3. Middle English Period


Answer each of the following questions briefly but concisely.

  1. Why is year 1066 taken as the beginning of the Middle English Period of English literature history?
  2. The Norman Conquest caused a parallel use of two languages in England. What languages were they? How many years did it take place? Why and when did it end?
  3. The tradition of drama began in the Middle English Period. Explain where and how drama began, and why they are called mystery or miracle plays.

62 thoughts on “3. Middle English Period”

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  2. Lestari Suryatama (0712150022) said:

    1. Because this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language.

    2. a. The languages are: French – Anglo Saxon
    b. Both languages were used for more than 300 years.
    c. It was ended in the 14th century, because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.

    3. The original dramas were set in and around the church at festival times. The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives. The plays were usually performed on moving carts, by the
    businessmen of the city, and the texts which remains are often called by
    the name of the group of businessmen which first performed them.

    Sorry Sir , I’m late to answer the questions because I’m forget Sir to answer the questions until saturday :(
    Please give me a chance , Sir ^_^

    Thank & Gb Sir

  3. Maya Fitriana (0712150044) said:

    1) Because, in this volume, 1066 is treated as a symbolic beginning of the period because of the significance of several events that took place in that year. In the fall of 1066, the last Anglo-Saxon king, Harold Godwineson, fought two battles. In the first, he defeated a Norwegian army at Stamford Bridge. In the second battle, fought at Hastings a few weeks later, Harold and his army were defeated by the Normans led by Duke William. These two battles virtually put an end to the Scandinavian ambition to reclaim the English throne. By this time, however, a large population of Scandinavians had long settled in northern England (see also early old english and late old english ).

    2) The Norman Invasion and Conquest of 1066 was a cataclysmic event that brought new rulers and new cultural, social and linguistic influences to the British Isles. The Norman French ruling minority dominated the church, government, legal, and educational systems for three centuries. The Norman establishment used French and Latin, leaving English as the language of the illiterate and powerless majority. During this period English adopted thousands of words from Norman French and from Latin, and its grammar changed rather radically. By the end of that time, however, the aristocracy had adopted English as their language and the use and importance of French gradually faded. The period from the Conquest to the reemergence of English as a full-fledged literary language is called Middle English. Geoffrey Chaucer wrote his masterpiece, The Canterbury Tales, in Middle English in the late 1300s.

    3) Drama: A composition in prose or verse presenting, in pantomime and dialogue, a narrative involving conflict between a character or characters and some external or internal force (see conflict). Playwrights usually design dramas for presentation on a stage in front of an audience.

    * Medieval drama may have evolved independently from rites commemorating the birth and death of Christ. During the late medieval period and the early Renaissance, drama gradually altered to the form we know today. The mid-sixteenth century in England in particular was one of the greatest periods of world drama. In traditional Greek drama, as defined by Aristotle, a play was to consist of five acts and follow the three dramatic unities. In more recent drama (i.e., during the last two centuries), plays have frequently consisted of three acts, and playwrights have felt more comfortable disregarding the confines of Aristotelian rules involving verisimilitude. See also unities, comedy, tragedy, revenge play, miracle play, morality play, and mystery play. An individual work of drama is called a play.

    *Because, both the Mystery and the Morality plays were often long winded and frequently dull. To relieve the tedium “interludes” were presented which were nothing more nor less than slapstick farces as a rule more distinguished for their vulgarity than their humor.

    Thanks,Sir.
    GBU.

  4. Rennya Angelika (0912150903) said:

    1. Because in 1066 The Conquest of Norman happened in England. This led to the parallel use of language in more than 300 years. And also this year there was also the period of transition from Old English to Middle English.

    2. Parallel use of language in more than 300 years:
    Uneducated people used French and also Anglo-Saxon (Old English).

    3. The original Drama was set in and around the church at festival times, and they showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand The Latin of the Bible.
    The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    This is my answer I hope all of my answers can acceptable for you, Thank you Sir…

  5. Ade Yanis Raleda said:

    1. Because the year 1066 is taken because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language.
    2. They were French (the language used by educated people) and the Anglo-Saxon (spoken only by uneducated people), and it took place lasted for more 300 years. It was ended in the 14th because the middle English had been accepted as the only language use in all level.
    3. Drama becomes the genre of literary work produced in Middle English period is due to the fact the people in that era were bored with the sermon and they could not understand the Latin of the Bible. So, they showed scenes from the Bible for an audience an it played around the church at festival times.

  6. Lestari Suryatama said:

    1. Because this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. . This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language. The Norman establishment used French and Latin, leaving English as the language of the illiterate and powerless majority. During this period English adopted thousands of words from Norman French and from Latin, and its grammar changed rather radically. By the end of that time, however, the aristocracy had adopted English as their language and the use and importance of French gradually faded. The period from the Conquest to the reemergence of English as a full-fledged literary language is called Middle English.
    2. – The parallel use of two languages in England are French and Anglo-Saxon.
    – More than 300 years.
    – It was ended in the 14th century, because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.
    3. The original dramas were set in and around the church at festival times. The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives. The plays were usually performed on moving carts, by the
    businessmen of the city, and the texts which remains are often called by
    the name of the group of businessmen which first performed them.

    Sorry Sir , I’m late to answer the questions because I’m forget Sir to answer the questions until saturday ..
    Please give me a chance , Sir !
    Gb

  7. Lestari Suryatama said:

    1. Because this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. . This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language. The Norman establishment used French and Latin, leaving English as the language of the illiterate and powerless majority. During this period English adopted thousands of words from Norman French and from Latin, and its grammar changed rather radically. By the end of that time, however, the aristocracy had adopted English as their language and the use and importance of French gradually faded. The period from the Conquest to the reemergence of English as a full-fledged literary language is called Middle English.
    2. - The parallel use of two languages in England are French and Anglo-Saxon.
    - More than 300 years.
    - It was ended in the 14th century, because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.
    3. The original dramas were set in and around the church at festival times. The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives. The plays were usually performed on moving carts, by the
    businessmen of the city, and the texts which remains are often called by
    the name of the group of businessmen which first performed them.

    Sorry Sir , I’m late to answer the questions because I’m forget Sir to answer the questions until saturday ..
    Please give me a chance , Sir !
    Gb

  8. tulus manulang said:

    1. Because Norman Conquest was successful invasion of Britain and changed the course of English literature. After Norman Conquest took power in England, he introduced England to French because better architecture, progress in painting and music, also the university of Cambridge and oxford were established. Norman could enrich English literature because French different from Anglo-Saxon which was humorous less in spirit, hard in vocabulary, and monotonous in alliteration.
    There are three French literary in England during this time ie. Laymon’s Brut (1205), the Owl and the Nightingale and Robin Hood. All the stories were interesting in developing literary in England.
    2. – The parallel language are English and French.
    - Both of languages are used about 300 years.
    - Because Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.
    - The use of two parallel languages in England ended in 14th century
    - Finally, after the conquest, French became the language used by educated people, i.e. in offices, royal courts, and also by poets. The Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was spoken only by uneducated people.
    3. – Drama were set in and around the church.
    - Drama begun at festival times and they showed scenes from the Bible because some people couldn’t understand the Latin of the Bible.
    - Because the drama showed how the saints’ lives so, they could imagine the history of Bible and the saints’ lives by the drama.

  9. tulus manulang said:

    1. Because Norman Conquest was successful invasion of Britain and changed the course of English literature. After Norman Conquest took power in England, he introduced England to French because better architecture, progress in painting and music, also the university of Cambridge and oxford were established. Norman could enrich English literature because French different from Anglo-Saxon which was humorous less in spirit, hard in vocabulary, and monotonous in alliteration.
    There are three French literary in England during this time ie. Laymon’s Brut (1205), the Owl and the Nightingale and Robin Hood. All the stories were interesting in developing literary in England.
    2. - The parallel language are English and French.
    - Both of languages are used about 300 years.
    - Because Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.
    - The use of two parallel languages in England ended in 24th century
    - Finally, after the conquest, French became the language used by educated people, i.e. in offices, royal courts, and also by poets. The Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was spoken only by uneducated people.
    3. - Drama were set in and around the church.
    - Drama begun at festival times and they showed scenes from the Bible because some people couldn’t understand the Latin of the Bible.
    - Because the drama showed how the saints’ lives so, they could imagine the history of Bible and the saints’ lives by the drama.

  10. Dear, Sir. I’m sorry .I’m very late to answer the question.
    But I will try to answer.
    1. Why is year 1066 taken as the beginning of the Middle English Period of English literature history?
    Because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language.
    2. The Norman Conquest caused a parallel use of two languages in England. What languages were they? How many years did it take place? Why and when did it end?
    • They language is the parallel use of both English and French. Soon after the conquest, French became the language used by educated people, in offices, royal courts, and also by poets.The Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was spoken only by uneducated people.
    • For more than 300 years.
    • Because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels. And the situation develoved English literature of the middle period to reach its highest peak
    3. The tradition of drama began in the Middle English Period. Explain where and how drama began, and why they are called mystery or miracle plays.
    Drama: * The original medieval dramas were set in and around the Church at festival times, and they showed scenes from the Bible.* The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’leves.
    Thank you,Sir

  11. Good job, Christina! You answer most questions well. However, your answer for item 1 is a bit incomplete. Can you please make it better?

  12. Christina Wulandari said:

    1. year 1066 is taken as the beginning of the middle-English period of English literature history because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely the Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language.

    2. *The languages were French and English.
    * It took place for more than 300 years.
    * It ended in the 14th century because the middle-English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.

    3. * In the middle-English period, the tradition drama began in and around the church of festival times. They acted from the scenes of Bible to showing the audiences that perhaps didn’t understand the latin of the Bible.
    * They were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the misterious events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    that’s all my answers, sir…
    God bless you :)

  13. Indawati Silitonga ( 0712150008 ) said:

    1. Because in this year one of most important events in English history took place, namely the Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely change the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language.
    2. The Norman Conquest caused a parallel use of two languages in England is France and Anglo-Saxon.
    * more than 300 years
    * because the use of two parallel in England ended 14th century
    3. The Original medieval dramas were set in and around the church at festival times, and they showed scenes from bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the Latin of the Bible.

  14. Agnes Nastiti Karo-Karo said:

    1.because at that time there was an important event called Norman conquest,which the Norman defeated King Harold and bring peace to the country after many centuries of of wars and invasions but did not always succeed. It bring many impact in many field like better architecture, progress in painting music and it was historically important for the sake of the evolution of modern English literature.

    2.They were French (the language used by educated people) and the Anglo-Saxon (spoken only by uneducated people), and it took place lasted for more 300 years. It was ended in the 14th because the middle English had been accepted as the only language use in all level.

    3. Drama was set in and around the church at festival times and it was began when they showed scenes from the bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the Latin of the Bible.
    They called it as mystery or miracle plays because they they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’lives.

    that’s all my answer Sir…
    thanks!

    • Dear Agnes,
      What a good trial. However, you should have answered what is asked in # 1. You should have explained how Norman Conquest affected English. I believe you can do better in the next exercises. Good luck.

  15. Lasmaria Sinaga (bs ) 0712150031 said:

    1. Because The year 1066 is taken because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language. The Norman Conquest was the last successful invasion of Britain. After defeating King Harold at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, the Norman took power and William became King of England.

    2. >They languages is the parallel use of both English and French. Soon after the conquest, French became the language used by educated people and The Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was spoken only by uneducated people.
    > more than 300 years.
    >Parallel languages in England ended in the 14th century, Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.

    3. The drama were set in and around the church at festival times.They showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the Latin of the Bible. They were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    Thank you Sir….
    God Bless

    • What a good trial, Lasma! However, you should have answer all questions in complete sentences. By doing it that way, you not only study English literature but also develop your writing skill. I believe you can fulfill these two goals. Good luck.

  16. Maiya Mayesta said:

    1. In 1066, the most important events in English was happened, namely Norman Conquest. The Norman Conquest was the last successful invasion of Britain. Since the arrival of the Norman introduced England to French, better architecture, progress in painting and music. The Old English changed into Modern English (Transition Period). That’s the reason why year 1066 taken as the beginning of the Middle English Period.

    2. Two languages were French and The Anglo Saxon. French became the language used by educated people and the Old English was spoken only by uneducated people. It took place more than 300 years and it ended 14th century because its situation developed English literature of the middle period to reach its highest peak.

    3. Drama becomes the genre of literary work produced in Middle English period is due to the fact the people in that era were bored with the sermon and they could not understand the Latin of the Bible. So, they showed scenes from the Bible for an audience an it played around the church at festival times.

    • Dear Maiya,
      Your answers to the questions are very comprehensive. Very well done! However, please be more careful with your grammar in the future. For instances, look at these:
      “… in English was happened, namely …”
      “Since the [their] arrival, of the Norman introduced England to French, better …”

      Please note that your ideas will be clear to your reader if you write them in effective and correct sentences. Good luck!

  17. 1. The year 1066 is taken because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language
    2. A. The impact of the conquest is the parallel use of both English and French
    B. This situation of two parallel languages in daily use in the same country lasted for more than 300 years
    C. The use of two parallel languages in England ended in the 14th century, because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels. This situation developed English literature of the middle period to reach its highest peak.
    3. A. The original medieval dramas were set in and around the church at festival times, and they showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the latin of the Bible.
    B. The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    Sir.., Give me pardon, i’m late to answer the questions because three days ago i went to Bandung, and i’m just able to reply the questions. Thanks,

  18. stelli meirencia said:

    1. Because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is not only important because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language.
    2. ^ They languages is the parallel use of both English and French. Soon after the conquest, French became the language used by educated peopl and The Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was spoken only by uneducated people.
    ^ More than 300 years.
    ^ Because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels. The use of two parallel languages in England ended in the 14th century.

    3. Dramas were set in and around the church at festival times have local differences in the stories they tell and the way they are told. They showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the latin of the Bible. The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    Those are my answer, sir…
    thank you

  19. Monica Septiani said:

    1. Because this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. . This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language. The Norman establishment used French and Latin, leaving English as the language of the illiterate and powerless majority. During this period English adopted thousands of words from Norman French and from Latin, and its grammar changed rather radically. By the end of that time, however, the aristocracy had adopted English as their language and the use and importance of French gradually faded. The period from the Conquest to the reemergence of English as a full-fledged literary language is called Middle English.
    2. a. They are parallel use of both English and French.
    b. More than 300 years
    c. Because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language
    used in all levels. The use of two parallel languages in England ended
    in the 14th century.
    3. The original dramas were set in and around the church at festival times, and they showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the latin of the Bible and they are called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    this is my aswer sir..
    thx. Gbu

    • What a good trial, Monica! However, you should have answer all questions in complete sentences. By doing it that way, you not only study English literature but also develop your writing skill. Next time better, please.

  20. Heidy V lumintang said:

    1. Because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language.
    2. - They are parallel use of both English and French. French became the language used by educated people, i.e. in offices, royal courts, and also by poets. The Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was spoken only by uneducated people.
    - The use two parallel languages in daily use in the same country lasted for more than 300 years.
    - Parallel languages in England ended in the 14th century, Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.
    3. The dramas were set in and around the church at festival times. The mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives because the plays were called mystery or miracle plays. The plays were usually performed on moving carts, by the
    businessmen of the city, and the texts which remains are often called by
    the name of the group of businessmen which first performed them.

    Sir this is my answer…Thank you.

  21. 1. 1066 is the date of Norman Conquest of England and the beginning of Anglo – Norman literature in England because a dynastic quarrel over the throne of England ends in victory for William, Duke of Normandy at the Battle of Hastings. Norman French is the prestige language, only few Normans learn English in this early Middle English period. Since few Anglo-Normans learned English, initially, there was little borrowing of French words into English in the period 1066-1300. The changes in English during this period were nevertheless quite substantial.

    2. Norman introduced England to French, as the result the parallel use of two languages ​​could not be avoided. English became the language of the lower classes (peasants and slaves). Norman French became the language of the court and propertied classes. This situation took more than 300 years. English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels in the 14th century, and became the end of a parallel use of two languages in England.

    3. The tradition of drama began in and around church at festival times in the Middle English Period. They showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the Latin of the Bible. The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    I hope this answer acceptable to you and in accordance with Middle English Period, what we have learned. Thanks you, Sir!

  22. Ferawaty Damanik (0712150043) said:

    1. Because The Norman Conquest was happen in England. That’s way it was important in English History. This event is significantly influenced the development of English language. Because from old English became middle English.
    2. Parallel uses of language in more than 300 years ; use French language for educated people and Anglo- Saxon for uneducated people and was ended in the 14th century.
    3. *Dramas were set in and around the church at festival times.The Middle English period recognized as the first book of poetry written in the English language. Than of stories that read like a story-telling competition a small group and events of christian church.
    *called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    • Dear Ferawaty,
      I appreciate your trial to answer the questions by means of your words. However, many of your sentences are erroneous. For instance, since you wrote”… Norman Conquest was happen in England” in passive, the meaning changed. It should have been in active voice. You treated some other sentences in the same way. Can you correct them?

  23. 1.Because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language.
    2. A) English and French. French became the language used by educated people, i.e. in offices, royal courts, and also by poets.Old English( The Anglo-Saxon ) was spoken only by uneducated people.
    B) Parallel uses of language in more than 300 years
    C) Because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels and two parallel languages in England ended in the 14th century,

    3. A) Where? Dramas were set in and around the church at festival times.
    How?They showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the Latin of the Bible.
    B) Why?Because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives. The plays were usually performed on moving carts, by the businessmen of the city, and the texts which remain are often called by the name of the group of businessmen which first performed them.

  24. FRANSISCA RATNA FEBRIANA (0712150002) said:

    1. Year 1066 is taken as the beginning of the Middle English Period of English literature history because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language. The Norman used parallel language, French became the educated people and Anglo-Saxon was spoken only by uneducated people. The period from the Conquest to the reemergence of English as a full-fledged literary language is called Middle English.

    2. The parallel use of two languages in England are French and Anglo-Saxon (English). French became the language of the courts, the poets and propertied classes. Anglo-Saxon (English) became the language of the lower classes (peasants and slaves) or uneducated people.

    This parallel languages in daily use for more than 300 years.

    It ended in the 14th century, because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels. This situation developed English literature of the middle period to reach its highest peak.

    3. The drama were set in and around the church at festival times.They showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the latin of the Bible.

    They were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    Please check my answers,Sir..
    Thank you.
    Gbu

  25. NERDINIA UMBU ANDI (0712150015) said:

    1. Because this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language.
    2. Parallel uses of language in more than 300 years ; use French language for educated people and Anglo- Saxon for uneducated people and was ended in the 14th century, because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.
    3.The original medieval dramas were set in and around the church at festival times, and they showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the Latin of the Bible. The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    thank you sir…

  26. Meilan Priskawati Sihombing (0712150028) said:

    I will try to answer your question Sir…

    This are my answer Sir…
    1. The year 1066 is taken as the beginning of the Middle English Period of English Literature history because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language. The Norman establishment used French and Latin, leaving English as the language of the illiterate and powerless majority. During this period English adopted thousands of words from Norman French and from Latin, and its grammar changed rather radically. By the end of that time, however, the aristocracy had adopted English as their language and the use and importance of French gradually faded. The period from the Conquest to the reemergence of English as a full-fledged literary language is called Middle English.

    2. ( A). They are parallel use of both English and French. English becomes the language of the lower classes (peasants and slaves). Norman French becomes the language of the court and propertied classes. The legal system is redrawn along Norman lines and conducted in French. Churches, monasteries gradually filled with French-speaking functionaries, who use French for record-keeping. After a while, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is no longer kept up. Authors write literature in French, not English. For all practical purposes English is no longer a written language.
    (B). The parallel languages in daily use for more than 300 years.
    (C). It was ended in the 14th century, because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.

    3. – The original medieval dramas were set in and around the church at festival times, and they showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the latin of the Bible.
    - The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    Thank you Sir…
    GBU :)

  27. yulindaritalusiana said:

    1.
    The year 1066 is taken because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language.

    2.
    (A)Another impact of the conquest is the parallel use of both English and French. Soon after the conquest, French became the language used by educated people, i.e. in offices, royal courts, and also by poets.The Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was spoken only by uneducated people.
    (B)This situation of two parallel languages in daily use in the same country lasted for more than 300 years.
    (C) Because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels. This situation developed English literature of the middle period to reach its highest peak; The use of two parallel languages in England ended in the 14th century.
    3.
    (A)The main writing of this period was in poetry, but the tradition of drama, in addition to prose, was beginning at this time, too. The original medieval dramas were set in and around the church at festival times, and they showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the latin of the Bible. The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.
    (B)The plays were usually performed on moving carts, by the businessmen of the city, and the texts which remains are often called by the name of the group of businessmen which first performed them.
    Groups of these plays remain from the cities of York, Wakefield, and Chester in particular, and all have local differences in the stories they tell and the way they are told. Many of the theatrical effects were very impressive—Hell’s Mouth is the most famous example. These plays are an important step towards the great theatrical period at the end of the sixteenth century.

  28. ELIZABETH SIWALETTE (0612150041) said:

    1. The year 1066 taken as the beginning of the Middle English Period of English
    literature history because in this year one of the most important events in
    English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is
    important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature
    but also significantly influenced the development of English language.

    2. a) They languages is the parallel use of both English and French.
    b) This situation of two parallel languages in daily use in the same country lasted
    for more than 300 years.
    c) Because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language
    used in all levels. This situation developed English literature of the
    middle period to reach its highest peak and the use of two parallel
    languages in England ended in the 14th century,

    3. a) dramas were set in and around the church at festival times, and they
    showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not
    understand the latin of the Bible. The plays were usually performed
    on moving carts, by the businessmen of the city, and the texts which
    remains are often called by the name of the group of businessmen which
    first performed them. (e.g. the Fishers and Mariners).
    b) The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the
    mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    • Dear Elizabeth,
      Most of your answers are good, except for no 1 which should be added with the explanation of how the Norman Conquest significantly influenced the development of English language.
      Secondly, your sentence “They languages is the parallel use of both English and French” (2. a.) contains an elementary error. Please be more careful in the next assignment. Good Luck.

  29. Very well done, Riris!

  30. Riris Herdiana said:

    1. Because this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. . This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language. The Norman establishment used French and Latin, leaving English as the language of the illiterate and powerless majority. During this period English adopted thousands of words from Norman French and from Latin, and its grammar changed rather radically. By the end of that time, however, the aristocracy had adopted English as their language and the use and importance of French gradually faded. The period from the Conquest to the reemergence of English as a full-fledged literary language is called Middle English.

    2. a) They are parallel use of both English and French. English becomes the language of the lower classes (peasants and slaves). Norman French becomes the language of the court and propertied classes. The legal system is redrawn along Norman lines and conducted in French. Churches, monasteries gradually filled with French-speaking functionaries, who use French for record-keeping. After a while, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is no longer kept up. Authors write literature in French, not English. For all practical purposes English is no longer a written language.
    b) The parallel languages in daily use for more than 300 years.
    c) It was ended in the 14th century, because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.

    3. The original dramas were set in and around the church at festival times. The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives. The plays were usually performed on moving carts, by the
    businessmen of the city, and the texts which remains are often called by
    the name of the group of businessmen which first performed them.

    this is my answer, Sir. thank you

  31. Dear Mr. Yoseph,
    Your answers are good, except for no 1 which should be added with the explanation of how the Norman Conquest significantly influenced the development of English language.
    Next time better, O.K.?

  32. Yoseph Hermawan said:

    1. Because the year 1066 is taken because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language.

    2.a. They are parallel use of both English and French languages in England.
    b. This situation of two parallel languages in daily use in the same country lasted for more than 300 years.
    c. The use of two parallel languages in England ended in the 14th century, because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels. This situation developed English literature of the middle period to reach its highest peak.

    3.a. The original dramas were set in and around the church at festival times, and they showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the latin of the Bible.
    b. they are called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

  33. DJ. Mutiara S (0712150038) said:

    Dear, Sir here are my answers:

    1. Because in 1066 is the changed the course of English literature and significantly influence the development of English language , which is the most important events in English history.
    2. a. The languages are: – French
    – Anglo Saxon
    b. Both languages were used for more than 300 years.
    c.It was ended in the 14th century, because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.
    3. The original medieval dramas were set in and around the church at festival times, and they showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the Latin of the Bible. The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.
    The plays were usually performed on moving carts, by the businessmen of the city, and the texts which remains are often called by the name of the group of businessmen which first performed them.

  34. Juliana Jorina Kana said:

    Good Day, Sir. I will try to answer the question.
    1. Why is year 1066 taken as the beginning of the Middle English Period of English
    literature history?
    Answer : Because in this year, Norman conquest influence not only because it
    completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly
    influenced the development of English language. This period is changed
    Old English become Modern English.
    2. The Norman Conquest caused a parallel use of two languages in England.
    What languages were they? How many years did it take place?
    Why and when did it end?
    Answer : – They are parallel use of both English and French.
    – More than 300 years
    – Because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language
    used in all levels. The use of two parallel languages in England ended
    in the 14th century.
    3. The tradition of drama began in the Middle English Period.
    Explain where and how drama began, and why they are called mystery or
    miracle plays.
    Answer : The original medieval dramas were set in and around the church at
    festival times. The plays were usually performed on moving carts, by the
    businessmen of the city, and the texts which remains are often called by
    the name of the group of businessmen which first performed them.
    The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed
    the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives.

    This is my answer based on your question, Sir. GBU.

    • Hello Juliana,
      I appreciate your trial to answer as comprehensive as possible. However, please be more careful with your grammar. Look at the following example:

      Because in this year [an important event called the] Norman conquest [took place.] [It does not] [influence English literature only but also] completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly
      influenced the development of English language. This period [changed] is changed Old English become Modern English.

  35. Daniel Mitra Sanjaya (0712150018) said:

    1. Because that year was the beginning of a massive change in the nation, especially in terms of English literature. English language development from the late ancient in Norman, Unlike Old English, which tended largely to adopt Late West Saxon scribal conventions in the period immediately before the Norman Conquest of England. At this time also the spread of English has become widespread.

    2. They spoke with a blend of English (Anglo Saxon and French). The parallel languages were happened more than 300 years. It was happened because of the development of late Old English in Norman England and it was ended about 1470.

    3. They played a drama in church when there are events of Christianity as Christmas, Easter and others. The mystery in this period means miracle. They represented the biblical stories as tableaux with accompanying antiphonal song.

  36. Eko Reinhard Gultom said:

    Eko Reinhard Gultom (071250006)

    1. Because this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language. This period is changed old English become modern English.

    2. * They are parallel use of both English and French. Because the arrival of the Norman introduced England to French (a language derived from Latin), better architecture, progress in painting and music. Not long after the conquest, the University of Cambridge and Oxford were established
    * This situation of two parallel languages in daily use in the same country lasted for more than 300 years. Not long after the conquest, the University of Cambridge and Oxford were established. Another impact of the conquest is the parallel use of both English and French. Soon after the conquest, French became the language used by educated people, i.e. in offices, royal courts, and also by poets. The Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was spoken only by uneducated people.
    * The use of two parallel languages in England ended in the 14th century, because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels.

    3. The original medieval dramas were set in and around the church at festival times, and they showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the latin of the Bible. The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives. This situation developed English literature of the middle period to reach its highest peak.

    This is my answered Mr. Parlindungan Pardede..
    Thank you…

    • “Hello Eko,
      Basically, your answers are correct. However they will be better if you express the idea by using your own words. Don’t use too many expressions used in the textbook. I believe you can do better in the future. Good luck!

  37. Maria Ruth Rinita said:

    Maria Ruth Rinita (0712150011)

    1. The year 1066 is taken as the beginning of the Middle English Period of English Literature history because in this year one of the most important events in English history took place, namely The Norman Conquest. This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language. After defeating King Harold at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, the Normans took power and William became King of England.

    2. A) They languages is the parallel use of both English and French. Soon after the conquest, French became the language used by educated people, i.e. in offices, royal courts, and also by poets. The Anglo-Saxon (Old English) was spoken only by uneducated people.
    B) This situation of two parallel languages in daily use in the same country lasted for more than 300 years.
    C) Because the Middle English had been accepted as the only language used in all levels. This situation developed English literature of the middle period to reach its highest peak; The use of two parallel languages in England ended in the 14th century.

    3. A) Dramas were set in and around the church at festival times, Groups of these plays remain from the cities of York, Wakefield, and Chester in particular, and all have local differences in the stories they tell and the way they are told. They showed scenes from the Bible for an audience who perhaps could not understand the latin of the Bible.
    B) The plays were called mystery or miracle plays because they showed the mysterious or miraculous events of the Bible and the saints’ lives. The plays were usually performed on moving carts, by the businessmen of the city, and the texts which remains are often called by the name of the group of businessmen which first performed them.

    That’s my answers Sir…

    • “Good job, Maria! All your answers are correct, and they are easy to read. However, no. 1 is a bit incomplete. Look at the following response of mine.

      … This event is important not only because it completely changed the course of English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language. … [You should have continued by explaining how the Norman Conquest affected the development of English language].

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