theoretically, is ask God for forgiveness. The play offers countless moments in which Faustus considers doing just that, urged on by the good angel on his shoulder or by the old man in scene 12—both of whom can be seen either as emissaries of God, personifications of Faustus’s conscience, or both. Each time, Faustus decides to remain loyal to hell rather than seek heaven. In the Christian framework, this turning away from God condemns him to spend an eternity in hell. Only at the end of his life does Faustus desire to repent, and, in the final scene, he cries out to Christ to redeem him. But it is too late for him to repent. In creating this moment in which Faustus is still alive but incapable of being redeemed, Marlowe steps outside the Christian worldview in order to maximize the dramatic power of the final scene. Having inhabited a Christian world for the entire play, Faustus spends his final moments in a slightly different universe, where redemption is no longer possible and where certain sins cannot be forgiven.
    Sparknotes. Retrieved May 3, 2012. http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/doctorfaustus/summary.html

  3. 1. Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury tales
    The Canterbury Tales written by Geoffrey Chaucer, it is a collection of stories in a frame story, between 1387 and 1400. It is the story of a group of thirty people who travel as pilgrims to Canterbury (England). The pilgrims, who come from all layers of society, tell stories to each other to kill time while they travel to Canterbury. The Canterbury Tales gives a realistic picture about the life of British society. This anthology is rich in humor despite the criticism leveled at many of the characters, especially the priests who neglect their duties and are still concerned with worldly pleasures. Inevitably, this work presents a description of the social life of the priests, monks, nuns or religious leaders are corrupt, greedy and swindlers, rather than as role models for many British people wracked by poverty in that period. The Canterbury Tales is finished has not yet been answered.
    Many characters in The Canterbury Tales represent the behavior and character opposite to what is traditionally expected of them. Many characters in The Canterbury Tales represent the behavior and character as opposed to what is traditionally expected of them. Thus the irony of life of the monks becomes public role models.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.bookrags.com/notes/ct/TOP1.html
    2. Thomas More’s Utopia

    Thomas More ( The author ) born in 1478, the son of a prominent lawyer, Thomas More became one of the most interesting and influential figures of the early Renaissance. Thomas More’s Utopia was published in 1516. More travels to Antwerp as an ambassador for England and King Henry VIII. While not engaged in his official duties, More spends time conversing about intellectual matters with his friend, Peter Giles. One day, More sees Giles speaking to a bearded man whom More assumes to be a ship’s captain. Giles soon introduces More to this new man, Raphael Hythloday, who turns out to be a philosopher and world traveler. The three men retire to Giles’s house for supper and conversation, and Hythloday begins to speak about his travels. Hythloday has been on many voyages one of the interesting one is that he even landing in Utopia islands. He describes the societies through which he travels with such insight that Giles and More become convinced that Hythloday would make a terrific counselor to a king and he cover all his story to show how pointless it is to counsel a king when the king can always expect his other counselors to agree with his own beliefs or policies. Then Hythloday describes the geography and history of Utopia. He explains how the founder of Utopia. Next, Hythloday moves to a discussion of Utopian society, portraying a nation based on rational thought, with communal property, great productivity, no rapacious love of gold, no real class distinctions, no poverty, little crime or immoral behavior, religious tolerance, and little inclination to war. It is a society that Hythloday believes is superior to any in Europe. In the end More admits he would like to see some aspects of Utopian society put into practice in England, though he does not believe any such thing will happen.
    Hythloday finishes his description and More explains that after so much talking, Giles, Hythloday, and he were too tired to discuss the particular points of Utopian society. More concludes that many of the Utopian customs described by Hythloday, such as their methods of making war and their belief in communal property, seem absurd. He does admit, however, that he would like to see some aspects of Utopian society put into practice in England, though he does not believe any such thing will happen. The point number of religions exist in Utopia. They all are similar in that they believe in a single god, but the nature of that god is very different, ranging from a sort of animism, to worship of an ancient hero, to worship of the sun or moon, to belief in a single omnipotent, ineffable god. This last religion, according to Hythloday, is in the process of becoming dominant, though all the religions practice complete tolerance of all the other religions. After Hythloday and his fellows spoke to the Utopians about Christ, a good number converted and began to learn as much as they could.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/utopia/context.html

    3. Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet.

    Juliet and Romeo is a great tragedies story. The play begins with a large fight between the Capulets and the Montagues, two prestigious families in Verona, Italy. These families have been fighting for quite some time. Romeo reveals that he is in love with a woman named Rosaline, but she has chosen to live a life of chastity. Romeo and Benvolio are accidentally invited to their enemy’s party; Benvolio convinces Romeo to go. At the party, they did not realize that they fall in love each other but their families are mortal enemies. Finally, they know their closeness made their heart so broken. Their family did not agree about their relation. Her mother asks Juliet to marry with a man named Paris. Juliet did not like that boy. Then, Juliet decides to commit suicide rather than marry with the man which her mother choice. Juliet asked to Friar Lawrence for advice, Fr. Lawrence gives Juliet a potion which will make her appear dead and tells her to take it the night before the wedding. She did it, but Romeo did not know about that trick. He rushes to Juliet and in deep grief he drinks a vial of poison. Moments later, Juliet wakes to find Romeo dead and finally she kills herself due to grief. In the end of this tragedy, they finally end their bitter feud and bring their families together.
    Through to the social life context shows us that the sacrifice of Romeo and Juliet toward their love is very big. They decide to die together rather than married to someone else. Romeo and Juliet is a true story, historically in this story is to gather enough knowledge to increase good behavior for them.
    Retrieved from:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romeo_and_Juliet#Screen
    4. The dream of the road
    The Dream of the Rood is one of the earliest Christian poems in the corpus of Old English literature and an example of the genre of dream poetry that written by Cynewulf. The poem is set up with the narrator having a dream. In this dream or vision he is speaking to the Cross on which Jesus was crucified. In his dream he sees a tree covered with gold and surrounded by angles. While he is gazing at the tree it starts to bleed heavily from its right side. It, then, addresses the dreamer. The tree is the cross of the crucifixion, and it portrays the details of the story. Jesus is described as a mighty warrior and a hero. The cross itself has been dug out after the crucifixion and now it dwells with Jesus and has the power to heal those who pray to him. The cross requests the dreamer to tell other people of this vision. One who knows the story of the crucifixion will gain an after-life. After the dream dedicates his life to contemplation and spiritual devotion so after his death he could enter the heaven kingdom of Jesus.
    This image of Christ as a “heroic lord” or “heroic warrior” is seen frequently in Anglo-Saxon (as well as further Germanic) literature, and follows in line with the theme of understanding Christianity through pre-Christian Germanic tradition. (cp. Alfred the Great’s translation of Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy and the Old English Genesis). In this way, “the poem resolves not only the pagan-Christian tensions within Anglo-Saxon culture but also current doctrinal discussions concerning the nature of Christ, who was both God and man, both human and divine”

    Retrieved from:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dream_of_the_Rood#The_Poem
    5. Mandeville’s Travel
    Mandeville Travel was written by Jehan de Mandeville, translated as John Mandeville. It was published between 1357 and 1371. The Travels gives us a broad overview of the world during the Fourteenth Century and how Mandeville viewed the world, along with directions and geographical markers for travel by land or by sea. For each locale, Mandeville tells us of his encounter with other peoples. He also goes into detail about their culture and customs and their religious viewpoint or lack thereof. Throughout the Travels, Mandeville focuses on morals and religion.
    Retrieved from:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Mandeville

  4. hello, Mr Parlin i’m sorry to put my mid term here. because i can’t post my mid term in (mid term assignment account).
    Name : yesi kartika sari
    SRN : 0812150015
    1. Thomas Nashe’s The Unfortunate Traveller
    Thomas Nashe’s The Unfortunate Traveller (1594) is a parodic history of Jack Wilton, a fictional courtier from the reign of Henry VIII. In the dedication to Lord Henry Wriothesley, Nashe claims that all he can promise in this ‘fantastical treatise’ is ‘some reasonable conveyance of history and variety of mirth’. This novel is describing the adventures of jack wilton during the war against France, and also his adventures in Italy. In his adventures, he witness many violent happen, and the worst things is when he saw Italian people shoot another Italian in the throat. Before the Italian shoot another Italian, the one who hold a gun forces another Italian to pray to the devil. Luckily jack was able to escape and finally return to England.
    The form of this work, in the first place, is of great interest, for it resembles the picaresque type indigenous to Spain. But this need not imply that Nashe was a mere imitator; on the contrary, though he may have derived a definite stimulus from Lazarillo de Tormes, the elements of his work represent a spontaneous English growth. The Spanish rogue-novel was the outcome of a widespread beggary brought about by the growth of militarism and the decline of industry, by the increase of gypsies and the indiscriminate charity of an all-powerful church. Similar social conditions prevailed in Elizabethan England, though from different causes, and the conditions which produced Lazarillo produced The Unfortunate Traveller. It has, moreover, been shown that, while Lyly and Sidney were indebted to Spain for certain elements in their works, yet the ultimate origins of English courtesy-books and of the Euphuistic manner, were wholly independent of Spanish influence. And so, in general, it may be said, that parallels existing between the Spanish and English literatures of the time were the result of similar national conditions, of influences which were common to both.
    Retrieved : http://queensofnaples.livejournal.com/13972.htm
    http://www.bartleby.com/213/1619.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Unfortunate_Traveller
    2. Romeo and Juliet
    Juliet and Romeo is a great tragedies story in the year between 1598 and 1607. There are two households in verona, italy. and they are ancient enemys.(the capulets-juliet and montagues-romeo) romeo and juliet met at a capulet ball where romeo is trying to get over his previous “love” rosaline who didn’t love him back. r and j expirenced love at first sight. Juliet has to leave the ball and romeo seeks her at her window. they find out that they are from enemy families..but rebel and plan to marry. So the next day juliet sends her nurse to romeo to confirm her love for him. romeo (and later juliet) meet with a friar. and he thinks marrying the couple will solve the families fueds..so they marry secretly. after when juliet is back home she finds out her parents have arranged juliet to marry a count paris (not knowing about her marrriage to romeo) and this is where the chaos begins. later romeo also gets run out of town by killing juliets cousin tybalt for killing romeos friend mercutio. so juliet is alone and is planned to get married against her wishes. the friar tells her to drink poison that makes her appear dead for 42 hrs but isnt, so she wont have to marry paris, and be put in the family vault and he also planned to send someone to tell romeo the plan so romeo can pick her up from the vault and they can go be together without their parents knowing. Unfortunately romeo didnt get the message, went to the vault, thought juliet was dead, killed himself, shortly after julliet woke up and the friar showed up and tried to convinvce her to turn into a nun because of romeos death, but she killed herself too. the deaths ended family feud.
    In the Nineteenth century, Romeo and Juliet was performed with dramatic Relatively little alteration, and it Became one of Shakespeare’s most-produced plays and a MainStay of the English stage. Romeo and Juliet is a very tragic story, in the 19th century is the story of this very popular in its time and often at the convention Elizabeth theater, the story contains elements of dramatic social because their romance is complicated and there is no support from both their family the story ended very tragically
    Retrieved: http://www.world-english.org/stories_romeo_juliet.htm
    http://povcrystal.blogspot.com/2011/02/shakespeare-in-love.html

    3. The Canterbury Tales- by Geoffrey Chaucer
    The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. The prize for this contest is a free meal at the Tabard Inn at Southwark on their return. After a long list of works written earlier in his career, including Troilus and Criseyde, House of Fame, and Parliament of Fowls, the Canterbury Tales was Chaucer’s magnum opus. He uses the tales and the descriptions of its characters to paint an ironic and critical portrait of English society at the time, and particularly of the Church. Structurally, the collection resembles The Decameron, which Chaucer may have read during his first diplomatic mission to Italy in 1372
    Geoffrey Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales, a collection of stories in a frame story, between 1387 and 1400. It is the story of a group of thirty people who travel as pilgrims to Canterbury (England). The pilgrims, who come from all layers of society, tell stories to each other to kill time while they travel to Canterbury. Chaucer intended that each pilgrim should tell two tales on the way to Canterbury and two tales on the way back. He never finished his enormous project and even the completed tales were not finally revised. Scholars are uncertain about the order of the tales. As the printing press had yet to be invented when Chaucer wrote his works, The Canterbury Tales has been passed down in several handwritten manuscripts.
    Retrieved: http://www.librarius.com/cantales.htm
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Canterbury_Tales
    4. Thomas More’ s Utopia
    This story is about a fictional island in the Atlantic Ocean, Peter Giles. One day, More sees Giles speaking to a bearded man whom More assumes to be a ship’s captain. Giles soon introduces More to this new man, Raphael Hythloday, who turns out to be a philosopher and world traveler. The three men retire to Giles’s house for supper and conversation, and Hythloday begins to speak about his travels. Hythloday describes the geography and history of Utopia. He explains how the founder of Utopia, General Utopus, conquered the isthmus on which Utopia now stands and through a great public works effort cut away the land to make an island. Next, Hythloday moves to a discussion of Utopian society, portraying a nation based on rational thought, with communal property, great productivity, no rapacious love of gold, no real class distinctions, no poverty, little crime or immoral behavior, religious tolerance, and little inclination to war. It is a society that Hythloday believes is superior to any in Europe.
    Thomas More wrote Utopia is looking forward to a world of individual freedom and equality governed by Reason, at a time when such a vision was almost inconceivable. Hythloday believes Utopia to be the greatest social order in the world. As he says, “Everywhere else people talk about the public good but pay attention to their own private interests. In Utopia, where there is no private property, everyone is seriously concerned with pursuing the public welfare.” In Utopia, no man worries about food or impoverishment for themselves or any of their descendants. Unlike the rest of the world, where men who do nothing productive live in luxury, in Utopia, all people work and all live well. Only this, in Hythloday’s mind, is truly just. Hythloday believes societies other than Utopia are merely conspiracies of the rich, “whose objective is to increase their own wealth while the government they control claims to be a commonwealth concerned with the common welfare.” These societies are realms of greed and pride. And pride causes men to measure their welfare not by their well-being, but by having things that others lack, which is irrational and un-Christian.
    Retrieved : http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/utopia/summary.html
    http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/rfletcher/bl-rfletcher-history-5-utopia.htm
    5. Edmund Spenser ‘s The Faerie Queene
    The Faerie Queene tells about several knights, each representing a particular virtue on their guest for the Faerie Queene, Gloriana (her castle is the ultimate goal or destination). Redcrosse, the knight of Holiness, is much like the Apostle Peter: In his eagerness to serve his Lord, he gets himself into unforeseen trouble that he is not yet virtuous enough to handle. Florimell represents Beauty. Una represents purity, truth, and wholesomeness. Guyon is the knight of temperance must destroy the fleshly temptations of Acrasia’s Bower of Bliss. There are many characters also appears in The Faerie Queene such as Artegal, Cambell, triamond etc. Edmund Spenser has not finished in writing this poem, so the reader never know what is the end of the story. Even the Faerie Queen herself never has her unifying court scene at the end. The Faerie Queene is an incomplete English epic poem by Edmund Spenser. The first half was published in 1590, and a second installment was published in 1596. The Faerie Queene is notable for its form: it was the first work written in Spenserian stanza and is one of the longest poems in the English language. as praise of Queen Elizabeth I. In a completely allegorical context, the poem follows several knights in an examination of several virtues. In Spenser’s “A Letter of the Authors,” he states that the entire epic poem is “cloudily enwrapped in allegorical devises,” and that the aim of publishing The Faerie Queene was to “fashion a gentleman or noble person in virtuous and gentle discipline.The Faerie Queene found political favour with Elizabeth I and was consequently a success, to the extent that it became Spenser’s defining work.
    Spenser’s The Faerie Queene is a poem seemingly based upon a fiction world, with a very real political background. Characters such as the Faerie Queene herself as representative of figures in history that are very recognizable – like Queen Elizabeth. King Arthur is also seen throughout the story, and the other characters are based upon the virtues we all known from biblical stories and everyday life. Una represents purity, truth, and wholesomeness, and the Redcrosse Knight, who is the main character, represents pride.Spenser only completed half of The Faerie Queene he planned. In a letter to Sir John Walter Raleigh, he explained the purpose and structure of the poem. It is an allegory, a story whose characters and events nearly all have a specific symbolic meaning. The poem’s setting is a mythical “Faerie land,” ruled by the Faerie Queene. Spenser sets forth in the letter that this “Queene” represents his own monarch, Queen Elizabeth.
    Retrieved:http://voices.yahoo.com/edmund-spensers-faerie-queene-2964010.html?cat=38
    http://www.sparknotes.com/poetry/fqueen/context.html

  5. Dear Sir Parlin, this is my assignment to Mid Term Literature III.
    Name : Pretty Simanjuntak
    NIM : 0812150040

    1. Romeo and Juliet
    Romeo and Juliet is a tragic love story. The play is set in Verona, Italy, where a feud has broken out between the families of the Montegues and the Capulets. Romeo Montegues is in love with Juliet Capulet. When her father knew about her daughter’s relationship with Montegues’s son, he decides that Juliet should marry a young man named Paris. Juliet then goes to Friar Laurence, who gives her a potion that will make her seem dead for at least two days. She takes the potion and drinks it that night. The next morning, the day Juliet is supposed to marry Paris, her Nurse finds her “dead” in bed. When Romeo heard Juliet’s dead , he hurries back to Verona without knowing the truth. Seeing Juliet dead within the tomb, Romeo drinks some poison he has purchased and dies kissing her. When Juliet awake, she sees Romeo dead beside her, Juliet takes his dagger and kills herself with it. The rest of the town starts to arrive, including Capulet and Montegue. Friar Laurence tells them the whole story. The two family patriarches agree to become friends by erecting golden statues of the other’s child.
    Based on the sociological about the era of the story, for the wealthy, tombs were above ground. They were quite ornate because they had to show off for other wealthy families and show the poor people how rich they were. Inside, there were shelves that the bodies were put on, sometimes in caskets and sometimes just wrapped in fancy fabrics. Poor people were buried in the ground as today. Poor people lived in shacks with thatched roofs that leaked a lot. There was one pretty solid wall in which the cooking oven was built. The homes were one room and everybody slept under a large quilt on straw spread on the dirt floor. Rich people had fancy villas. In Italy, they were huge and very ornate. But, they did not have indoor plumbing. In this respect, the rich and poor were equal.
    Retrieved from:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romeo_and_Juliet
    http://www.litcharts.com/lit/romeoandjuliet/backgroundinfo
    2. Faery Queen
    In The Faery Queene, Spenser creates an allegory: The characters of his far-off, fanciful “Faerie Land” are meant to have a symbolic meaning in the real world. In Books I and III, the poet follows the journeys of two knights, Redcrosse and Britomart, and in doing so he examines the two virtues he considers most important to Christian life–Holiness and Chastity. Redcrosse, the knight of Holiness, is much like the Apostle Peter: In his eagerness to serve his Lord, he gets himself into unforeseen trouble that he is not yet virtuous enough to handle. In his immature state, makes mistake. He pays for this mistake with suffering, but in the end, this suffering makes way for his recovery in the House of Holiness, aided by Faith, Hope, and Charity. In a different manner, Britomart also progresses in her virtue of chastity. She already has the strength to resist lust, but she is not ready to accept love, the love she feels when she sees a vision of her future husband in a magic mirror. She learns to incorporate chaste resistance with active love, which is what Spenser sees as true Christian love: moderation.
    Spenser uses biblical allegory to tell his story, but the poem is much more than just a religious poem. Its purpose was to educate, to turn a young man into a gentleman. There are two levels of allegory present. One level examines the moral, philosophical, and religious and is represented by the Red Cross Knight, who represents all Christians. The second level is the particular, which focuses on the political, social, and religious, in which the Faerie Queene represents Elizabeth I. The Faerie Queene, which is meant to celebrate Elizabeth I and, oftentimes, flatter her. In this work, Spenser presents his ideas of what constitutes an ideal England. He also thought that he could use his text as a way to recall the chivalry of a past era, and thus, inspire such actions again. Spenser influenced many of the poets.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.sparknotes.com/poetry/fqueen/summary.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fairy_Queen

    3. The Unfortunate Traveller
    The sixteenth century novel The Unfortunate Traveller , or the Life of Jack Wilton , written by Thomas Nashe , is traditionally marked as picaresque . The genre demands the presence of the so-called picaro or rogue as a central hero and is in fact a first-person of his tricks . The current novel , however , is not a classical example of the traditionally Spanish genre . One of the peculiarities is the concept of disguise , which can be traced at in different levels .
    From the picaresque novel, however, it diverges in its English mixture of tragedy with comedy, and, again, in the fact that the animating impulse of its rogue-hero is not avarice but a malignant and insatiable love of mischief. The Spanish picaro, also, generally belonged to the lowest class and was wont to confine his attentions very largely to Spanish society, but Jack Wilton, a page, moves further afield and reviews no less expansive a scene than that of western Europe in the first half of the sixteenth century.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.bartleby.com/213/1619.html
    http://queensofnaples.livejournal.com/13972.html

    4. The Dream of The Rood
    The poem opens with the vision of the Dreamer who sees the Rood raised up and adorned with jewels and gold. After the Dreamer notices a stain of blood on the Cross’ side, the Rood begins to recount its experience as an instrument in the Crucifixion of Christ. The Cross recalls how it was initially cut down in the forest and chosen as the “tree” on which Christ was to be crucified. In a portrayal of the Passion, the Rood parallels Christ, as both are pierced with nails, mocked, tortured, killed and buried. In the same likeness to Christ, the Rood is resurrected soon thereafter and eventually adorned with gold and silver. Announcing its ultimate triumph through its suffering and obedience to God’s will, the Cross declares that it is honoured above all other trees, and commands the Dreamer to tell others what he has seen and heard as an instrument in explaining the salvation message. In the end, the Dreamer is renewed with hope and vows to seek again the glorious Rood.
    As “one of the first and most successful treatments of the theme of crucifixion” in the English language, the blend of Christian and Germanic elements gives The Dream of the Rood great depth and complexity. The plot, structure, the many parallels relating to both heroic and Christian values, the style, meter and alliteration all contribute to the poem’s overall meaning. The layers of themes and the clues that shed light on Anglo-Saxon society make the poem not simply a literary piece of historical importance, but such layers within the text reveal the Old English poet’s ability to compose with stylistic grace and skill. In the very process of depicting both the Dreamer and the Cross with consciousnesses, the poet attempts, through his art, to move his audience to the same virtuous state as those of the main characters. With the conscience-arousing experience that goes on when reading the poem, readers see how The Dream of the Rood superbly illustrates what substance and efficacy an Anglo-Saxon poet could give to an important Christian topic, such as that of the Crucifixion.
    Retrieved from:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dream_of_the_Rood

    5. The Canterburry Tales
    The speaker of the poem is a man named Chaucer, who is traveling from London with a group of strangers to visit Canterbury, a borough to the southeast of London. This group of people is thrown together when they travel together on a trip to the shrine of Saint Thomas à Becket, who was murdered in Canterbury in 1170. They prepare for their trip[ in Tibard Inn. The Host, who owns the inn that they gather at and who is leading the group, suggests that they should each tell two stories while walking, one on the way to Canterbury and one on the way back, to pass the time more quickly. He offers the person telling the best story a free supper at the tavern when they return.
    The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer was one of the most famous poems written during the medieval period. This infamous essay by Geoffrey Chaucer was written in year 1387 to 1400, and it is a poem that depicts the journey of a group of pilgrims who traveled together to Canterbury for religious reasons. The Canterbury Tales is a reflection of the time and period in which Chaucer lived as many of the characteristics of the political and sociological status at the time was reflected in the poem. During the medieval period, Feudalism was practiced where there are social hierarchies among men. God has the highest importance, followed by kings and royals, nobles, artists and peasants.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/canterbury/summary.html
    http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/gchaucer/bl-gchau-can-mill.htm
    http://www.gradesaver.com/the-canterbury-tales/study-guide/short-summary/

  6. Dear Sir, I’m so sorry have to post my mid-term assg. in this account, bcoz in mid-term account, there can’t be post and there was written “Sorry, comments are closed for this item.” this is my answer

    1.1. Cynewulf’s The Dream of the Road Summary
    1.The Dream of the Rood
    The Dream of the Roodis the earliest dream-vision poem in the English language and one of the central documents of Old English Literature. Although no definite date can be assigned to the poem, many scholars agree that the most probable date of composition was during the 8th century. The influence of the poem in Pre-Conquest England is attested to by the fact that a passage from it appears carved on the Ruthwell Cross, a stone monument probably dating from the early 9th century, but the poem may also have influenced many later works in both Old and Middle English. Today, the poem exists in its most complete form in the Vercelli Book, a manuscript of Old English prose and poetry unanimously assigned to the second half of the tenth century. The Dream of the Rood is one of the earliest Christian poems in the corpus of Old English literature and an example of the genre of dream poetry. Like most Old English poetry, it is written in alliterative verse. The Dream of the Rood has three parts: the Dreamer’s account of his vision of the Cross, the Rood’s monologue describing the Crucifixion, and the Dreamer’s resolution to seek the salvation of the Cross. The poem opens with the vision of the Dreamer who sees the Rood raised up and adorned with jewels and gold. After the Dreamer notices a stain of blood on the Cross’ side, the Rood begins to recount its experience as an instrument in the Crucifixion of Christ. The Cross recalls how it was initially cut down in the forest and chosen as the “tree” on which Christ was to be crucified. In a portrayal of the Passion, the Rood parallels Christ, as both are pierced with nails, mocked, tortured, killed and buried. In the same likeness to Christ, the Rood is resurrected soon thereafter and eventually adorned with gold and silver. Announcing its ultimate triumph through its suffering and obedience to God’s will, the Cross declares that it is honoured above all other trees, and commands the Dreamer to tell others what he has seen and heard as an instrument in explaining the salvation message. In the end, the Dreamer is renewed with hope and vows to seek again the glorious Rood.

    The relation to the religious background is
    Despite the possibility of pagan elements, the very nature of The Dream of the Rood is based upon Christian belief. The entire poem deals with the passion, death and resurrection of Christ as a triumph over sin and evil, which is the strongest mark of Christian faith. The dreamer, in his converted state, remarks, “May the Lord be my friend/ he who here on Earth once suffered/ on the hanging tree for human sin/ he ransomed us and gave us life/ a heavenly home.” Here the dreamer realizes that Christ’s death was not only victory in battle, but also the way in which human salvation was secured.

    http://www.dreamofrood.co.uk/introduction.htm
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dream_of_the_Rood

    2.Beowulf
    Concerning the history of Beowulf a whole library has been written, and scholars still differ too radically for us to express a positive judgment. This much, however, is clear,–that there existed, at the time the poem was composed, various northern legends of Beowa, a half-divine hero, and the monster Grendel. The latter has been interpreted in various ways,–sometimes as a bear, and again as the malaria of the marsh lands. For those interested in symbols the simplest interpretation of these myths is to regard Beowulf’s successive fights with the three dragons as the overcoming, first, of the overwhelming danger of the sea, which was beaten back by the dykes; second, the conquering of the sea itself, when men learned to sail upon it; and third, the conflict with the hostile forces of nature, which are overcome at last by man’s indomitable will and perseverance.
    The Relation of historical background
    The poem deals with legends, was composed for entertainment, and does not separate between fictional elements and real historic events, such as the raid by King Hygelac into Frisia. Scholars generally agree that many of the personalities of Beowulf also appear in Scandinavian sources (specific works designated in the following section).[15] This does not only concern people (e.g., Healfdene, Hroðgar, Halga, Hroðulf, Eadgils and Ohthere), but also clans (e.g., Scyldings, Scylfings and Wulfings) and some of the events (e.g., the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern). The dating of the events in the poem has been confirmed by archaeological excavations of the barrows indicated by Snorri Sturluson and by Swedish tradition as the graves of Ohthere (dated to c. 530) and his son Eadgils (dated to c. 575) in Uppland, Sweden. The majority view appears to be that people such as King Hroðgar and the Scyldings in Beowulf are based on real people in 6th-century Scandinavia. Beowulf has consequently been used as a source of information about Scandinavian personalities such as Eadgils and Hygelac, and about continental Germanic personalities such as Offa, king of the continental Angles.
    http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10609/10609-h/10609-h.htm
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf

    3. Mandeville Travel.
    The Travels of Sir John Mandeville (1356 or 1366) has been coined as the first travel narrative. Mandeville, claimed to be a knight, traveled for many years around Eur-Asia, Africa, and surrounding areas. The text seems to be heavily charged with Western Christianity, doused with information about the holy land and events of the bible. While abroad, he worked for the sultan and knew the great khan. The text is full of descriptions of exotic and unheard-of creatures, many are descriptions of mutated or deformed humans. Some accounts of his travels and encounters could be reputable, while others are slightly outrageous or otherwise undocumented by anyone else. Copies of the book were supposedly owned by Da Vinci, Colombus, and Chaucer, among others. There exist over 300 extant manuscripts, and this is considered the first time we really are leaving Europe and the bounds of Western Christianity.
    The Relation of Religion Background
    Even though he has conversations with people of different religions, it is doubtful that he was genuinely interested in their religious beliefs. Despite his talks, he always comes to the conclusion that Christianity is far superior.In “relating” the conversations he had with people of other religions, Mandeville always has them concede that Christianity is a much better religion and that Christians are better, more capable people.
    During the Renaissance humanists had to defend their interest in merely reading non-Christian texts. How could John Mandeville during the Middle Ages have expressed interest in other religions without being called a heretic.

    4.The Romeo and Juliet Summary
    Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. Its plot is based on an Italian tale, translated into verse as The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet by Arthur Brooke in 1562 and retold in prose in Palace of Pleasure by William Painter in 1582. Shakespeare borrowed heavily from both but, to expand the plot, developed supporting characters, particularly Mercutio and Paris. Believed written between 1591 and 1595, the play was first published in a quarto version in 1597. This text was of poor quality, and later editions corrected it, bringing it more in line with Shakespeare’s original.
    Shakespeare’s use of dramatic structure, especially effects such as switching between comedy and tragedy to heighten tension, his expansion of minor characters, and his use of sub-plots to embellish the story, has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill. The play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters, sometimes changing the form as the character develops. Romeo, for example, grows more adept at the sonnet over the course of the play.
    The political view of Romeo and Juliet
    Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is obviously a tragedy of impetuous young love. But it is also a play about politics, especially politics as conditioned by Christian morality and religion. The play’s action is determined by the conflict between secular and priestly authority, and by the complex interaction among mercy, love, and punishment as practiced by Escalus, Prince of Verona, and Friar Laurence, the Franciscan. In the course of this action, the Veronese regime is transformed, and the common good determined, in ways more compatible with the friar’s interests than with those of the Prince. Romeo and Juliet is one of Shakespeare’s pictures of the unique problems that determined modern, as opposed to ancient, political life. Shakespeare’s depictions of evil rulers who are justly overthrown marked him as a progressive or even a radical who challenged the doctrine of the divine right of kings. While Shakespeare’s politics are not precisely stated, in his portraits of mob rule (as in Julius Caesar and in Coriolanus) the Bard expresses a basic political conservatism: the common man, the rabble, in Shakespeare’s works does not have the capacity to rule himself. Shakespeare was not an advocate of democratic government, social leveling or state-sponsored welfare.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romeo_and_Juliet
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-2508.t01-2-00004/abstract
    http://www.enotes.com/william-shakespeare/what-shakespeares-political-orientation

    5.Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury tale
    The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales (mostly written in verse although some are in prose) are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. The prize for this contest is a free meal at the Tabard Inn at Southwark on their return. It is also tell the story of a group of thirty people who travel as pilgrims to Canterbury (England). The pilgrims, who come from all layers of society, tell stories to each other to kill time while they travel to Canterbury.
    If we trust the General Prologue, Chaucer intended that each pilgrim should tell two tales on the way to Canterbury and two tales on the way back. He never finished his enormous project and even the completed tales were not finally revised. Scholars are uncertain about the order of the tales. As the printing press had yet to be invented when Chaucer wrote his works, The Canterbury Tales has been passed down in several handwritten manuscripts.
    The historical background of The Canterbury Tales
    The Canterbury Tales was written during a turbulent time in English history. The Catholic Church was in the midst of the Western Schism and, though it was still the only Christian authority in Europe, was the subject of heavy controversy. Lollardy, an early English religious movement led by John Wycliffe, is mentioned in the Tales, as is a specific incident involving pardoners (who gathered money in exchange for absolution from sin) who nefariously claimed to be collecting for St. Mary Rouncesval hospital in England. The Canterbury Tales is among the first English literary works to mention paper, a relatively new invention which allowed dissemination of the written word never before seen in England. Political clashes, such as the 1381 Peasants’ Revolt and clashes ending in the deposing of King Richard II, further reveal the complex turmoil surrounding Chaucer in the time of the Tales’ writing. Many of his close friends were executed and he himself was forced to move to Kent in order to get away from events in London.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Canterbury_Tales
    http://www.librarius.com/cantales.htm

    5.

  7. Dear Mr.Parlin, Sorry for late to post it.

    1. Great Expectation
    By Charles Dickens
    There is a boy named Phillip, but people call him Pip. Pip’s parents passed away and he lives with his sister. He often plays around his parents’ grave. One day, he meets a man. The man looks scary and asks about him and his parents’ grave. Then that scary man asks Pip to get him drinks and food. There, his sister and brother-in-law are waiting for him for dinner. His sister is so stern to him. If he makes mistakes, his sister will hit him with thin small rattan. While waiting for his sister coming with the food, Pip tells his brother-in-law, Joe, that one day he will be a gentleman. After dinner, he goes to bed, but he cannot sleep because he keeps thinking what that scary man’s saying. Therefore, he sneaks out to the kitchen and takes a pie and a bottle of brandy. He runs to the churchyard. He meets someone whom he thinks the scary man. Apparently, it’s different person. That guy walks away and Pip runs, still looking for the scary man. Finally, he meets him and gives the food to him. In different time, the officers are knocking the house door looking for runaway prisoner. Pip knows who the person they meant, but he does not want to talk anything. Finally, the officers are arresting a man that he met before. That man recognizes Pip who brought drink and food. But he says nothing about Pip. Then a year passed, a wealthy lady is asking Pip to visit her house. His sister knows that Pip might be adopted by that lady. Therefore, she puts Pip the best clothes he has on. When Pip arrives, he is welcomed by a pretty young lady, named Estella. Estella takes Pip to the lady’s room. After a day, that lady likes Pip and asks him to visit her regularly. Estella seems like him too, but she pretends that she has no attention to him. The lady asks what Pip thinks about Estella. Pip says that she is very pretty, but is insulting as well. After t several months, Pip says he cannot come to lady’s house anymore because he’s going to be a blacksmit , so he can help Joe in the future. Years passed, Pip is grown up into a good man. The lady invites him back to her house and tells him that he has to go to London because he has a benefactor who guarantees his better life in the city. So he can learn something to support his life. Estella also goes to London. Mr. Jaggers, a lawyer, talks about this matter to Joe, since his sister passed away several years ago. So, Pip starts his new life in London by looking for Mr. Jagger. Mr. Jagger gives him a shared house and some money for him to start his life. Apparently, he shares the house with a boy who asked him to fight when they were still small children. They soon becomes best friends and be famous in high-class community gatherings. Pip changes into a gentleman as he was dreaming of. Then he becomes snobby and has many debts. But Mr. Jaggers helps him by showing his wealth from his benefactor. Joe once comes visits him, but Jow knows that he’s changed. Therefore, Joe does not want to meet him anymore. After that, Pip visits the lady back to tell her how his life is now. The lady is very delighted and she tells him that he must start a relationship with Estella. They meet in London and hang out together for some time. They seem happy. Until one day he finds out that Estella is going to marry Mr. Jaggers. It seems that Estella has to pay “something” to Mr. Jaggers. Apparently, Estella’s mother is a maid who is working for Mr. Jaggers and her father is the one whom Pip gave drink and food in churchyard long time ago. So, Mr, Jaggers will guarantee their live as long as he can have Estella. Pip is trying to help Estella’s father who escapes from prison long long time ago. The worse is that the man who got caught long time ago has been released from the prison and now he is trying to put Estella’s father in the prison. He follows Pip, Herbert, and Estella’s father. They try to run away with a small boat, but it failed. Finally, Estella’s father is arrested and is sentenced to death. Pip is angry to the lady and he comes to that lady’s house. However, that lady sends Pip to go away from her house. When Pip goes out from her room, accidently, the coal rolls over from the fireplace and burns her dress. Pip comes back after hearing her shouts but he cannot help her. Then Pip comes back to the prisoner, seeing the last time of Estella’s father time before he dies of sickness. Pip is looking for Estella and she is in the lady’s house. Estella says she will live in that house because she grows up there, but Pip says he cannot because that house just brings sorrow to people who live in. Estella must get up and get out from that house. Finally, Estella agrees to go and live with Pip forever.
    After having read the whole story of great expectation, I see that the theme of social class is central to the novel’s plot and to the ultimate moral theme of the book—Pip’s realization that wealth and class are less important than affection, loyalty, and inner worth. Pip achieves this realization when he is finally able to understand that, despite the esteem in which he holds Estella, one’s social status is in no way connected to one’s real character.

    2.Treasure Island
    By Robert Louis Stevenson
    It is about Jim Hawkins whose parents have an inn in the pear. One of the tenants is Captain Flint, or known as Billy Bones. Since he retired from sailing, Captain Flint spends his time in inn and drinks rum. Even though Dr. Livesey reminds him about his health, he does not really care. One day, one of Captain’s friends is visiting him. He is known as Black Dog. They were talking about their past time, when they sailed and looked for treasures. Not longer, the other friend, a poor blind man, also came visiting him. After that, Captain is dead because of his poor health. Jim’s parents are confused because Captain has not paid for his rent while staying with them. Therefore, one night, Jim’s mother asks Jim to follow her to intrude Captain’s room to find anything to be sold to replace the rent money. However, Captain’s friends who are planning to do the same come to the room at the same time. Jim succeeds to take a packet. Captain’s friends caught him and they opened the packet. It is a book and a sealed paper. They found out it is a map of treasure which is located in an island around Hispaniola. Therefore, Jim, Black Dog and friends, and Dr. Livesey take the journey. They start from Bristol. Along their sailing, they stop and meet some people who finally join them in the journey, such as a squire and Long John Silver. They also experience some events along the journey.
    The story is closely related to history. It has stated that the international commerce was developing and it causes sea transportations are mainly focus to deliver merchandises. As the result, pirates are becoming a trend. When the company ship captain does not want to give up to pirates, they sink their own ship and leave the treasure down the sea. These pirates have their own rules. In addition, most likely they can be friends now but enemy in the future. Captain is a respectable, wealthy pirate. Therefore, when he died, his friends are competing to get his wealth. It has also shown that life in the sea is very rough. You cannot trust anyone, but trust to yourself.
    3. Pride and Prejudice
    By Jane Austen
    The story is about The Bennets who have five daughters. The Bennets are the middle-rank society family. Therefore, there are chances to meet the rich and the royal family in any parties. The hope of the mother is that her daughters can marry rich men so they will not live in suffer. One night, there is a party to welcome Mr. Bingley, a rich man from the big town. Of course, The Bennet’s daughters dress up to get attention. Mr. Bingley comes with his sister and his best friend, Mr. Darcy. Mr. Bingley is very friendly and extrovert person. While Mr. Darcy looks like a loner and introvert person. In that party, Mr. Bingley is definitely interested in Jane, the eldest of the Bennets. While Elizabeth, Jane’s sister, pays attention more to Mr. Darcy’s cold attitude. She overhears that Mr. Darcy says she is not attractive enough to get his attention. Elizabeth keeps her heart not to fall in love with Mr. Darcy. On the other side, the relationship of Mr. Bingley and Jane seems promising. There is another man coming to the town named Mr. Collins. His intention is to look for a lady to marry, so he can inherit some of Lady Catherine’s wealth. Lady Catherine is one of the Duchesses who run the area (district). Therefore, Mrs. Bennets offers Elizabeth to Mr. Collins. However, Elizabeth refuses assertively. The story turns into a disaster when Mr. Bingley leaves the town without any words to Jane. Family and friends start assuming it’s due to different social status. Moreover, Mr. Collins finally marries to Elizabeth’s best friends, Charlotte, and move to the city. To overcome her sadness, Jane visits their relatives in London and Elizabeth goes to Charlotte’s place. There, he meets Mr. Darcy who relates to Lady Catherine as well. Mr. Darcy, who also has feelings for her, states his feeling and Elizabeth signals that they cannot be together because of social status. Then some troubles come to the Bennets and strangely, Mr.. Darcy is always involved as the savior. Ultimately, Mr. Bingley does not care about the social status and propose Jane. At night, Lady Catherine comes to the Bennet’s house and threatens Elizabeth not to have any love relation toward Mr. Darcy because he has engaged to her daughter. However, apparently, their love is getting stronger, Mr. Darcy personally asks Elizabeth from her father, and they get his consent.
    On this story, Austen explains the reality of women’s life during the time. Most of family wants their daughters to marry high social status rank men to get better life and pride. Austen focuses on three kinds of women at that time. Jane represents a shy woman who really obeys what her parents say. She does not want her family has a problem, so she hasn’t another opinion at all. She runs her life just like the stream of water. When she finds out Mr. Bingley leaves the town without any words, she does not have any thoughts. Even she just pulls herself together and keeps all feelings and thoughts by herself. She does what family suggests to her, like going to visit her auntie and uncle in London. She goes there without any argument. Elizabeth represents a well-educated woman. She likes to read which shows that she has more knowledge then the others. She is an assertive and determined person. She often states her opinion and be bold to say no to what she thinks wrong. Logically, social status is not a matter for her. Yet, she still lives in a society where social status is the most important. Therefore, she shows herself as a person who has pride; yet her thoughts are still bothered by her prejudice. Lydia represents a woman who does not care about people’s thought as long as she can marry a rich and noble person. She never misses any chances to meet any rich and noble men. Even she is the one who is very excited when the officers are coming to their town. She is the one who is trying to attract any officers’ attention. Finally, she marries Mr. Wickham who is actually a fraud. She does not know about it and actually, she does not care. What she thinks is that she is free from home and has a good life in the future. Actually, there is another kind of woman pictured in this story, but it is only a glimpsed and I think Austen did that in purpose. It is Mary. Mary represents an ordinary woman who prepares herself very well to get any attention. Somehow, any people do not pay attention to her because she is too “plain”. She is too ordinary. Her character is often found sad in the middle of cheerful situation; she talks but no one wants to listen to her. I think, in this story, there is not much reference about Mary.

    4. Wuthering Heights
    By Emily Bronthe

    Wuthering Heights is the name of a large house in the UK Yorkshare. The story in this novel begins with the arrival of Mr. Lockwood who wants to meet Mr. Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights for renting Thrushcross Grange; Heathcliff’s a house that is located not too far away to Wuthering Heights. Meeting with Mr. Heathcliff that seems strange and harsh, which make Mr. Lockwood tries to find out about the history of Wuthering Heights Heathcliff and from Miss. Ellen Dean, a maid who has worked for a long time in Wuthering Heights. From Miss Dean story of Wuthering Heigths darkness revealed in detail until. Mr. Earnshaw, a property owner in Yorkhshire who has two children named Hindley and Catherine, originally owns Wuthering Heights. After a business trip in Liverpool Mr. Earnshaw brings home a dirty gypsy boy who was muck about in the streets. The child is given the name of Heathcliff, the same as the name of his son who had died of illness. Heathcliff’s presence in the Earnshaw family is proved a recipe for disaster in this family. Favoritism of Earnshaw loves Heathcliff more than both his own child planted seeds of hatred and envy in the minds of his eldest son, Hindley. The event of meeting together with the Earnshaw family and Linton family, the owners of Thrushcross Grange which is located not far from Wuthering Heights. This meeting brought Catherine to Edgar Linton who loves her. Even though Catherine still loves Heathcliff but finally she decides to marry Edgar Linton.
    I can see that story with unexpected plot, the exploration of characters are also so strong that readers may hate to love them to death at once. Besides that, this novel also makes me realize how the behavior of favoritism from parents to their children can have a negative impact of such great for the future.

    5.Robinson Crusoe
    By Daniel Defoe
    Robinson Crusoe is an adventure story of a man who is persistent to his beliefs in life. In the beginning of the story, he tells about whom he is and where he comes from. He has two brother who is one of them is devoted to British army. Robinson wants to be a sailor; but his father refuses his dream. He prefers Robinson to have settle life such as a lawyer. He does not give up and keeps finding a way to sail. Finally he joins a ship and sees how the real life of sailing. It is not as what he expected. Then he tries to escape from it and settles in Portuguese. There, he has a land and plants it with various plantation. Then he sells the product to Spain or Brazil. One day, he joins his ship, but it ends up by crashing on a remote island. He is alone there for years. He learns many things from his loneliness in that island, especially learning from nature and building his relationship with God. Finally, he can go out from the island and change his life.
    The story happens is the same in our life as well. We can have something to believe, Robinson believes that sailing is his life. He takes the chance and be responsible to his choice. Of course, there are challenges in living for what we chose. He has “good and bad battle” in his head when he realizes that he is alone in that island. In addition, through his witness that God is wonderful and very good for him. He gets the essence of his life and shares it to people surround him.

    References :
    1. Novel for great expectation
    2. wikipedia.org

  8. Dear Mr.Parlin, Sorry for late to post it.

    1. Great Expectation
    By Charles Dickens
    There is a boy named Phillip, but people call him Pip. Pip’s parents passed away and he lives with his sister. He often plays around his parents’ grave. One day, when he is playing there, he meets a man. The man looks scary and asks about him and his parents’ grave. Then that scary man asks Pip to get him drinks and food. Pip runs into his house. There, his sister and brother-in-law are waiting for him for dinner. His sister is so stern to him. If he makes mistakes, his sister will hit him with thin small rattan. While waiting for his sister coming with the food, Pip tells his brother-in-law, Joe, that one day he will be a gentleman. His sister overhears and says he is only dreaming. After dinner, he goes to bed, but he cannot sleep because he keeps thinking what that scary man’s saying. So he sneaks out to the kitchen and takes a pie and a bottle of brandy. He runs to the churchyard. He meets someone whom he thinks the scary man. Apparently, it’s different person. That guy walks away and Pip runs, still looking for the scary man. Finally, he meets him and gives the food to him. In different time, the officers are knocking the house door looking for runaway prisoner. Pip knows who the person they meant, but he does not want to talk anything. Finally the officers are arresting a man that he met before. That man recognizes Pip who brought drink and food. But he says nothing about Pip. Then a year passed, a wealthy lady is asking Pip to visit her house. His sister knows that Pip might be adopted by that lady. Therefore, she puts Pip the best clothes he has on. When Pip arrives, he is welcomed by a pretty young lady, named Estella. Estella takes Pip to the lady’s room. After a day, that lady likes Pip and asks him to visit her regularly. Estella seems like him too, but she pretends that she has no attention to him. The lady asks what Pip thinks about Estella. Pip says that she is very pretty, but is insulting as well. After t several months, Pip says he cannot come to lady’s house anymore because he’s going to be a blacksmit , so he can help Joe in the future. Years passed, Pip is grown up into a good man. The lady invites him back to her house and tells him that he has to go to London because he has a benefactor who guarantees his better life in the city. So he can learn something to support his life. Estella also goes to London. Mr. Jaggers, a lawyer, talks about this matter to Joe, since his sister passed away several years ago. So, Pip starts his new life in London by looking for Mr. Jagger. Mr. Jagger gives him a shared house and some money for him to start his life. Apparently, he shares the house with a boy who asked him to fight when they were still small children. They soon becomes best friends and be famous in high-class community gatherings. Pip changes into a gentleman as he was dreaming of. Then he becomes snobby and has many debts. But Mr. Jaggers helps him by showing his wealth from his benefactor. Joe once comes visits him, but Jow knows that he’s changed. Therefore, Joe does not want to meet him anymore. After that, Pip visits the lady back to tell her how his life is now. The lady is very delighted and she tells him that he must start a relationship with Estella. They meet in London and hang out together for some time. They seem happy. Until one day he finds out that Estella is going to marry Mr. Jaggers. It seems that Estella has to pay “something” to Mr. Jaggers. Apparently, Estella’s mother is a maid who is working for Mr. Jaggers and her father is the one whom Pip gave drink and food in churchyard long time ago. So, Mr, Jaggers will guarantee their live as long as he can have Estella. Pip is trying to help Estella’s father who escapes from prison long long time ago. The worse is that the man who got caught long time ago has been released from the prison and now he is trying to put Estella’s father in the prison. He follows Pip, Herbert, and Estella’s father. They try to run away with a small boat, but it failed. Finally, Estella’s father is arrested and is sentenced to death. Pip is angry to the lady and he comes to that lady’s house. However, that lady sends Pip to go away from her house. When Pip goes out from her room, accidently, the coal rolls over from the fireplace and burns her dress. Pip comes back after hearing her shouts but he cannot help her. Then Pip comes back to the prisoner, seeing the last time of Estella’s father time before he dies of sickness. Pip is looking for Estella and she is in the lady’s house. Estella says she will live in that house because she grows up there, but Pip says he cannot because that house just brings sorrow to people who live in. Estella must get up and get out from that house. Finally, Estella agrees to go and live with Pip forever.
    After having read the whole story of great expectation, I see that the theme of social class is central to the novel’s plot and to the ultimate moral theme of the book—Pip’s realization that wealth and class are less important than affection, loyalty, and inner worth. Pip achieves this realization when he is finally able to understand that, despite the esteem in which he holds Estella, one’s social status is in no way connected to one’s real character.

    2.Treasure Island
    By Robert Louis Stevenson
    It is about Jim Hawkins whose parents have an inn in the pear. One of the tenants is Captain Flint, or known as Billy Bones. Since he retired from sailing, Captain Flint spends his time in inn and drinks rum. Even though Dr. Livesey reminds him about his health, he does not really care. One day, one of Captain’s friends is visiting him. He is known as Black Dog. They were talking about their past time, when they sailed and looked for treasures. Not longer, the other friend, a poor blind man, also came visiting him. After that, Captain is dead because of his poor health. Jim’s parents are confused because Captain has not paid for his rent while staying with them. Therefore, one night, Jim’s mother asks Jim to follow her to intrude Captain’s room to find anything to be sold to replace the rent money. However, Captain’s friends who are planning to do the same come to the room at the same time. Jim succeeds to take a packet. Captain’s friends caught him and they opened the packet. It is a book and a sealed paper. They found out it is a map of treasure which is located in an island around Hispaniola. Therefore, Jim, Black Dog and friends, and Dr. Livesey take the journey. They start from Bristol. Along their sailing, they stop and meet some people who finally join them in the journey, such as a squire and Long John Silver. They also experience some events along the journey.
    The story is closely related to history. It has stated that the international commerce was developing and it causes sea transportations are mainly focus to deliver merchandises. As the result, pirates are becoming a trend. When the company ship captain does not want to give up to pirates, they sink their own ship and leave the treasure down the sea. These pirates have their own rules. In addition, most likely they can be friends now but enemy in the future. Captain is a respectable, wealthy pirate. Therefore, when he died, his friends are competing to get his wealth. It has also shown that life in the sea is very rough. You cannot trust anyone, but trust to yourself.
    3. Pride and Prejudice
    By Jane Austen
    The story is about The Bennets who have five daughters. The Bennets are the middle-rank society family. Therefore, there are chances to meet the rich and the royal family in any parties. The hope of the mother is that her daughters can marry rich men so they will not live in suffer. One night, there is a party to welcome Mr. Bingley, a rich man from the big town. Of course, The Bennet’s daughters dress up to get attention. Mr. Bingley comes with his sister and his best friend, Mr. Darcy. Mr. Bingley is very friendly and extrovert person. While Mr. Darcy looks like a loner and introvert person. In that party, Mr. Bingley is definitely interested in Jane, the eldest of the Bennets. While Elizabeth, Jane’s sister, pays attention more to Mr. Darcy’s cold attitude. She overhears that Mr. Darcy says she is not attractive enough to get his attention. Elizabeth keeps her heart not to fall in love with Mr. Darcy. On the other side, the relationship of Mr. Bingley and Jane seems promising. There is another man coming to the town named Mr. Collins. His intention is to look for a lady to marry, so he can inherit some of Lady Catherine’s wealth. Lady Catherine is one of the Duchesses who run the area (district). Therefore, Mrs. Bennets offers Elizabeth to Mr. Collins. However, Elizabeth refuses assertively. The story turns into a disaster when Mr. Bingley leaves the town without any words to Jane. Family and friends start assuming it’s due to different social status. Moreover, Mr. Collins finally marries to Elizabeth’s best friends, Charlotte, and move to the city. To overcome her sadness, Jane visits their relatives in London and Elizabeth goes to Charlotte’s place. There, he meets Mr. Darcy who relates to Lady Catherine as well. Mr. Darcy, who also has feelings for her, states his feeling and Elizabeth signals that they cannot be together because of social status. Then some troubles come to the Bennets and strangely, Mr.. Darcy is always involved as the savior. Ultimately, Mr. Bingley does not care about the social status and propose Jane. At night, Lady Catherine comes to the Bennet’s house and threatens Elizabeth not to have any love relation toward Mr. Darcy because he has engaged to her daughter. However, apparently, their love is getting stronger, Mr. Darcy personally asks Elizabeth from her father, and they get his consent.
    On this story, Austen describes the reality of women’s life during that time. Most of family wants their daughters to marry high social status rank men to get better life and pride. Austen focuses on three kinds of women at that time. Jane represents a shy woman who really obeys what her parents say. She does not want her family in trouble, so she has no opinion at all. She runs her life just like the stream of water. When she finds out Mr. Bingley leaves the town without any words, she does not have any thoughts. Even she just pulls herself together and keeps all feelings and thoughts by herself. She does what family suggests to her, like going to visit her auntie and uncle in London. She goes there without any argument. Elizabeth represents a well-educated woman. She likes to read which shows that she has more knowledge then the others. She is an assertive and determined person. She always states her opinion and be bold to say no to what she thinks wrong. Logically, social status is not a matter for her. Yet, she still lives in a society where social status is the most important. Therefore, she shows herself as a person who has pride; yet her thoughts are still bothered by her prejudice. Lydia represents a woman who does not care about people’s thought as long as she can marry a rich and noble person. She never wants to miss any chances to meet any rich and noble men. Even she is the one who is very excited when the officers are coming to their town. She is the one who is trying to attract any officers’ attention. Finally, she marries Mr. Wickham who is actually a fraud. She does not know about it and actually, she does not care. What she thinks is that she is free from home and has a good life in the future. Actually, there is another kind of woman pictured in this story, but it is only a glimpsed and I think Austen did that in purpose. It’s Mary. Mary represents an ordinary woman who prepares herself very well to get any attention. Somehow, any people do not pay attention to her because she is too “plain”. She is too ordinary. Her character is often found sad in the middle of cheerful situation; she talks but no one wants to listen to her. However, in this story, there is not much reference about Mary. I myself think that Austen did that in purpose to emphasize the existence of this kind of women’s character in society.

    4. Wuthering Heights
    By Emily Bronthe

    Wuthering Heights is the name of a large house in the UK Yorkshare. The story in this novel begins with the arrival of Mr. Lockwood who wants to meet Mr. Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights for renting Thrushcross Grange; Heathcliff’s a house that is located not too far away to Wuthering Heights. Meeting with Mr. Heathcliff that seems strange and harsh, which make Mr. Lockwood tries to find out about the history of Wuthering Heights Heathcliff and from Miss. Ellen Dean, a maid who has worked for a long time in Wuthering Heights. From Miss Dean story of Wuthering Heigths darkness revealed in detail until. Mr. Earnshaw, a property owner in Yorkhshire who has two children named Hindley and Catherine, originally owns Wuthering Heights. After a business trip in Liverpool Mr. Earnshaw brings home a dirty gypsy boy who was muck about in the streets. The child is given the name of Heathcliff, the same as the name of his son who had died of illness. Heathcliff’s presence in the Earnshaw family is proved a recipe for disaster in this family. Favoritism of Earnshaw loves Heathcliff more than both his own child planted seeds of hatred and envy in the minds of his eldest son, Hindley. The event of meeting together with the Earnshaw family and Linton family, the owners of Thrushcross Grange which is located not far from Wuthering Heights. This meeting brought Catherine to Edgar Linton who loves her. Even though Catherine still loves Heathcliff but finally she decides to marry Edgar Linton.
    The main theme though a simple and general, but I can see that story with unexpected plot, the exploration of characters are also so strong that readers may hate to love them to death at once. Besides that, this novel also makes me realize how the behavior of favoritism from parents to their children can have a negative impact of such great in the future.
    5.Robinson Crusoe
    By Daniel Defoe
    Robinson Crusoe is an adventure story of a man who is persistent to his beliefs in life. In the beginning of the story, he tells about whom he is and where he comes from. He has two brother who is one of them is devoted himself to British army. Robinson himself wants to be a sailor; but his father against his dream. He prefers Robinson to have settle life such as a lawyer. He does not give up and keeps finding a way to sail. Finally he joins a ship and sees how the real life of sailing. It is not as what he expected. Then he tries to escape from it and settles in Portuguese. There, he has a land and plants it with various plantation. Then he sells the product to Spain or Brazil. One day, he joins his ship, but it ends up by crashing on a remote island. He is alone there for years. He learns many things from his loneliness in that island, especially learning from nature and building his relationship with God. inally, he can go out from the island and change his life.
    This story happens in our life as well. When we have something to believe, then we tend to stick to it and run it with all the risks. Robinson believes that sailing is his life. Instead of being successful entrepreneur or lawyer on land, his adventure trait drives his life more. He takes the chance and be responsible to his choice. Of course, there are challenges in living for what we chose. He also has trouble in that island. He has “good and bad battle” in his head when he realizes that he is alone in that island. He also questions God of what he is facing at that time. In addition, through his witness that God is wonderful and very good for him. He gets the essence of his life and shares it to people surround him.

    References :
    1. Novel for great expectation
    2. wikipedia.org

  9. Dear Mr. Parlin
    I’m sorry to late send my assigment
    This My assigment

    1. a. Summary of Oroonoko
    Oroonoko chronicles the story of the African prince Oroonoko and his beloved wife Imoinda, who are captured by the British and brought to Surinam as slaves. The tale is set primarily in this locale on the northern coast of South America during the 1640s, just before the English surrendered the colony to the Dutch. A young English woman, the nameless narrator, resides on Parham Plantation awaiting transportation back to England. She is the daughter of the new deputy-governor, who unfortunately died during the family’s voyage to take up his new post. During her wait, she has the opportunity to meet and befriend prince Oroonoko and his lovely wife, Imoinda.
    The king of Coramantien, who is the 100-year-old grandfather of Oroonoko, has also fallen in love with the young and beautiful girl and has beaten Oroonoko to the punch by sending her the royal veil, a gift Imoinda cannot refuse, and which signifies that she is now the wife of the king. Meanwhile, the British arrive in Coramantien to trade for the war captives whom Oroonoko sells as slaves. The captain invites the prince and his friends to board his vessel as his guest, but then surprises them and takes them captive. Because of his high social status, superior education, and spectacular physical appearance, Oroonoko is never sent to work. He resides away from the other slaves in the plantation house. While walking with Trefry one day, he sees Imoinda. The lovers fall happily into each other’s arms and all but instantly marry. Soon Imoinda becomes pregnant.
    At this point Oroonoko, who desperately desires that his child not be born a slave, becomes even more concerned about his enslaved status despite Trefry’s and the narrator’s renewed promises that all will be well when the governor arrives. They attempt to divert him with hunting, fishing, and a trip to a native village. Oroonoko is a champion hunter who kills two tigers singlehandedly in addition to managing to hold onto a fishing rod even when an electric eel knocks him unconscious. Although the native village provides distraction (and another means for Behn to provide cultural information about the natives in this region), Oroonoko incites a slave revolt with the other plantation slaves
    Deputy-governor Byam negotiates with Oroonoko to surrender and promises him amnesty. Once more he assures Oroonoko that he and his family will be freed and returned to Africa. Hardly surprising, however, Byam lies once more to Oroonoko and sees that he is whipped brutally, with pepper poured into his wounds, as soon as he surrenders.
    The espondent Oroonoko realizes he now will never be free and that his child will be born in captivity. Sinking ever deeper into depression, he waits for eight days next to the body of his dead wife until the stench brings Byam’s men to the site, where they immediately set about killing him. Finally, Oroonoko stands stoically smoking his pipe while they chop off his nose, ears, and one leg. Then he falls down dead, and they quarter his body before disposing of it.

    1. b. sociological, historical, political, and/or religious backgrounds of Oroonoko
    The Politics of Oroonoko,” Richard Kroll reads Aphra Behn’s text in terms of the protocols of neoclassical literature, analyzing the formal elements of the text to reveal the response she expected to provoke. He shows the ways in which Oroonoko seeks polemically to engage with the political circumstances surrounding its writing—the tumultuous events of early summer 1688. (An appendix to the article shows the correlation between events in the publishing and historical arenas.) Kroll also argues that the polemical aims of the text are intimately allied with the nature of Behn’s royalism. While critics have seen the text falling into two sections, Kroll shows the way in which the structure articulates the overarching political theme: the events in Coramantien represent a site where romantic kingship is displayed and anatomized, while the events in Surinam represent a site where romantic kingship is tested. He also shows Behn’s selection from among the various languages available to her— sometimes taken as a sign of confusion or lack of mastery—and appropriation of these elements in the service of her political argument.

    2. a. Summary of Frankenstein by Mary Shelley’s
    The story begins with Captain Robert Walton sailing to the North Pole in the 18th century. Unfortunately, the boat gets stuck in impassible ice hundreds of miles from land. With nothing else to do, he writes letters to his sister back in England. He’s pretty boring, as far as we can tell. He tells his sister that he wants a male friend to keep him company. Soon, Walton’s despair is interrupted by the sight of – a man! On the ice! Riding a dog-sled! The man boards the ship, and it seems as if Walton’s wish for a friend has come true.Victor recounts his life story to Walton as he rests aboard the ship. Victor started out like any normal kid in Geneva. His parents adopted a girl named Elizabeth for him to marry when he was older. (That won’t be weird.) In the normal progression of things, Victor gets older and goes off to college to study natural philosophy and chemistry. Back in Geneva, Victor’s younger brother, William, is murdered.
    The Frankenstein family servant, Justine, is accused of killing him. Victor magically intuits that it is the monster that killed William and that Justine is innocent. Thinking no one would believe the “my monster did it” excuse, Victor is afraid to even propose his theory. Even when poor Justine is executed.. He tells a story about a family of cottagers who gave him hope that he would find compassion, but how even they drove him away. He lost his last chance to connect with society. The monster asks Victor to create for him a female companion as monstrous as he. After much persuading, Victor agrees. At this point, the story is being told by the monster, as told by Victor, as told by Walton.Victor leaves to make a new monster. He drops off Henry in Scotland while he goes to an island in the Orkneys to work. When he is almost finished, he destroys the second monster, believing he has been tricked by the first monster and that the two will bring destruction to humanity rather than love each other harmlessly. Victor returns to Geneva and prepares to marry Elizabeth before remembering the monster’s promise to be with him on his wedding night. Victor thinks the monster is threatening him, but the night he and Elizabeth are married, the monster kills the bride instead. This death causes Victor’s father to pass away from grief (as he just lost a daughter-in-law and a daughter).Victor is as alone as the monster, and now, as bent on revenge. We can’t really tell the two of them apart anymore except that the monster is taller. And he has some funny-looking joints. Victor chases the monster over all imaginable terrain until he is ragged and near death. That’s about the time he gets to Walton’s ship. After telling his story, Victor dies. The monster comes aboard the ship, and Walton discovers him crying over the dead body of Victor. He has nothing more to live for, he says, so he goes off to die.
    b. sociological, historical, political, and/or religious backgrounds of Frankenstein
    Mary Shelley was very conscious of the political issues of her time. Visitors to her father’s house, when Mary was young, included many leading radical thinkers. She was also a keen reader of books written by her parents:
    there are passages in Frankenstein that contain echoes of Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). there are passages in Frankenstein that contain echoes of William Godwin’s An Enquiry into Political Justice (1793).She also knew her father’s novel The Adventures of Caleb Williams (1794), which addresses issues about social justice and the abuse of power, and her mother’s unfinished fiction The Wrongs of Woman (1798). (See also Author section: Political radicalism and various references in Frankenstein Synopses). More generally, she was widely read in history and philosophy and discussed contemporary political and social issues with Shelley and the members of his circle.
    From this reading and discussion, she developed an understanding of the cruelty and tyranny that may be inherent in human institutions and the social and political establishment, and this is echoed in the monster’s many critical comments on human society and individual behaviour during his conversation with Frankenstein. The monster can be seen as a type of the outsider, a creature who is regarded as inferior and for whom society has no place, just as slaves were denied any sense of individuality.

    3. Summary of Pride and Prejudice by Austen’s
    In Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austen tackles a common reality in England in the early 19th century – women who lack a fortune need to marry well. By “well,” we mean wealthy. So, any guy from a good family with large, steady income is fair game on the Marriage Hunt. Rich but unintelligent, unattractive, boring men? Mrs. Bennet says, “Bring it on!” To be fair, she does have five daughters who lack a fortune. When a certain (wealthy) Mr. Bingley moves into the neighborhood and is interested in her eldest daughter, Jane, Mrs. Bennet becomes deliriously happy and (to the extreme discomfort of her family and innocent spectators) tries to push them together in every way possible
    It’s not all roses and champagne just yet, however. While Mr. Bingley is easygoing and pleasant, his sisters are catty snobs whose attitude is encouraged by a certain Mr. Darcy. Good-looking, rich, and close friends with Mr. Bingley, Darcy is also insufferably proud and haughty. The Bennets are beneath him in social stature, so Mr. Darcy is proportionately disagreeable, particularly to Jane’s younger sister Elizabeth. When Mr. Bingley suggests that Mr. Darcy ask Elizabeth to dance, Mr. Darcy replies that she isn’t pretty enough. The two men accidentally carry on their conversation within earshot of Elizabeth. Ouch.
    It’s clear to everyone that Mr. Bingley is falling in love with Jane, but Jane’s calm temperament hides her true feelings (she loves him too). In any case, Mr. Bingley’s sisters extend a dinner invitation to Jane, who (based on the recommendations of her mother) rides over to the Bingley mansion in the rain, gets soaking wet, falls ill, and has to remain in the Bingley household. Elizabeth arrives to nurse her sister and engage in some witty banter with Mr. Darcy. Astonished at his attraction, he keeps staring at Elizabeth, but she assumes he’s being a jerk and trying to judge her.
    Back at Longbourn (the Bennet home), Mr. Collins arrives for a visit. As Mr. Bennet’s closest male relative, Mr. Collins will inherit the estate after Mr. Bennet’s death. Mr. Collins has decided that the nice thing to do is to marry one of the Bennet girls in order to preserve their home. It looks like he has his sights set on Elizabeth, but did we mention that he’s a complete fool and worships his boss (a certain Lady Catherine)? It’s clear that Elizabeth finds him repulsive.The next day, all the Bennet girls are invited to a ball at Netherfield (a.k.a. Mr. Bingley’s mansion). Elizabeth is excited about possibly dancing with Wickham, and also excited to see Mr. Darcy and Mr. Wickham confront each other. At the ball, Wickham is absent, but Darcy asks Elizabeth to dance. So does Mr. Collins, whose dancing style is grotesquely embarrassing to Elizabeth. The rest of Elizabeth’s family is no better: Mrs. Bennet brags to everyone that Bingley will likely propose to Jane, Mary and shows off her non-existent musical talent, and Lydia and Kitty are embarrassingly flirty with the military officers.
    A letter arrives for Jane. It’s from Miss Bingley, informing her that the entire Bingley group has left for London. Miss Bingley also sneakily implies that Mr. Bingley is really in love with Darcy’s sister. Jane is heartbroken, but goes to London with her aunt and uncle in the hopes of winning Bingley back. Elizabeth also leaves home to visit the newly married Charlotte. Charlotte seems content. During her visit, Elizabeth receives a dinner invitation to Lady Catherine’s estate, Rosings Park. While there, Lady Catherine subjects Elizabeth to the third degree, but Elizabeth takes it well. She learns that a visit from Darcy is imminent.
    Meanwhile, Elizabeth learns that Bingley was going to propose to Jane but that Darcy intervened. Naturally her dislike for Darcy intensifies…which is exactly the moment Darcy chooses to propose.The next day, Darcy hands Elizabeth a letter, asking her to read it. It contains the full story regarding Wickham (he’s a liar, a gambler, and he tried to elope with Darcy’s underage sister) and the full story regarding Jane (Darcy was convinced Jane didn’t love Bingley and so tried to save his friend from a woman simply attracted to his wealth). Elizabeth undergoes a huge emotional transformation and regrets her hasty actions.
    Elizabeth’s aunt and uncle ask her to accompany them on a trip to Derbyshire, which is, incidentally, where Mr. Darcy lives. They decide to visit his estate called Pemberley. Elizabeth agrees to go only after she learns that Mr. Darcy is out of town. Once at the estate, Elizabeth is impressed by its excellent taste and upkeep. Darcy’s housekeeper also has nothing but compliments for her master. To Elizabeth’s surprise, they run into Darcy, everything that needs to be said: “Thanks for saving my sister from ruin,” “I was doing it foand, to her further surprise, he’s immensely polite to her aunt and uncle. Darcy asks Elizabeth to meet his sister, who proves to be quite nice but very shy.Shortly thereafter, Lady Catherine visits Longbourn and tries to strong-arm Elizabeth into rejecting any proposal from Darcy. Elizabeth gets mad – why is this woman trying to control her? – and basically tells her to get lost. Later, Elizabeth and Darcy go for a walk and the couple says r you,” “Do you still hate me?” “No, I love you,” etc. They decide to get married.

    b. sociological, historical, political, and/or religious backgrounds of Pride and Prejudice
    As for the historical content of the [Austen] novels, students may not see it because they think of social history as “history with the politics left out,” as G. M. Trevelyan once described it, rather than what it is: the essential foundation that gives shape to everything else. For the cultural historian Raymond Williams, for example, Austen’s novels provide an accurate record of that moment in English history in which high bourgeois society most evidently interlocked with an agrarian capitalism. “An openly acquisitive society,” writes Williams in The Country.
    In Jane Austen’s day, there was no centrally-organized system of state-supported education. There were local charity or church-run day schools (such as the one set up by St. John Rivers in Charlotte Brontë’s later novel Jane Eyre), but these were not attended by the children of the “genteel” social levels that Jane Austen writes about. More or less the same is true of apprenticeships, another relatively less “respectable” mode of education — thus in Sense and Sensibility the character Mrs. Jennings thinks that the young woman whom she imagines is Colonel Brandon’s illegitimate child can be gotten out of the way by being “‘prenticed out at a small cost”. (However in Jane Austen’s fragment of a novel The Watsons, about a family on the lower financial fringes of gentility, Sam Watson is a “surgeon” — a less exalted profession in Jane Austen’s day than now — and so probably would have been apprenticed.) And “Dame Schools”, of the type satirized in Dicken’s Great Expectations, were even less respectable (thus a character in one of Jane Austen’s Juvenilia “knew nothing more at the age of 18 than what a twopenny Dame’s School in the village could teach him”). “But history, real solemn history. The quarrels of popes and kings, with wars or pestilences, in every page; the men so good-for-nothing, and hardly any women at all — it is very tiresome.” Here the last sentence is as succinct a summary as one could wish of the objections of feminist historiography, social history, and/or the Annales school to the traditional “Great Man” theory of history. (See also Jane Austen’s own farcical History of England.)

    4. a. .Summary of Waverley by Scott ’s
    Edward Waverley, the protagonist, is the only child of Richard Waverley, who is an ambitious politician, a Whig, and a friend to the Hanoverian succession. Edward’s bachelor uncle, Sir Everard Waverley, is the owner of Waverley-Honour, a large estate in south England, and an indolent Tory royalist and former Jacobite supporter (thus at odds with his brother Richard’s political inclinations). Everard’s unmarried sister Rachel helps to run the large Hall. Everard takes it upon himself to give a richer home life to Edward and contribute to his proper education, in preparation for his succession to the hereditary estate. Edward grows up indulged and relatively unsupervised, free to dwell on and indulge himself in dreamily romantic literature and poetry. He is not suited to a military career such as some of his illustrious ancestors pursued. The Baron was a former supporter of the 1715 Jacobite rebellion.
    After a stop in London, Edward proceeds to Dundee with his Jacobite-leaning tutor Pembroke, to begin his military education. When summer arrives, he requests a leave of absence to travel to Perthshire to visit Bradwardine. The estate Tully-Veolan is in the Lowlands near the hills of the Highlands. Life in the somewhat wretched village in the vicinity of this estate is described (perhaps somewhat unsympathetically). Edward encounters the innocent fool/jester Davie Gellatley and the estate’s major domo, Bailie Duncan Macwheeble, as well as the attractive 17 y/o daughter of the Baron (Rose of Bradwardine, with pale gold hair), the butler Alexander Saunderson, and subsequently the loquacious Baron himself. His guests include the young Mr. Falconer Laird of Balmawhapple, Bullsegg Laird of Killancureit, and a nonjuring clergyman Mr. Rubrick The Baron and his young guest go hunting. They discuss the nature of the fool Davie, and his mother Janet Gellatley, rumored once to be a witch. Rose is unable to inherit the estate, which is eventually to go to a distant relation, Malcolm Bradwardine of Inchgrabbit.
    Edward has been a guest of the Baron for six weeks. A creagh (raid) of Caterans (Highland marauders) disturbs the peace at Tully-Veolan–they steal several milk cows. We learn that blackmail or protection-money was previously paid by the Low-country gentlemen to the Highland chieftain Fergus Mac-Ivor of Glennaquoich, and other Highlanders) to prevent such attacks. The Baron laments his lack of adequate weapons (compared to his grandfather’s days)–the government took away their arms in the Disarming of 1715. Edward learns more about the close relationship between the marauding Caterans and the Highland chieftains–the raids were useful to them for training individuals of their clan in bearing arms, and also for exacting protection-money. Some raids even involved abduction of women or men, and Edward marvels that such behavior should be going on in civilized Great Britain Fergus, accompanied by his assistant Callum Beg, meets Edward, and Fergus hospitably invites him to his house of Glennaquoich. Fergus suggest they retire to Flora’s tea table. She is dark-eyed, dark-haired, and tanned (the very opposite of Rose), but beautiful and talented. She passionately believed it was her and her brother’s duty to work for the restoration of the exiled king
    Edward receives a letter from his father informing him that his father Richard has fallen into disfavor with his political machinations, has been dismissed as minister, and is now unemployed without income. Sir Everard’s letter confirms his brother’s disgrace, and advises him to resign his military office. Rachel is highly critical of Richard and the usurping Hanoverians. Edward weighs a decision to go over to the rebel’s cause, conflicted over his love interest in Flora. The Mac-Ivor’s are Catholic, but this does not seem to present a major obstacle for Edward. He worries about the dishonour that may befall him. Flora explicitly spurns him–“I can never regard you otherwise than as a valued friend”–and cannot be swayed from this path by Edward or her brother. Flora advises him to make his decision regarding his allegiance out of conviction, not out of a temporary feeling for her. Even so, Edward insists on making the journey. Edward departs the Mac-Ivors, who prophesy great changes to come with the aid of the French. After stopping to have his horse re-shoed, a hostile confrontation with the anti-Jacobite townspeople of Carinvreckan develops, and Edward shoots the blacksmith, John Mucklewrath. He is arrested and interrogated by the magistrate, Major Melville, who determines that he must be tried for high treason and levying war against the king for spreading mutiny and (pro-Jacobite) rebellion among the men he commanded. Morton is sympathetic and supports and offers some comfort to Edward
    Edward converses with Gilfillan. A “pedlar” (later recognized as Donald Bean Lean) joins the procession, and butters up Gilfillan. They hustle him away as Gilfillan lies grievously wounded. Edward is delivered to a small hovel, where he is nursed back to health by an old woman Janet (Gellatley’s mother), aided surreptitiously by a younger woman (whom he soon learns to be Alice Bean Lean). After 7 days, Highlanders arrive to take him away. The Highlanders including Donald Bean Lean’s lieutenant take Edward to the Castle of Doune, held by Jacobites under the command of Donald Stewart. They encounter and fight English soldiers along the way. The author reflects on the changes that have come about in Scotland since 1745, the destruction of the patriarchal power of the Highland chiefs, the eradication of the Jacobite party, the vanishing of the traditional Highland customs, etc. Scott wishes to preserve an idea of the ancient manners of the Highlanders from complete extinction.

    b. sociological, historical, political, and/or religious backgrounds of Waverley
    Overall Impression: This book, first published anonymously in 1814, is noteworthy primarily for being the first historical novel. It is an interesting if flawed first novel which describes an important and fateful time in Scotland’s history. However, the writing is tedious, wordy, and ponderous, laden with numerous Latin, literary, and legalistic quotations, stuffy at times and with minimal humor, and only occasionally inspiring in its poetic descriptions. Its greatest value for me lies in the fascinating depictions of the former cultures and societal organization of the Scottish Highlanders . Historical Background: Scott in 1805 is writing 60 years after the final and disastrous Jacobite Rebellion or Rising of 1745. The Jacobites–named after the Latin word for James (Jacobus)–advocated and intermittently fought for the restoration of the Stuart line of monarchs, whom they regarded as the legitimate claimants to the throne. The last Stuart monarch, James II of England (James VII of Scotland), a Roman Catholic, was deposed in 1688 during the “Glorious Revolution”, and the Protestant joint monarchs William (III of England, II of Scotland) and Mary II were installed in his place. They were succeeded by Anne, followed by the Hanoverian (thus German) kings, beginning with George I and subsequently George II. George II, who reigned 1727-1760, was king during the 1745 rebellion. The “Young Pretender” Charles Edward Stuart, grandson of James II and also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie or the “Chevalier”, hoped to be restored to the throne as “Charles III” from his court in exile in France. His father, James Francis Edward Stuart (the Old Pretender or “James VIII”), had led an unsuccessful attempt at regaining the crown in 1715. Although this is a complex and confusing topic that I can barely touch on here, the supporters of the Jacobite cause included Tory royalists (as opposed to Civil War Parliamentarian “roundheads”), many Scots (especially from the Highland clans), Catholics, nonjuring Anglicans (Anglicans who had refused to take an oath of allegiance to William and Mary) and Episcopalians, miscellaneous adventurers, as well as the French (under Louis XV) and Spanish. In contrast, the British government Hanoverian forces were supported by Whigs, Anglican loyalists, and other Protestants such as the Presbyterians of the Church of Scotland.

    5. a. Summary of Treasure Island
    At the start of Treasure Island, Jim Hawkins is living with his mother and father at their inn, the Admiral Benbow. Life is pretty ordinary – Jim’s father is sick, which sucks, but other than that, there isn’t much going on for him. Until, that is, a sunburned sailor singing, “Yo-ho-ho and a bottle of rum!” comes through the front door of the family establishment. This sailor calls himself a captain and demands a room. He proceeds to settle down at the Admiral Benbow Inn, drink a ton of whiskey, and tell terrifying stories about life on the high seas.
    One day, after an old shipmate named Black Dog manages to track down the captain, he gets so worked up that he has a stroke. The captain starts hallucinating and raving about his old life as a pirate. The day after Jim’s father’s funeral, a blind man appears at the Inn looking for the captain. This man is Pew, and he orders that the captain meet his old shipmates at 10 o’clock that night. The blind man leaves, the captain jumps up, and then he falls over dead from a heart attack.
    Jim finds Doctor Livesey at the squire’s house (a squire is a local lord). The squire is Mr. Trelawney. Doctor Livesey and Squire Trelawney both agree that Captain Flint is a famous pirate and that Jim’s packet of papers must contain a treasure map to Flint’s fortune. Squire Trelawney offers to put up the money for a sailing voyage to the island shown on the map, While Squire Trelawney is looking for a crew for their voyage, he finds a delightful man, an old cook with one leg named Long John Silver who willingly volunteers to help him choose his crew. Squire Trelawney is really impressed by Long John Silver’s manner and intelligence, so he basically hands over the hiring duties to him. Squire Trelawney also finds a nice ship, the Hispaniola, and a captain, Captain Smollett. Squire Trelawney asks one of his servants, Mr. Blandly, to stay behind and send another ship after them in August if Mr. Blandly sees no signs of them before then.
    And they’re off! Jim is having the time of his life, even though he has to work hard. But things take a bad turn one night when Jim climbs down into an apple barrel on deck to get the last piece of fruit and finds himself falling asleep in the dark space. Jim realizes that the crew is just biding its time until they reach the island, when the sailors plan to rise up against Captain Smollett, kill all the non-pirates, and steal Captain Flint’s reasure. As soon as the coast is clear, Jim climbs out of the barrel and runs and tells Captain Smollett, Doctor Livesey, and Squire Trelawney what he has overheard.
    Jim, meanwhile, has slipped ashore with the pirates and gone off exploring on his own. He is totally astonished to find a man on the island, Ben Gunn, who sailed with Captain Flint. Ben was marooned on the island three years earlier, so he’s a little nutty, but he agrees to help Squire Trelawney and Doctor Livesey in exchange for a thousand British pounds, freedom, and some cheese. As Jim and Ben talk, they hear the sounds of a fight. Jim hurries through the forest to find that his friends have taken control of an old fort on the island. So he slips into the fort to tell them what he has discovered about Ben Gunn.
    After a battle with the pirates, Jim sees Doctor Livesey head into the forest to consult with Ben Gunn. Jim hatches his own plan: he’s going to find the tiny boat Ben Gunn mentioned to see if it might be helpful to them. Jim knows that he wouldn’t be allowed to do this if he asked, but he slips away from the fort anyway and goes off to explore.
    Jim finds the little boat and suddenly gets another great idea: he’s going to set the Hispaniola adrift from its anchor so that the pirates can’t control the ship. Jim eventually manages to get on board the Hispaniola again. He sees that Israel Hands has murdered O’Brien, but he has also been badly injured. Israel Hands isn’t strong enough to steer the ship by himself, so he and Jim strike a deal to bring the ship around to the secluded North Inlet of the island to beach it safely. Once they arrive at the North Inlet, Israel Hands tries to murder Jim, but Jim gets in a lucky shot, and Israel Hands falls dead into the sea below. Jim climbs down from the ship, wades to shore, and climbs back up to the fort.
    It’s now the middle of the night and too dark to see what is going on, so Jim is completely surprised to find the pirates, and not his friends, waiting at the fort. Long John Silver prevents the other pirates from killing Jim Doctor Livesey comes by the fort as part of their truce and treats the injured and sick pirates. Jim manages to get word to him that Long John Silver seems to be flipping sides and that Jim has beached the Hispaniola on the north end of the island. Doctor Livesey warns Long John Silver that there will be trouble if he goes to look for the treasure, and then Doctor Livesey heads off into the forest.
    Long John Silver uses the treasure map to lead Jim and the remaining pirates (Dick Johnson, Tom Morgan, George Merry, and two more guys) to the place marked on the map. They find that the treasure has already been dug up! That’s why Doctor Livesey was willing to give them the map – it isn’t worth anything anymore. With this disappointment, the pirates turn on Long John Silver. And that’s pretty much it. All that is left is wrapping up. It was Ben Gunn who dug up the treasure and moved it to his cave, two months before the Hispaniola even arrived at the island. They all carry the treasure back to the beached Hispaniola, leave some supplies for the pirates they are planning to abandon on the island (check out “What’s Up With the Ending?” for more on this morally gray choice), and sail away. The only men left on the Hispaniola are Doctor Livesey, Squire Trelawney, Jim Hawkins, Abraham Gray, Ben Gunn, and Long John Silver. Long John Silver slips away from the ship as soon as they dock at a nearby port to restock their crew and supplies. Ben Gunn gets his thousand pounds as a reward for his help and then spends it all and winds up a beggar again. Abraham Gray, the loyal sailor, saves his money and starts a good life. And everyone else gets plenty of treasure. The end!

    Reference: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

  10. 1. Treasure Island
    By Louis Stevenson

    Treasure Island is an adventure novel by Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson, narrating a tale of “pirates and buried gold”. Long before The Pirates of the Caribbean appears on cinema, a Scottish writer of the 19th century has first popularized the story of pirates and treasure hunting in the tropical Caribbean island. The story is started from Jim Hawkins, whose mother kept the Admiral Benbow Inn, and who shared in the adventures from start to finish. Then followed by the arrival of someone named Billy Bones, the pirate big tall, and one day he just shows up to the Admiral Benbow inn in carrying his black briefcase of guarding like a treasure. He hires Jim to keep a watch out for other sailors, but despite all precautions, he is hunted out and served with the black spot that means death. Jim and his mother barely escape death when Blind Pew, Black Dog, and other pirates descend on the inn in search of the sea dog’s papers. Jim snatches up a packet of papers to square the sailor’s debt, when they were forced to retreat from the inn. The packet contains a map showing the location of the pirate Flint’s buried treasure, which Jim, Doctor Livesey, and Squire Trelawney determine to find. Fitting out a ship, they hire hands and set out on their adventure. Unfortunately, their crew includes one-legged Long John Silver, a pirate also in search of the treasure, and a number of his confederates. Jim, hidden in an apple barrel, overhears the plans of the crew to mutiny, and he warns his comrades. The battle between the pirates and Jim’s party is an exciting and bloody one, taking place both on the island and aboard ship. Jim escapes from the ship, discovers the marooned sailor, Ben Gunn, who has already found and cached the treasure, and finally the victors get safely aboard the ship with the treasure.

    Treasure Island is interesting to be watch or to be read, but there is something that we must understand related to sociological. The Ambition and Greed could undermine the friendship, We can contrast this sense of obligation with the extreme self-interestedness of pirate life. The pirates may appear to have a more equitable way of organizing their society, using direct elections based on respect. But in a system in which no man trusts another because they all lie, cheat, and steal at every opportunity, the only way to establish authority is through fear. No friendship is possible when everyone is just waiting for the next betrayal.

    2. Great Expectation
    By Charles Dickens

    There is a boy named Phillip, but people call him Pip. Pip’s parents passed away and he lives with his sister. He often plays around his parents’ grave in churchyard. One day, when he is playing there, he meets a man. The man looks scary and asks about him and his parents’ grave. Then that scary man asks Pip to get him drinks and food. Pip runs into his house. There, his sister and brother-in-law are waiting for him for dinner. His sister is so stern to him. If he makes mistakes, his sister will hit him with thin small rattan. While waiting for his sister coming with the food, Pip tells his brother-in-law, Joe, that one day he will be a gentleman. His sister overhears and says he is only dreaming. After dinner, he goes to bed, but he cannot sleep because he keeps thinking what that scary man’s saying. So he sneaks out to the kitchen and takes a pie and a bottle of brandy. He runs to the churchyard. He meets someone whom he thinks the scary man. Apparently it’s different person. That guy walks away and Pip runs, still looking for the scary man. Finally he meets him and gives the food to him. In different time, the officers are knocking the house door looking for runaway prisoner. Pip knows who the person they meant, but he does not want to talk anything. Finally the officers are arresting a man that he met before. That man recognizes Pip who brought drink and food. But he says nothing about Pip. Then a year passed, a wealthy lady is asking Pip to visit her house. His sister knows that Pip might be adopted by that lady. So, she puts Pip the best clothes he has on. When Pip arrives, he is welcomed by a pretty young lady, named Estella. Estella takes Pip to the lady’s room. After a day, that lady likes Pip and asks him to visit her regularly. Estella seems like him too, but she pretends that she has no attention to him. The lady asks what Pip thinks about Estella. Pip says that she’s very pretty, but is insulting as well. After t several months, Pip says he cannot come to lady’s house anymore because he’s going to be a blacksmit , so he can help Joe in the future. Years passed, Pip is grown up into a good man. The lady invites him back to her house and tells him that he has to go to London because he has a benefactor who guarantees his better life in the city. So he can learn something to support his life. Estella also goes to London. Mr. Jaggers, a lawyer, talks about this matter to Joe, since his sister passed away several years ago. So, Pip starts his new life in London by looking for Mr. Jagger. Mr. Jagger gives him a shared house and some money for him to start his life. Apparently he shares the house with a boy who asked him to fight when they were still small children. They soon becomes best friends and be famous in high class community gatherings. Pip changes into a gentleman as he was dreaming of. But then he becomes snobby and has a lot of debts. But Mr. Jaggers helps him by showing his wealth from his benefactor. Joe once comes visits him, but Jow knows that he’s changed. So, Joe does not want to meet him anymore. After that, Pip visits the lady back to tell her how his life is now. The lady is very delighted and she tells him that he must start a relationship with Estella. They meet in London and hang out together for some time. They seem happy. Until one day he finds out that Estella is going to marry Mr. Jaggers. It seems that Estella has to pay “something” to Mr. Jaggers. Apparently, Estella’s mother is a maid who is working for Mr. Jaggers and her father is the one whom Pip gave drink and food in churchyard long time ago. So, Mr, Jaggers will guarantee their live as long as he can have Estella. Pip is trying to help Estella’s father who escapes from prison long long time ago. The worse is that the man who got caught long time ago has been released from the prison and now he is trying to put Estella’s father in the prison. He follows Pip, Herbert, and Estella’s father. They try to run away with a small boat, but it failed. Finally, Estella’s father is arrested and is sentenced to death. Pip is angry to the lady and he comes to that lady’s house. But that lady sends Pip to go away from her house. When Pip goes out from her room, accidently, the coal rolls over from the fireplace and burns her dress. Pip comes back after hearing her shouts but he cannot help her. Then Pip comes back to the prisoner, seeing the last time of Estella’s father time before he dies of sickness. Pip is looking for Estella and she is in the lady’s house. Estella says she will live in that house because she grows up there, but Pip says he cannot because that house just brings sorrow to people who live in. Estella must get up and get out from that house. Finally Estella agrees to go and live with Pip forever.

    After having read the whole story of great expectation, I see that the theme of social class is central to the novel’s plot and to the ultimate moral theme of the book—Pip’s realization that wealth and class are less important than affection, loyalty, and inner worth. Pip achieves this realization when he is finally able to understand that, despite the esteem in which he holds Estella, one’s social status is in no way connected to one’s real character.

    3. The Pilgrim’s Progress
    By John Bunyan
    It tells us about a man whose name is Pilgrim and is searching out the righteous way to heaven. He lives in the City of Destruction and leaves it with a great burden on his back. On his way he meets Evangelist who advises him to seek his salvation in God, telling him that if he journeys to the Celestial City, he will know a glory greater than any he has ever had. Christian resolves to make this trip, despite the fact that his family and neighbors discourage him. Then he continues going to find out the truth until he meets Pliable is interested to Pilgrim and wants to follow him. While Obstinate is a devil pretends as ordinary people. Along the way, devils still follow Pilgrim. But suddenly they are in trouble. Pliable gives up and leaves Pilgrim alone to find out house called wiseman which is built by devils. The Wiseman invites Pilgrim to go in his house and asks if he can help. Pilgrim tells that he wants to get rid off his burden and he is advised by Evangelist to read the Bible to find the truth. Then Wiseman shows him a way to the Village of Morality and he has to meet his friend named Legality. The journey to that place is so difficulties, while he is climbing the Evangelist appear by the chance to ask Pilgrim’s story, and advised him to go back to find out the right way. Pilgrim takes what evangelist says and in the night he reaches a house of Mr. Goodwill’s. Pilgrim says his purpose to him to show him the way to Mr. Interpreter who can explain more to him then he finds Mr. Interpreter who gives all answers Pilgrim’s looking for to lift his burden. When he is there, devil keeps bothering him by taking his Bible, but it does not succeed. After that, Pilgrim can see a hill with a cross on top of it. He also sees Jesus there and suddenly all his burdens fall down. He is saved until he changes his name become Christian. Christian has to continue his journey to find the Celestial City. On his trip, he meets Faithful. They take care each other and live in spirit. Along the way, they face many problems. Until one day it is near their destination, devil still appear and try to kill them but they have a shield of faith and a sword of spirit. They succeeded to defeat the devils and can reach the Celestial City which is to come.

    Related to religion, Bunyan’s powerful allegory teaches us the hazards and hopes of the Christian life, and the triumphant glory that awaits all who faithfully follow the King of kings!. The names and events in the are the successor of who and what is in reality. Any facts, images, and the name are symbolic, and section by section to be translated into real life in order to be understood correctly. Meanwhile, a true parable of life and generally teach only one principle of truth. In the parable, Jesus uses the metaphor of a lot of style, such as king, the servant, a virgin. Metaphorical words are never detached from reality or no contact with the world of fantasy or fiction. The stories and examples were taken from the world in which Jesus lived. The parable is told to convey spiritual truth by using one part of the parable as a comparison. The details of the story support the news contained in the parable delivered. Parables should not be analyzed section by section and interpreted allegorically, as this would result in loss of significance of the parable. Like what Jesus has ever said to his to his disciples, the truth remains hidden until our eyes are opened and can see clearly. At the that moment, new teaching of the parable would be meaningless.

    4. Time Machine
    By H. G. Wells

    The Time Machine is a science fiction novella by H. G. Wells. It tells us about the story of a scientist, who is not named, who manages to create a time machine. He, travels to the year 800,000 and finds a world away from where mankind in his imagination. The world is divided into two race. First is Eloi who lives above the earth’s surface and the second is Morlock who lives at the bottom of the earth. In terms of story, I salute toWells who manages to describe human life in the future. However, this viewpoint is strange. The book is told from the viewpoint of Filby, a close friend of the wandering Time. Filby itself was then invited by the time the rover, which then tells his adventures in the future. This then leads into the actual narrative of H. G. Wells’ story.

    In short, the The Time Machine represents just another reiteration of the epic battle between good and evil with a very uncomplicated love story thrown in to help endear the reader to the characters. However, Wells adds a twist to this tried and true plot line by bringing in topics such as extreme social evolution, severe evolutionary specialization, strict separation of social class, and converse depiction of the popular opinion of the future.

    5. Wuthering Heights
    By Emily Bronthe
    Wuthering Heights itself is the name of a large house in the UK Yorkshare. The story of this novel begins with the arrival of Mr. Lockwood who wants to meet Mr. Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights for renting Thrushcross Grange, Heathcliff’s a house that is located not too far away to Wuthering Heights. Meeting with Mr. Heathcliff that seems strange and harsh which make Mr. Lockwood tries to find out about the history of Wuthering Heights Heathcliff and from Miss. Ellen Dean, a maid who has worked for a long time in Wuthering Heights. From Miss Dean story of Wuthering Heigths darkness revealed in detail until. Wuthering Heights is originally owned by Mr. Earnshaw, a landlord in Yorkhshire who has two children named Hindley and Catherine. After a business trip in Liverpool Mr. Earnshaw brings home a dirty gypsy boy who was muck about in the streets. The child is given the name of Heathcliff, the same as the name of his son who had died of illness. Heathcliff’s presence in the Earnshaw family is proved to be a recipe for disaster in this family. Favoritism of Earnshaw loves Heathcliff more than both his own child planted seeds of hatred and envy in the minds of his eldest son, Hindley. The event of meeting together with the Earnshaw family and Linton family, the owners of Thrushcross Grange which is located not far from Wuthering Heights. This meeting brought Catherine to Edgar Linton who loves her. Even though Catherine still loves Heathcliff but finally she decides to marry Edgar Linton.

    The main theme though a simple and general, but I can see that story with unexpected plot, the exploration of characters are also so strong that readers may hate to love them to death at once. Besides that, this novel also makes me realize how the behavior of favoritism from parents to their children can have a negative impact of such great in the future.

    References :
    1. Youtube for great expectation
    2. wikipedia.org

  11. Great Expectations by Dickens
    Charles John Huffam Dickens ( 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic who is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period and the creator of some of the world’s most memorable fictional characters. During his lifetime Dickens’ works enjoyed unprecedented popularity and fame, but it was in the twentieth century that his literary genius was fully recognized by critics and scholars. His novels and short stories continue to enjoy an enduring popularity among the general reading public.
    Great Expectations is about a six-year-old boy named Pip lives on the English marshes with his sister and his sister’s husband, Joe. One day Pip meets Estella, Miss Havisham’s adopted child. First, she is just his playmate till one day he falls in love with her.
    When Pip is old enough (early teens), he begins an apprenticeship at his brother-in-law’s smithy, thanks to Ms. Havisham’s financial support. He hates his new job, wanting more than anything to become a gentleman, mostly because he dreams of marrying Estella.
    Then, one day, Pip comes into fortune by means of a mysterious and undisclosed benefactor (you’ll never guess who it is!), says goodbye to his family, and says goodbye to Miss Havisham. He leaves for London to become a gentleman. This ends the first part of Pip’s expectations.
    Pip’s life in London is busy, full of dinner parties in castles with moats, encounters with strange housekeepers, trips to the theater, etc. He spends way too much money, so his debts just keep piling up. Occasionally, he takes a break from his London life and goes back home to visit Miss Havisham. He also returns home to attend his sister’s funeral. Back at home, though, Pip is too ashamed of his brother-in-law Joe to want to hang out with him.
    Meanwhile, Estella is off touring the world and becoming a lady. She’s even more gorgeous than ever, and she moves to the London area so that she can be closer to eligible bachelors.
    Pip continues to long for Estella, she continues to deny Pip lovin’. Then, one night on his 23rd birthday when it’s dark and stormy outside and Pip is thinking about Estella, a stranger arrives. This stranger is Pip’s benefactor. This stranger is the convict that Pip helped when he was only six years old! This ends the second part of Pip’s expectations.
    The convict’s name is Abel Magwitch (but he goes by Provis in town). The courts had exiled him to New South Wales a long time ago under strict orders never, ever to return to England. Ruh-roh. Pip doesn’t feel so good about the whole benefactor thing anymore, and now he’s harboring a convict. Double ruh-roh.
    After much hemming and hawing, Pip decides that he has to get Magwitch out of the country. They devise a plan to sneak onto a ship bound for Germany. Pip feels really uneasy all the time and his stomach is butterfly-city.
    Just as they get ready to make their great escape, Estella goes and marries Pip’s nemesis and Pip is almost thrown into a limekiln by a hometown bully who claims to know about Magwitch. Pip and Magwitch’s great escape isn’t successful. They’ve been ratted out by Magwitch’s nemesis, who is coincidentally, Miss Havisham’s ex-lover. Magwitch is thrown in jail, where he dies soon after being sentenced to the death penalty. Right before he dies, though, Pip tells Magwitch that Estella is his daughter. And that he’s in love with Estella.
    Pip gets really sick, and Joe comes to the rescue. For a while, it’s like old times when Pip and Joe would hang out. As soon as Pip recovers, however, Joe leaves him in the middle of the night, having paid off all of Pip’s debts.
    A few days later, Pip returns home, intending to ask for Joe’s forgiveness and to propose marriage to his childhood friend, Biddy. Upon arriving home, however, he finds that Joe and Biddy have just married. He begs for their forgiveness at having been such a butthead, and then he moves to Cairo.
    Pip works in Cairo at Herbert’s shipping company for eleven years and eventually becomes a partner in the company. He sends money back to Joe and Biddy. Eventually, Pip returns and meets Joe and Biddy’s son, Pip. Pip is totally enamored of baby Pip. Pip hanging out in London one day a few years later with baby Pip. He runs into Estella, and he can see that time has changed her and that she has suffered much. He’s heard that her husband was abusive, but that when he died, she married a poor doctor.
    From sociological side, the novel, Great Expectations, presents the story of a young boy growing up and becoming a gentlemen. He must learn to appreciate people for who they are, not shun them for who they aren’t. Pip goes to many changes in his personality as he is influenced by various people. As an orphan, he considers himself to be a common laboring boy, but he has a desire to improve his station of life.

    The Pilgrim’s progress by John Bunyan
    “The Pilgrim’s Progress” is an example of an allegory very nearly above reproach. In the true Christian tradition, the hero (quite aptly named Christian), goes on a journey, outwardly physical but allegorically internal and signifying the trials, tribulations and temptations one might face on the long, complex journey to heaven (also known as the Celestial City). The one-to-one comparisons are relatively simple to decode, making this tale accessible to nearly all.
    The entire tale is a journey between Christian’s hometown, the City of Destruction (earth) and the path to the Celestial City. In between them, however (as in life), there are valleys, sloughs, mountains and temptations that can mar the easy path to Christian’s ultimate destination.
    Christian starts out in his own city, the City of Destruction. He is loaded down with a pretty big burden on his back, and Evangelist (a great name for some guy just hanging around giving advice!) clues him in that perhaps he should try asking God for salvation. Christian decided that this would be the way to go, and sets of for the Celestial City, even though nearly all of his friends and family try to change his mind. This first section, of course, refers to the need of the Christian to ask God for salvation in order to remove the burden of sin that can weigh him down.
    He sets out on the first leg of the journey, to the Wicket Gate. Two young men, Pliable and Obstinate (I cannot tell you how much I love these names!!!), try to tell him why this journey is probably one of the worst ideas ever thought of. Christian, however, says, in effect, “BITE ME” and continues on his journey. This corresponds to the people who will try to dissuade a person on a mission to the Lord.
    He finally gets to the Slough of Despond, where everyone who has been faithful to him and his journey so far take off, leaving him alone to deal with his fear. He nearly fails this mission, but finally prevails. He then – FINALLY – arrives at the Wicket Gate, although he is momentarily tempted by hanging out permanently at the village of Morality. This section represents the fear that a Christian will face on his inward journey to heaven, and the strength he must have when being forsaken by those who he thought were on his side. It also shows the temptation of stopping short, midway through the journey, and settling for less-than-heaven.
    After the Wicket Gate, he comes to the Cross. His burden, miraculously, is lifted from his back, as is the burden of sin from a Christian when he gives his life to Jesus as Jesus gave his life to him. He is given his papers – those all-important papers!!! – and continues on his way to the Celestial City.
    He then encounters Difficulty Hill. He meets two bozos, Formalist and Hypocrisy (I think my ex-husband should be named Hypocrisy), who try to convince him that shortcuts are not only time-savers, but fun as well. Christian remains steadfast in his resolve and tells the two that they are making a poor choice; however, they don’t listen and kick off shortly thereafter. This represents the temptation to taking shortcuts on the way to salvation, but shows how said shortcuts really are a bad idea. Basically, stay on the damn path and keep going.
    Finally, after fighting a monster named Apollyon and winning, he comes to the Valley of the Shadow of Death, where he comes quite close to wetting his pants out of sheer terror. He meets Faithful there, and they become friends and help each other out during the trip along the Valley. They arrive a Vanity Fair where they are tempted with a myriad of things, all immoral and material. They do not partake of what is offered them and manage to offend the Vanity Fairies in the process, resulting in Faithful getting a death sentence and Christian escaping the same fate by the very skin of his teeth. This whole section deals with temptation, and how easy it would be to settle into such a place as Vanity Fair and not continue the journey. However, Christian has his sights set on Celestial City and vows to keep going.
    Christian has many more adventures but finally arrives at the River in front of the gates of the Celestial City. As it can only be crossed by faith, Christian comes close to drowning himself. He finally finds the strength to believe, however, and gets to the gate with the help of Hopeful. Sadly, his new-found buddy, Ignorance, is turned away because he lost his papers.
    The entire allegory deals with the fear, work involved, and ultimate price of salvation. Christian’s journey is absolutely crazy, with so many things thrown in his path that nearly all would be tempted to stop in Morality or Vanity Fair and take a break. Those who will ultimately be saved, however, are those that stay on the path, persevere, and find there way to the Celestial City.
    Pride and Prejudice by Austen
    Set in the English countryside in a county roughly thirty miles from London, the novel opens with the Bennet family in Longbourn and their five unmarried daughters. The family itself is not nearly as rich as those they interact with and because they have no sons, the property is entailed to pass to a male heir, in this case Mr. Collins. Mrs. Bennet is intent on seeing her daughters married off to wealthy men and when Charles Bingley arrives at nearby Netherfield Park she is excited by the prospect of introducing her daughters to him. She immediately sends her husband to visit him on the first day he arrives. When he next arrives, Bingley brings with him Mr. Darcy and his two sisters, Miss Bingley and Mrs. Hurst. Bingley is immediately attracted to Jane Bennet, the oldest of the five sisters. Darcy, unlike the social apt Bingley, is proud and rude, immediately insulting Elizabeth Bennet when someone suggests he asks her to dance, insulting her appearance. Later, at the next dance after witnessing the sharpness of her mind, Darcy displays an attraction to Elizabeth at a second ball, but she refuses him because of how the insults he heaped upon her before. Jane and Bingley however only become closer and when Jane becomes ill on a visit to Netherfield, she stays there for a few days, asking Elizabeth to join her and help care for her. During her stay, Elizabeth is forced to confront Darcy again and again and while she is still disinterested in him, he begins to fall for her wit and frank approach to conversation, being so used to pretty words from other women. Elizabeth quickly realizes that Miss Bingley largely dislikes the Bennet family and that she only pretends to be friends with Jane. Soon after, Bingley, his sisters, and Darcy depart for London, announcing to Jane that they have no intentions of returning to Netherfield anytime soon and that Bingley will likely marry another woman, Miss Darcy, Mr. Darcy’s sister. Meanwhile, Elizabeth meets Mr. Wickham who she immediately is drawn towards. He tells her falsehoods about his relationship with Mr. Darcy, that he was cheated out of a piece of inheritance from Darcy’s father. However, Wickham soon takes up with another woman who he plans to marry and Elizabeth, after the careful warnings of her family leaves him be. Jane goes to stay in London after the Gardiners, her aunt and uncle, arrive and offer their residence for her upon hearing of her plight with Bingley. She tries repeatedly to see him but is rebuked by Miss Bingley from even letting Bingley know she is in London and she slowly begins to accept the rejection. Elizabeth goes to visit Mr. Collins and her friend Charlotte, recently married and there runs into Darcy again. He proposes marriage to her, but she flatly refuses, citing his treatment of Jane and Wickham. He however, gives her a letter explaining that Wickham had lied and that Jane had seemed largely disinterested by Bingley so he warned against the match. Elizabeth begins to believe him, but he has already left for London again. She returns home afterwards to find that her sister Lydia has been invited to Brighton to stay with a Colonel and the moving army regiment, which she advises her father against allowing. She however, leaves anyways. After a planned vacation to the lake country is cut short, Elizabeth spends a summer vacation with the Gardiners in Pemberley instead where she once again runs into Darcy. She also meets his sister who is quite nice and finds that Darcy himself is much more agreeable than before. Most of the bad traits she had disliked before seem to have vanished. She is however called back home quickly when it is revealed that Lydia has run off with Wickham. She returns home while her father and Mr. Gardiner search for the two in London. It’s revealed that Darcy actually finds them eventually and helps to pay the dowry for Wickham to take Lydia in marriage, an act that impresses Elizabeth greatly. Bingley reappears in Netherfield Park for a short while and resumes courting Jane, while Lady de Bourgh arrives and acts rudely towards the Bennet family, warning Elizabeth against marrying Darcy, as her daughter is supposed to marry him. A few days later Darcy returns himself and reproposes to Elizabeth to which she now accepts. Jane and Bingley are also engaged shortly before Elizabeth’s engagement. The two are married on the same day and Mrs. Bennet is ecstatic. Bingley and Jane move to Derbyshire after a year and Elizabeth and Darcy live together in Pemberley with often visits from many of her friends. The novel ends with everyone trying to get along after so many insults and poor relations.
    Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
    The story begins with Captain Robert Walton sailing to the North Pole in the 18th century. Unfortunately, the boat gets stuck in impassible ice hundreds of miles from land. With nothing else to do, he writes letters to his sister back in England. He’s pretty boring, as far as we can tell. He tells his sister that he wants a male friend to keep him company.
    Soon, Walton’s despair is interrupted by the sight of – a man! On the ice! Riding a dog-sled! The man boards the ship, and it seems as if Walton’s wish for a friend has come true. But this new guy Victor? Kind of nuts.
    Victor recounts his life story to Walton as he rests aboard the ship. Victor started out like any normal kid in Geneva. His parents adopted a girl named Elizabeth for him to marry when he was older. In the normal progression of things, Victor gets older and goes off to college to study natural philosophy and chemistry. He also renews his interest in alchemy. In about two years, he figures out how to bring a body made of human corpse pieces to life. Afterwards, he is horrified by his own creation and falls ill. Lucky for him, his friend, Henry, nurses him back to health.
    Back in Geneva, Victor’s younger brother, William, is murdered. The Frankenstein family servant, Justine, is accused of killing him. Victor magically intuits that it is the monster that killed William and that Justine is innocent. Thinking no one would believe the “my monster did it” excuse, Victor is afraid to even propose his theory. Even when poor Justine is executed.
    Victor, in grief, goes on a trip to the Swiss Alps for some much-needed rest and relaxation. All too conveniently, he runs into the monster, who confesses to the crime. The monster tells a sad and moving story about how he has been alienated from the world (being a corpse-parts conglomeration can do that to you), and how he killed the boy out of revenge. In short, he’s pissed off that his maker created him to be alone and miserable. He tells a story about a family of cottagers who gave him hope that he would find compassion, but how even they drove him away. He lost his last chance to connect with society. The monster asks Victor to create for him a female companion as monstrous as he. After much persuading, Victor agrees. At this point, the story is being told by the monster, as told by Victor, as told by Walton.
    Victor leaves to make a new monster. He drops off Henry in Scotland while he goes to an island in the Orkneys to work. When he is almost finished, he destroys the second monster, believing he has been tricked by the first monster and that the two will bring destruction to humanity rather than love each other harmlessly. The monster sees him do this and swears revenge…again. Adding insult to injury, Victor throws the pieces of she-monster into the sea. When Victor lands on a shore among Irish people, they accuse him of murdering Henry, who has been found dead. Victor falls ill again. His father comes to visit. When he recovers, he is acquitted with the help of a sympathetic magistrate.

    Victor returns to Geneva and prepares to marry Elizabeth before remembering the monster’s promise to be with him on his wedding night. Victor thinks the monster is threatening him, but the night he and Elizabeth are married, the monster kills the bride instead. This death causes Victor’s father to pass away from grief (as he just lost a daughter-in-law and a daughter).
    Victor is as alone as the monster, and now, as bent on revenge. We can’t really tell the two of them apart anymore except that the monster is taller. And he has some funny-looking joints. Victor chases the monster over all imaginable terrain until he is ragged and near death. That’s about the time he gets to Walton’s ship. After telling his story, Victor dies. The monster comes aboard the ship, and Walton discovers him crying over the dead body of Victor. He has nothing more to live for, he says, so he goes off to die.
    From the historical background of Frankenstein, it is an early product of the modern western written during the Romantic movement of the early 19th century. It concerns individuals’ aspirations and what results when those aspirations are attained irresponsibly. Mary Shelley who wrote Frankenstein in 1816 was living or in contact with both Percy Shelley and Lord Byron, the two predominants romantic poets who professed the romantic ideals of the age. One such ideal was the society transformed by the individual. What is unique about Frankenstein is that it represents and almost foreshadows the romantic disillusionment with the established order. After the French Revolution, liberalism and nationalism were at all time highs. But with the response by the monarchies, romantic ideals were spurned. The possibility of a society transformed by individuals seemed less believable.
    Treasure Island by Stevenson
    The story is told in the first person by Jim Hawkins, whose mother kept the Admiral Benbow Inn, and who shared in the adventures from start to finish. An old sea dog comes to this peaceful inn one day, apparently intending to finish his life there. He hires Jim to keep a watch out for other sailors, but despite all precautions, he is hunted out and served with the black spot that means death. Jim and his mother barely escape death when Blind Pew, Black Dog, and other pirates descend on the inn in search of the sea dog’s papers. Jim snatches up a packet of papers to square the sailor’s debt, when they were forced to retreat from the inn. The packet contains a map showing the location of the pirate Flint’s buried treasure, which Jim, Doctor Livesey, and Squire Trelawney determine to find. Fitting out a ship, they hire hands and set out on their adventure. Unfortunately, their crew includes one-legged Long John Silver, a pirate also in search of the treasure, and a number of his confederates. Jim, hidden in an apple barrel, overhears the plans of the crew to mutiny, and he warns his comrades. The battle between the pirates and Jim’s party is an exciting and bloody one, taking place both on the island and aboard ship. Jim escapes from the ship, discovers the marooned sailor, Ben Gunn, who has already found and cached the treasure, and finally the victors get safely aboard the ship with the treasure.
    Based on the historical background, Stevenson conceived of the idea of Treasure Island (originally titled, “The Sea Cook: A Story for Boys”) from a map of an imaginary, romantic island idly drawn by Stevenson and his stepson on a rainy day in Breamar, Scotland. Stevenson had just returned from his first stay in America, with memories of poverty, illness and adventure (including his recent marriage), and a warm reconciliation between his parents had been established.
    Treasure Island is arguably one of the greatest works of storytelling in the English language. The highlight of Treasure Island is the combination of colorful and poetic prose that distinguishes Stevenson’s tale of piracy and boyhood adventure from the rest of the field of other adventure books.
    References
    http://www.wikipedia.org
    http://www.shmoop.com
    http://www.edocere.com

  12. Reading these literature works, I personally learn much many things. First, English used in these work are written beautifully. I could go into the character and the story deeply without any pause. Second, the issues can be found in our daily lives. They are definitely not old school because we still meet such issues nowadays. Third, I have some collection of these works since I had start reading literature text in my young age in U.S. as part of lessons. Fourth, besides feeling easy finding the real text through internet, I could get the audio books version as well. This is my first experience using audio books for learning literature and I feel content. Not only did I listen to the real accent of the origin novel, but also can read the text on the screen. So, it helps me much to get drawn in the stories. I tried to check both the book version and the movie version, and I personally choose book version because there are many facts and events cannot be interpreted well in the movie. All and all, below are the summary and my analysis of five literature works: Wuthering Heights, Robinson Crusoe, Pride and Prejudice, Treasure Island, and The Pilgrim’s Progress. Hope you enjoy it.

    Wuthering Heights
    By Emily Bronthe

    It’s a story of a tragedy happened in a house named Wuthering Heights. Originally, Wuthering Heights is the residence of Mr. Earnshaw. Mr. Earnshaw has two children, Hindley and Catherine. One day, Mr. Earnshaw has a trip to London. He comes home with a boy whom he met on the street. He feels pity on him and promises to take care of him. He calls him Heathcliff. The children are growing up together with a nanny’s child, Nelly. When they grow up, Hindley feels that his father prefers talking to Heatcliff to him. His father gives more attention to Heatcliff, too. His father decided to send Hindley to study in the city; but Hindley sees it in wrong way. While Catherine stays at home with Heathcliff. They often play together and Nelly is a bit overwhelmed to keep an eye on them. Time is passed, their mother is died and, not longer, Mr. Earnshaw is too. When their father died, Hindley comes home with a lady who is announced as his wife. Catherine does not really care because she has Heathcliff. One day, Catherine and Heathcliff play to the Thrushcross Grange where the Lintons live. They get caught peek the family. Mr. Linton releases Heathcliff to back home, but they keep Catherine because her ankle is injured. Her staying in the LIntons’ makes her close to Edgar, Mr. Linton’s son. When she comes back to Wuthering Heights, Edgar visits her regularly. Heathcliff does not like it at all. One day, Edgar proposes Catherine and it makes her confused. She can’t choose between Heathcliff, her love, and Edgar, a man who can give her important status in society. Finally she marries Edgar and they have a daughter, named Catherine. Far before that, Hindley has a son named Hareton. But Hareton does not get good attention from his father. He gets attention from Heatchliff instead. After Catherine’s marriage, Heathcliff approaches Isabella, Edgar’s sister; and they soon get married. Deep in her heart, Catherine can’t accept all this. She still loves Heathcliff and his marriage is torturing her. She falls sick. At the end of her life, Heathcliff is next to her and she admits that she is still in love with him. After Catherine’s funeral, Isabella runs away to London because she does not want to live with Heathcliff anymore. There, she labors a son named Linton. Little Catherine grows up with wild and snob attitude. She is demanding and spoiled girl. At first, she does not know that Hareton is her cousin. She thinks Hareton is Nelly’s son. Nelly herself actually was in love with Hindley, but Hindley marries the other woman. Whom she knows as her cousin is only Linton. After Isabella’s dead, Edgar takes care of Linton’s coming to home. But Heathcliff directly claims that his son must stay in Wuthering Heights. Edgar just follows what Heathcliff’s wish. Little Catherine is seduced by Heathcliff to marry Linton. But because of illness, Linton passed away. Day by day, little Catherine knows the real story among these two families and she becomes a humble woman. Hareton becomes her best friend. Mr. Heathcliff himself passed away strangely in Catherine’s room. He seems talking to someone before finally he pulls the trigger. So, Wuthering Heights is taken care by Catherine and Linton, together with Nelly. While the Thrustcross Grange is rented and people say it’s haunted by Catherine and Heathcliff’s spirits.

    It’s a tragic story about love. Heathcliff is described as a hatred person. Around that time, social status is still very important to determine to whom you marry to. In this story, definitely The Earnshaw and The Lintons are from high social class. Meanwhile Heathcliff is obvious from common society. Without realizing, family education is absorbed by the children, so they know where they belong to. In Wuthering Heights, we can see that Catherine is really in love with Heathcliff. She knows that she is happy with him. On the other hand, she also realizes that she has to be with someone who can support his life, someone who is in the same class. That’s why she chooses Edgar. Edgar himself, even though he knows that Catherine’s love is for Heathcliff, he keeps his dignity by not talking about it or gets bothered with it. Another example is when he just sends Linton to his father even though he’s the one who takes care of Linton’s coming to the town. Heathcliff character is described as a harsh person; he does everything to get his wills. He does not learn about Bible as the aristocrats do. Reading Bible and practicing Christianity are some of requirements to belong to aristocrats community.

    Robinson Crusoe
    By Daniel Defoe

    Robinson Crusoe is an adventure story of a man who is persistent to his beliefs in life. In the beginning of the story, he tells about whom he is and where he comes from. He has two brother who is one of them is devoted himself to British army. Robinson himself wants to be a sailor; but his father against his dream. He prefers Robinson to have settle life such as a lawyer. He does not give up and keeps finding a way to sail. Finally he joins a ship and sees how the real life of sailing. It’s not as what he expected. Then he tries to escape from it and settles in Portuguese. There, he has a land and plants it with various plantation. Then he sells the product to Spain or Brazil. One day, he joins his ship, but it ends up by crashing on a remote island. He’s alone there for years. He learns many things from his loneliness in that island, especially learning from nature and building his relationship with God. Finally he can go out from the island and change his life.

    This story happens in our life as well. When we have something to believe, then we tend to stick to it and run it with all the risks. Robinson believes that sailing is his life. Instead of being successful entrepreneur or lawyer on land, his adventure trait drives his life more. He takes the chance and be responsible to his choice. Of course, there are challenges in living for what we chose. He also experiences ups and downs in that island. He has “good and bad battle” in his head when he realizes that he’s alone in that island. He also questions God of what he is facing at that time. And through his witness that God is wonderful and very good for him. He gets the essence of his life and shares it to people surround him.

    Pride and Prejudice
    By Jane Austen

    It is a story about The Bennets who have five daughters. The Bennets are the middle-rank society family. So there are chances to meet the rich and the royal family in any parties. The hope of the mother is that her daughters can marry rich men so they won’t live in suffer. One night, there is a party to welcome Mr. Bingley, a rich man from the big town. Of course The Bennet’s daughters dress up to get attention. Mr. Bingley comes with his sister and his best friend, Mr. Darcy. Mr. Bingley is very friendly and extrovert person. While Mr. Darcy looks like a loner and introvert person. In that party, Mr. Bingley is definitely interested in Jane, the eldest of the Bennets. While Elizabeth, Jane’s sister, pays attention more to Mr. Darcy’s cold attitude. She overhears that Mr. Darcy says she is not attractive enough to get his attention. Elizabeth keeps her heart not to fall in love with Mr. Darcy. On the other side, the relationship of Mr. Bingley and Jane seems promising. There is another man coming to the town named Mr. Collins. His intention is to look for a lady to marry, so he can inherit some of Lady Catherine’s wealth. Lady Catherine is one of the Duchess who runs the area (district). So, Mrs. Bennets offers Elizabeth to Mr. Collins. But Elizabeth refuses assertively. The story turns into a disaster when Mr. Bingley leaves the town without any words to Jane. Family and friends start assuming it’s due to different social status. And Mr. Collins finally marries to Elizabeth’s best friends, Charlotte, and move to the city. To overcome her sadness, Jane visits their relatives in London and Elizabeth goes to Charlotte’s place. There, he meets Mr. Darcy who relates to Lady Catherine as well. Mr. Darcy, who also has feelings for her, states his feeling and Elizabeth signals that they cannot be together because of social status. Then some troubles come to the Bennets and strangely, Mr.. Darcy is always involved as the savior. Ultimately, Mr. Bingley does not care about the social status and propose Jane. At night, Lady Catherine comes to the Bennet’s house and threaten Elizabeth not to have any love relation toward Mr. Darcy because he’s engaged to her daughter. But, apparently their love is getting stronger and Mr. Darcy personally asks Elizabeth from her father and they get his consent.

    In this story, Austen describes the reality of women’s life during that time. Most of family wants their daughters to marry high social status rank men to get better life and pride. Austen focuses on three kinds of women at that time. Jane represents a shy woman who really obeys what her parents say. She does not want her family in trouble, so she has no opinion at all. She runs her life just like the stream of water. When she finds out Mr. Bingley leaves the town without any words, she does not have any thoughts. Even she just pulls herself together and keeps all feelings and thoughts by herself. She does what family suggests to her, like going to visit her auntie and uncle in London. She goes there without any argument. Elizabeth represents a well-educated woman. She likes to read which shows that she has more knowledge then the others. She is an assertive and determined person. She always states her opinion and be bold to say no to what she thinks wrong. Logically, social status is not a matter for her. Yet, she still lives in a society where social status is the most important. So, she shows herself as a person who has pride; yet her thoughts are still bothered by her prejudice. Lydia represents a woman who does not care about people’s thought as long as she can marry a rich and noble person. She never wants to miss any chances to meet any rich and noble men. Even she’s the one who is very excited when the officers are coming to their town. She is the one who is trying to attract any officers’ attention. Finally, she marries Mr. Wickham who is actually a fraud. She does not know about it and actually she does not care. What she thinks is that she is free from home and has a good life in the future. Actually, there is another kind of woman pictured in this story, but it’s only a glimpsed and I think Austen did that in purpose. It’s Mary. Mary represent an ordinary woman who prepares herself very well to get any attention. But somehow, any people do not pay attention to her because she is too “plain”. She is too ordinary. Her character is often found sad in the middle of cheerful situation; she talks but no one wants to listen to her. But in this story, there is not much reference about Mary. I myself think that Austen did that in purpose to emphasize the existence of this kind of women’s character in society.

    Treasure Island
    By Robert Louis Stevenson

    It’s about Jim Hawkins whose parents have an inn in the pear. One of the tenants is Captain Flint, or known as Billy Bones. Since he retired from sailing, Captain Flint spends his time in inn and drinks rum. Even though Dr. Livesey reminds him about his health, he does not really care. One day, one of Captain’s friends is visiting him. He is known as Black Dog. They were talking about their past time, when they sailed and looked for treasures. Not longer, the other friend, a poor blind man, also came visiting him. After that, Captain is dead because of his poor health. Jim’s parents are confused because Captain has not paid for his rent while staying with them. So, one night, Jim’s mother asks Jim to follow her to intrude Captain’s room to find anything to be sold to replace the rent money. But Captain’s friends who are planning to do the same come to the room at the same time. Jim succeeds to take a packet. He got caught by Captain’s friends and they opened the packet. It’s a book and a sealed paper. They found out it’s a map of treasure which is located in an island around Hispaniola. So the journey is taken by Jim, Black Dog and friends, and Dr. Livesey. They start from Bristol. Along their sailing, they stop and meet some people who finally join them in the journey, such as a squire and Long John Silver. They also experience some events along the journey.

    This story is closely related to history. It is stated that the international commerce was developing and it causes sea transportations are mainly focus to deliver merchandises. As the result, pirates are becoming a trend. When the company ship captain does not want to give up to pirates, they sink their own ship and leave the treasure down the sea. These pirates have their own rules. And most likely they can be friends now but enemy in the future. Captain is a respectable, wealthy pirate. So when he died, his friends are competing to get his wealth. It is also shown that life in the sea is very rough. You can’t trust anyone, but yourself. Once you get a clue, better you keep it by yourself.

    The Pilgrim’s Progress
    By John Bunyan

    The Pilgrim’s Progress is about a man named Pilgrim who is looking for the truth of life. He lives his wife, children, neighbors and friends in the city of destruction because he is not ready for God’s judgment. He leaves the city with a big heavy burden on his back and does not know where to go. On his journey, he meets a man named Evangelist. He says he had to find the truth; then gives him the Bible and a golden key called a key of promise. Then, he continues his journey and meets Pliable and Obstinate. Obstinate is a devil pretending to be common people. Obstinate tries to seduce him to go back to his old life. But Pilgrim says he is not ready for God’s judgment. Pliable is interested in Pilgrim’s journey and follows him. Along the journey, devils keep following Pilgrim and his company. Apparently they walk in difficulties. Pliable gives up and leaves Pilgrim alone. In his journey, Pilgrim finds a house called Worldly Wiseman. Again, it’s devil’s made. The Wiseman invites Pilgrim to go in his house and asks if he can give a hand. Pilgrim says he wants to lift off his burden and he is suggested to read the Bible to find the truth. The Wiseman shows him a way to the Village of Morality and he must meet his friend, Mr. Legality, there. The way is so hard and steep. During his way climbing the hill, the Evangelist shows up, asking what he’s doing there. After listening to Pilgrim’s story, he says that Pilgrim just has to turn back and follow the truth. Pilgrim does what evangelist says and at night he reaches a house of Mr. Goodwill’s. Pilgrim says his intention and Mr. Goodwill shows him the way to go to Mr. Interpreter who can explain more to him. It’s a nice, soft, small, straight road with nice views. He meets Mr. Interpreter who gives all answers Pilgrim’s looking for to lift his burden. During the session, devil keeps bothering him by taking his Bible, but it does not succeed. After that, Pilgrim can see a hill with a cross on top of it. He also sees Jesus there and suddenly all his burdens fall down. He feels free, saved. Then his name is changed into Christian. Christian has to continue his journey to find the Celestial City. On his trip, he meets Faithful. They take care each other and live in spirit. During the trip, they still find difficulties because they are mortality. When they arrive in Vanity Fair, they find the worldly lives. There, people experience temporary pleasure lives. The king of the city asks if the Bible asks them to love all people. Then they say yes. Then the king says to his people to burn both of them. While the Vanity Fair people are preparing the place to burn them, there is a young man named Hopeful who reads Christian’s Bible and gets the key. He is moved by what he reads. At night, when people burn Faithful to death, Hopeful saves Christian from the prison and the walk together to go to Celestial City. After walking for long time, they can see the Celestial City from where they are. And Hopeful suggests them to get a shortcut. But it leads them to the Giant Despair’s Castle. They are captured and put in dungeon. In such situation, they find the truth, which is the key of promise which can open any doors. They escape from Despair Castle and continue their journey. Then they arrive in a beautiful land with great fruits and flowers. It’s called Manual Land and they meet four shepherds, Knowledge, Watchful, Experience, and Sincere. They ask them to stay there for awhile. But Hopeful can’t wait. He asks Christian to continue their journey. Almost near their destination, devil still annoys them, but they have a shield of faith and a sword of spirit. They win the battle and reach the Celestial City.

    This story is clearly illustrated the people’s journey to seek the truth. It is full of symbols which represent the stages of our living purpose. The story of Pilgrim represents people who are tired of uncertainty and realize there is a judgment day. He is willing to get redemption, but he does not know how and where to. So he is searching the purpose of his life. Along the way, of course it’s the same as in our lives, he meets obstacles and seduce by devil. It is obvious that devil can be anything. It’s a great pretender and disguise in any form. It reminds us to be careful in our way to search the truth. The names of people he meets along his journey represent the stages of the journey. He meets Pliable, which means is easy to bend or flexible. It is the phase where people are easy to persuade to cancel the journey while facing obstacles. Then Pliable leaves him and he faces Wiseman who says he can answer any obstacles in the world. Then wisely Wiseman suggests to go to Legality. It shows that people often use the term of wise to legal everything to be the right ones. Then he realizes, that’s not the way, not s easy as that. Then he turns back and finds another way. It shows that people have their conscience and be more determined to find the truth. Then he meets Goodwill is a positive intention which lead him to Interpreter. It’s the stage where people are ready to hear the explanation. They open their heart to find the cues to the truth. When people open their heart, they want to accept all the truth and ready to repent their sins. There is a moment when Pilgrim is changed his name into Christian which represents that the person has had a new live, he’s reborn in Father, Jesus and Holy Spirit. It’s not the end of the journey. The fact is that the beginning of new life. A Christian still has to face the real world, like Vanity Fair where people love temporary pleasure lives and mock about faith. There are threatens, hurts, and even people can lose their Faith. But then, it is raise by Hope. In that story, Hopeful helps Christian to get out from the “prison” and walk together. Of course there is a time people meet despairs stage in life. The thing is whether we want to use the key of promise to continue our lives. If we do, then we meet the Knowledge, Watchful, Experience, Sincere. Those points help us to live in our “manual life” and we keep communicating to God to balance it. Until we are ready to continue to the last stage to go to Celestial City, which is heaven. I must admit that this Sir John Bunyan’s work is one of masterpieces for Christians. It happens to human beings in the past, at present, and I am sure in the future. I strongly recommend reading this book to mirror ourselves.

    References:
    1. CC Prose for Pride and Prejudice, Wuthering Heights, The Pilgrim’s Progress
    2. Youtube for Pride and Prejudice, The Pilgrim’s Progress
    3. Stevenson, R. L. Treasure Island. The Children Golden Library
    4. Defoe, D. Robinson Crusoe. The Children Golden Library

  13. Dear Sir,
    Below is my Final-Term Assignment for Literature 3 :

    1. John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress
    The story is about tell as a dream. He explains that he fell asleep in the wilderness and dreamed of a man named Christian, who was tormented by spiritual anguish. A spiritual guide named Evangelist visits Christian and urges him to leave the City of Destruction. Evangelist claims that salvation can only be found in the Celestial City, known as Mount Zion. “The Pilgrim’s Progress” is an example of an allegory very nearly above reproach. In the true Christian tradition, the hero (quite aptly named Christian), goes on a journey, outwardly physical but allegorically internal and signifying the trials, tribulations and temptations one might face on the long, complex journey to heaven (also known as the Celestial City). The one-to-one comparisons are relatively simple to decode, making this tale accessible to nearly all. Christian is the central character of the book and the hero of the pilgrimage. Because Bunyan wrote The Pilgrim’s Progress as an allegory rather than a novel, Christian is not represented as particularly complicated or conflicted and has a simple personality. Christian represents just one profound aspect of the human experience: the search for religious truth. He is his faith (hence his name). Christian’s motivation, the search for salvation in the Celestial City, clearly defines him.

    In the late eighteenth century, William Blake still responded to Bunyan the religious and political Dissenter, and the theologically astute recognized him as expounding a particular doctrine, but distance in time increasingly made him seem not only pious, but even harmless. In the nineteenth century, “The Pilgrim’s Progress,” long seen as suitable reading for children, was available to the working class in cheap editions, with the approval of their “betters.” It found a receptive readership; but it is now clear that many of those readers recognized, as George Bernard Shaw later said, that the sins and failings Bunyan attacked were mainly those of people with money and power. Or, at least, their allegorical representatives always seem to be, or behave like, landowners, merchants, and magistrates, while their victims are working men and women.
    The religious of this story is a Christian classic that is my favorite of all Christian works. Possibly the second most published work outside the bible, it has been highly regarded by many, and was once widely taught in the schools. Pilgrim’s Progress is written by a mature Christian, with insights that you will not get from anyone other than a mature Christian. Few people are capable of writing such a book.
    ” Thomas’ emphasis on the “definition of the situation,” precise stages of moral development, and the four wishes are seen to be derived from Bunyan’s themes of spiritual instruction along Christian’s journey, his progress through various stages of sanctification, and the various spiritual polarities established by Bunyan as structuring principles of his text. Thomas is understood to have distorted Bunyan’s vision of ultimate transcendence by equating salvation with adoption of the Protestant ethic and its institutional context of the American political and economic status quo. Bunyan was indeed mostly concerned with problems of salvation (by faith) and predestination (of which you can never be certain), but the allegorical universe Bunyan presents is solidly grounded in material and social reality.

    Reference:www.bartleby.com/65/bu/Bunyan-J.html

    2. Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko
    The prince, who has gotten to know Behn while he is a slave in Guiana and she is a sympathetic listener, tells her his story. Successful in battle, he falls in love with a young woman who also catches the eye of the king. Having pursued their love surreptitiously, the couple is discovered and Imoinda is sold into slavery. Oroonoko, a slave-owner himself, despairs and nearly is defeated in battle by Jamoan’s army, but he is roused to martial prowess by the pleas of his own troops. Lured upon an English ship by a captain with whom he previously had bought and sold slaves, Oroonoko and all his men are betrayed and taken as slaves to Guiana. There he is reunited with Imoinda, and his noble bearing attracts the praise of all who know him. However, circumstances force him to rebel against his masters and to lead an army of ex-slaves to seek their freedom. His capture, his murder of his own wife, and his torture and execution by the English slave-owners end Behn’s narrative.

    The Politics of Oroonoko,” Richard Kroll reads Aphra Behn’s text in terms of the protocols of neoclassical literature, analyzing the formal elements of the text to reveal the response she expected to provoke. He shows the ways in which Oroonoko seeks polemically to engage with the political circumstances surrounding its writing—the tumultuous events of early summer 1688. (An appendix to the article shows the correlation between events in the publishing and historical arenas.) Kroll also argues that the polemical aims of the text are intimately allied with the nature of Behn’s royalism. While critics have seen the text falling into two sections, Kroll shows the way in which the structure articulates the overarching political theme: the events in Coramantien represent a site where romantic kingship is displayed and anatomized, while the events in Surinam represent a site where romantic kingship is tested. He also shows Behn’s selection from among the various languages available to her— sometimes taken as a sign of confusion or lack of mastery—and appropriation of these elements in the service of her political argument.

    Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Oroonoko

    3. Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe
    Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe that was first published in 1719. The story was perhaps influenced by Alexander Selkirk, a Scottish castaway who lived for four years on the Pacific island called “Más a Tierra” (in 1966 its name was changed to Robinson Crusoe Island), Chile. The details of Crusoe’s island were probably based on the Caribbean island of Tobago, since that island lies a short distance north of the Venezuelan coast near the mouth of the Orinoco river, in sight of Trinidad. Robinson Crusoe indicates ways in which British colonial history made the genre of the novel possible. Specifically, Robinson Crusoe as the first novel precisely because of the detailed attention Defoe gives an “ordinary” individual. However, fails to consider just how contingent Crusoe’s self-image is on the colonial setting of the novel. Though his journey toward selfhood begins on precarious grounds–he is nearly swallowed by a storm, enslaved by Moors, and shipwrecked on an uninhabited island frequented by cannibals and located in the middle of the Spanish Empire. Crusoe gradually learns how to assert himself over land and people. In short, the colonial setting facilitates Crusoe’s individualism as he comes to recognize the unique place he occupies as a British Protestant in a world in which he is surrounded by religious and cultural Others.

    The political background when confronted with the cannibals, Crusoe wrestles with the problem of cultural relativism. Despite his disgust, he feels unjustified in holding the natives morally responsible for a practice so deeply ingrained in their culture. There is also a notable correlation between Crusoe’s spiritual and financial development, possibly signifying Defoe’s belief in the ethnic. The Crusoe model has also been assessed from the perspectives of feminism and Austrian economics. The classical treatment of the Crusoe economy has been discussed and criticized from a variety of perspectives. Karl Marx made an analysis of Crusoe, while also mocking the heavy use in classical economics of the fictional story, in his classic work Capital. In Marxist terms, Crusoe’s experiences on the island represent the inherent economic value of labour over capital.

    Reference : http://www.enotes.com/topic/Robinson_Crusoe

    4. Wells’ The Time Machine

    The book Time Machine: An Invention was written by H.G. Wells in 1898. It was an instant bestseller and one of the first books about traveling in time. Herbert George Wells was born in 1866 in Bromley, Kent County, England of a poor family. He died in 1946. The story reflects Wells’s own socialist political views, his view on life and abundance, and the contemporary angst about industrial relations. It is also influenced by Ray Lankester’s theories about social degeneration.[3] Other science fiction works of the period, including Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward and the later Metropolis, dealt with similar themes. The term “time machine”, coined by Wells, is now universally used to refer to such a vehicle. This work is an early example of the Dying Earth subgenre.

    Wells in particular is angered by the misreading of the history of the natural sciences, and the attempt to model sociology on an inaccurate vision of those sciences. Wells’ concern with the way sociology conceives of itself, of science, and itself as a science Wells suggests that we should be on the one hand, able historians, and on the other, philosophical dreamers. The first is “the social side of history” and is already in progress, according to Wells.
    About politics, Wells used his novels as a way of escape of his own ideals. He represented in this story his socialist political views and he reflects also a social degeneration; as we see when Wells presents us two defined groups inside the future society.
    Although Wells always writes negative political and social novels (in this case social), at the end he puts some hope for the humanity, in “The time machine”, the protagonist comes back at the end from the future saying to his friends that he went again to the future and he saw that there is still a chance for humans.
    Wells wrote in his book God the Invisible King that his idea of God did not draw upon the traditional religions of the world: “This book sets out as forcibly and exactly as possible the religious belief of the writer. .” Of other world religions he writes: “All these religions are true for me as Canterbury Cathedral is a true thing and as a Swiss chalet is a true thing.

    References : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

    5. Stevenson’s Treasure Island

    Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island published first as a serial in a boys’ magazine in 1881-82 and then in book form on May 23, 1883. Treasure Island is filled with buried treasure and treasure maps, pirates and mutinies, gunfights and sword fights, narrow escapes, and a young hero who manages to save the day. Stevenson taped into the stuff that the greatest legends are made of… helping to make his tale as timeless as any adventure tale. The novel offers a rare glimpse at a different time in history, when adventures were romantic and thrilling. It was an age when boys like Jim Hawkins could become heroes of their own adventure stories. Clearly, the interplay of ambiguous moral issues only adds to the adventure. The rapid pace of the novel helps to carry the reader along, as the suspense and the unlikely boy-hero contribute to an unrivaled adventure novel. Still, Silver’s humanity and father-figure status contributes an important dimension to a reading of the text.

    The article focuses on issues related to sociological charity. Essayist Robert Louis Stevenson offers an explanation of the fact that the self-respecting poor beg from each other, not from the rich. It is stated that charity which cannot exercise gratitude can never be a great social force for good. Also stressed is the need for the wealthy people to make some sacrifices and become poor with the poor in order to be able to aid them. There is nothing perhaps more puzzling (if one thing in sociology can ever really be more unaccountable than another) than the great gulf that is set between England and Scotland – a gulf so easy in appearance, in reality so difficult to traverse.

    Referensi : http://www.gradesaver.com/author/robert-stevenson/

  14. Dear Sir,
    Below is my final assignment for literature 3
    1. John Bunyan‘s The Pilgrim’s Progress
    The Pilgrim’s Progress is a Christian allegory written by John Bunyan and published in February, 1678. It is regarded as one of the most significant works of religious English literature, has been translated into more than 200 languages, and has never been out of print. Bunyan began his work while in the Bedfordshire county goal for violations of the Conventicle Act, which prohibited the holding of religious services outside the auspices of the established Church of England. Early Bunyan scholars like John Brown believed The Pilgrim’s Progress was begun in Bunyan’s second shorter imprisonment for six months in 1675, but more recent scholars like Roger Sharrock believe that it was begun during Bunyan’s initial, more lengthy imprisonment from 1660-1672 right after he had written his spiritual autobiography, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners.

    In the religion background it is very influenced the people. The explicit Protestant theology of The Pilgrim’s Progress made it much more popular than its predecessors. Bunyan’s plain style breathes life into the abstractions of the anthropomorphized temptations and abstractions that Christian encounters and with whom he converses on his course to Heaven. Because of its explicit English Protestant theology The Pilgrim’s Progress shares the then popular English antipathy toward the Roman Catholic Church. It was published over the years of the Popish Plot (1678–1681) and ten years before the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and it shows the influence of John Foxe’s Acts and Monuments. Bunyan presents a decrepit and harmless giant to confront Christian at the end of the Valley of the Shadow of Death that is explicitly named “Pope”. When Christian and Faithful travel through Vanity Fair, Bunyan adds the editorial comment : But as in other fairs, some one Commodity is as the chief of all the fair, so the Ware of Rome and her Merchandize is greatly promoted in this fair: Only our English Nation, with some others, have taken a dislike thereat. In the Second Part while Christiana and her group of pilgrims led by Greatheart stay for some time in Vanity, the city is terrorized by a seven-headed beast which is driven away by Greatheart and other stalwarts. In his endnotes W.R. Owens notes about the woman that governs the beast: “This woman was believed by Protestants to represent Antichrist, the Church of Rome. In a posthumously published treatise, Of Antichrist, and his Ruine (1692), Bunyan gave an extended account of the rise and (shortly expected) fall of Antichrist.

    Reference: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bunyan

    2. Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe
    Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe that was first published in 1719. Epistolary, confessional, and didactic in form, the book is a fictional autobiography of the title character—a castaway who spends 28 years on a remote tropical island near Trinidad, encountering cannibals, captives, and mutineers before being rescued. The story was perhaps influenced by Alexander Selkirk, a Scottish castaway who lived for four years on the Pacific island called “Más a Tierra” (in 1966 its name was changed to Robinson Crusoe Island), Chile. The details of Crusoe’s island were probably based on the Caribbean island of Tobago, since that island lies a short distance north of the Venezuelan coast near the mouth of the Orinoco river, in sight of Trinidad. It is also likely that Defoe was inspired by the Latin or English translations of Ibn Tufail’s Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, an earlier novel also set on a desert island. Another source for Defoe’s novel may have been Robert Knox’s account of his abduction by the King of Ceylon in 1659 in “An Historical Account of the Island Ceylon,” Glasgow: James Mac Lehose and Sons (Publishers to the University), 1911. Although inspired by a real life event, it was the first notable work of literature where the story was independent of mythology, history, legends, or previous literature.

    In political background it is very important. When confronted with the cannibals, Crusoe wrestles with the problem of cultural relativism. Despite his disgust, he feels unjustified in holding the natives morally responsible for a practice so deeply ingrained in their culture. Nevertheless he retains his belief in an absolute standard of morality; he regards cannibalism as a ‘national crime’ and forbids Friday from practicing it. The classical treatment of the Crusoe economy has been discussed and criticized from a variety of perspectives. Karl Marx made an analysis of Crusoe, while also mocking the heavy use in classical economics of the fictional story, in his classic work Capital. In Marxist terms, Crusoe’s experiences on the island represent the inherent economic value of labour over capital. Crusoe frequently observes that the money he salvaged from the ship is worthless on the island, especially when compared to his tools. Defoe’s point is that money has no intrinsic value and is only valuable insofar as it can be used in trade. There is also a notable correlation between Crusoe’s spiritual and financial development, possibly signifying Defoe’s belief in the ethic. The Crusoe model has also been assessed from the perspectives of feminism and Austrian economics.
    Reference : http://www.enotes.com/topic/Robinson_Crusoe

    3. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein
    Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by Mary Shelley about a monster produced by an unorthodox scientific experiment. Shelley started writing the story when she was eighteen, and the novel was published when she was twenty-one. The first edition was published anonymously in London in 1818. Shelley’s name appears on the second edition, published in France in 1823. Frankenstein is infused with some elements of the Gothic novel and the Romantic movement and is also considered to be one of the earliest examples of science fiction. Brian Aldiss has argued that it should be considered the first true science fiction story, because unlike in previous stories with fantastical elements resembling those of later science fiction, the central character “makes a deliberate decision” and “turns to modern experiments in the laboratory” to achieve fantastic results. The story is partially based on Giovanni Aldini’s electrical experiments on dead and (sometimes) living animals and was also a warning against the expansion of modern humans in the Industrial Revolution, alluded to in its subtitle, The Modern Prometheus. It has had a considerable influence across literature and popular culture and spawned a complete genre of horror stories and films.

    Critics have until recently cited Lodore and Falkner as evidence of increasing conservatism in Mary Shelley’s later works. In 1984, Mary Poovey influentially identified the retreat of Mary Shelley’s reformist politics into the “separate sphere” of the domestic. Poovey suggested that Mary Shelley wrote Falkner to resolve her conflicted response to her father’s combination of libertarian radicalism and stern insistence on social decorum. Mellor largely agreed, arguing that “Mary Shelley grounded her alternative political ideology on the metaphor of the peaceful, loving, bourgeois family. She thereby implicitly endorsed a conservative vision of gradual evolutionary reform this vision allowed women to participate in the public sphere but it inherited the inequalities inherent in the bourgeois family. However, in the last decade or so this view has been challenged. For example, Bennett claims that Mary Shelley’s works reveal a consistent commitment to Romantic idealism and political reform and Jane Blumberg’s study of Shelley’s early novels argues that her career cannot be easily divided into radical and conservative halves. She contends that “Shelley was never a passionate radical like her husband and her later lifestyle was not abruptly assumed nor was it a betrayal. She was in fact challenging the political and literary influences of her circle in her first work. In this reading, Shelley’s early works are interpreted as a challenge to Godwin and Percy Bysshe Shelley’s radicalism. Victor Frankenstein’s “thoughtless rejection of family”, for example, is seen as evidence of Shelley’s constant concern for the domestic.

    Reference: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Shelley
    4. Austen‘s Pride and Prejudice
    Pride and Prejudice is a novel by Jane Austen, first published in 1813. The story follows the main character Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education, and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England. Though the story is set at the turn of the 19th century, it retains a fascination for modern readers, continuing near the top of lists of ‘most loved books’ such as The Big Read. It has become one of the most popular novels in English literature and receives considerable attention from literary scholars.

    Modern interest in the book has resulted in a number of dramatic adaptations and an abundance of novels and stories imitating Austen’s memorable characters or themes. To date, the book has sold some 20 million copies worldwide.

    Critics are uncertain about Austen’s relationship to the rising Evangelical movement within the Anglican Church of her day. In the first two decades of the nineteenth century, Evangelicalism became effective as a powerful upper-middle class pressure group supporting reform of abuses and opposing vice. According to Butler, whether or not Austen was sympathetic to Evangelical religion, her works reflect society’s growing seriousness of tone and desire for reform. Other critics have taken a more decisive stance on Austen’s personal views. For example, both Mac Donagh and Waldron argue that she personally disliked the movement. Waldron contends that Austen would not have approved of the movement’s idealization of behavior. Mac Donagh believes that Austen’s letters and other private writings suggest that she became more serious religiously as she became older. Mansfield Park and Persuasion are the novels most often cited as examples of Austen’s growing religiosity. For example, Persuasion “is subtly different from the laxer, more permissive social atmosphere of the three novels Jane Austen began before 1800.” and contains more frequent references to Providence. In Mansfield Park, Fanny stands for spirituality and proper morality. It is she who most clearly characterizes Henry Crawford’s affair with Maria in religious terms, in the language of sin, guilt and punishment. She is portrayed as an earnest, strict and struggling Christian, not perfect but trying hard.
    Reference: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Styles_and_themes_of_Jane_Austen

    5. Wells’ The Time Machine
    The Time Machine is a science fiction novella by H. G. Wells, published in 1895 and later adapted into two films of the same name, as well as two television versions, and a large number of comic book adaptations. It indirectly inspired many more works of fiction in many media. This 32,000 word story is generally credited with the popularization of the concept of time travel using a vehicle that allows an operator to travel purposefully and selectively. The term “time machine”, coined by Wells, is now universally used to refer to such a vehicle. This work is an early example of the Dying Earth subgenre.

    Wells wrote in his book God the Invisible King that his idea of God did not draw upon the traditional religions of the world: “This book sets out as forcibly and exactly as possible the religious belief of the writer. This is a profound belief in a personal and intimate God”. Later in the work he aligns himself with a “renascent or modern religion … neither atheist nor Buddhist nor Mohammedan nor Christian … [that] he has found growing up in himself”.
    Of Christianity he has this to say: “… it is not now true for me … Every believing Christian is, I am sure, my spiritual brother … but if systemically I called myself a Christian I feel that to most men I should imply too much and so tell a lie.” Of other world religions he writes: “All these religions are true for me as Canterbury Cathedral is a true thing and as a Swiss chalet is a true thing. There they are, and they have served a purpose, they have worked. Only they are not true for me to live in them … They do not work for me.”

    Reference: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

    1. Hello Fajar,
      This works of yours seem very close to the references you used. You should have expressed your own ideas supported by someone else’s idea. However, since you have tried to submit them on time, I do appreciate your works.

  15. Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko

    Oroonoko is a short work of prose fiction by Aphra Behn (1640–1689), published in 1688, concerning the love of its hero, an enslaved African in Surinam in the 1660s, and the author’s own experiences in the new South American colony.
    Behn worked for Charles II as a spy during the outset of the Second Dutch War, ending up destitute when she returned to England, and even spending time in a debtors’ prison, because Charles failed to pay her properly, or at all. She turned her hand to writing in order to survive, with remarkable success. She wrote poetry that sold well, and had a number of plays staged, which established her fame in her own lifetime. In the 1670s, only John Dryden had plays staged more often than Behn.
    She began to write extended narrative prose toward the end of her career. Published less than a year before she died, Oroonoko is one of the earliest English novels. Interest in it has increased since the 1970s, critics arguing that Behn is the foremother of British women writers, and that Oroonoko is a crucial text in the history of the novel.

    Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Oroonoko

    Stevenson’s Treasure Island

    Treasure Island is an adventure novel by Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson, narrating a tale of “pirates and buried gold”. First published as a book on May 23, 1883, it was originally serialized in the children’s magazine Young Folks between 1881–82 under the title Treasure Island; or, the mutiny of the Hispaniola with

    Stevenson adopting the pseudonym Captain George North.
    Traditionally considered a coming-of-age story, Treasure Island is an adventure tale known for its atmosphere, characters and action, and also as a wry commentary on the ambiguity of morality — as seen in Long John Silver — unusual for children’s literature then and now. It is one of the most frequently dramatized of all novels. The influence of Treasure Island on popular perceptions of pirates is enormous, including treasure maps marked with an “X”, schooners, the Black Spot, tropical islands, and one-legged seamen carrying parrots on their shoulders.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treasure_Island

    Dickens‘s Great Expectations

    Great Expectations was Charles Dickens’s penultimate novel (a.k.a. the second to last one he ever wrote), and it was originally featured in a magazine. That’s right. Great Expectations was a serialized publication lasting from December 1, 1860 until August 3, 1861. Two chapters were published every week, telling the story of a young man named Pip who aspired to be a gentleman and win over the beautiful Estella. Basically, Great Expectations (and serialized novels like it) were as close as Victorian England got to Gossip Girl, Grey’s Anatomy, or Lost. People waited anxiously every week for the next “episode” to arrive in the newsstands and on the shelves.When he prepared to write this novel, Charles Dickens was already world famous for his robust body of work, but he was also the editor of a struggling publication called All the Year Round. This publication was no Atlantic Monthly, but it was a solid literary magazine featuring stories, essays, and illustrations. The problem was that his number one, superstar writer was churning out one seriously snooze-worthy (serialized) story. All the Year Round’s readership was diminishing, and Charles Dickens had to do something drastic to keep it from tanking altogether. As luck would have it, he had the plot for a new novel sketched out. He was saving it for publication in another (cooler and better-paying) publication, but decided to run it in his own magazine in order to stave off bankruptcy.

    Though Dickens had the plot and skeleton of Great Expectations already planned, he was able to listen to the criticism and comments of his readers each week over the nine-month period (like a TV season) and to make adjustments to the novel accordingly. Much like current sitcom writers do today, Dickens paid very close attention to the criticism that his work garnered each week. In many ways, the novel was always changing form. Dickens is known as a master of the serialized novel; he was able to create enticing two-chapter segments each week, full of cliff-hangers and nail-biting action, while remaining true to the novel’s overall storyline. His stories worked well in fragments and as a cohesive whole. That’s not easy to do.

    Great Expectations was widely popular and was riddled with many of the themes that fascinated Charles Dickens throughout his literary career. He was drawn especially to social justice and to commenting on the inequalities inherent to Victorian society. While England was growing rich and powerful in the era of colonialism and the Industrial Revolution, Dickens saw the injustice that ran rampant among the working and lower classes. He sought to document Britain’s underbelly and to explore the fight for survival in a time of such wealth.Dickens, along with many other nineteenth century novelists, was also very interested in childhood and in orphans. The innocence and hopefulness of childhood contrasted heavily with the sadness and suffering that he witnessed. Dickens also was in love with doppelgangers and doubles, and so constructed the world of his novels out of complex networks of character doubles. Things come in twos in Dickensian works, so get ready for some double-hunting.Charles Dickens wrote almost fifteen novels, none of which have ever gone out of print. He’s pretty much the bomb-diggity.

    http://www.shmoop.com/great-expectations/

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Expectations

    Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe

    Robinson Crusoe /ˌrɒbɪnsən ˈkruːsoʊ/ is a novel by Daniel Defoe that was first published in 1719. Epistolary, confessional, and didactic in form, the book is a fictional autobiography of the title character—a castaway who spends 28 years on a remote tropical island near Trinidad, encountering cannibals, captives, and mutineers before being rescued.

    The story was perhaps influenced by Alexander Selkirk, a Scottish castaway who lived for four years on the Pacific island called “Más a Tierra” (in 1966 its name was changed to Robinson Crusoe Island), Chile. The details of Crusoe’s island were probably based on the Caribbean island of Tobago, since that island lies a short distance north of the Venezuelan coast near the mouth of the Orinoco river, in sight of Trinidad. It is also likely that Defoe was inspired by the Latin or English translations of Ibn Tufail’s Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, an earlier novel also set on a desert island. Another source for Defoe’s novel may have been Robert Knox’s account of his abduction by the King of Ceylon in 1659 in “An Historical Account of the Island Ceylon,” Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons (Publishers to the University), 1911.[6] Although inspired by a real life event, it was the first notable work of literature where the story was independent of mythology, history, legends, or previous literature.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe

    Emily Bronte‘s Wuthering Heights

    Wuthering Heights is the only published novel by Emily Brontë, written between December 1845 and July 1846 and published in July of the following year. It was not printed until December 1847, after the success of her sister Charlotte Brontë’s novel Jane Eyre. It was finally printed under the pseudonym Ellis Bell; a posthumous second edition was edited by Charlotte.

    The title of the novel comes from the Yorkshire manor on the moors of the story. The narrative centres on the all-encompassing, passionate, but ultimately doomed love between Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff, and how this unresolved passion eventually destroys them and the people around them.

    Today considered a classic of English literature, Wuthering Heights was met with mixed reviews when it first appeared, mainly because of the narrative’s stark depiction of mental and physical cruelty.[1][2] Although Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre was generally considered the best of the Brontë sisters’ works during most of the nineteenth century, many subsequent critics of Wuthering Heights argued that it was a superior achievement.[3] Wuthering Heights has also given rise to many adaptations and inspired works, including films, radio, television dramatisations, a musical by Bernard J. Taylor, a ballet, three operas (respectively by Bernard Herrmann, Carlisle Floyd, and Frédéric Chaslin), a role-playing game, and the 1979 chart topping song by Kate Bush.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wuthering_Heights

    1. Hi Ira,
      The first part (summary) of your works is good.However, I cannot see your ideas in the second parts (the relationship of each work to the sociological, historical, political, and/or religious backgrounds of the period in which it was written). However, I appreciate your trial to post the work earlier than the deadline.

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